Introduction to Career Counselling & Coaching
Publication Year: 2016
A practical introduction for those training in the field of career development, career counselling and career coaching, this book will take your students through established and emerging theory and the different contexts in which career work takes place introducing the key skills, techniques and models they'll need. Professional issues such as the use of digital technologies highlight the contemporary context of careers work and all of this is brought to life through engaging case studies and reflective questions, highlighting the practical applications of what is being learnt.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Introduction
- Chapter 2: What do we mean by career?
- Chapter 3: Career coaching and career mentoring
- Chapter 4: Established theories of career decision making
- Chapter 5: Counselling theories to inform career counselling and coaching practice
- Chapter 6: New and emerging approaches
- Chapter 7: Using narrative approaches in career counselling and career coaching
- Chapter 8: Working with diversity
- Chapter 9: Career development in organisations
- Chapter 10: Models for structuring career conversations
- Chapter 11: Developing skills and techniques for career counselling and coaching
- Chapter 12: Supporting career learning and development in a range of contexts
- Chapter 13: Using digital technologies and creative approaches in careers work
- Chapter 14: Becoming a critically reflective practitioner
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© Hazel Reid 2016
First published 2016
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
Library of Congress Control Number: 2015936315
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-1-4462-6036-4 (pbk)
Editor: Susannah Trefgarne
Assistant editor: Laura Walmsley
Production editor: Rachel Burrows
Marketing manager: Camille Richmond
Cover design: Lisa Harper-Wells
Typeset by: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd, Chennai, India
Printed and bound by CPI Group (UK) Ltd, Croydon, CR0 4YY
To family – before, beside and beyond career.[Page vi]
List of figures[Page viii]
- 2.1 Career services: a comparison of guidance, education and counselling 12
- 5.1 Client = Adaptive Child/Career Practitioner = Nurturing Parent 78
- 5.2 Client = Free Child/Career Practitioner = Critical Parent 79
- 5.3 Client = Critical Parent/Career Practitioner = Adaptive Child 79
- 6.1 The wheel of change 96
- 9.1 The seven-stage transition curve 157
- 10.1 Comparison of Egan and SIM 165
- 10.2 The three-stage model 167
- 12.1 The three-stage model applied to group work 212
About the author
I would like to thank Sage Publications for the invitation to write this book and Kate Wharton and Laura Walmsley for their support and encouragement, alongside other colleagues at Sage who prepared the manuscript for publication. A number of academic colleagues reviewed individual chapters and I am very grateful for their constructive comments. In alphabetical order, my thanks go to: Gideon Arulmani, Rebecca Corfield-Tee, Alison Fielding, Tristram Hooley and Jane Westergaard. Jane reviewed several chapters, always taking great care to question my assumptions and inconsistencies, whilst offering helpful suggestions for improvement. Finally I would like to thank my institution, Canterbury Christ Church University, for awarding me a number of days ‘study leave’ to help with the writing of the text.
Appendix 1: Competence standards for career guidance and counselling – overview of competences for all types of career professionals[Page 260]
Appendix 2: The Mentoring Game[Page 265]
The game is designed to build relationships between mentors and mentees in a mixed group. The questions need to be adapted to suit the group and the mentoring context. It can also be used in the training of mentors before they start the work – in this situation it is important to mix the group as much as possible. The conversations around the questions should highlight (and increase understanding of) the differences and similarities in what life was like ‘growing up’ for the different players, in various locations and different eras. The game should be enjoyable, but it is important it is set within a contract of working together which includes confidentiality and the freedom to ‘opt out’ of taking part. If an individual decides the game will be upsetting for them, they can observe.
In addition to the suggestions on layout and questions in Chapter 3, questions might include:
When you were a teenager:
- Where were you living?
- Did you have any brothers or sisters?
- Did you have your own bedroom – how was it decorated?
- What was your favourite TV programme?
- Did you have a TV or computer in your bedroom?
- What were you good at in school?
- Was there a time when you thought you were a ‘failure’ at anything?
- Did you play any sports or belong to any clubs?
- Did you do anything slightly risky that got you into trouble?
- How old were you when you first had a mobile phone?
- What did you read?
- Who was your favourite pop star or TV/film star?
- If you tried smoking or drinking alcohol, when was the first time?
- Where did your extended family live?
- Were you expected to do any jobs at home?
- What did you do on a Saturday night?
- Were you ever in trouble at school?
- What was your first date like?
- What was the best holiday you had with your family?
- What did you save your pocket money for?
- [Page 266]Did you have a part-time or Saturday job?
- What was your most embarrassing moment?
- What fashions did you like?
- What was your hairstyle like?
- How far were you from the nearest town?
- What was your favourite shop?
- Did you ever do things that your parents/carers told you not to?
- What did you do on your 16th/18th birthday?
Appendix 3: Managing Challenging behaviour in Group Settings1[Page 267]
For any session that may provoke controversy or involve the giving and receiving of feedback, it is always advisable to negotiate ground rules at the start of the session.
Behaviour Why What to do 1. Overly talkative May be over-enthusiastic or a show off. May also be exceptionally well informed and anxious to demonstrate it, or justnaturally garrulous. Avoid sarcasm and do not embarrass them - they may be useful later. Slow them down with a difficult question. Interrupt with, ‘That’s an interesting point… what do other people think?’ In general, involve the rest of the group as much as possible - but they will expect you to manage this. 2. Highly argumentative Combative personality… professional heckler. Or may be normally goodnatured but upset by other issues external to the session. Keep your temper firmly in check and do not let the group get excited either. Don't turn a disagreement into a spectacle. Try to find some merit in one of their points. But, as above, give it back to the group, thus avoiding a combat situation between you both. This gives you time to think. Be aware of your body language. A private discussion later to find out what is wrong may help to show understanding and win their co-operation. 3. Quick, helpful Really trying to help, but in fact makes it difficult as keeps others out. Cut across tactfully by questioning others. Thank, but suggest we put others to work. Use them to summarise. 4. Personality clashes Two or more members clash. Can divide your group into factions. Emphasise agreement - minimise points of disagreement. Draw attention to the objectives of the session. Cut across with direct question on the topic. Bring another member into the discussion. Return to ground rules and remind group the discussion is about issues not personalities. 5. Asks for your opinion
Trying to put you on the spot. Trying to have you support one view.
May be simply looking for advice.
Generally, avoid solving their problems for them. Never take sides. Point out your view is relatively unimportant, compared with the view of the rest of the group. BUT, don't let this become a phobia - there are times when you must, and should give a direct answer. Before doing this, try to determine the reason for asking for your view. Say ‘First let’s get some other opinions…’ 6. Obstinate
Has missed the point.
Throw the views open to the group and let them feed back. Indicate that time is short, we need to move on, perhaps they could discuss it more later, but for now ask them to accept the group consensus on the point. 7. Griper
Has pet peeve.
Has legitimate complaint.
Point out we cannot change the policy here; we need to look at how to operate as best we can within the system. Indicate you'll discuss the problem, later in private. Have another member of the group answer. Indicate pressure of time. 8. Side conversations
May be related to the subject.
May be personal.
Distracts members and you.
Don't embarrass them. Call one of them by name, ask an easy question or, restate last opinion expressed by a group member, and ask their opinion. Try stopping in mid-sentence, look at them, when they notice, smile and continue. Move around the room and saunter over and stand casually behind members who are talking. Try to do this so it is not obvious to the rest of the group. If all else fails, explain quietly that it is difficult for the group to concentrate if too many people are talking at once. Keep it pleasant, avoid alienating individual group members. 9. Changing the subject Not rambling, just off base. Take the blame; ‘Something I said must have led you off the subject…’, or ‘I obviously did not make it clear… this is what we should be looking at/discussing’ and then restate the point. 10. Rambler
Talks about everything except the subject.
Uses far-fetched analogies and long sentences - gets lost.
When they stop for breath thank them, re-focus their attention by restating the points and move on.
Grin… tell them it’s an interesting point and, in a friendly manner, indicate we are a bit off the subject. Last resort glance at a watch or clock.
Lacks ability to put thoughts into words.
Is getting the idea, but cannot convey it.
Don't say, ‘What you mean is this...‘ Say ‘Let me try to summarise that’, and then phrase it better - check you have understood their meaning. Twist the ideas as little as possible, but have them make sense. 12. Definitely wrong
Comes up with comments that are obviously incorrect.
In over their head.
Must be handled delicately. Say, ‘I can see how you feel’, or ‘That’s one way of looking at it’, or ‘I see your point, but how can we match that with this particular situation?’ 13. Won’t talk
Your action will depend on what is (de)motivating them. Arouse their interest by asking for their opinion. Draw out the person next to them and ask the quiet one to tell them what they think of the view expressed. If the person is seated near you, ask their opinion so that they feel they are talking to you, not the whole group. If they are the ‘superior’ type, ask for their view, after indicating the respect held for experience (but don't overdo this, as the group will resent it). Stimulate them for a moment by tossing a provocative query. If the sensitive person won't talk, compliment them the first time they do. Be sincere.
[Page 270]Controversy and conflict can energise groups and avoid passivity. It is important to stress that group members should be critical of ideas, not of persons. Imputations that insult or challenge a group member’s intelligence, integrity or motives should always be avoided. Combine ‘unconditional positive regard’, Rogers (1961), with intellectual challenge. ‘I am interested in your ideas but I can not agree with you on that point…’, or ‘I have come to a different conclusion’.
‘Do not take personally other members’ disagreement and rejection of your ideas. … (This) should be taken as an interesting situation from which something can be learned, not as a personal attack’ (Johnson and Johnson, 1987: 313). Make sure the conflict is over issues not personalities.
Avoid win–lose conflict as it promotes distrust, dislike, rivalry and attempts to undermine each other’s point of view. Define any conflict in the smallest and most specific terms – it will be easier to resolve. One of the most effective conflict resolution skills is to see the issue from the other person’s viewpoint – practise empathy. Finally, deal with conflict; ignoring it does not make it go away.References1987) Joining Together: Group Theory and Group Skills(5th). Harlow: Pearsons Education.1961) On Becoming a Person. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.(
1 Drawing on the work of Johnson and Johnson (1987)
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