Intersubjectivity: The Fabric of Social Becoming


Nick Crossley

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Philosophy & Social Criticism

    Series Editor: David M. Rasmussen, Boston College

    This series presents an interdisciplinary range of theory and critique emphasizing the interrelation of continental and Anglo-American scholarship as it affects contemporary discourses. Books in the series are aimed at an international audience, focusing on contemporary debates in philosophy and ethics, politics and social theory, feminism, law, critical theory, postmodernism and hermeneutics.

    Other books in this series

    David Owen, Nietzsche, Politics and Modernity

    Richard Kearney (ed.), Paul Ricoeur: The Hermeneutics of Action

    Mathieu Deflem (ed.), Habermas, Modernity and Law


    View Copyright Page


    For Michele

    Preface: A Book about Intersubjectivity

    ‘Intersubjectivity’ is a complex and multilayered concept. There are many quite different understandings and theories of it. It is also a popular concept which, for many writers, forms a central linchpin in the work in which they, as philosophers or social scientists, are engaged (Giddens 1993; Honneth 1995; Joas 1985). Furthermore, it is an interdisciplinary concept. It appeals to philosophers, sociologists, psychologists and political thinkers alike, seemingly offering them insights into both their specific discipline and the connections between that discipline and others.

    For these reasons alone a book on intersubjectivity is both justified and warranted. Its different versions need to be explored and perhaps combined. Certainly they need to be introduced in a comprehensible form to students. Moreover, the interdisciplinary potential of the concept needs to be tested out in some way. We need to consider or to demonstrate how and in what ways different disciplines can engage with the idea, what they may contribute to our understanding of it and what they may wish to take from it. This book will, I hope, do all of these things to the reader's satisfaction. It aims to provide a comprehensive map of intersubjectivity, outlining the key theories in the intersubjectivist tradition and, importantly, putting forward the many arguments in favour of intersubjectivism in philosophy and social science.

    In addition to these introductory functions the book offers a systematic attempt to join the various theories of intersubjectivity that it considers into a common perspective, or, rather, a system of interlocking perspectives. Specifically it traces a common path through the work of Merleau-Ponty, Wittgenstein, Mead, Schutz and Habermas and it considers their work against a background formed by the work of Husserl, Buber and Hegel. This is not an arbitary eclecticism or a postmodern shopping spree in the supermarket of ideas. Despite their often very different contexts and methods, all of the theorists whom I discuss are united in their intersubjectivism and in their rejection of the subjectivist and objectivist alternatives to it. Even if their versions of intersubjectivity are different, even if they don't use the word, the writers whom I discuss are all groping towards a common ground, as is evidenced in the many studies which have compared them separately (Coulter 1979; Habermas 1987a, 1991a; Heinzig 1987; Roche 1973; Rosenthal and Bourgeois 1991; Spurling 1977). What I am doing in constructing a theory of intersubjectivity is explicating this common ground, showing where paths or at least interests and concerns overlap, where one theory takes over from another.

    My final purpose in writing the book has been to introduce an element of critique and coherence where I feel it is needed and to develop some of the points raised by the various theorists. I have entered into dialogue with the theorists whom I have discussed, replying to the questions which their theories raise and responding to those points which have provoked me. This dialogicality constitutes the book's own intersubjective situation and I can only hope it will be continued by you. Books are acts of communication. They are designed to convey, convince and provoke. And they call for a response.

    The Plan

    It is usual at the beginning of a study, to provide some definition of the central concepts to be used and to map out the structure which it will adopt. In the present case this is not possible. Defining ‘intersubjectivity’ is partly what the main body of the book as a whole is about. I do offer three definitions of ‘intersubjectivity’ in my first chapter, however, each of which represents an important statement in the history of the concept. These should suffice to give the reader a preliminary sense of ‘intersubjectivity’. I have also deferred my exposition of the plan of the book to the first chapter. The plan is easier to follow when the various definitions of the concept have been discussed because the book itself is based around these definitions, or at least around my engagement with them.


    Thanks to staff and students at the Centre for Psychotherapeutic Studies for listening to and commenting upon some of the ideas discussed in this book. Thanks to Bob Stern for reading and commenting upon an early chapter. Thanks to my mum and dad for being interested and encouraging me. Finally, very special thanks to my wife and colleague Michele Davies. Her advice, criticism, encouragement and the time she has taken to read over drafts have been invaluable. The book is dedicated to her.

  • Conclusion: The Fabric of Social Becoming

    In this book I have shown, by example, how different academic traditions and disciplines can converge around the issue of intersubjectivity, such that it might provide them with common ground. Furthermore, I have combined and coordinated different versions of the concept, reorganising them according to new distinctions (such as radical and egological), thereby showing them to be both compatible and mutually enriching. Finally, I have argued that a consideration of intersubjectivity can enrich our understanding of other key concepts such as ‘power’ and ‘citizenship’. Underlying all of this, however, has been a more fundamental point, which it has been my main concern to establish; namely, that intersubjectivity is the fabric of our social becoming.

    I say ‘becoming’ rather than ‘being’ to indicate both the temporal structure and the esssential incompleteness of our social world, to indicate that this world and the multiple relationships therein are always in a process of becoming something and are never static. More specifically, though, my point is that intersubjectivity is the key to understanding human life in both its personal and its societal forms. It is that in virtue of which our societies are possible and we are who we are. Moreover, it is irreducible and sui generis, a generative principle of our identities, our agency and of the societies in which we live. And it is something which we cannot step out of. No amount of methodological procedure, either philosophical or social scientific, can negate this or even bracket it out. We are inter-subjects. Our actions and thoughts aren't reducible to us alone. They are moves in a game which has many players, responses to a call to action which is expressed in every gesture of the other. And their significance is precisely constituted through their place in that game.

    I use the word ‘fabric’ to denote this for a number of reasons. Firstly, to articulate with the popular expression ‘social fabric’. Intersubjectivity is, I believe, precisely the fabric alluded to in this expression. It is what holds us all together in an identifiable group or unit. Secondly, ‘fabric’ conjures up an image of multiple overlappings and intertwinings, organised and arranged in different ways, sometimes becoming disorganised. It connotes a sense of unity and strength which is achieved by way of this overlapping. No thread is either strong or significant on its own but the intertwining gives it strength and form. It is these different forms and patterns of overlapping that are being investigated in the analysis of radical and egological intersubjectivity, language games and the various taken-for-granted assumptions of the social lifeworld. Finally, the word ‘fabric’ suggests a certain material basis, a corporeal intertwining, which is again evident in intersubjectivity. Human beings are embodied beings and this is quite crucial to their intersubjectivity. Moreover, their intersubjective relations take place within and include material environments.

    Having said all of this we are left with the inevitable question that every conclusion must contend with: where to now? I have entertained many grandiose fantasies regarding this question during the writing of the book. In the final instance, however, the answer is both narrow and clear. There is no specific project which emerges out of a study such as this, even if there may be a few good ideas for projects tucked away in the text somewhere. Neither is there a distinct method or procedure that we might apply to the future projects we will undertake. The many studies I have discussed in the book employ a wide range of methods and analytic procedures, all of which are suited to drawing out particular aspects of intersubjectivity or issues relating to it, but none of which are either compulsory or exclusive. What I hope that the book does provide us with, however, is a way of thinking about the social-intersubjective world and about our involvement in it.

    To think about intersubjectivity and to tackle the problems it poses as a concept is to confront the very question of social life itself. It is to unpick the fabric of social life and to wonder how it ever fits together in the first place, how we ever manage to coordinate ourselves through time and space, sharing thoughts and meanings, agreeing enough at least to disagree. It is to wonder what thought, meaning and action actually are, such that they can be shared or joint. It is to wonder how the human organism can ever be involved in anything which transcends its spatial boundaries. These are not just academic questions, even if they have a strong academic aspect. They are ultimately also existential questions about our very being (my being and your being particularly). To confront the question of intersubjectivity is to consider the type of beings that we are and the sort of world to which we belong. Considerations of this sort lie at the heart of all of our projects, whether academic or not.

    If this book has opened up some of these issues, made them accessible and provoked some thoughts about how they might best be conceived, then it has done the job that I intended.


    Abercrombie, N., Hill, S. and Turner, B. (1986), Sovereign Individuals of Capitalism, London, Allen & Unwin.
    Amsterdam, B. (1971), ‘Mirror Self-Image Reactions Before Age Two’, Developmental Psychobiology5(4), pp. 297–305.
    Arthur, C. (1988), ‘Hegel as Lord and Master’, Radical Philosophy50, pp. 19–25.
    Austin, J. (1971), How to Do Things with Words, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
    Ayer, A. (1981), ‘Can There Be a Private Language?’, in Morick, H. (ed.), Wittgenstein and the Problem of Other Minds, Brighton, Harvester, pp. 82–96.
    Barrel, M. (1985), ‘Self and Other: Communication and Love’, Review of Existential Psychology and Psychiatry, xviii (1–3), pp. 155–80.
    Beauvoir, S. de (1988), The Second Sex, London, Picador.
    Benjamin, J. (1991), The Bonds of Love, London, Virago.
    Blair, T. (1995), ‘The Conservative Party Seems Neither to Understand Nor to Act Upon the Concept of Duty’ (The Spectator/Allied Dunbar Lecture), The Spectator, 25 March, p. 18.
    Bourdieu, P. (1977), Outline of a Theory of Practice, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
    Bourdieu, P. (1979), ‘The Economics of Linguistic Exchanges’, Social Science Information16(6), pp. 645–68.
    Bourdieu, P. (1984), Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Bourdieu, P. (1992), Language and Symbolic Power, Cambridge, Polity.
    Bourdieu, P. (1993), Sociology in Question, London, Sage.
    Bourdieu, P. and Passeron, J.-C. (1993), Reproduction, London, Sage.
    Bruner, J. (1991), ‘Nature and Uses of Immaturity’, in Woodhead, M., Carr, R. and Light, P. (eds), Becoming a Person, London: Routledge, pp. 247–75.
    Buber, M. (1958), I and Thou, Edinburgh, T. & T. Clark.
    Budd, M. (1989), Wittgenstein's Philosophy of Psychology, London, Routledge.
    Burns, T. (1992), Erving Goffman, London, Routledge.
    Butler, J. (1990), Gender Trouble, London, Routledge.
    Case, R. (1991), ‘Stages in the Young Child's First Sense of Self’, Developmental Review11, pp. 210–30.
    Cashmore, E. and Troyna, B. (1983), Introduction to Race Relations, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Castoriadis, C. (1987), The Imaginary Institution of Society, Cambridge, Polity.
    Castoriadis, C. (1990), ‘An Interview’, Radical Philosophy56, pp. 35–43.
    Castoriadis, C. (1991), ‘An Interview’, Free Associations2(4), pp. 483–506.
    Clarke, R. (1978), ‘The Transition From Action to Gesture’, in Lock, A. (ed.), Action, Gesture and Symbol, London, Academic Press, pp. 231–57.
    Clegg, S. (1989), Frameworks of Power, London, Sage.
    Cohen, D. and Mackeith, A. (1991), The Development of Imagination, London, Routledge.
    Coulter, J. (1971), ‘Decontextualised Meanings: Current Approaches to Verstehende Investigations’, The Sociological Review19(3), pp. 301–23.
    Coulter, J. (1973), ‘The Ethnomethodological Program in Contemporary Sociology’, The Human Context5, pp. 103–22.
    Coulter, J. (1975), ‘Perceptual Accounts and Interpretive Asymmetries’, Sociology9(3), pp. 385–96.
    Coulter, J. (1979), The Social Construction of Mind, London, Macmillan.
    Coulter, J. (1982), ‘Remarks on the Conceptualisation of Social Structure’, Philosophy of the Social Sciences12, pp. 33–46.
    Coulter, J. (1989), Mind in Action, Cambridge, Polity.
    Coyle, M. (1987), ‘An Experiential Perspective on the Mother—Infant Relationship: The First Eight Months’, The Focusing FolioVI, pp. 1–28.
    Crossley, N. (1993), ‘The Politics of the Gaze: Between Foucault and Merleau—Ponty’, Human Studies16(4), pp. 399–419.
    Crossley, N. (1994), The Politics of Subjectivity: Between Foucault and Merleau—Ponty, Aldershot, Avebury.
    Crossley, N. (1995a), ‘Body Techniques, Agency and Intercorporeality: On Goffman's Relations in Public’, Sociology29(1), pp. 133–49.
    Crossley, N. (1995b), ‘Merleau—Ponty, the Elusive Body and Carnal Sociology’, Body and Society1(1), pp. 43–63.
    Crossley, N. (1995c), ‘Embodiment and Communicative Action’, paper presented at the Theory, Culture & Society ‘TCS Berlin 95’ conference.
    Crossley, N. (1996), ‘Body—Subject/Body—Power’, Body & Society2(1).
    Dahrendorf, R. (1994), ‘The Changing Quality of Citizenship’, in van Steenbergen, B. (ed.), The Condition of Citizenship, London, Sage, pp. 10–19.
    Davies, M. (1993), ‘Healing Sylvia: Accounting for the Textual Discovery of Unconscious Knowledge’, Sociology27(1), pp. 110–21.
    Davies, M. (1995), Healing Sylvia: Child Sexual Abuse and the Construction of Identity, London, Taylor & Francis.
    Dean, M. (1991), The Constitution of Poverty, London, Routledge.
    Descartes, R. (1969), Discourse on Method and The Meditations, Harmondsworth, Penguin.
    Dews, P. (1987), The Logics of Disintegration, London, Verso.
    Dillon, M. (1978), ‘Merleau—Ponty and the Psychogenesis of Self’, Journal of Phenomenological Psychology9, pp. 84–98.
    Donzelot, J. (1980), The Policing of Families, London, Hutchinson.
    Easton, S. (1987), ‘Hegel and Feminism’, in Lamb, D. (ed.), Hegel and Modern Philosophy, London, Croom Helm, pp. 30–55.
    Edie, J. (1987), Merleau—Ponty's Philosophy of Language, Washington, University Press of America.
    Elias, N. (1978a) The Civilising Process, Vol. 1. Oxford, Blackwell.
    Elias, N. (1978b), What is Sociology?. London, Hutchinson.
    Elson, D. (1988), ‘Socialisation of the Market’, New Left Review172, pp. 3–45.
    Evans, F. (1993), Psychology and Nihilism. New York, State University of New York Press.
    Fanon, F. (1986), Black Skin, White Masks. London, Pluto.
    Fein, G. (1991), ‘The Self—Building Potential of Pretend Play, or “I Got a Fish, All By My Self”’, in Woodhead, M., Carr, R. and Light, P. (eds), Becoming a Person. London, Routledge, pp. 328–46.
    Fernando, S. (1988), Race and Culture in Psychiatry. London, Croom Helm.
    Fernando, S. (1991), Mental Health, Race and Culture. London, Macmillan.
    Fogel, A. (1977), ‘Temporal Organisation in Mother—Infant Face—to—Face Interaction’, in Schaffer, H. (ed.) Studies in Mother—Infant Interaction. London, Academic Press, pp. 119–52.
    Foucault, M. (1965), Madness and Civilisation. London, Tavistock.
    Foucault, M. (1979), Discipline and Punish. Harmondsworth, Penguin.
    Foucault, M. (1980), Power/Knowledge. Brighton, Harvester.
    Foucault, M. (1981) The History of Sexuality Vol. 1. Harmondsworth, Penguin.
    Foucault, M. (1982), ‘The Subject and Power’, in Dreyfus, H. and Rabinow, P. (eds), Michel Foucault: Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics. Brighton, Harvester, pp. 208–26.
    Foucault, M. (1987), Mental Illness and Psychology. Berkeley, University of California Press.
    Fraser, N. (1989), Unruly Practices. Cambridge, Polity.
    Freeman, M. (1993), Rewriting the Self. London, Routledge.
    FreudS. (1984), ‘Formulations on the Two Principles of Mental Functioning’, Pelican Freud Library 11: On Metapsychology. Harmondsworth, Penguin, pp. 29–45.
    Fukuyama, F. (1989), ‘The End of History’, The National Interest, Summer, pp. 3–18.
    Fukuyama, F. (1992), The End of History and the Last Man. Harmondsworth, Penguin.
    Gadamer, H.-G. (1989), Truth and Method. London, Sheed & Ward.
    Garfinkel, H. (1967), Studies in Ethnomethodology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall.
    Giddens, A. (1979), Central Problems in Social Theory. London, Macmillan.
    Giddens, A. (1981), A Contemporary Critique of Historical Materialism, Vol. 1: Power, Property and the State. London, Macmillan.
    Giddens, A. (1982), ‘Labour and Interaction’, in Thompson, J. and Held, D. (eds), Habermas: Critical Debates. London, Macmillan, pp. 149–61.
    Giddens, A. (1984), The Constitution of Society. Cambridge, Polity.
    Giddens, A. (1993), New Rules of Sociological Method. Cambridge, Polity.
    Gilroy, P. (1992), There Ain't No Black in the Union Jack. London, Routledge.
    Goffman, E. (1959), The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. Harmondsworth, Penguin.
    Goffman, E. (1961), Asylums. Harmondsworth, Penguin.
    Goffman, E. (1963), Behavior in Public Places. Glencoe, IL, Free Press.
    Goffman, E. (1968), Stigma. Harmondsworth, Penguin.
    Goffman, E. (1972a), Relations in Public. Harmondsworth, Penguin.
    Goffman, E. (1972b), Interaction Ritual. Harmondsworth, Penguin.
    Goffman, E. (1981), Forms of Talk. Oxford, Blackwell.
    Goldberg, D. (1993), Racist Culture. Oxford, Blackwell.
    Gorz, A. (1982), Farewell to the Working Class. London, Pluto.
    Gorz, A. (1985), Pathways to Paradise. London, Pluto.
    Gramsci, A. (1982), Selections from the Prison Notebooks. London, Lawrence & Wishart.
    Habermas, J. (1974), ‘Labour and Interaction: Remarks on Hegel's Jena Philosophy of Mind’, Theory and Practice. London, Heinemann, pp. 142–69.
    Habermas, J. (1987a), The Theory of Communicative Action, Vol. Two: System and Lifeworld. Cambridge, Polity.
    Habermas, J. (1987b), Towards a Rational Society. Cambridge, Polity.
    Habermas, J. (1988a), Legitimation Crisis. Cambridge, Polity.
    Habermas, J. (1988b), On the Logic of the Social Sciences. Cambridge, Polity.
    Habermas, J. (1990), The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity. Cambridge, Polity.
    Habermas, J. (1991a), The Theory of Communicative Action, Vol. One: Reason and the Rationalisation of Society. Cambridge, Polity.
    Habermas, J. (1991b), Communication and the Evolution of Society. Cambridge, Polity.
    Haley, J. (1969), The Power Tactics of Jesus Christ. New York, Avon.
    Hall, S. (1984), ‘The Rise of the Representative/Interventionist State’, in McLennan, G., Held, D. and Hall, S. (eds), State and Society in Contemporary Britain. Cambridge, Polity, pp. 7–49.
    Hall, S. (1987), ‘Gramsci and Us’, Marxism Today, June, pp. 16–21.
    Hammond, M., Howarth, J. and Keat, R. (1991), Understanding Phenomenology. Oxford, Blackwell.
    Hanfling, O. (1989), Wittgenstein's Later Philosophy. London, Macmillan.
    Harland, R. (1987), Superstructuralism. London, Methuen.
    Harman, C. (1989), ‘The Myth of Market Socialism’, International Socialism42, pp. 3–63.
    Harré, R. and Gillet, G. (1994), The Discursive Mind. London, Sage.
    Hebdidge, D. (1988), Subculture. London, Routledge.
    Hegel, G. (1971), The Philosophy of Mind. Oxford, Clarendon.
    Hegel, G. (1979), The Phenomenology of Spirit. Oxford, Clarendon.
    Heinzig, D. (1987), ‘Maurice Merleau—Ponty and Ludwig Wittgenstein: A Synthesis’, Auslegung14, pp. 19–36.
    Heritage, J. (1984), Garfinkel and Ethnomethodology. Cambridge, Polity.
    Hindess, B. (1982), ‘Power, Interests and the Outcome of Struggles’, Sociology16(4), pp. 498–511.
    Hindess, B. (1988), Choice, Rationality and Social Theory. London, Unwin Hyman.
    Hirst, P. and Wooley, P. (1982), Social Relations and Human Attributes. London, Tavistock.
    Hochschild, A. (1979), ‘Emotion Work, Feeling Rules and Social Structure’, American Journal of Sociology85, pp. 551–75.
    Hochschild, A. (1983), The Managed Heart. Berkeley, University of California Press.
    Honneth, A. (1995), The Struggle for Recognition. Cambridge, Polity.
    Hunter, J. (1971), ‘Forms of Life in Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations’, in Klemke, C. (ed.), Essays on Wittgenstein. Chicago, University of Illinois Press, pp. 273–97.
    Husserl, E. (1970), The Crisis of the European Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology. Evanston, IL, Northwestern University Press.
    Husserl, E. (1991), Cartesian Meditations. Netherlands, Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    Irigaray, L. (1991), The Irigaray Reader (ed. Whitford, M.), Oxford, Blackwell.
    Irigaray, L. (1993), An Ethics of Sexual Difference. London, Athlone.
    Joas, H. (1985), G.H. Mead. Cambridge, Polity.
    Joas, H. (1988), ‘The Unhappy Marriage of Functionalism and Hermeneutics’, Praxis International8(1), pp. 34–51.
    Kaye, K. (1991), ‘The Parental Frame’, in Woodhead, M., Carr, R. and Light, P. (eds), Becoming a Person. London, Routledge, pp. 129–43.
    Kearney, R. (1991), The Poetics of Imagining. London, Harper Collins.
    Kelly, G.A. (1965), ‘Notes on Hegel's Lordship and Bondage’, Review of Metaphysics19, pp. 780–802.
    Kojève, A. (1969), Introduction to the Reading of Hegel. New York, Basic Books.
    Kripke, S. (1982), Wittgenstein on Rules and Private Language. Oxford, Blackwell.
    Lacan, J. (1989), Écrits: A Selection. London, Tavistock.
    Lamb, D. (1987), ‘Sense and Meaning in Hegel and Wittgenstein’, Hegel and Modern Philosophy. London, Croom Helm, pp. 70–102.
    Lash, S. and Urry, J. (1988), The End of Organised Capitalism. Cambridge, Polity.
    Lee, J. (1987), ‘Prologue: Talking Organisation’, in Button, G. and Lee, J. (eds), Talk and Social Organisation. Philadelphia, Multilingual Matters, pp. 19–54.
    Lefort, C. (1990), ‘Flesh and Otherness’, in Johnson, G. and Smith, M. (eds), Ontology and Alterity in Merleau-Ponty. Evanston, IL, Northwestern University Press, pp. 3–13.
    Levin, D. (1991), ‘Visions of Narcissism: Intersubjectivity and the Reversals of Reflection’, in Dillon, M. (ed.), Merleau-Ponty Vivant. New York, State University of New York Press, pp. 47–90.
    Levinas, E. (1969), Totality and Infinity. Pittsburgh, Duquesne University Press.
    Levinas, E. (1985), Ethics and Infinity. Pittsburgh, Duquesne University Press.
    Levinas, E. (1987a), ‘Intersubjectivity; Notes On Merleau-Ponty’, in Johnson, G. and Smith, M. (eds), Ontology and Alterity in Merleau-Ponty, Evanston, IL, Northwestern University Press, 1990, pp. 55–60.
    Levinas, E. (1987b), ‘Sensibility’, in Johnson, G. and Smith, M. (eds), Ontology and Alterity in Merleau-Ponty, Evanston, IL, Northwestern University Press, 1990, pp. 60–6.
    Levinas, E. (1987c), Time and the Other. Pittsburgh, Duquesne University Press.
    Levinas, E. (1989), ‘Martin Buber and the Theory of Knowledge’, in Hand, S. (ed.), The Levinas Reader. Oxford, Blackwell, pp. 59–74.
    Lloyd, G. (1985), ‘Masters, Slaves and Others’, in Edgely, R. and Osborne, R. (eds), Radical Philosophy Reader. London, Verso, pp. 291–309.
    Lyon, D. (1988), The Information Society. Cambridge, Polity.
    Lyotard, J.-F. (1984), The Postmodern Condition. Manchester, Manchester University Press.
    McCarthy, T. (1991), On Reconstruction and Deconstruction in Contemporary Critical Theory. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.
    Malcom, N. (1981), ‘Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations’, in Morick, H. (ed.), Wittgenstein and the Problem of Other Minds. Brighton, Harvester, pp. 45–81.
    Mandel, E. (1970), An Introduction to Marxist Economic Theory. New York, Pathfinder.
    Mandel, E. (1980), The Second Slump. London, Verso.
    Marshall, T.H. (1992), Citizenship and Social Class. Cambridge, Polity.
    Mauss, M. (1979), ‘A Category of the Human Mind’, Sociology and Psychology, LondonRoutledge, pp. 57–94.
    Mead, G.H. (1967), Mind, Self and Society. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.
    Meltzoff, A. and Moore, M. (1977), ‘Imitation of Facial and Manual Gestures by Human Neonates’, Science198, pp. 75–8.
    Meltzoff, A. and Moore, M. (1983), ‘Newborn Infants Imitate Adult Facial Gestures’, Child Development54, pp. 702–9.
    Meltzoff, A. and Moore, M. (1991), ‘Cognitive Foundations and Social Functions of Imitation, and Intermodal Representation in Infancy’, in Woodhead, M., Carr, R. and Light, P. (eds). Becoming a Person, London: Routledge, pp. 111–28.
    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1962), The Phenomenology of Perception. London, Routledge.
    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1964a), Sense and Non-Sense. Evanston, IL, Northwestern University Press.
    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1964b), Signs. Evanston, IL, Northwestern University Press.
    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1965), The Structure of Behaviour. London, Methuen.
    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1968a), The Visible and the Invisible. Evanston, IL, Northwestern University Press.
    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1968b), The Primacy of Perception and Other Essays. Evanston, IL, Northwestern University Press.
    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1969), Humanism and Terror. Boston, Beacon.
    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1973), Adventures of the Dialectic. Evanston, IL, Northwestern University Press.
    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1974), The Prose of the World. London, Heinemann.
    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1979), Consciousness and the Acquisition of Language. Evanston, IL, Northwestern University Press.
    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1985), ‘The Experience of Others, and Phenomenology and Psychoanalysis’, Review of Existential Psychology and Psychiatry, xviii (1–3), pp. 33–72.
    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1988), In Praise of Philosophy and Themes from the Lectures at the Collège de France. Evanston, IL, Northwestern University Press.
    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1992), Texts and Dialogues. Princeton, NJ, Humanities Press.
    Merquior, J. (1985), Foucault. London, Fontana.
    Meyer, J. (1991), ‘Power and Love: Conflicting Conceptual Schemata’, in Davis, K., Leijenaar, M. and Oldersma, J. (eds), The Gender of Power. London, Sage, pp. 21–41.
    Mitchell, J. (1975), Psychoanalysis and Feminism. Harmondsworth, Penguin.
    Natanson, M. (1973), Edmund Husserl: Philosopher of Infinite Tasks. Evanston, IL, Northwestern University Press.
    Nettleton, S. (1992), Power, Pain and Dentistry. Milton Keynes, Open University Press.
    Newson, J. (1977), ‘An Intersubjective Approach to the Systematic Description of Mother—Infant Interaction’, in Schaffer, H. (ed.), Studies in Mother—Infant Interaction. London, Academic Press, pp. 47–62.
    Newson, J. (1979), ‘The Growth of Shared Understandings Between Infant and Caregiver’, in Bullowa, M. (ed.), Before Speech, Cambridge University Press, pp. 207–22.
    O'Neill, J. (1986), ‘The Specular Body: Merleau-Ponty and Lacan on Infant, Self and Other’, Synthèse66, pp. 201–17.
    Offe, C. (1984), Contradictions of the Welfare State, (ed. Keane, J.), London, Hutchinson.
    Offe, C. (1985), Disorganised Capitalism. Oxford, Polity.
    Parsons, T. (1960), Structure and Process in Modern Societies. Glencoe, IL, Free Press.
    Parsons, T. (1967), Sociological Theory and Modern Society. New York, Free Press.
    Passerin d' Entrèves, M. (1992), ‘Hannah Arendt and the Idea of Citizenship’, in Mouffe, C. (ed.), Dimensions of Radical Democracy. London, Verso, pp. 145–68.
    Perkins, M. (1981), ‘Two Arguments Against a Private Language’, in Morick, H. (ed.), Wittgenstein and the Problem of Other Minds. Brighton, Harvester, pp. 97–118.
    Pfuetze, P. (1961), Self, Society, Existence: Human Nature and Dialogue in the Thought of George Herbert Mead and Martin Buber. Westport, CT, Greenwood.
    Piaget, J. (1961), The Language and Thought of the Child. London, Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Pollner, M. (1974), ‘Mundane Reasoning’, Philosophy of Social Science4, pp. 35–54.
    Pollner, M. (1975), ‘The Very Coinage of Your Brain: The Anatomy of Reality Disjunctures’, Philosophy of Social Science5, pp. 411–30.
    Poster, M. (1990), The Mode of Information. Cambridge, Polity.
    Rawls, A. (1987), ‘The Interaction Order Sui Generis: Goffman's Contribution to Social Theory’, Sociological Theory5, pp. 136–49.
    Ricoeur, P. (1967a), Husserl: An Analysis of His Philosophy. Evanston, IL, Northwestern University Press.
    Ricoeur, P. (1967b), ‘New Developments in Phenomenology in France: The Phenomenology of Language’, Social Research34, pp. 1–30.
    Ricouer, P. (1991), From Text to Action. London, Athlone Press.
    Roche, M. (1973), Phenomenology, Language and the Social Sciences. London, Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Roche, M. (1987), ‘Citizenship, Social Theory and Social Change’, Theory and Society16, pp. 363–99.
    Roche, M. (1990), ‘Motherland or Motherhood’, New Socialist, Oct./Nov., pp. 10–12.
    Roche, M. (1992a), Rethinking Citizenship. Cambridge, Polity.
    Roche, M. (1992b), ‘Rethinking Social Citizenship’, paper presented at the XIIth World Congress of Sociology (New Classes and Social Movements Section), Madrid, July 1990.
    Romanyshyn, R. (1982), Psychological Life. Milton Keynes, Open University Press.
    Rose, N. (1985), The Psychological Complex. London, Routledge.
    Rose, N. (1989), Governing the Soul. London, Routledge.
    Rosenthal, S. and Bourgeois, P. (1991), Mead and Merleau-Ponty: Toward a Common Vision. New York, State University of New York Press.
    Ryle, G. (1949), The Concept of Mind. London, Penguin.
    Sacks, H. (1989), ‘1964–65 Lectures’, Human Studies12(3–4).
    Said, E. (1978), Orientalism. Harmondsworth, Penguin.
    Sandywcll, B., Silverman, D., Roche, M., Filmer, P. and Phillipson, M. (1975), Problems of Reflexivity and Dialectics in Sociological Enquiry. London, Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Saretzki, T. (1988), ‘Collective Action vs Functionalism: Some Remarks on Joas' Critique’, Praxis International8(1), pp. 52–72.
    Sartre, J.-P. (1948), Anti-Semite and Jew. New York, Schocken.
    Sartre, J.-P. (1969), Being and Nothingness. London, Routledge.
    Sartre, J.-P. (1972), The Psychology of Imagination. London, Methuen.
    Saunders, P. (1993), ‘Citizenship in a Liberal Society’, in Turner, B. (ed.) Citizenship and Social Theory. London, Sage, pp. 57–90.
    Schaffer, R. (1991), ‘Early Social Development’, in Woodhead, M., Carr, R. and Light, P. (eds), Becoming a Person. London, Routledge, pp. 5–29.
    Schutz, A. (1964), Collected Papers 2: Studies in Social Theory. The Hague, Martinus Nijhoff.
    Schutz, A. (1970), Collected Papers 3: Studies in Phenomenological Philosophy. The Hague, Martinus Nijhoff.
    Schutz, A. (1972), The Phenomenology of the Social World. London, Heinemann.
    Schutz, A. (1973), Collected Papers 1: The Problem of Social Reality. The Hague, Martinus Nijhoff.
    Schutz, A. and Luckmann, T. (1973), The Structures of the Life-World. Evanston, IL, Northwestern University Press.
    Singer, P. (1983), Hegel. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
    Spurling, L. (1977), Phenomenology and the Social World: The Philosophy of Merleau-Ponty and Its Relation to the Social Sciences. London, Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Stern, D. (1977), The First Relationship: Infant and Mother. London, Open Books.
    Stern, D., Beebe, B., Jaffe, J. and Bennet, S. (1977), ‘The Infant's Stimulus World During Social Interaction: A Study of Caregiver Behaviours with Particular Reference to Repetition and Timing’, in Schaffer, H. (ed.), Studies in Mother—Infant Interaction. London, Academic Press, pp. 177–202.
    Stevenson, N. (1995), Media Culture: Social Theory and Mass Communication, LondonSage.
    Stewart, A. (1995), ‘Two Conceptions of Citizenship’, British Journal of Sociology, 46(1), pp. 63–79.
    Suchman, L. (1987), Plans and Situated Actions. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
    Taylor, L. and Cohen, S. (1993), Escape Attempts. London, Routledge.
    Taylor, L. and Walton, P. (1971), ‘Industrial Sabotage: Motives and Meanings’, in Cohen, S. (ed.), Images of Deviance. Harmondsworth, Penguin, pp. 219–45.
    Theunissen, M. (1984), The Other. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.
    Thompson, E. (1967), ‘Time, Work-Discipline and Industrial Capitalism’, Past and Present38, pp. 56–61, 70–3, 90–6.
    Thompson, J. (1983), ‘Rationality and Social Rationalisation: An Assessment of Habermas's Theory of Communicative Action’, Sociology17(2), pp. 278–94.
    Toffler, A. (1980), The Third Wave. London, Pan.
    Trevarthen, C. (1977), ‘Descriptive Analyses of Infant Communicative Behaviour’, in Schaffer, H. (ed.), Studies in Mother—Infant Interaction. London, Academic Press, pp. 227–70.
    Trevarthen, C. (1979), ‘Communication and Cooperation in Early Infancy: A Description of Primary Intersubjectivity’, in Bullowa, M. (ed.), Before Speech. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp. 321–47.
    Trevarthen, C. and Hubley, P. (1978), ‘Secondary Intersubjectivity: Confidence, Confiding and Acts of Meaning in the First Year’, in Lock, A. (ed.), Action, Gesture and Symbol. London, Academic Press, pp. 183–231.
    Turner, B. (1990), ‘Outline of a Theory of Citizenship’, Sociology24(2), pp. 189–217.
    Volosinov, V. (1986), Marxism and the Philosophy of Language. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press.
    Vygotsky, L. (1986), Thought and Language. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.
    Walzer, M. (1986), ‘The Politics of Michel Foucault’, in Hoy, D. (ed.), Foucault: A Critical Reader. Oxford, Blackwell, pp. 51–68.
    Weights, A. (1981), ‘Max Weber's Sociology and the Conceptualisation of Social Agents’, Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Liverpool.
    White, S. (1988), The Recent Work of Jürgen Habermas. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
    Wilson, E. (1985), Adorned in Dreams. London, Virago.
    Winch, P. (1958), The Idea of a Social Science. London, Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Wittgenstein, L. (1953), Philosophical Investigations. Oxford, Blackwell.
    Wittgenstein, L. (1958), The Blue and Brown Books. Oxford, Blackwell.
    Wittgenstein, L. (1961), Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. London, Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Wittgenstein, L. (1969), On Certainty. Oxford, Blackwell.
    Young, I. (1980), ‘Throwing Like a Girl’, Human Studies3, pp. 137–56.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website