Integrating Language Arts and Social Studies: 25 Strategies for K-8 Inquiry-Based Learning

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Leah M. Melber & Alyce Hunter

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    Special thanks to Linda and Bill, the ever-supportive Crysta and Janet, and of course, Cordelia, who is always willing to get right in the middle of things and help.

    —Leah

    Special thanks to all my family for their constant encouragement and particularly to my daughters, Alyson and Jessica, for their perpetual nagging to “get it done.”

    —Alyce

    Copyright

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    Preface

    The idea for this book came to me after a brief discussion with a student in my elementary science methods class. She had learned I would be her professor for social studies methods the following quarter and approached me after class to let me know she was looking forward to the course. It was an offhand comment she made as she was walking away that started the planning process: “We probably won't have as much hands-on or inquiry-based learning though. You know, because it's social studies.” That's when I realized there was a great opportunity to share a very different approach to social studies than what most of us experienced when we were students.

    As a third-grade teacher, I too had spent time in the “textbook trap.” It was only after I had the opportunity to observe social science researchers at work that I discovered a better path to social studies instruction. As I had the opportunity to listen to lectures from researchers studying cultures or watch a historian carefully archiving documents central to the development of our city, I developed a better sense of what social studies is. The topic I once disliked as a student myself had now become something of which I couldn't get enough. I also quickly became aware that the practice of using textbook essay questions to retain a tie to language arts skills was unnecessary. The reading of primary sources, writing of analyses, and oral discussion of controversial topics was already a natural part of social science research. I realized then that by creating social studies activities in line with the engaging work of researchers and historians, moving away from a craft or true/false worksheet focus, it was possible I could spark the same excitement in children and, at the same time, provide them with authentic experiences in language arts. With this book in hand, I'm confident you'll feel equally as confident. This book is a collection of strategies I believe to be especially effective in engaging students in active, inquiry-based experiences. It is an attempt to parallel the work of social scientists while still retaining pragmatic elements that are critical for successful implementation in elementary and middle-school classrooms. I'm sure most educators would agree that this is not an easy balancing act! However, it is one that can be managed with inquiry-based social studies instruction complete with hands-on experiences. And although a single classroom lesson cannot fully capture all the richness of a career in the social sciences, it is my hope that these strategies will at least move students closer to a better understanding of these dedicated researchers' work.

    I hope that educators at all stages of their career will find something helpful in this publication. The experienced teacher who is already using an inquiry-based approach is likely to find several strategies that he or she hasn't yet tried. For a beginning teacher in his or her first year of teaching, there are activities that require few materials and can be implemented with a minimum of advanced planning. I personally feel that to share this work with preservice teachers is an opportunity for them to view social studies instruction through the lens of inquiry from the very beginning.

    References
    National Council for the Social Studies. (1994). Expectations of excellence: Curriculum standards for social studies. Washington, DC: Author.
    National Council of Teachers of English and International Reading Association. (1996). Standards for the English language arts. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

    Acknowledgments

    First and foremost, I would like to acknowledge the amazing work of my coauthor, Dr. Alyce Hunter. As many authors before me have realized, having a second set of life experiences can add dimension and style to a manuscript that a single author cannot. It can also be a necessity when the scope of the work exceeds expectations! In this case, Alyce's addition to the project was critical to its completion. Alyce not only enthusiastically joined me on this project, she did so with style, grace, creativity, pedagogical expertise, and above all, speed and diligence to detail. This book would not be possible without her experience, writing talent, and positive participation, and I am indeed very thankful she was willing to join me on this journey.

    I'd like to also thank colleagues along the way for all that they have done to support my expanding knowledge of social studies instruction. Conchi was always willing to simply pass along her most successful activities without expecting anything in return, no matter how long it had taken her to develop them. Julie helped us discover that technology can connect with social studies in many more ways than a reenactment of travels along the Oregon Trail. In addition, I owe Elizabeth special thanks for the opportunity to work with her students with disabilities to discover what modifications could make the activities more universally accessible.

    My friends and colleagues at “The Museum” were invaluable in helping me to better understand social science as an area of research and the many ways researchers explore our past and present. All taught me the importance of data collection and evidence and tutored me in appropriate methods of cultural interpretation. They provided patient explanations of objects in the collections and engaged with me in discussions on educational techniques. And although we may hold differing opinions to this day, that is, after all, an element of the inquiry process, and I am forever indebted to their willingness to share their passion for history and culture.

    My former university students furthered my experience in working with culturally and linguistically diverse audiences as well as provided me with feedback on which strategies they found especially helpful and those which were better left in the filing cabinet. Phyllis and Charlie are owed great thanks for lending me priceless antiques at a moment's notice and asking not a single question about what exactly I was going to do with them. Kimberly, thank you for being willing to tackle it all, from social studies inquiry kits to providing me with titles of culturally relevant literature under the tightest of deadlines. You are an author, professor, and colleague I very much admire.

    I owe much thanks to the long-time support of Amy and Linda—from whom I learned to always say yes to opportunity, and figure out the logistics later. My sincerest thanks also to Allyson for her continued support of all my writing endeavors.

    As this goes to press, I am currently seated in my new position at the Lincoln Park Zoo. You might think as I once did that my position at the zoo might place my work in social studies on permanent hiatus. I then discovered our holdings of nearly 150 years of archives chronicling every aspect of life at the zoo. Photos, documents, newspaper clippings, diaries, and ledgers, priceless archives that remind us history is indeed everywhere we look. And as some might suggest … enough material for the next book project. …

    —Leah Melber

    I would like to acknowledge my gratitude to Dr. Leah Melber, the inspiration, motivation, and intelligence behind this book and my contribution to it. I feel most blessed to have been asked by Leah to work on such an important publication. I truly admire her desire to provide teachers with practical and usable strategies to assist them with the integration of language arts and social studies. Her zeal, professionalism, and inquiring spirit have guided my ideas, my words, my writing. Thank you, Leah.

    I would also like to express my appreciation to my husband, Bob. For almost 40 years, he has provided advice and support. I am particularly grateful for the confidence he has shown in me and our remarkable sons, daughters, sons-in-law, daughters-in-law, grandsons, and granddaughters.

    —Alyce Hunter

    We also thank the reviewers who provided feedback on the idea for the book and drafts of the strategies:

    • Lewis Asimeng Boahene, Pennsylvania State University
    • Karen Enos, Chadron State College
    • Barbara M. Hanes, Widener University
    • Ruth A. Johnston, Valparaiso University
    • Beth A. Moore, Franklin College
    • JungDuk (JD) Ohn, James Madison University
    • Kelley Samblis, University of Southern Mississippi

    IRA/NCTE Standards for the English Language Arts

    The vision guiding these standards is that all students must have the opportunities and resources to develop the language skills they need to pursue life's goals and to participate fully as informed, productive members of society. These standards assume that literacy growth begins before children enter school as they experience and experiment with literacy activities—reading and writing, and associating spoken words with their graphic representations. Recognizing this fact, these standards encourage the development of curriculum and instruction that make productive use of the emerging literacy abilities that children bring to school. Furthermore, the standards provide ample room for the innovation and creativity essential to teaching and learning. They are not prescriptions for particular curriculum or instruction. Although we present these standards as a list, we want to emphasize that they are not distinct and separable; they are, in fact, interrelated and should be considered as a whole.

    • Students read a wide range of print and nonprint texts to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United States and the world; to acquire new information; to respond to the needs and demands of society and the workplace; and for personal fulfillment. Among these texts are fiction and nonfiction, classic and contemporary works.
    • Students read a wide range of literature from many periods in many genres to build an understanding of the many dimensions (e.g., philosophical, ethical, aesthetic) of human experience.
    • Students apply a wide range of strategies to comprehend, interpret, evaluate, and appreciate texts. They draw on their prior experience, their interactions with other readers and writers, their knowledge of word meaning and of other texts, their word identification strategies, and their understanding of textual features (e.g., sound–letter correspondence, sentence structure, context, graphics).
    • Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes.
    • Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes.
    • Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions (e.g., spelling and punctuation), media techniques, figurative language, and genre to create, critique, and discuss print and nonprint texts.
    • Students conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideas and questions, and by posing problems. They gather, evaluate, and synthesize data from a variety of sources (e.g., print and nonprint texts, artifacts, people) to communicate their discoveries in ways that suit their purpose and audience.
    • Students use a variety of technological and informational resources (e.g., libraries, databases, computer networks, video) to gather and synthesize information and to create and communicate knowledge.
    • Students develop an understanding of and respect for diversity in language use, patterns, and dialects across cultures, ethnic groups, geographic regions, and social roles.
    • Students whose first language is not English make use of their first language to develop competency in the English language arts and to develop understanding of content across the curriculum.
    • Students participate as knowledgeable, reflective, creative, and critical members of a variety of literacy communities.
    • Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).
    Source: Page3/excerpts from International Reading Association & National Council of Teachers of English. (1996). Standards for the English Language Arts. Copyright 1996 by the International Reading Association & National Council of Teachers of English.

    NCSS Curriculum Standards for Social Studies

    I. Culture

    Social studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study of culture and cultural diversity.

    Human beings create, learn, and adapt culture. Culture helps us to understand ourselves as both individuals and members of various groups. Human cultures exhibit both similarities and differences. We all, for example, have systems of beliefs, knowledge, values, and traditions. Each system also is unique. In a democratic and multicultural society, students need to understand multiple perspectives that derive from different cultural vantage points. This understanding will allow them to relate to people in our nation and throughout the world.

    Cultures are dynamic and ever-changing. The study of culture prepares students to ask and answer questions such as: What are the common characteristics of different cultures? How do belief systems, such as religion or political ideals of the culture, influence the other parts of the culture? How does the culture change to accommodate different ideas and beliefs? What does language tell us about the culture? In schools, this theme typically appears in units and courses dealing with geography, history, and anthropology, as well as multicultural topics across the curriculum.

    During the early years of school, the exploration of the concepts of likenesses and differences in school subjects such as language arts, mathematics, science, music, and art makes the study of culture appropriate. Socially, the young learner is beginning to interact with other students, some of whom are like the student and some different; naturally, heorshe wants to know more about others. In the middle grades, students begin to explore and ask questions about the nature of culture and specific aspects of culture, such as language and beliefs, and the influence of those aspects on human behavior. As students progress through high school, they can understand and use complex cultural concepts such as adaptation, assimilation, acculturation, diffusion, and dissonance drawn from anthropology, sociology, and other disciplines to explain how culture and cultural systems function.

    II. Time, Continuity, & Change

    Social studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study of the ways human beings view themselves in and over time.

    Human beings seek to understand their historical roots and to locate themselves in time. Such understanding involves knowing what things were like in the past and how things change and develop. Knowing how to read and reconstruct the past allows one to develop a historical perspective and to answer questions such as: Who am I? What happened in the past? How am I connected to those in the past? How has the world changed and how might it change in the future? Why does our personal sense of relatedness to the past change? How can the perspective we have about our own life experiences be viewed as part of the larger human story across time? How do our personal stories reflect varying points of view and inform contemporary ideas and actions?

    This theme typically appears in courses that: 1) include perspectives from various aspects of history; 2) draw upon historical knowledge during the examination of social issues; and 3) develop the habits of mind that historians and scholars in the humanities and social sciences employ to study the past and its relationship to the present in the United States and other societies.

    Learners in early grades gain experience with sequencing to establish a sense of order and time. They enjoy hearing stories of the recent past as well as of long ago. In addition, they begin to recognize that individuals may hold different views about the past and to understand the linkages between human decisions and consequences. Thus, the foundation is laid for the development of historical knowledge, skills, and values. In the middle grades, students, through a more formal study of history, continue to expand their understanding of the past and of historical concepts and inquiry. They begin to understand and appreciate differences in historical perspectives, recognizing that interpretations are influenced by individual experiences, societal values, and cultural traditions. High school students engage in more sophisticated analysis and reconstruction of the past, examining its relationship to the present and extrapolating into the future. They integrate individual stories about people, events, and situations to form a more holistic conception, in which continuity and change are linked in time and across cultures. Students also learn to draw on their knowledge of history to make informed choices and decisions in the present.

    III. People, Places, & Environments

    Social studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study of people, places, and environments.

    Technological advances connect students at all levels to the world beyond their personal locations. The study of people, places, and human-environment interactions assists learners as they create their spatial views and geographic perspectives of the world. Today's social, cultural, economic, and civic demands on individuals mean that students will need the knowledge, skills, and understanding to ask and answer questions such as: Where are things located? Why are they located where they are? What patterns are reflected in the groupings of things? What do we mean by region? How do land-forms change? What implications do these changes have for people? This area of study helps learners make informed and critical decisions about the relationship between human beings and their environment. In schools, this theme typically appears in units and courses dealing with area studies and geography.

    In the early grades, young learners draw upon immediate personal experiences as a basis for exploring geographic concepts and skills. They also express interest in things distant and unfamiliar and have concern for the use and abuse of the physical environment. During the middle school years, students relate their personal experiences to happenings in other environmental contexts. Appropriate experiences will encourage increasingly abstract thought as students use data and apply skills in analyzing human behavior in relation to its physical and cultural environment. Students in high school are able to apply geographic understanding across a broad range of fields, including the fine arts, sciences, and humanities. Geographic concepts become central to learners' comprehension of global connections as they expand their knowledge of diverse cultures, both historical and contemporary. The importance of core geographic themes to public policy is recognized and should be explored as students address issues of domestic and international significance.

    IV. Individual Development & Identity

    Social studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study of individual development and identity.

    Personal identity is shaped by one's culture, by groups, and by institutional influences. How do people learn? Why do people behave as they do? What influences how people learn, perceive, and grow? How do people meet their basic needs in a variety of contexts? Questions such as these are central to the study of how individuals develop from youth to adulthood. Examination of various forms of human behavior enhances understanding of the relationships among social norms and emerging personal identities, the social processes that influence identity formation, and the ethical principles underlying individual action. In schools, this theme typically appears in units and courses dealing with psychology and anthropology.

    Given the nature of individual development and our own cultural context, students need to be aware of the processes of learning, growth, and development at every level of their school experience. In the early grades, for example, observing brothers, sisters, and older adults, looking at family photo albums, remembering past achievements and projecting oneself into the future, and comparing the patterns of behavior evident in people of different age groups are appropriate activities because young learners develop their personal identities in the context of families, peers, schools, and communities. Central to this development are the exploration, identification, and analysis of how individuals relate to others. In the middle grades, issues of personal identity are refocused as the individual begins to explain self in relation to others in the society and culture. At the high school level, students need to encounter multiple opportunities to examine contemporary patterns of human behavior, using methods from the behavioral sciences to apply core concepts drawn from psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology as they apply to individuals, societies, and cultures.

    V. Individuals, Groups, & Institutions

    Social studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study of interactions among individuals, groups, and institutions.

    Institutions such as schools, churches, families, government agencies, and the courts all play an integral role in our lives. These and other institutions exert enormous influence over us, yet institutions are no more than organizational embodiments to further the core social values of those who comprise them. Thus, it is important that students know how institutions are formed, what controls and influences them, how they control and influence individuals and culture, and how institutions can be maintained or changed. The study of individuals, groups, and institutions, drawing upon sociology, anthropology, and other disciplines, prepares students to ask and answer questions such as: What is the role of institutions in this and other societies? How am I influenced by institutions? How do institutions change? What is my role in institutional change? In schools, this theme typically appears in units and courses dealing with sociology, anthropology, psychology, political science, and history.

    Young children should be given opportunities to examine various institutions that affect their lives and influence their thinking. They should be assisted in recognizing the tensions that occur when the goals, values, and principles of two or more institutions or groups conflict-for example, when the school board prohibits candy machines in schools vs. a class project to install a candy machine to help raise money for the local hospital. They should also have opportunities to explore ways in which institutions such as churches or health care networks are created to respond to changing individual and group needs. Middle school learners will benefit from varied experiences through which they examine the ways in which institutions change over time, promote social conformity, and influence culture. They should be encouraged to use this understanding to suggest ways to work through institutional change for the common good. High school students must understand the paradigms and traditions that undergird social and political institutions. They should be provided opportunities to examine, use, and add to the body of knowledge related to the behavioral sciences and social theory as it relates to the ways people and groups organize themselves around common needs, beliefs, and interests.

    VI. Power, Authority, & Governance

    Social studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study of how people create and change structures of power, authority, and governance.

    Understanding the historical development of structures of power, authority, and governance and their evolving functions in contemporary U.S. society, as well as in other parts of the world, is essential for developing civic competence. In exploring this theme, students confront questions such as: What is power? What forms does it take? Who holds it? How is it gained, used, and justified? What is legitimate authority? How are governments created, structured, maintained, and changed? How can we keep government responsive to its citizens' needs and interests? How can individual rights be protected within the context of majority rule? By examining the purposes and characteristics of various governance systems, learners develop an understanding of how groups and nations attempt to resolve conflicts and seek to establish order and security. Through study of the dynamic relationships among individual rights and responsibilities, the needs of social groups, and concepts of a just society, learners become more effective problem-solvers and decision-makers when addressing the persistent issues and social problems encountered in public life. They do so by applying concepts and methods of political science and law. In schools, this theme typically appears in units and courses dealing with government, politics, political science, history, law, and other social sciences.

    Learners in the early grades explore their natural and developing sense of fairness and order as they experience relationships with others. They develop an increasingly comprehensive awareness of rights and responsibilities in specific contexts. During the middle school years, these rights and responsibilities are applied in more complex contexts with emphasis on new applications. High school students develop their abilities in the use of abstract principles. They study the various systems that have been developed over the centuries to allocate and employ power and authority in the governing process. At every level, learners should have opportunities to apply their knowledge and skills to and participate in the workings of the various levels of power, authority, and governance.

    VII. Production, Distribution, & Consumption

    Social studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study of how people organize for the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

    People have wants that often exceed the limited resources available to them. As a result, a variety of ways have been invented to decide upon answers to four fundamental questions: What is to be produced? How is production to be organized? How are goods and services to be distributed? What is the most effective allocation of the factors of production (land, labor, capital, and management)? Unequal distribution of resources necessitates systems of exchange, including trade, to improve the well-being of the economy, while the role of government in economic policymaking varies over time and from place to place. Increasingly these decisions are global in scope and require systematic study of an interdependent world economy and the role of technology in economic decision-making. In schools, this theme typically appears in units and courses dealing with concepts, principles, and issues drawn from the discipline of economics.

    Young learners begin by differentiating between wants and needs. They explore economic decisions as they compare their own economic experiences with those of others and consider the wider consequences of those decisions on groups, communities, the nation, and beyond. In the middle grades, learners expand their knowledge of economic concepts and principles, and use economic reasoning processes in addressing issues related to the four fundamental economic questions. High school students develop economic perspectives and deeper understanding of key economic concepts and processes through systematic study of a range of economic and sociopolitical systems, with particular emphasis on the examination of domestic and global economic policy options related to matters such as health care, resource use, unemployment, and trade.

    VIII. Science, Technology, & Society

    Social studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study of relationships among science, technology, and society.

    Technology is as old as the first crude tool invented by prehistoric humans, but today's technology forms the basis for some of our most difficult social choices. Modern life as we know it would be impossible without technology and the science that supports it. But technology brings with it many questions: Is new technology always better than that which it will replace? What can we learn from the past about how new technologies result in broader social change, some of which is unanticipated? How can we cope with the ever-increasing pace of change, perhaps even with the feeling that technology has gotten out of control? How can we manage technology so that the greatest number of people benefit from it? How can we preserve our fundamental values and beliefs in a world that is rapidly becoming one technology-linked village? This theme appears in units or courses dealing with history, geography, economics, and civics and government. It draws upon several scholarly fields from the natural and physical sciences, social sciences, and the humanities for specific examples of issues and the knowledge base for considering responses to the societal issues related to science and technology.

    Young children can learn how technologies form systems and how their daily lives are intertwined with a host of technologies. They can study how basic technologies such as ships, automobiles, and airplanes have evolved and how we have employed technology such as air conditioning, dams, and irrigation to modify our physical environment. From history (their own and others'), they can construct examples of how technologies such as the wheel, the stirrup, and the transistor radio altered the course of history. By the middle grades, students can begin to explore the complex relationships among technology, human values, and behavior. They will find that science and technology bring changes that surprise us and even challenge our beliefs, as in the case of discoveries and their applications related to our universe, the genetic basis of life, atomic physics, and others. As they move from the middle grades to high school, students will need to think more deeply about how we can manage technology so that we control it rather than the other way around. There should be opportunities to confront such issues as the consequences of using robots to produce goods, the protection of privacy in the age of computers and electronic surveillance, and the opportunities and challenges of genetic engineering, test-tube life, and medical technology with all their implications for longevity and quality of life and religious beliefs.

    IX. Global Connections

    Social studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study of global connections and interdependence.

    The realities of global interdependence require understanding the increasingly important and diverse global connections among world societies. Analysis of tensions between national interests and global priorities contributes to the development of possible solutions to persistent and emerging global issues in many fields: health care, economic development, environmental quality, universal human rights, and others. Analyzing patterns and relationships within and among world cultures, such as economic competition and interdependence, age-old ethnic enmities, political and military alliances, and others, helps learners carefully examine policy alternatives that have both national and global implications. This theme typically appears in units or courses dealing with geography, culture, and economics, but again can draw upon the natural and physical sciences and the humanities, including literature, the arts, and language.

    Through exposure to various media and first-hand experiences, young learners become aware of and are affected by events on a global scale. Within this context, students in early grades examine and explore global connections and basic issues and concerns, suggesting and initiating responsive action plans. In the middle years, learners can initiate analysis of the interactions among states and nations and their cultural complexities as they respond to global events and changes. At the high school level, students are able to think systematically about personal, national, and global decisions, interactions, and consequences, including addressing critical issues such as peace, human rights, trade, and global ecology.

    X. Civic Ideals & Practices

    Social studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study of the ideals, principles, and practices of citizenship in a democratic republic.

    An understanding of civic ideals and practices of citizenship is critical to full participation in society and is a central purpose of the social studies. All people have a stake in examining civic ideals and practices across time and in diverse societies as well as at home, and in determining how to close the gap between present practices and the ideals upon which our democratic republic is based. Learners confront such questions as: What is civic participation and how can I be involved? How has the meaning of citizenship evolved? What is the balance between rights and responsibilities? What is the role of the citizen in the community and the nation, and as a member of the world community? How can I make a positive difference? In schools, this theme typically appears in units or courses dealing with history, political science, cultural anthropology, and fields such as global studies and law-related education, while also drawing upon content from the humanities.

    In the early grades, students are introduced to civic ideals and practices through activities such as helping to set classroom expectations, examining experiences in relation to ideals, and determining how to balance the needs of individuals and the group. During these years, children also experience views of citizenship in other times and places through stories and drama. By the middle grades, students expand their ability to analyze and evaluate the relationships between ideals and practice. They are able to see themselves taking civic roles in their communities. High school students increasingly recognize the rights and responsibilities of citizens in identifying societal needs, setting directions for public policies, and working to support both individual dignity and the common good. They learn by experience how to participate in community service and political activities and how to use democratic process to influence public policy.

    Source: National Council for the Social Studies, Expectations of excellence: Curriculum standards for social studies (Washington, DC: NCSS, 1994). This book may be purchased by calling 800–683–0812. Electronic copies of it are not available.
  • About the Authors

    Leah M. Melber has had the opportunity to share her excitement for social studies as an elementary classroom teacher, university professor, and natural history museum education specialist. She has focused her nearly 20 years of experience in the field of education on creating inquiry-based experience for learners of all ages. She holds a BA in zoology and an MA in education, together with a multiple-subject teaching certificate from the state of California and a PhD in educational psychology from the University of Southern California. She recently accepted a position as the Director of Student and Teacher Programs at the Lincoln Park Zoo in Chicago and is already exploring new ways to share the rich history of her institution with local school children.

    Alyce Hunter has been a teacher and administrator in New Jersey's public schools for 30 years. In addition, she has been an adjunct professor in various graduate schools of education, including Rutgers University, Wagner College, Lesley University, and Centenary College. She has taught and continues to teach courses in educational leadership, literacy, and social studies education. Her doctoral degree is from Lehigh University in the field of foundations of education. Her belief that it is our responsibility and privilege as educators to nurture and honor each and every student is demonstrated in her research and writings on differentiated instruction and the connections between social studies and literacy. She has authored numerous journal articles, including most recently, an article about her high school district's one-book literacy club project, which appeared in Principal Leadership (May 2009). Four coauthored books on educational topics, such as mentoring, differentiated instruction, and teacher portfolios, are also to her credit.

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