International Development Studies: Theories and Methods in Research and Practice
Publication Year: 2008
Subject: International Development
International Development Studies is an exploration of what it is to ‘do’ development studies as a distinct discipline. It introduces and addresses the fundamental questions that everyone engaged with development - whether student, researcher or practitioner - must ask:
What is ‘development’ and why do we wish to study it?; How do the many theoretical, methodological, and epistemological approaches relate to research and practical studies in development?; How are development research and practice linked?
Intended Audience: Accessibly written, with extensive use of case study material, this book is an essential primer for students of development studies who require a concise, penetrating overview of its foundations. It is also core reading for students and practitioners concerned with the design of studies in the course of policy analysis, sector ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: What is ‘Development’?
- Chapter 2: What is the Purpose of Development Studies?
- Chapter 3: What can we ‘Know’ in Development Studies?
- Chapter 4: What is the ‘Big Picture’ in Development Studies?
- Chapter 5: What is ‘Rigour’ in Development Studies?
- Chapter 6: How are Research and Practice Linked in Development Studies?
- Chapter 7: What is the Future for Development Studies?
© Andy Sumner and Michael Tribe 2008
First published 2008
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
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I would like to thank friends, family and colleagues, past and present, for their support.
Andy Sumner Fellow, Institute of Development Studies, Sussex, UK.
I would particularly like to acknowledge the support and understanding of my wife, Kathryn, over the years. For my initial introduction to opportunities in the field of development, and to rigour in analysis, I would like to thank the late Ian Livingstone, latterly Emeritus Professor in the School of Development Studies, University of East Anglia.
Honorary Visiting Senior Research Fellow, Bradford Centre for International Development, University of Bradford, and Teaching Assistant, Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow[Page viii]
List of Boxes, Tables and Figures[Page ix]Boxes
- 1.1 Post-Modern Conceptualization(s) of Development 15
- 1.2 Edward Said and ‘Orientalism’ 16
- 1.3 Common Labels for Developing Countries and Critiques 17
- 1.4 Groupings Used by International Development Agencies 18
- 1.5 Acronyms Relating to International Development 18
- 1.6 The Human Development and Capabilities Approach 22
- 1.7 The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 24
- 2.1 Selected Development Studies Journals 33
- 2.2 Defining Ethics 37
- 2.3 Ethics Guidelines of Academic Associations Relevant to Development Studies 40
- 2.4 The DARG Guidelines 41
- 2.5 Chamber's ‘Biases of Development Researchers’ 44
- 3.1 Philosophy of Knowledge: Key Terms and Questions 55
- 3.2 The ‘Scaffold of Learning’ 55
- 3.3 Science Wars: Kuhn versus Popper 62
- 3.4 Hedgehogs and Foxes 64
- 3.5 Definitions of Cross-disciplinary Terms 67
- 3.6 Comparison in Development Studies: ‘Dollar and Kraay’ and ‘Narayan’ 70
- 3.7 Conversations Between Anthropologists and Economists 73
- 3.8 Myerson's ‘Code of Practice’ for Cross-disciplinary Research 75
- 4.1 Bevan's ‘Anatomy’, ‘Physiology’, ‘Dynamics’ and ‘Histories’ 86
- 4.2 Martinussen's ‘Minimum Requirements of a Good Social Science Theory’ 88
- 4.3 Typology of Assumptions 89
- 4.4 Theory and the Direction or Logic of Enquiry 91
- 4.5 Checklist for Building a Theoretical Framework 93
- 5.1 Davies’ Seven Types of Research 101
- 5.2 The Stylized Research Cycle 102
- 5.3 Types of Research Questions 103
- 5.4 Common Types of Sampling 106
- 5.5 Specific Combinations of Data Collection Methods 109
- 5.6 Quality in Social Policy Research 112
- 5.7 Criteria for Assessment of Qualitative Research 113 [Page x]
- 5.8 Secondary Data and Rigour 120
- 5.9 Whose Reality Counts? The World Bank as a ‘Knowledge Bank’ 121
- 6.1 Components of Project Management 135
- 6.2 Benefits Arising from the Participatory Approach 144
- 7.1 The Foundations of Knowledge in Development Studies 165
- I.1 A Stylized Depiction of the ‘Development Community’ 3
- I.2 Bevan's ‘Foundations of Knowledge Framework’ 5
- 1.1 Human Development Indicators 23
- 2.1 Comparison of Development Studies and Area Studies 37
- 2.2 What Are the Ethics of Development Studies? 39
- 2.3 The Ethics of the ‘Development’ Community: Questions for Reflection 42
- 3.1 Selected (Western) Philosophers’ Thinking on ‘Knowledge’ and ‘Reality’ 56
- 3.2 Stylized Tendencies in Epistemological Assumptions 59
- 3.3 Ideal-type Depiction of Disciplines and Underlying Assumptions on ‘Reality’ and ‘Knowledge’ 72
- 5.1 Selected Possible Generic Strengths and Weaknesses of PPAs and Surveys 111
- 5.2 Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Data Collection and Analysis 111
- 5.3 Quality Criteria and Definitions 114
- 5.4 Alternative Quality Criteria 116
- 5.5 Possible Types of Bias in Development Studies Research 117
- 5.6 Examples of ‘Data-Mining’ 118
- 1.1 What is ‘Development’? 11
- 2.1 What is Development Studies? 36
- 2.2 What are the Ethics of Development Studies? 40
- 3.1 The relationship between Development Studies, Development Economics and Area Studies 66
- 3.2 Diagrammatic Presentation of Cross-disciplinarity in Development Studies 68
- 6.1 ‘Development Research’: Activities, Policy and Practice 132
- 6.2 A Policy Management Hierarchy 136
- 6.3 Hierarchies within the Policy Management System 137
- 6.4 A Suggested ‘Policy Cycle’ for Policy Management 139
- 6.5 The Logical Framework and Results-Based Management 141
- 6.6 DFID's Sustainable Livelihoods Diagram 145
- 6.7 National Sheep Flock, First Livestock Development Project, Syria 147
- 6.8 Evaluation of With Policy/Without Policy 148
List of Acronyms[Page xi]
BCE Before the Common Era (equivalent to BC – Before Christ) BRICET Brazil, Russia, India, China, Eastern Europe and Turkey CDF Comprehensive Development Framework CIDA Canadian International Development Agency CPIA Country Policy and Institutional Assessment DANIDA Danish International Development Agency DARG Developing Areas Research Group (of the UK Royal Geographical Society) DFID (or DfID) Department for International Development (UK) DS Development Studies DSA Development Studies Association (UK and Ireland) EADI European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes EU European Union FAO Food and Agriculture Organization G77 Group of 77 GDI Gender Development Index GDP Gross Domestic Product GEM Gender Empowerment Measure GIC Ghana Investments Centre GTZ German Technical Assistance (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH) HDI Human Development Index HDR Human Development Report HPI Human Poverty Index (HPI-1 for developing/low income countries and HPI-2 for industrialized countries) HIPC Heavily Indebted Poor Country HIV/AIDS Human Immunodeficiency Virus / Acquired ImmunoDeficiency Syndrome IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the World Bank) [Page xii] IDTs International Development Targets (see MDGs) IFI International Financial Institutions (mainly the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund) ILO International Labour Office (or Organization) IMF International Monetary Fund IRDP Integrated Rural Development Project LDC Less Developed Country LIC Low Income Country LICUS Low Income Country Under Stress LLDC Land-Locked Developing Country LMC Lower Middle Income Country MDGs Millennium Development Goals MIC Middle Income Country NGOs Non-Governmental Organizations NIC Newly Industrializing Country NIEO New International Economic Order NORAD Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation ODI Overseas Development Institute (London) OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OED Operations Evaluation Department (of the World Bank) OXFAM Oxford Committee for Famine Relief PPA Participatory Poverty Assessment PRA Participatory Rural Appraisal PRSPs Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers PSA Public Service Agreement (UK HM Government) PSIA Policy and Social Impact Analysis RAB Resource Accounts Budgeting (UK HM Government) RBM Results Based Management RCPLAN Resource Centres for Participatory Learning and Action Network ROAMEF Rationale, Objectives, Appraisal, Monitoring, Evaluation, Feedback(UK HM Treasury Green Book) RRA Rapid Rural Appraisal SAPs Structural Adjustment Programmes SIGMA Support for Improvement in Governance and Management(Joint programme of the OECD and EU) SWAP Sector Wide Approach TNCs Transnational Corporations UK United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland UMC Upper Middle Income Country UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund UNRISD United Nations Research Institute for Social Development [Page xiii] UNU – WIDER United Nations University – World Institute for Development Economics Research USA United States of America USAID United States Agency for International Development USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics WDR World Development Report WTO World Trade Organization