Integrated Performance Management: A Guide to Strategy Implementation

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Edited by: Kurt Verweire & Lutgart Van den Berghe

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    Preface

    The management literature brings us many new concepts, cases, and experiences. However, companies struggle to implement, nor do they succeed in implementing, their strategy effectively. Introducing new management concepts by motivated managers often fails to deliver the expected improvements, sometimes resulting in worse performance and disappointed employees and customers.

    The Integrated Performance Management Framework helped me to understand the levers of an organization and the need for their integration and balance. Many management publications describe situations and offer solutions that are almost impossible to apply in our business. In reality, most companies are far away from the ideal situations described in most management books. And sometimes a description of these ideal states can be misleading, rather than instrumental to get your business back on the right track.

    This book clearly describes what a balanced and integrated approach towards performance management is all about. The Integrated Performance Management Framework is really integrated, and it allows us to position other management frameworks in a new, holistic context. It provides a very good reference base for all our activities and performance improvement initiatives. The maturity dimension, which is described in Part III of the book, is innovative and helpful in getting the business under control. Changes in the business environment forced us to rethink the way in which we manage our organization. Through a better understanding of the maturity of Electrabel, Tractebel, Suez and their various departments, we were able to make better decisions and to communicate and explain more clearly the change processes that occurred in our organization.

    We are very happy that - with the help of Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School - we have contributed to a book that contains messages not only relevant for our company, but also offers new ideas and concepts that will be relevant for many other organizations as well, whether a multinational or a small local player. Our experiences linked to the inputs of various professors of the Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School have proven that the academic world can meet the business world in a way that is enriching for both.

    I hope you find this interesting reading and that you will try the concepts described in Integrated Performance Management in your own organization.

    DirkBeeuwsaertBrussels (Belgium), December 2003

    Editors' Preface

    This book is the result of an intensive dialogue between academicians and business people. About three years ago, some managers at Electrabel, Belgium's largest utility company, asked us at the Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School to provide the academic foundations for a management model they used within their organization. This management model incorporated aspects of strategy, operations, management control, risk management and leadership issues. It took some time before we accepted the challenge - the topic was too broad for each of our specialties - but once accepted, we started an extremely interesting, sometimes confronting, but enriching journey through the various disciplines of management.

    Rather soon, we decided to link this model to the topic of performance management. Performance management is a booming topic both in the academic and the business worlds and addresses how organizations can improve their performance. Both academicians and consultants have responded with an immense and rapidly changing set of tools and frameworks. We feel, however, that managers get confused and lose sight of all these different performance management developments. In Implementing Strategy through Integrated Performance Management, we want to provide an answer to this challenge and develop an Integrated Performance Management Framework that presents the broader picture of performance management.

    Writing about strategy, operations, human resources, leadership, organizational design, and control is a challenging task. Linking all these various disciplines and ‘pushing’ them into one overall framework is even more challenging. But we have made an attempt and have tried to identify the major challenges for organizations managing their performance. Although much more research is needed to develop and test new hypotheses in this field, we believe that our Integrated Performance Management Framework is relevant for the academic world and helpful for the business community.

    One of the major strengths of this book is that it clearly specifies what ‘integrated’ really means. In this way, we provide the reader with a concrete framework incorporating the dimensions that need to be managed for organizations to be successful. Furthermore, we have identified two types of alignment - strategic and maturity alignment - that provide the reader with some solid guidelines on how to manage the organization in a more integrated way. The first concept - strategic alignment - is quite popular nowadays in management; the second concept - maturity alignment - is new, but we believe vital in successfully launching performance management initiatives.

    The second major strength of Integrated Performance Management is that it is the result of an intense dialogue between academicians and business managers. The academic world has provided the academic rigour; the business world has taken care of the relevance and usefulness of the concepts described in the book. The models and frameworks we have presented have been used in practice for many years. The answers we have provided to the performance management challenges do work, if used appropriately, and have proven to be of great value for the managers who used them.

    Of course, the scope of the topic is very broad. This makes it impossible to provide a detailed overview of each topic under study. Rather, we want to provide an introduction to the various themes and show how they are related to the topic of performance management. In this way, we provide you with a more global overview on how the various topics are linked. The interested reader can then dive into the more specialized literature for more information on the more specific topics.

    This book would never have been published in its current form without the contributions, support and help of the following people:

    • Ian McKillop, Professor in the School of Business and Economics at Wilfrid Laurier University in Waterloo, Canada.
    • Marc Buelens, Professor, Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School, Belgium.
    • Werner Bruggeman, Professor, Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School, Belgium.
    • Paul Gemmel, Professor, Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School, Belgium.
    • Wil Koning, Chief Risk Officer, Eureko Group, The Netherlands.
    • Dirk Deschoolmeester, Professor, Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School, Belgium.
    • Xavier Baeten, Professor, Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School, Belgium.
    • Herman Van den Broeck, Professor, Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School, Belgium.
    • Dirk Buyens, Professor, Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School, Belgium.
    • Steven Mestdagh, Researcher, Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School, Belgium.
    • Bart Malfliet, Researcher, Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School, Belgium.
    • Olivier Braet, Researcher, Ghent University, Belgium.
    • Ann Vereecke, Professor, Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School, Belgium.
    • Lieven Somers, Researcher, Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School, Belgium.
    • Ans De Vos, Professor, Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School, Belgium.

    They all have helped us not only by writing various chapters of the book, but by shaping our ideas and stimulating the discussion on this vivid topic.

    Special thanks go to our ‘sparring partners’ from Electrabel. The numerous discussions we had were very enriching and stimulating, and ultimately provided the basis for this book. The commitment of the steering committee was huge, and at every meeting new challenges popped up. Others seemed unresolved. Thank you for all your patience, and creative support throughout this whole project:

    • Bernard Hindryckx, Corporate Chief Quality Coordinator, Tractebel, Belgium, and Quality and Audit Manager Generation, Electrabel (Belgium & Luxembourg), Belgium.
    • Philip De Cnudde, Executive Vice President Business Control, Tractebel EGI, Belgium.
    • Mario Bauwens, Head Finance and Control Generation, Electrabel, Belgium.
    • Bernard Carrette, Head of Corporate Audit, Electrabel, Belgium.

    Apart from all the creative input, we have received other support as well. First, we would like to thank Electrabel and the Suez Group for their financial backing throughout the project. We also received a lot of support from within our School to get the book ready for publication. We would like to thank Veerle Panis, who managed the administrative process, including the copyrights. Special thanks go to Sage Publications, and especially to Delia Martinez Alfonso, our commissioning editor, who guided us through the review and publication process. Without her support, this book would never have been published.

    KurtVerweire and LutgartVan den BergheGent (Belgium), August 2003

    Acknowledgements

    Every effort has been made to trace all the copyright holders, but if any have been inadvertently overlooked, the publishers will be pleased to make the necessary arrangement at the first opportunity.

    Figures
    • Fig. 1.1 Strategos Institute (2001)
    • Fig. 1.2 Gates, S. (1999) ‘Aligning strategic performance measures and results’, Research Report - The Conference Board, 1261-99-RR, New York.
    • Fig. 2.1 Hennell, A. and Warner, A. (1998) Financial performance measurement and shareholder value explained, Financial Times Management, London.
    • Fig 2.2 Kennerley, M. and Neely, A. (2002) ‘Performance measurement frameworks: A review’, in Neely, A. (ed.), Business performance measurement: Theory and practice, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
    • Fig 2.4 Johnson, G. and Scholes, K. (1999) Exploring corporate strategy (5th edition), Prentice-Hall, London.
    • Fig. 4.1 Hayes, R. H. and Wheelwright, S. (1984) Restoring our competitive edge, Wiley, London and New York.
    • Fig. 4.2 European Foundation for Quality Management (1999) The EQFM Excellence Model, Pabo Prestige Press, Tilbury.
    • Fig 4.3 European Foundation for Quality Management (2001) ‘ISO 9001: 2000: A new stage on the journey to excellence’, Excellence Network, European Foundation for Quality Management, 1(2): February–March: 4–7.
    • Figs 5.3, 5.4, 5.5 DeLoach, J. (2000) Enterprise-wide Risk Management: strategies for linking risk and opportunity, Arthur Andersen, Financial Times Prentice Hall, London.
    • Fig. 6.1 Simons, R. (2000) Performance Measurement & Control Systems for Implementing Strategy: text and cases, Prentice Hall: New Jersey.
    • Fig. 6.2 Treacy, M. and Wiersema, F. (1995) The discipline of market leaders, Perseus Books, Reading, MA.
    • Fig. 6.3 Chakravarthy, B.S. & White, R.E. (2002) ‘Strategy process: forming, implementing and changing strategies’, in Pettigrew, A., Thomas, H. & Whittington, R. (eds), Handbook of strategy and management, Sage Publications, London.
    • Fig. 7.2 Shostack, G. L. (1985) ‘Planning the service encounter’, in Czepiel, J.A., Solomon, M.A. and Surprenant, C.F. (eds) The service encounter: Managing employee-customer interactions in service businesses, copyright © 1985 by Jossey-Bass Inc., Publishers. First published by Lexington Books. All rights reserved.
    • Fig. 8.1 Leavitt, H.J. (1965) ‘Applied organizational change in industry: structural, technological and humanistic approaches”, in March, J.G. (ed.), Handbook of organizations, Rand McNally, Chicago.
    • Fig. 8.2 Henderson, J. and Venkatraman, N. (1993) ‘Strategic alignment: Leveraging information technology for transforming organizations’, IBM Systems Journal, 32(1): 472–84.
    • Fig. 8.3 Weill, P. and Broadbent, M. (1998) Leveraging the New Infrastructure: How market leaders capitalize on information technology, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MA.
    • Fig. 8.4 McFarlan, F.W. (1984) ‘Information technology changes the way you compete’, Harvard Business Review, May-June, pp. 98–103.
    • Fig. 8.5 Luftman, J. (2001) ‘Strategy formulation: The roles of conversation and design”, in Hitt, M.A., Freeman, R.E. and Harrison, J.S. (eds), The Blackwell handbook of strategic management, Blackwell, Oxford.
    • Figs 9.1, 9.2 Simons, R. (1995) Levers of control: How managers use innovative control systems to drive strategic renewal, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MA.
    • Figs 9.4, 9.5 Kotter, J. P. and Heskett, J. L. (1992) Corporate culture and performance, The Free Press, New York.
    • Figs 11.2, 11.3 Ulrich, D. (1997) Human resource champions: the next agenda for adding value to HR practices, Harvard Business School Press, Boston
    • Fig. 11.4 Curtis, B., Hefley, W.E. and Miller, S. (1995) ‘People Capability Maturity Model™’, Report Software Engineering Institute (Carnegie Mellon University), CMU/SE-95-MM-02, Pittsburgh, PA.
    • Fig. 12.1 Reprinted with permission from Dr. Paul Hersey (1984). The Management of Organizational Behavior, The Centre for Leadership Studies: Escondido, CA. All rights reserved.
    • Figure 15.1 Labovitch, G. & Rosansky, V. (1997) The power of alignment: How great companies stay centered and accomplish extraordinary things, John Wiley & Sons: New York.
    Tables
    • Table 2.1http://Money.cnn.com (2002)
    • Table 2.2 Jorissen, A. and Bruggeman, W. (1999) De Balanced Scorecard in de praktijk: Een leidraad voor strategische prestatiemeting, Maklu, Antwerpen-Apeldoorn.
    • Table 4.1 Buttle (1996) ‘Servqual: review, critique, research agenda’, European Journal of Marketing, 3 (1).
    • Table 4.3 Stalk, G. and Hout, T. (1990) Competing against time: How time-based competition is reshaping global markets, The Free Press, New York.
    • Table 6.1 Hart, S.L. (1992) ‘An integrative framework for strategy-making processes’, The Academy of Management Review, 17 (2): 327–51.
    • Table 17.2 Angel, LC. and Chandra, M.J. (2001) ‘Performance implications of investments in continuous quality improvement’, International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 21 (1/2).

    Contributors

    Xavier Baeten holds university degrees in Applied Economics (Ghent University) and in Tax (Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School). He started his career at the Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School at the end of 1994. He currently is responsible for the Strategic Rewards Research Centre, which aims at developing the strategic importance of rewarding. His main interests are reward management, employee benefits, strategic management, corporate citizenship and stakeholder management.

    Mario Bauwens graduated as a civil engineer from Ghent University. He has a degree in Management from the Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School and followed the Advanced Development Programme at the London Business School. He started his career at a Belgian bank and also worked for an international consulting company. In 1989 he joined Electrabel, where he occupied different functions, mainly in the area of finance. In 1992 he worked for the Tractebel group at Northern Ireland Generation. He is currently manager of the Finance, Control and Information Department of the business unit Generation Belux at Electrabel.

    Olivier Braet holds a university degree in Sociology and is assistant at the Department of Management and Organization (Faculty of Economics and Business Administration) at Ghent University. He currently examines how IT systems can be successfully implemented when organizations adopt new technologies.

    Werner Bruggeman is Doctor in Economics (Ghent University) and specialization in Industrial Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology (USA). He is a professor at the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration (Ghent University) and head of the Competence Centre Management Accounting and Finance of Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School. He is Partner of Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School and Managing Partner of B&M consulting. Research interests include the Balanced Scorecard, Value-Based Management, target costing, and Activity-Based Costing.

    Marc Buelens is Doctor in Industrial Psychology (Ghent University). He worked as a scientific staff member (Ghent University), and then for the Artois breweries. He was the General Manager and Managing Director of Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School. He is also Partner of Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School. He gave lectures at the universities of Leuven, Antwerp, Moscow and Bandung (Indonesia) and now teaches General Management and Organization at Ghent University and at Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School. His research interests include: organizational behaviour, negotiation, executive decision-making, workaholism, management and social skills - emotional intelligence and knowledge management.

    Dirk Buyens is Doctor in Industrial and Organizational Psychology (Ghent University) and Master of Business Administration (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven). He was doctoral fellow at the IR Center of the Graduate School of Management at the University of Minnesota (USA). He is currently Academic Dean and Partner of Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School and Programme Director of the part-time international MBA programmes. He is also Professor at Ghent University. He specializes in the following disciplines: competency management, human resource management, strategic HRM and lifelong learning.

    Bernard Carrette graduated as an Engineer from the University of Brussels (VUB) in 1979. He joined Electrabel in 1981, and has occupied several management positions in the various departments of the company (electricity and gas distribution). In 2000, he became responsible for the business reporting (controlling) and process monitoring in the Marketing & Sales Industry business unit. He was appointed head of the internal audit in 2002. He followed the general management programme at Cedep/Insead in 2002.

    Philip De Cnudde graduated from Ghent University as a civil engineer in electronics in 1983 and as a civil engineer in operations management in 1986. He followed the general management programme at Cedep/Insead in 2000. He started his career in 1985 with Santens Engineering Services, an EPC (Engineering Procurement Construction) contractor for internal transportation and automation. He became General Manager of Santens of America in 1989, an integrated terry textiles manufacturer in the USA. He moved in 1993 to Electrabel, a Belgian utility company, where he was responsible for process re-engineering and ERP (Enterprise-wide Resource Planning) implementation in the Generation business unit. In 1998 he became Director of Internal Audit. Since 2001 he is Executive Vice President responsible for Business Control in the international Electricity and Gas division of the Suez/Tractebel Group.

    Dirk Deschoolmeester is a civil engineer, has an MBA and a Doctorate in Applied Sciences (Ghent University). He participated in the International Teachers Programme at Harvard and MIT (USA) and was visiting professor at the Asian Institute for Technology and the China-EEC Management Programme. He is professor and Partner of Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School and Ghent University. His research domains include e-business and start-ups.

    Ans De Vos is Doctor in Applied Economic Sciences (Ghent University) and licentiate in Psychology (KU Leuven). She also holds a postgraduate degree in Personnel Management Sciences (Universiteit Antwerpen). Her doctoral research focused on newcomer psychological contract development during the socialization process. During her doctoral studies, she was a doctoral fellow at Tilburg University (The Netherlands). She is currently an Assistant Professor at the Human Resource Management Centre of Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School. Her research interests include psychological contracts, newcomer socialization, career management and strategic human resource management.

    Paul Gemmel is Doctor in Applied Economic Sciences (Ghent University). He was visiting research fellow at the College of Business of Arizona State University, Arizona, USA (1992–93). He is a professor at the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration of Ghent University and at Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School. Paul Gemmel is Director of the MINOZ Research Centre for Hospital Management of Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School. He develops activities in the area of service (operations) management, but also focuses on capacity management and efficiency benchmarking in service organizations.

    Bernard Hindryckx graduated as a civil engineer at Ghent University in 1977. After three years of academic research in Physics and a short span at Siemens Telephony, he joined Electrabel in 1981. He has worked both in the Generation department (Operations, Maintenance and Care) and in the Marketing & Sales department (Contracts, After sales, Controlling). From 1994 to 1997 he worked as Corporate Auditor in the field of environmental management, business risk management, IT security and accounting. In that function, he introduced the Integrated Performance Management System (IPMS) concept in Electrabel in 1995. Since 1997 he has been further developing the concept with colleagues within the company. He is responsible for process performance management in Generation Belgium/Luxembourg and is currently involved in quality and knowledge management. He followed the General Management Programme at the Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School in 1993 and at Cedep/Insead in 2002.

    Bart Malfliet is licentiate and a qualified teacher in Germanic Philology (Ghent University). He used to be National President of the Katholieke Landelijke Jeugd before he joined the HRM Centre of Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School. Currently he is senior scientific staff member and is responsible for the Competency Management Research Centre (CMC2) and for the development of the organization counselling activities of the HRM Centre. Recently he has also been appointed Programme Manager of the pilot ‘Investors in People’ in Flanders (Belgium), aiming to introduce this strategic HRM label in the Flemish market. Bart teaches the Masters and Executive programmes of Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School and often speaks on HRM topics in organizations. His research interests are strategic HRM linked with performance management, lifelong learning, human resource development and competency management.

    Steven Mestdagh graduated in Psychology in 2000 and has been working at the Department of Organizational Behaviour at Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School ever since. He is the co-author of a successful book on change management. His current research activities focus on organizational applications of social and cognitive psychology, more specifically in the fields of behavioural decision-making, negotiation, conflict resolution and emotion. He is particularly fascinated by the frontiers of human rationality and adaptability as they occur both in business and everyday life.

    Lieven Somers obtained his degree in Applied Economics at Ghent University. Since September 2000, he has been working at the Impulse Centre Business in Society, a department within the Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School. He focuses on the link between stakeholder management and the strategic management process of the company.

    Lutgart Van den Berghe is Doctor in Economics (Ghent University). She is Partner at the Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School and head of the Competence Centre Entrepreneurship, Governance and Strategy of the School. She is also a part-time professor at Ghent University (domain of corporate governance). She serves as a non-executive director in a number of listed and non-listed multinational companies. She has been a visiting or part-time professor at the universities of Rotterdam (Netherlands), Antwerp (Belgium), Lille (France), Bocconi (Italy), Vienna (Austria) and at the Georgia State University (USA). Her research interests focus on corporate governance, institutional investors and financial conglomerates. She functions as academic director of the Belgian Directors' Institute.

    Herman Van den Broeck is Doctor in Pedagogical Sciences. He is Partner and professor of Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School, and head of the Competence Centre People and Organization. He is professor at the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration (Ghent University). He teaches Educational Interaction and Communication at the Teacher Training Department of Ghent University. His main interests are social skills, emotional intelligence and change.

    Ann Vereecke is a civil engineer and Doctor in Management (Ghent University). In 1993–94 she followed the doctoral programme at Insead (France). She lectures at the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration (Ghent University) and at Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School, where she is also the Programme Director of the Master in General Management and head of the Operations and Technology Management Centre. Her main interests are production planning, inventory management systems and production strategy. She specializes in global manufacturing strategy and supply chain management.

    Kurt Verweire is Doctor in Economics (Erasmus University Rotterdam). He is Assistant Professor at Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School and is Programme Director of the MBA in Financial Services and Insurance (MBA-FSI). His main topics of interest are strategic issues for the financial services industry, financial conglomeration and financial convergence (diversification in the financial services industry) and Integrated Performance Management.

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