International Development: A Global Perspective on Theory and Practice


Edited by: Paul Battersby & Ravi K Roy

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    List of Text Boxes

    List of Abbreviations

    • ADB Asian Development Bank
    • AusAID Australian Agency for International Development
    • BRICS Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa
    • C4D Communication for Development
    • CDM Clean Development Mechanism
    • CDSC Communication for Development and Social Change
    • CEDAW Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women
    • CER Certified Emissions Reduction
    • CFCs Chlorofluorocarbons
    • CITES Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
    • CLACS Centre for Latin American and Caribbean Studies
    • COP Conference of Parties
    • CSC Communication for Social Change
    • CSDH Commission on Social Determinants of Health
    • DBV Development Bank of Vanuatu
    • GFC Global Financial Crisis
    • GMO Genetically Modified Organism
    • HACAP Hairdressers and Cosmetologists Association of the Philippines
    • IAP2 International Association for Public Participation
    • ICRC International Committee of the Red Cross
    • ICT4D Information Communication Technologies for Development
    • IEA International Energy Association
    • IFRC International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
    • IGO Intergovernmental Organization
    • ILO International Labour Organization
    • IMF International Monetary Fund
    • INGO International Non-Governmental Organization
    • MARPOL International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships
    • MDGs Millennium Development Goals
    • MNC Multinational Corporation
    • NBV National Bank of Vanuatu
    • NGO Non-Governmental Organization
    • NNGO Northern NGO
    • OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
    • OFW Overseas Filipino Workers
    • PAR Participatory Action Research
    • POEA Philippine Overseas Employment Agency
    • PPP Purchasing Power Parity
    • PRA Participatory Rural Appraisal
    • RRA Rapid Rural Appraisal
    • SD Sustainable Development
    • SDGs Sustainable Development Goals
    • SNGO Southern NGO
    • SRPD Self-Reliant Participatory Development
    • SWAP  Sector-Wide Approach
    • TNC Transnational Corporation
    • UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
    • UNDP United Nations Development Programme
    • UNESCO United Nations Scientific and Cultural Organization
    • UNHRBA United Nations Human Rights Based Approach
    • UNODC United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime
    • WCI Women’s Candidacy Initiative
    • WHO World Health Organization
    • WTO World Trade Organization

    About the Editors and Contributors

    Richard P. Appelbaum is Distinguished Research Professor and former MacArthur Foundation Chair in Global and International Studies and Sociology at the University of California at Santa Barbara, where he was a co-founder of the Global & International Studies Program, and co-PI at the NSF-funded Center for Nanotechnology in Society. He has published extensively in the areas of emerging technologies, particularly in China; the globalization of business; and the sociology of work and labor. He is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); chairs the Advisory Council of the Workers’ Rights Consortium; and is a member of the Committee on Trademark Licensing in the Office of the President, University of California.

    Paul Battersby is Associate Professor and Deputy Dean, Global and Language Studies, in the School of Global, Urban and Social Studies at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) University, in Melbourne, Australia. His publications and research interests span globalization, governance, border security, and the history of Australia’s business engagement with Asia. He teaches in the areas of global risk and governance, security, global crime, Asian business practices, and international development.

    Desmond Cahill is Professor of Intercultural Studies in the School of Global, Urban and Social Studies, RMIT University. He has been teaching and researching on cross-cultural and language issues as well as about multicultural, multifaith and diasporic societies for four decades. Since 9/11, his focus has been on religion, globalization and interreligious issues. He is Chair of Religions for Peace Australia and, in 2010, he was awarded the Medal of the Order of Australia for ‘his services to intercultural education and to the interfaith movement’.

    Louise Coventry is a PhD candidate in the School of Global, Urban and Social Studies, RMIT University. Her doctoral research explores the governance of civil society organizations in Cambodia. She currently lives in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and works as an organizational development consultant and facilitator with civil society organizations across South East Asia. She holds degrees in social work, psychology, and community services management (BA, BSW, MSocSci), and her research interests include participatory methodologies, community and capacity development, peacebuilding, and governance.

    Arthur T. Denzau teaches at Utah State University and is Professor Emeritus at Claremont Graduate University. He has held previous teaching appointments at Virginia Tech, the University of Arizona, Washington University, and Sultan Qaboos University in Oman. His primary research has been in the field of Public Choice Economics. He has been working to expand upon the New Economic Institutionalist work on Shared Mental Models that he and his colleague, Douglass C. North, began together over two decades ago.

    Rebekah Farrell is a PhD candidate in the School of Global, Urban and Social Studies, RMIT University. Her research focuses on the legal accountability of pharmaceutical companies in conducting unethical clinical trials in developing countries. Rebekah is admitted to practise in the Supreme Court of Victoria and works as a policy lawyer. She has published in the area of international project-based learning, globalization, and authenticity in Asia.

    Kent Goldsworthy teaches in the Masters of International Development and Bachelor of International Studies programmes in the School of Global, Urban and Social Studies, RMIT University. Kent is also a PhD candidate affiliated with the School’s Centre for Global Research. His research interests are aligned to his engagement with ReThink Orphanages: Better Solutions for Children, a global network of NGOs, government departments, and researchers who aim to prevent the unnecessary institutionalization of children by shifting the way in which countries engage with aid and development. Prior to academia, Kent pursued a career in international education management.

    Damian Grenfell is the Director of the Centre for Global Research and a Senior Lecturer in the Global Studies Discipline, RMIT University. He researches social change in the context of conflict, security, and peace and governance. A significant aspect of Grenfell’s work focuses on gender in the post-conflict and post-colonial context.

    Jose Roberto Guevara is Associate Professor and Director of the Master of International Development Program in the School of Global, Urban and Social Studies, RMIT University. He is an educator with extensive experience in adult, community and popular education, and participatory action research with a focus on education for sustainable development, environmental education, global citizenship education and development education, within the Asia and South Pacific regions. He was inducted into the International Adult and Continuing Education Hall of Fame in October 2012 for his contribution to adult learning in the Asia-Pacific region, and was recently awarded a CONFINTEA Research Scholarship by the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning to conduct research on education and resilience.

    Vandra Harris is Head of Global Studies in the School of Global, Urban and Social Studies, RMIT University, where she teaches in the Master of International Development course. Vandra’s research focuses particularly on the interface between different actors in the development space, especially militaries, police and NGOs, as well as contact between local and international development actors. Prior to joining academia, Vandra spent over a decade working for local and international community development NGOs. She has also served on the boards of a range of NGOs and is a member of the International Development Ethics Association (IDEA) and a fellow of the Inter-University Seminar on Armed Forces and Society (IUSAFS).

    Anil Hira is Professor of Political Science at Simon Fraser University. For the first part of his career, his research was focused on international trade and investment, and how Latin American and other countries in the South could move towards long-term economic development. His more recent research focuses on a triple bottom-line agenda, examining how to promote renewable energy and labour rights in the developing world. He has completed studies on wireless, biofuels, and wine industries, using comparative cases and international teams to reveal which policies were most effective in producing successful competitive global industries.

    Elizabeth Kath is a Senior Lecturer with the School of Global, Urban and Social Studies, RMIT University, where she teaches International Studies. She is also an Honorary Research Fellow with the UN Global Compact Cities Programme and Co-Director of Global Reconciliation, a global network of partners around the world that focuses on researching and promoting ‘reconciliation’, or ‘dialogue across difference’. Her research has included a study of the Cuban public health system, her work with organizations in Porto Alegre and Rio de Janeiro seeking to improve health, wellbeing and social inclusion for favela communities, and an action research project that includes intercultural exchanges between Australia and Brazil, focusing on themes of sport, wellbeing and reconciliation.

    Robert Klitgaard is Professor at Claremont Graduate University, where he formerly served as President. He was Lee Ka-shing Distinguished Chair Professor for two summers at the National University of Singapore; Dean and Ford Distinguished Professor of International Development and Security at the Pardee RAND Graduate School, the world’s leading PhD programme in policy analysis; Lester Crown Professor of Economics at Yale School of Management; and an Associate Professor of Public Policy at the Harvard Kennedy School.

    Paul Komesaroff is a physician, medical researcher and philosopher at Monash University in Melbourne, where he is Professor of Medicine. He is also Executive Director of the international NGO, Global Reconciliation. He is engaged in various research and action projects in reconciliation and ethics, which cover clinical practice, public health, global health and research ethics and span a range of topics, including the impact of new technologies on health and society, consent in research, the experience of illness, palliative care and end-of-life issues, complementary medicines, obesity, psychological effects of trauma, and cross-cultural teaching and learning.

    Scott Leckie is an international human rights lawyer and the Founder and Director of Displacement Solutions, an organization dedicated to resolving cases of forced displacement throughout the world, in particular displacement caused by climate change and conflict. Over the past three decades, he has established several human rights organizations and institutions. He regularly advises a number of United Nations agencies on housing, land and property rights issues, and has worked on these questions in 82 countries.

    Julian C.H. Lee is a Senior Lecturer in Global Studies, School of Global, Urban and Social Studies, RMIT University. He is also a member of the Executive Committee of the Centre for Global Research. He is trained in the discipline of anthropology and, using ethnographic methods, his research has focused on civil society, gender, sexuality and multiculturalism with an area focus on Malaysia. He has been an Economic and Social Research Council Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Kent, and maintains an interest in public engagement through regular columns in non-academic periodicals.

    Cirila P. Limpangog teaches and researches in the areas of gender and development, human rights, women’s rights, culture, globalization and migration. She has intermittently taught at RMIT University, Victoria University and the University of Melbourne for more than ten years, and has worked in the international and community development sector for close to twenty years, including being GenderWise Program Manager in International Women’s Development Agency. She is a recipient of the Endeavour Australia Cheong Kong Research Fellowship.

    Debbi Long is a medical anthropologist, whose research interests focus around health systems and health equity. She has undertaken ethnographic research in Swaziland, Turkey and in the Australian public hospital system. Debbi has taught in departments of anthropology, medicine, nursing and in an Indigenous foundation programme. She is on the board of Possible Dreams International and Lentil As Anything, both NGOs working within a social justice and equity framework, and is the founder of the Health Anthropology network. She is currently with the Department of General Practice at Monash University, working on a project incorporating family violence expertise into medical and health education curriculum.

    Jonathan Makuwira is Professor of Development Studies at Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (NMMU), South Africa. Prior to joining NMMU, he was a Senior Lecturer in International Development at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) University. His academic career has seen him teach Peace Studies at the University of New England, and Comparative Indigenous Studies at Central Queensland University. He has worked for the Ministry of Education in Malawi as a Primary, Secondary and Teacher Educator before joining the Malawi Institute of Education and then the Council for NGOs in Malawi (CONGOMA).

    Gregoire Nimbtik completed his doctoral thesis at RMIT University, where he examined the social dynamics of corruption in Vanuatu. He began his career in Vanuatu’s public service as Deputy Director of the Vanuatu Comprehensive Reform Program (CRP). In July 2004, he was appointed as the Director of the Department of Strategic Policy, Planning and Aid coordination at the Ministry of Prime Minister. He holds a Masters of Development Administration from the Australian National University (ANU) and a Bachelor of Arts from the University of the South Pacific. He is now working as the Director of the Department of Strategic Policy, Planning and Aid coordination at the Ministry of Prime Minister in Vanuatu.

    Lesley J. Pruitt is a Senior Lecturer in Politics and International Relations at Monash University. She is also a member of the Centre for Global Research. Lesley’s research focuses on recognizing and enhancing youth participation in peacebuilding and promoting gender equity in peace processes. A Truman Scholar and Rotary Ambassadorial Scholar, Lesley received her Masters and PhD in Political Science and International Studies from the University of Queensland. In 2012, she was Visiting Research Fellow at George Mason University’s Peacekeeping Operations Policy Program in Washington, DC.

    Ravi K. Roy is Director of the W. Edwards Deming Incubator for Public Affairs (WEDIPA) at Southern Utah University and Research Fellow in Public Affairs with the W. Edwards Deming Institute. Prior to these appointments, Roy served as Director of various postgraduate programmes including the MPA programmes at Southern Utah University and California State University, Northridge as well as the International Development programme at RMIT University. Roy was also Visiting Research Scholar at the Orfalea Center for Global and International Studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara from 2011–2015.

    Supriya Singh is Professor, Sociology of Communications at the Graduate School of Business and Law, RMIT University. Her work focuses on how communication and money shape each other. She has researched this in the areas of banking, migration, the transnational family, gender and financial inclusion, and the user-centred design of information and communication technologies. Her current projects include an ethnographic study of the use of Bitcoin, money, gender and family violence, and the impact of bank closures on remittances from Australia to the Horn of Africa.

    Marianne D. Sison is a Senior Lecturer and a former Deputy Dean (International) at the School of Media and Communication at RMIT University. Her research interests focus on the role of communication in advocating social change. Her multiple-perspective approach is applied in her research in global and cross-cultural public relations practice and education, cultural and organizational values, corporate social responsibility, diversity and inclusion, within the Asia-Pacific context. A graduate of the University of the Philippines and University of Florida, she received her PhD at RMIT University.

    Alexander Snow has a background in and passion for using the arts as a vehicle for enabling youth-led social change. Alex holds a Bachelor of Performing Arts (BPA) and Master of Social Science International Development (MSS ID), and over the last six years, he has designed, delivered and evaluated community development projects, peer-to-peer workshops and youth-led social change events across Australia and South East Asia. Currently, Alex is a Senior Project Manager at the Foundation for Young Australians (FYA), where he oversees the design, delivery and evaluation of a range of programmes and projects that enable youth-led change across Australia.

    Thunradee Taveekan lectures in the Department of Public Administration, Faculty of Management Sciences, at Prince of Songkla University, Thailand. A Thai government postgraduate scholarship recipient, she completed her PhD thesis in the School of Global, Urban and Social Studies, RMIT University, in which she examined how theories of policy network formation can be used to bridge state–civil society divides in local government in Thailand. Her research interests are public governance, collaborative governance, participatory governance, public participation, public policy and planning.


    It is fitting that an edited volume covering the theory and practice of International Development is honouring the legacy of my dear friend and colleague, Douglass C. North. Doug’s passing in November 2015 left those of us who knew him with a deep sadness. However, his work in the area of New Institutional Economics, and economic development in particular, lives on and will no doubt continue to inspire new research for many years to come.

    By way of reference, I worked with Doug closely during the years I spent in the Economics Department at Washington University (St Louis). Over the course of our friendship, Doug and I would often engage in deep discussions over why human beings make the decisions they do. Doug was stuck by the fact that people often seemed to ignore empirical data and behaved in ways that rational choice perspectives did not seem to explain. Eventually, Doug and I began developing a paper emphasizing the joint importance of institutions and ideologies, which came to be conceptualized as Shared Mental Models (SMMs). When our draft on SMM was done, Doug remarked that we had stumbled onto something important. Meanwhile, unbeknownst to us, Doug was being considered for the [Bank of Sweden] Nobel Memorial Prize in the Economic Sciences for his earlier work on Clio-metrics. Even before his acceptance of the Nobel in 1993, Bruno Frey had insisted that we publish our SMM paper in his social science journal, Kyklos. Since that time, our work on SMMs that Doug initiated would inspire discussion across a variety of fields, garnering over 2,200 cites (over half of my overall career total of 4,300) so far. In recent years, it has gained increasing traction in the area of International Development and would even be featured in the World Bank’s World Development Report 2015.

    It is personally gratifying to see this edited volume released under the co-editorship of my friends Paul and Ravi. Indeed, Ravi and I having been working together over the last 15 years to expand upon the work that Doug and I began on SMMs years ago at ‘Wash U’. The authors of the impressive chapters contained in this volume have applied the SMM framework in some innovative and interesting ways, ranging from governance to sustainability. In the pages of this volume, the reader is treated to a fascinating and wide-ranging exploration of the various dimensions of this important and engaging field.

    Arthur T. Denzau

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