Innovative Forms of Organizing: International Perspectives

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Edited by: Andrew M Pettigrew, Richard Whittington, Leif Melin, Carlos Sánchez-Runde, Frans van den Bosch, Winfried Ruigrok & Tsuyoshi Numagami

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    Notes on Contributors

    Leona Achtenhagen

    is a Research Fellow at Jönköping International Business School in Sweden and affiliated to the University of Bamberg, Germany. Previously, she was a Visiting Fellow at Warwick Business School, UK. She received her doctorate from the University of St Gallen, Switzerland. Her thesis focused on co-ordination in innovating organizations. Her current research projects are on organizational growth and entrepreneurship. She teaches courses in International and Strategic Management as well as Organization Theory.

    Frans A.J. van den Bosch

    is Professor of Management at the Department of Strategic Management and Business Environment, Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University, Rotterdam. He holds a master's degree (cum laude) in Economics from the Erasmus University, Rotterdam and a PhD in Law from Leyden University. His current research interests include managerial and knowledge-based theories of the firm; strategic renewal; intra- and inter-organizational governance structures; corporate governance and corporate responsiveness, and integrative strategy frameworks. He has published several books and papers in journals such as Journal of Management Studies, Long Range Planning, Organization Science, Organization Studies and Business and Society. He is co-director of the Erasmus Strategic Renewal Center (ESRC) and of the Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM) research program, ‘Managing Strategic Renewal of Multiunit Firms and Networks in Turbulent International Environments’.

    Marjolijn Dijksterhuis

    is a Research Associate at the Department of Strategic Management and Business Environment, Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University, Rotterdam. She is currently completing her doctoral research which deals with the role of cognition in organizational adaptation processes. How managerial and organizational cognition and action are related is key in this research.

    Thomas Ericson

    took his PhD in Business Administration at Linköping University in 1998. He then continued his research as a research fellow at Jönköping International Business School. His research has focused on sensemaking in organizations. He has contributed to the understanding of strategic change through studies of the meanings that prevail among organizational members, as well as the processes whereby these meanings change and coincide. At present he is working with organizational development at The Swedish Agency for Public Mangement in Stockholm.

    Evelyn Fenton

    is a lecturer in the Department of Management at the University of Reading School of Business. She gained a PhD in strategic agenda building and change in the water industry from Warwick Business School where she was a Senior Research Fellow at the Centre for Creativity, Strategy and Change. Her current research interests are in professional services, the management of organizational networks, and strategies for leveraging their social and intellectual capital.

    Arie Lewin

    is Professor of Business Administration and Sociology and IBM Research Fellow at the Fuqua School of Business, Duke University. He is the Editor in Chief of Journal of International Business Studies (2002–), Director of the Center for International Business Education and Research (CIBER) and lead Principal Investigator for the International Project on New Organizational Forms. Professor Lewin has been Program Director for Decision, Risk and Management Science at the National Science Foundation (1986–88); Departmental Editor of Management Science for the department of Organization Analysis, Performance and Design (1974–87); founding Editor-in-Chief emeritus of Organization Science (1989–98); Visiting Research Professor, Erasmus University (1999–), Visiting Professor International Management, Cranfield School of Management 2000–02), DKB Visiting Professor, Keio University Graduate School of Business (Spring 1993, 1994); Visiting Research Professor, Institute for Business Research, Hitotsubashi University (1994–95) and Chair of Duke University Academic Council (1982–86). Professor Lewin's primary research interests involve the co-evolution of new organizational forms and management of strategy and organization change in times of increasing disorder. He leads a cross-national research collaboration (Germany, Japan, Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Denmark, the Netherlands, UK, and the USA) research consortium – New Organization Forms for the Information Age (NOFIA), involving longitudinal comparative studies of strategic re-orientations and organization restructurings and international competitiveness.

    Silvia Massini

    is lecturer in Economics and Technology Management at the Manchester School of Management at UMIST. Previously she has been a researcher at CNR (Rome) and CCSC (Warwick Business School), and visiting fellow at SPRU (Brighton) and CRIC (Manchester). Her research spans the areas of the economics of innovation and technological change, the management of technology and organizational aspects of technological change. She has published in Small Business Economics, European Management Journal, Research Policy and the Journal of Evolutionary Economics, and has contributed to a number of book chapters.

    Leif Melin

    is Professor of Strategy and Organization at Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University. Earlier he was Professor of Strategic Management at Linköping University where he led the Strategic Change Research Group. His current research interests concern strategizing in renewal processes, organizing aspects of growth, and governance and cultural issues in family businesses. He has published widely in edited books and international journals. He serves on the editorial boards of many journals, such as Organization Studies and Strategic Organization.

    Tomas Müllern

    is Associate Professor at Jönköping International Business School. His research interests cover innovative forms of organizing, leadership and rhetoric, and organizational renewal and learning. All three areas, in different ways, highlight a need for understanding new and innovative organizational practices.

    Tsuyoshi Numagami

    is Professor at the Department of Commerce, Hitotsubashi University, Tokyo, Japan. His recent publications include ‘Infeasibility of Establishing Invariant Laws in Management Studies’, (Organization Science, 9, (1), (1998)) and ‘Flexibility Trap: A Case Analysis of U.S. and Japanese Technological Choice in the Digital Watch Industry,’ (Research Policy, 25 (1996)).

    Andrew Pettigrew

    is Associate Dean, Research and Professor of Strategy and Organization at Warwick Business School, Warwick University. Between 1985 and 1995 he founded and directed the Centre for Corporate Strategy and Change. He has held previous academic positions at Yale University, London Business School and Harvard Business School, where in the academic year 2001 he was a Visiting Professor. He is a Fellow of both the Academy of Management and the British Academy of Management. He was the first Chairman of the British Academy of Management (1987–90) and then President (1990–93). In 1998 he was elected a Founding Academician of the Academy of the Social Sciences. In 2002 he was elected Distinguished Scholar of the Academy of Management, the first European scholar to be so honoured. His latest book is The Handbook of Strategy and Management (2002). London, Sage (co-editor, with Howard Thomas and Richard Whittington).

    Javier Quintanilla

    has a PhD from the University of Warwick and is Assistant Professor at IESE Business School, University of Navarra, Madrid. His current research interests are international human resource management and the management of professional service firms. He has published widely in scholarly journals. He is also the author of Dirección de recursos humanos en empresas multinacionales; Las subsidiaries al descubierto, published by Prentice Hall-Financial Times, and several chapters in monographs.

    Carlos Sánchez-Runde

    is Associate Professor and Associate Director for Faculty at IESE Business School in Barcelona. He received his PhD in Management from the University of Oregon. He has also taught in the USA, Chile, Argentina, Peru, Uruguay and China. He has published a book and several papers on strategic human resource management and cross-cultural organizational behaviour.

    Winfried Ruigrok

    is a Professor of International Management at the University of St Gallen (Switzerland). He previously worked at the Erasmus University, Rotterdam, the University of Amsterdam (both in the Netherlands), the European Commission (Belgium) and Warwick Business School (UK). His current research focuses on internationalization and international restructuring, the role of foreigners in top management teams and boards, and corporate governance.

    Henk W. Volberda

    is Professor of Strategic Management and Business Policy and Chairman of the Department of Strategic Management and Business Environment, Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University, Rotterdam. In 1992, he earned his PhD cum laude in Business Administration from the University of Groningen. For his research on strategic flexibility, he received several awards, one of which was the Igor Ansoff Award, 1993. His research interests include strategic flexibility, new organizational forms, and strategic management of innovation. He has published in journals such as Journal of Management Studies, Long Range Planning, Organization Science, Organization Studies and Omega. His published books are ‘Building the Flexible Firm: How to remain competitive’ (Oxford University Press, 1998) and On Rethinking Strategy (Sage, 2001). He is co-director of the research program ‘Managing Strategic Renewal of Multiunit Firms and Networks in Turbulent International Environments’. He is currently studying the process of strategic renewal within large European corporations.

    Richard Whittington

    is Millman Fellow of New College and Professor of Strategic Management at the Saïd Business School, University of Oxford. With Andrew Pettigrew and Martin Conyon, he was one of the original co-applicants of the INNFORM programme. He is currently working on how senior managers learn to strategize and the practice of organizing. His single and co-produced books include Corporate Strategies in Recession and Recovery, What Is Strategy – and Does It Matter? Rethinking Marketing, The European Corporation, and The Handbook of Strategy and Management. He is on the editorial boards of the Academy of Management Review, the British Journal of Management, the European Management Journal, Long Range Planning, Organization Studies, and Strategic Organization.

    Preface

    This book is the second and summative volume from the study of Innovative Forms of Organizing (INNFORM) programme of research. The first book from the programme was published in 2000 by Sage Publications. That book was titled The Innovating Organization and was edited by Andrew M. Pettigrew and Evelyn M. Fenton. Like the first book, this one is very much a collective and collaborative effort, as signalled by the seven co-editors listed on the title page.

    The aims of the INNFORM research were to map the contours of contemporary organizational innovation, to examine the performance benefits and other consequences of innovative forms of organizing, and to explore the managerial and organizational processes of moving from more traditional forms of organizing. The programme was initiated from Warwick Business School in a successful research submission to the Economic and Social Research Council's (ESRC) Innovation Programme. Coopers & Lybrand Europe (now part of the merged entity, PricewaterhouseCoopers) also contributed to the research funding, as did the consortium of organizations who supported the Centre for Corporate Strategy and Change at Warwick Business School. The research was carried out in co-operation with colleagues from Erasmus University (the Netherlands), ESSEC (France), Hitotsubashi University (Japan), IESE (Spain), Jönköping University (Sweden), Oxford University (UK) and St Gallen University (Switzerland). Duke University joined the team in 1997 to carry out the US survey component of the programme. The lead researchers from each of the institutions are: Frans van den Bosch, Hamid Bouchikhi, Tsuyoshi Numagami, Carlos Sánchez-Runde, Leif Melin, Richard Whittington, Winfried Ruigrok and Arie Lewin.

    The initial funding for the research was made possible by generous grants from the ESRC and Coopers & Lybrand. These initial awards were supplemented by additional awards by both organizations to extend the scope of the work and to support dissemination activities. We are most grateful for this financial support. We would also like to recognize the wholehearted support given our work by Dr Fiona Steele, the co-ordinator of the ESRC Innovation Programme.

    Paul Batchelor, then the partner in charge of Coopers & Lybrand Europe, helped us prepare the initial submission to the ESRC and offered co-funding and considerable direct assistance in other ways. Vic Luck (Managing Partner for PWC in Europe, the Middle East and Africa) supported the fourth year of funding and joined the UK team in a high-profile dissemination event. We would also like to acknowledge the support of Andy Embury of PWC. Crucial to the success of the research has been PWC's willingness to act not just as co-funders, but also co-producers and co-disseminators of knowledge. Chris David and David Shaw, both Directors of PWC, have been great week-by-week collaborators and, in different ways, have greatly enriched the INNFORM team. We thank you.

    The collaborating teams from Europe and Japan have also had to commit considerable financial and people resources to the research. This commitment made the international collaborative side of the INNFORM programme work.

    Case study research can be very demanding for researcher and host company alike and we never take research access for granted. We would like to thank all the representatives of the 18 European companies who helped us to gain access to people and documentary information. The companies concerned were: ABB, AGBAR, BP, Coopers & Lybrand Europe, Davis Langdon Everest, Fremap, Hilti AG, Internationale Nederlanden Groep, Östgöta Enskilda Bank, Ove Arup & Partners, Rabobank, Saab Training Systems, Siemens AG, Spencer Stuart, Trumpf and Unilever. BP and Unilever allowed us to carry out two cases in each of their wide network of businesses.

    Not all the colleagues who worked on the INNFORM programme are represented as editors or authors of this volume. From the original Warwick team we would like to thank Martin Conyon (now of the Wharton School) and Simon Peck (now of Case Western University) for their help with the survey design and econometric analysis. It was Martin and Simon who first introduced us to the economics of complementarities, one of the important theoretical themes in this book. William Pettigrew (then an Oxford history undergraduate) helped with the archival collection and analysis that informed the BP case in Chapter 8 of this volume. Dr Andres Hatum (now of IAE, Argentina) and Sotirios Paroutis at various times supported the Warwick team with literature reviews. Their contribution was always willingly given and always of great practical value.

    The St Gallen team benefited from the empirical and theoretical contributions of Professor Johannes Rüegg-Stürm and Mathias Wagner. Professor Tsuyoshi Numagami would like to acknowledge the support of NISTEP in Tokyo. He also wishes to express his thanks to Professor Akira Goto of Tokyo University, Associate Professor Akiya Nagata of the Japanese Institute of Science and Technology, and Associate Professor Yaichi Aoshima of Hitotsubashi University. Professors Sánchez-Runde and Javier Quintanilla gratefully acknowledge support from the Division of Research of IESE, University of Navarra.

    Understandably perhaps, most of the intellectual, administrative and secretarial pressures of producing this volume have fallen upon Warwick Business School. Even with collaborative and shared tasks, the buck has to stop somewhere. I would like to express my thanks to Caroline Conneely, Janet Biddle and Sheila Frost who, at various times and in various ways, helped with the production of the manuscript. My greatest appreciation is to Gill Drakeley who has word processed large sections of the book and has also helped to refashion and reformat successive drafts from contributors as they have arrived at my office at Warwick Business School.

    Thank you all, and forgive us if we have inadvertently missed out someone who has supported what is certainly the most complex and challenging piece of research I have had the privilege to engage in over 35 years of trying to do management research.

    Andrew M.Pettigrew

    Warwick Business School

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    Appendix: The INNFORM Survey Instrument

    Organising for the 21st Century

    This survey is part of an international project examining organisational changes as we approach the next century. Researchers from seven leading universities in Europe and Japan are working on detailed case studies and international surveys to identify key issues for the organisations of tomorrow. The research is funded in this country by the Economic and Social Research Council, Coopers & Lybrand and the consortium companies of the Centre for Corporate Strategy and Change, Warwick Business School.

    The survey has just eight short sections:

    • Restructuring
    • Empowering
    • Networking
    • Managing Information
    • Managing People
    • Managing External Relationships
    • Managing Strategic Change
    • Competing

    We greatly value your input. In return, we promise you an executive summary of key findings together with an invitation to join in a series of conferences on Organising for the 21st century to be held both in the UK and abroad over the next two years.

    All questions require answers which most closely approximate the situation for the organisation as a whole.

    Throughout this questionnaire, you are requested to give information about your company for 1996 and 1992. This is so that we can accurately measure any organisational changes which have occurred during this period.

    Most questions require you to tick the appropriate box. Otherwise, please provide a number to the best of your knowledge. If you are unable to answer a particular question, please write ‘N/A’.

    All responses will be confidential and no individual or company will be identified in the analysis.


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