Information and Communication Technology in Organizations: Adoption, Implementation, Use and Effects


Harry Bouwman, Bart van den Hooff, Lidwien van de Wijngaert & Jan van Dijk

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page


    Harry Bouwman is an associate professor at the information and communication technology (ICT) section of the Faculty of Technology and Management at Delft Technical University. He studied political science at the Free University of Amsterdam. In 1986 he took his doctoral degree at the Catholic University of Nijmegen. He worked at, among other places the University of Amsterdam, the University of Utrecht, Michigan State University and at TNO Strategy, Technology and Management. His publications cover videotext (Relaunching Videotex, 1992), multimedia, (Multimedia tussen hoop en hype/Mutlimedia between Hope and Hype), 1993; Multimedia en Route, 1996), ICT clusters (Silicon Valley in de Polder, 2000) and ICT and communication science (Communicatie in de Informatiesamenleving/Communication in the Information Society), and he wrote scientific articles on these subjects, as well as on (mobile) telecommunication and on e- and m-commerce. He is currently involved in research into the development of business models for services provided by organizations cooperating within complex value systems.

    Bart van den Hooff is an assistant professor at the Communication Science Department of the University of Amsterdam, and a researcher at the Amsterdam School of Communications Research ASCoR. In 1997, he took his doctoral degree with distinction, with the thesis ‘Incorporating electronic mail: adoption, use and effects of electronic mail in organizations’. After taking his degree he worked for some time as a consultant (at M&I/PARTNERS in Amersfoort), and returned to the world of academia in 1999. Both in his teaching and in his research he focuses on issues surrounding the adoption, use and effects of ICT in organizations, in particular the role ICT plays in processes of organizational learning and knowledge sharing.

    Lidwien van de Wijngaert studied Communication Science at the University of Amsterdam, and conducted research at the Telematica Institute in Enschede. Since August 1999 she is working as an assistant professor at the Institute for Information Science at the Faculty of Mathematics and Information Science of the University of Utrecht. Her research focuses on the significance of ICT to users and their context. She publishes on a regular basis in books and scientific journals such as New Media & Society and Information Services and Use and she is a regular speaker at scientific conventions, both at home and abroad. Since March 2001 she has been an associate consultant at Dialogic in Utrecht.

    Jan van Dijk is professor of Applied Communication Science at Twente University, specializing in the Sociology of the Information Society. Between 1980 and 2000 he was associate professor at the Social Science Faculty at the University of Utrecht. Van Dijk has been conducting research into the social aspects of new media since 1984. He focuses primarily on the social, cultural and political aspects. His best known books are De Netwerkmaatschappij (1991–2001)/The Network Society (1999), Nieuwe media en politiek (1997)/Digital Democracy (2000). He is currently conducting research into the influence of networks and network organizations, into interactive television and into digital inequality. He advises the European Commission in his capacity of member of the European Union's (EU's) Information Society Forum.


    The decision to write a book about a common field of interest is easily taken. The process involved in transforming that idea into an end-product (the book itself) is another matter. Some steps in that process are taken quickly, others require a certain amount of time and discussion. And although not all these discussions are relevant to the reader, in this preface we want to address a number of subjects on which our discussions have focused – as well as the decisions in which they have resulted. The title of the book is, of course, the very first subject of discussion: Information and Communication Technology in Organizations: Adoption, Implementation, Use and Effects.

    Is this a book about what in Europe we call ICT (information and communication technology)? Well, yes and no. Technology – whether it is Internet-technology or information and communication technology makes little difference to us – appears to be at the centre. After all, it is one of the central words in the title. We view technology as no more than a tool to organize things differently, streamline processes and carry out tasks more easily. Technology is an enabler. The use of technology is given shape in all kinds of social processes, whereby economic and political (both within businesses and real politics) considerations play a role.

    Is it about organizations? Again, yes and no. Organizations are the context in which adoption, implementation and use of ICT are given shape. The effects of the adoption, implementation and use of ICT can be felt directly within the organization, but there is also an impact on the relationships between the organization and its environment: its suppliers, competitors and customers.

    Information and Communication Technology in Organizations. Why in, should this not be between, or within? The use of the word in seems to imply that we limit ourselves to what happens within the boundaries of an organization. Nothing could be further from the truth. Increasingly, organizations are part of a complex network of organizations that sometimes work together and sometimes compete with each other, blurring the boundaries of organizations. Not only is there co-operation across organizational boundaries, an increasing number of people are working in organizations on a temporary basis, or people work together in virtual teams or communities of practice. Although we start with what happens inside organizations, we do not end there.

    Adoption, implementation, use and effect. As such this is a nice linear way of describing all that goes on when new technologies are implemented in an organization. But although this analytical division helps us organize the chapters of this book, in practice the processes involved are anything but linear. They are complex processes that contain a great number of feedback loops, that often grind to a halt and that are sometimes even abandoned altogether.

    And that is just the title. You can imagine that, in the light of the differences in our backgrounds, we have discussed a number of issues at great length. We have no desire to bore our readers with that, but there are a few things that we do wish to emphasize.

    To begin with, we have a shared perspective. The book that you see before you was written from a shared socio- and communication-scientific point of view with regard to the domain of ICT and organizations.

    This is not a book, then, that spends a great deal of time discussing various ICT-related development methods, nor does it address new standards and protocols or talk about the latest in co-operation tools. Although we pay attention to technology, this is not a book about technology. It is a book that we feel may help developers, systems architects, programmers, ICT managers, and so on, gain insight into the human and organizational dimension of ICT. Technical experts may be disappointed by the way we discuss their area of expertise: we do not go beneath the surface and will not discuss the New New Thing, to paraphrase Michael Lewis. That is not our ambition. Technology is but one of the factors we address.

    Nor is this a book about management. There are no how to do lists, simple decision models, suggestions on investment decisions, plans of action or guidelines. We do believe, however, that managers will find this book very useful, as it helps them understand the complexity with which they are faced at an everyday level. We claim to provide an overview of all sorts of individual, social, organizational and economic factors that play a role in the adoption, implementation, use and effects of ICT in organizations. In Chapter 1 we present our basic ideas on the subject. In Part II we will get back to it in greater detail.

    We have decided to divide the book into three parts. In the first and general part we introduce our basic model of processes and factors. In Part II we discuss the four process steps. In Part III we address the two crystallization points of developments in ICT and organizations, to wit e-commerce/e-business and e-government.

    With regard to the first part, we have struggled with which question to address first: organizations or technologies. We have decided to discuss the technological component of ICT first. The reason we have made this choice is that a description of trends and developments and of individual technologies and applications makes it easier to establish a connection when discussing organizations. Again, technology is not the most important subject, but it is where things get started, in real life as in this book. The second part sticks to the four process steps: adoption, implementation, use and effect.

    The two chapters in the final part are very different in nature. The chapter on e-commerce/e-business sheds more light on current discussions and topics with regard to the use of ICT in organizations. As we have addressed various examples with regard to the adoption, implementation, use and effects in Part II we have decided not to do so here, but instead discuss the current state of affairs surrounding e-commerce/e-business. In the chapter on e-government we have adhered more closely to the process/factor model presented in Chapter 1, for several reasons. First, we did not discuss government and ICT at great length elsewhere in the book. Secondly, for reasons that will become clear when reading Chapter 9, government organization is a special kind of organization. Thirdly, government tends to follow the business community's lead in terms of benefiting from the possibilities of ICT.

    Chapter 10 includes some of our final thoughts on the book, the concept of multiplicity and a research agenda. Central to the whole book and to this chapter is that we advocate a multi-theory, multi-level, multi-method, multi-moment approach of research into the adoption, implementation, use and effect of information and communication technology in organizations.

    We have written the book with our students in mind. They are students in Communication Studies (Amsterdam), Communication Science (Twente), Information Studies (Utrecht) and Technical Management (Delft). We wish to thank students who were given the opportunity to respond earlier to concept chapters and lectures based on our ideas for their comments and reactions. However, the book is also relevant to students with other backgrounds, such as management, business administration, economics or organizational psychology and psychology.

    We would not have been able to write this book without the support and efforts of a number of people we would like to thank: Eric Andriessen, Ronald Batenburg, Frank Bongers, Edward Faber, Marieke Fijnvandraat, Timber Haaker, Carola Hageman, Christiaan Holland, Els van de Kar, Marijn Janssen, Carleen Maitland, Marian van der Poel, Tom Postmes, Marc Steen, Chip Steinfield, Gert Stronkhorst, Martin Tanis, Karianne Vermaas, Rene Wagenaar, Uta de When Montalvo, Helen Van der Horst, Dirk de Wit, Rieneke van der Woerd, Janneke Wolters and colleagues from Amsterdam, Delft, Enschede and Utrecht. Furthermore we would like to thank the anonymous reviewers and Delia Alfonso, and Anne Summers from Sage.

    Needless to say, we are always open to suggestions as to how to improve this book. We are fully responsible for any errors, so feel free to let us know of any.

    HarryBouwmanBartvan den HooffLidwienvan de WijngaertJanvan Dijk [September 2004]


    The authors and publishers are grateful for permission to reprint the following material in this book:

    Figure 1.1: Adapted from B.J. van den Hoof (1997) Incorporating Electronic Mail: Adoption, Use and Effects of Electronic Mail in Organizations. Amsterdam: Otto Cramwinckel.

    Figure 1.3: Adapted from J.H.T.H. Andriessen (1989) ‘Nieuwe Media in Organisaties: Gebruikt of Niet? (New Media in Organizations: Used or Non-used?)’, in H. Bouwman and N. Jankowski (eds), Interactive Media op Komst (The Rise of New Media). Amsterdam: Otto Cramwinckel.

    Figure 1.4: Adapted from B.J. van den Hoof (1997) Incorporating Electronic Mail: Adoption, Use and Effects of Electronic Mail in Organizations. Amsterdam: Otto Cramwinckel.

    Figures 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8: From Mintzberg, Structure in Fives: Designing Effective Organizations, 1st Edition, © 1983. Adapted by permission of Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA.

    Figure 4.1: From R.T. Frambach (1993) ‘An integrated model of organizational adoption and diffusion of innovations’, European Journal of Marketing, 27 (50): 22–41, the Emerald Group.

    Figure 6.4: Reprinted from Information and Management Vol 40, ‘Why do People …’, pp. 191–204, Legris et al., ©2003, with pemission from Elsevier.

    Figure 6.5: From V. Venkatesh, M.G. Morris and F.D. Davis (2003) ‘User acceptance of information technology: Toward a unified view’, MIS Quarterly, 27 (3): 477. © Regents of the University of Minnesota. Reprinted by permission.

    Figure 6.6: Reprinted by permission from W.J. Orlikowski ‘The duality of technology: Rethinking the Concept of Technology in Organizations’, Organizational Science, 3 (3): 398–427, (1992), The Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences (INFORMS), 901 Elkridge Landing Road, Suite 400, Linthicum, Maryland 21090–2909, USA.

    Figure 6.7: Reprinted by pemission from G. DeSantis and M. Poole, ‘Capturing the complexity in advanced technology use: adaptive structuration theory’, Organizational Science,(5): 121–147, (1994) the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences (INFORMS), 901 Elkridge Landing Road, Suite 400, Linthicum, Maryland 21090–2909, USA.

    Table 1.1: Adapted with the permission of The Free Press, a division of Simon & Schuster Adult Publishing Group, from Everett M. Rogers (1983) Diffusions of Innovations, 3rd edn. © 1961, 1972, 1983 by The Free Press. All rights reserved.


    2.5 GSee GPRS
    3 GSee UMTS
    AGPSassisted GPS (combination of GPS and MPS)
    ASTAdaptive structuration theory
    B2BBusiness to business
    B2CBusiness to consumer
    BluetoothStandard for unlicensed wireless communication
    bpsBits per second (transmission speed)
    CAD-CAMComputer-Added Design-Computer-Aided Manufacturing
    CCOCisco Connection Online
    CD-romCompact Disc – read only memory
    CMCComputer-mediated communication
    CPECustomer premises equipment, like telephone, PC, DVD player and so on
    CRMCustomer Relation Management
    CSCWComputer-Supported Collaborative Work
    DSLDigital Subscriber Line
    DVDDigital Versatile Disc
    EAIEnterprise Application Integration
    ebXMLElectronic Business using Extensible Markup Language
    EDGEEnhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution
    EDIElectronic Data Interchange
    ERPEnterprise Resource Planning
    EUEuropean Union
    FAQFrequently Asked Questions
    FTPFile Transfer Protocol
    GbpsGigabit per second (transmission speed)
    GDSSGroup Decision Support System
    GPGeneral Practitioner
    GPRSGeneral Packet Radio Service
    GPSGlobal Positioning System
    GSMGlobal System for Mobile Communications (or Groupe Spéciale Mobile)
    HTMLHypertext Markup Language
    HTTPHypertext Transport Protocol
    IADIterative Application Design
    ICTInformation and Communication Technology
    IEEEInstiture of Electronics Engineers
    IMInstant Messaging
    IRCInternet Relay Chat
    ISDNIntegrated Services Digital Network
    ISOInternational Standards Organization
    ITInformation Technology
    ITUInternational Telecommunication Union
    JAINJAVA (for) Advanced Intelligent Network
    JAVAObject oriented platform independent language related to C. JAVA refers to coffee. Product of Sun Microsystems
    JINIJINI is an interface between JAVA and applications and services.
    JXTAJAVA P2P protocol
    Kbps103 Bits per second (transmission speed)
    LADLinear Application Developement
    LANLocal Area Network
    LBSLocation-Based Services
    MbpsMegabit per second (transmission speed)
    MEMSMicro-Electro-Mechanical Systems
    MISManagement Information System
    MP 3 filesFiles that contain digital music and coded on basis of the MPEG standard
    MPEGMotion Picture Expert Group
    MPSMobile Positioning System
    NBSNew Benefit System
    OECDOrganization for Economic Co-operation and Development
    PANPersonal Area Network
    PCPersonal Computer
    PDAPersonal Digital Assistants
    PKIPublic Key Infrastructure
    R&DResearch and Development
    REHRational Expectations Hypothesis
    ROMReturn on Management
    SDMSystem Development Method
    SETSecure Electronic Transactions
    SGMLStandard Generalized Markup Language
    SIDESocial Identification model of De-individuation Effects
    SIESTAStrategic Investment Evaluation and Selection Tool Amsterdam
    SIPSocial Information Processing theory
    SMESmall and Medium-sized Enterprises
    SMPT/MIMESimple Mail Transfer Protocol/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (Internet e-mail protocol)
    SMSShort Message System
    SOAPSimple Object Access Protocol
    TCP/IPTransmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol
    Terabit1012 bits
    TMCTraffic Management Channel
    TRATheory of Reasoned Action
    TTPTrusted Third Party
    UDDIUniversal Description, Discovery and Integration
    UDPUser Datagram Protocol (connectionless version of TCP, suitable for broadcasting, video etc.)
    UML diagramUniversal Modelling Language diagram
    UMTSUniversal Mobile Telecommunication Services
    UNIXoperating system
    URLUniform or Universal Resource Locator
    UTAUTUnified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology
    WANWide Area Network
    WAPWireless Application Protocol
    Web XMLXML standard for the Internet
    WiFiWireless Fidelity – or IEEE 802.11 standard family
    WLANWireless LAN
    WSDLWeb Service Definition Language
    WWWWorld Wide Web
    X.400e-mail standard
    XMLExtensible Markup Language
    XSLExtensible Style Language, a specification for separating style from content when creating HTML or XML pages (
    XSLTExtensible Style Language Transformation, the language used in XSL style sheets to transform XML documents into other XML documents
  • Glossary of Concepts

    • Accessibility, affective User-friendliness of a technology, ease of use, day-to-day behaviour
    • Accessibility, physical Availability and reliability of technology
    • Adaptive structuration theory Theory that integrates decision-making school, like media richness, and institutional school, oriented on social structures, in a social technology perspective. Structuration is the process by which social structures are produced and reproduced in social life
    • Adaptation See Reinvention
    • Adhocracy Organizational form in which project teams of experts formed on ad hoc basis
    • Adoption The phase of exploration, research, deliberation and decision-making to introduce a new system into the organization
    • Advantage, relative The degree to which an innovation is considered ‘better’ than the idea, practice or object it is supposed to replace
    • Architecture, application Blueprint of how applications in the information and communication domain are working together
    • Architecture, business Embedding of business strategy based on blueprint of organizational structure, process and function that serves as a starting point for the application, information and communication architecture as well as the technical architecture
    • Architecture, information and communication (platform) Blueprint of technical resources necessary to support information and communication applications, such as computer, network and peripherals, operating systems, database management systems, user interface networks, system services, middleware and so on
    • Architecture, technical Blueprint of technical resources necessary on an infrastructure and middleware level to support information and communication applications
    • Asynchronous communication Communication where there is a time interval between a message and a reaction to that message, does not require simultaneous presence of communication partners
    • Balanced score card A tool, approach for measuring the performance of an organization, developed by Kaplan and Norton
    • Bandwagon effect Copying of a popular view or vision, free riding on success of a certain development or successful movement. ‘Me too’ behaviour
    • Benefits (intangible) Immaterial revenues and values that are hard to quantify
    • Benefits (tangible) Material, quantifiable revenues
    • Bounded reality/rationality Decision-makers do not have all the information to take the ‘best’ decision. Bounded rationality is a response on rational decision-making theory
    • Bureaucracy (machine) An organizational form characterized by large size of organization with an extensive staff and technological structure, and a dominating management
    • Bureaucracy (professional) See organization, professional
    • Business IT alignment Theoretical framework that advocates that strategy of business and IT have to be functionally integrated and strategy and operation need a strategic fit
    • Business model Description of roles and relationships among a firm's consumers, customers, allies and suppliers that identifies the major flow of product, information and money, and the major benefits to participants
    • Business process redesign Almost continuous re-engineering of business process due to new opportunities enabled by information and communication technology
    • Cascading method System engineering method that follows a linear path
    • Channel (communication) Carriers of the diffusion process, more general carriers of information
    • Channel expansion Subjective approach of media choice concept in which earlier experiences with channel, with message topic and other criteria play a role
    • Client-server software Software that can be installed both on a computer and on a network server and that can only execute tasks when used in combination
    • Client, thick A client that contains the major part of the software on the local computer
    • Client, thin A client that contains the minor part of the software on the local computer
    • Collective action Members of a social system having high costs to realize a collective good without being certain that others will invest as well
    • Communality Availability of a generally accessible collection of information
    • Compatibility The degree to which an innovation is consistent with existing values, previous experiences and the needs of potential users
    • Compatibility, technical The degree to which a technology is consistent with the infrastructure, hardware and software, middleware and applications
    • Conformation Degree to which people will adopt prevailing group values
    • Connectivity Possibility on the part of parties to communicate directly with one another
    • Control, vertical Degree to which hierarchical, top-down control is exerted on tasks and processes in organization
    • Convergence The integration of information technology, (tele) communication and media technologies and/or industry sectors
    • Co-ordination, horizontal Changes in the level of and way in which lateral relationships between organizational departments and entire organizations emerge
    • Co-ordination, forms of Forms of economic co-ordination like markets, hierarchy and network
    • Cybermediairy A concept used to describe intermediaries in the domain of Internet, e-commerce, telecommunication
    • Datamining The collection of, analysis of and access to data from data warehouses, based on specifications and specific research questions, and mostly directed to personalized marketing
    • Datawarehousing A collection of data collected in primarily logistic, production, transaction and marketing processes. These data are being used for further analysis to support organizational goals
    • Determinism, technology Vision of technology in which it is assumed that people will be convinced of the benefits of technology only on basis of the capabilities of technology itself
    • Dis-intermediation Bypassing intermediaries in value chains
    • Diffusion process Process in which innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among members of a social system
    • Digitization Translation of information in digital values, 0 and 1, making transferring, switching, manipulating and checking data more effective and efficient
    • Division Organizational form developed from a machine bureaucracy: the organization has been split up into different divisions that each make their own products
    • Dystopian Stressing the negative sides of (information and communication) technology for organizations. Pessimistic view on technology
    • Ease of use, perceived Degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would be free of effort
    • Early adopters Units of adoption that play the role of opinion leaders within the community of which they are a member, and who adopt innovation at a relatively early stage, but are less venturesome than innovators
    • Early majority Those units of adoption that adopt an innovation before the ‘average’ person or organization does so
    • E-business Support of business process based on the use of Internet and information and communication technology
    • Economies of scale The more products are being produced the more the production costs decrease and the lower prices of products become, resulting in a mass market
    • Economies of scope Diversifying products for specific markets based on market analysis
    • E-commerce Process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services and information via computer networks, including the Internet
    • E-government Support of processes in the domain of government based on the use of internet and information and communication technology
    • Effect, first-level Consequences of ICT use for individual tasks – anticipated, technical effects, such as planned efficiency gains or productivity gains that justify an investment in new technology
    • Effect, second-level Consequences of ICT use for the social structure in the organization: changing and new communication patterns, new roles within social networks, new patterns of dependence between actors
    • Effectiveness Realization of objectives
    • Efficiency Achieving maximum result with minimum resources
    • Equivocality Absence of clear definition of a situation
    • Implementation The phase of internal strategy formation, project definitions and activities in which the adopted ICT applications are introduced within the organization, with the aim of removing resistance and stimulating the optimum use of the application
    • Information economics Method for analysing investment in ICT taking into account financial, but also business and risks criteria
    • Information overload Cognitive overload as a consequence of the availability of an increasing amount of information
    • Initiation phase of adoption All activities concerning the gathering of information, outlining and planning that lead to the decision to adopt
    • Innovation Idea, practice or object that is perceived as new, by an individual or another unit of adoption
    • Innovation decision, authoritative Innovation decision in an organizational innovation process is authorative, if the choice is made at the top level of the organization, and the individual decision depends on the organization decision
    • Innovation decision, collective Innovation decision in an organizational innovation process is collective, if the choice is supported by the members of the social system
    • Innovation decision, contingent Innovation decision in an organizational innovation process is contingent, if the choice of an individual member of an organization depends very much on the decision made by the organization
    • Innovativeness The degree to which an individual or other unit of adoption is relatively earlier in adopting new ideas than the other members of a system
    • Innovators Units of adoption that actively look for information regarding new ideas and who adopt these innovations at a very early stage
    • Intermediation Brokerage between two parties in a value-chain
    • Interoperability The degree in which different information and communication systems are able to work together
    • Knowledge economy Economy in western, industrialized countries in which knowledge-intensive organizations are the predominant organizational form
    • Knowledge, explicit Knowledge that can be articulated in words, documents, figures and information systems, and thus is relatively easy to transfer to others.
    • Knowledge-intensive organization Organizations in which knowledge is a crucial production factor and production workers are directly involved in the production process
    • Knowledge management Process of creating or capturing, storing updating and maintaining (tacit and explicit) knowledge within an organization
    • Knowledge, tacit Knowledge that exists inside people's heads, is directly related to their actions and is not easily articulated or transferred
    • Laggards Conservative units of adoption with few external contacts and a primarily suspicious attitude towards new ideas, who will not adopt an innovation until a very late stage (or not at all)
    • Late majority Units of adoption that are somewhat sceptical and wait until the ‘average’ person or organization has adopted the innovation before deciding to do so themselves
    • Legacy system Existing ICT systems that most often are are outdated and hinder the implementation of new systems, due to the fact that they are deeply rooted in the organization and interlinked with existing structure and processes
    • Levels of analysis Different levels at which the process of adoption, implementation, use and effects takes place and is to be studied: individual, group, organizational and environment.
    • Marketing (technology) pull Process of acceptance and use of technology that is based on the understanding of users' needs and preferences
    • Media choice Choice for a specific channel for a communication task, dependent on tasks and organizational and social context
    • Media, cold, hot Classification of media according to McLuhan
    • Media richness Degree to which media are suitable for equivocal information tasks. ‘Rich’ media score high on instant feedback, capacity to convey multiple cues, use of natural language and personal focus
    • M-commerce E-commerce via mobile or wireless telecommunication and data networks
    • Microprocessor That part of a computer that executes logical transformations, such as computations
    • Middleware Middleware is software that arranges the communication between a client and a database.
    • Miniaturization Combination of increased processing capacity combined with more efficient use of energy that leads to smaller devices
    • Model, technology acceptance Model that starts from the theory of reasoned action to explain use of information and communication services and applications based on users attitude to technology/services and intentions to use
    • Multi-channel strategy Strategy in which synergy between channels in a marketing approach is sought
    • Network externalities Increase of the value of a network due to additional nodes added to a network
    • Observability The extent to which the use and effects of an innovation are visible to other members of the social system
    • (Real) option theory Investment theory based on analysis of future (technical) options, based on concepts from the options stock markets, benefits are analysed on basis of options in future projects
    • Organization Abstract system of formal positions, held by individuals, with explicit objectives, tasks, processes and assets
    • Organization, culture Long-standing, shared values, that express the way members of the organization behave
    • Organization, professional Organizational form characterized by largely separated operational cores with highly educated professionals
    • Organization, structure Abstract configuration of internal relationships as expressed in the division of labour and tasks
    • Organization, virtual Collection of geographically dispersed, functionally and/or culturally diverse entities that are connected through electronic forms of communication, using lateral relationships for coordination.
    • Perceived ease of use See Ease of use, perceived
    • Perceived usefulness See Usefulness, perceived
    • Portal An access website that offers multiple services for instance via the Internet
    • Process, learning The process whereby users, on the basis of their experience with an ICT application, learn to utilize this technology in ways that may initially not have been expected or intended, but that better meet their needs – and learn to use this technology more effectively
    • Product, heterogeneous Product with a varying quality and form
    • Product, homogeneous Product with a fairly constant quality and form
    • Product, intangible Immaterial products, like digital information products and services
    • Product, tangible Material products
    • Productivity paradox Relation between investments in information and communication technology and the lack of a visible increase in productivity
    • Protocol A protocol is a collection of agreements and instructions used by software in nodes of a network in order to make the exchanges of data between these nodes possible
    • Prototype First, original model, nowadays a model that is developed in order to test its functionality before it will be introduced to the market
    • Prototyping System development method that is cyclical in nature
    • R&D Research and development: all combined efforts in the domain of research and product development
    • Rational decision-making model Model for decision-making based on the assumption that people behave rationally (homo-economicus)
    • Real time Real time implies that data are updated constantly with the consequence that the data reflect the actual situation
    • Re intermediation Opposite to dis-intermediation: emerging of new intermediary activities
    • Reinvention Affection of the perceived characteristics due to daily use, and as result a change in use entirely different from that originally intended
    • Relative advantage See Advantage, relative
    • Revenue model Description of how a company will earn income; a quantitative, financial interpretation of a business model, including tangible and intangible benefits, and risks
    • Return, diminishing First investments that yield considerable results (positive feedbacks) in the first phase of adoption, whereas later investments yield decreasing results
    • Return, increasing Large investments made in the first phase of adoption while the benefits are low but will increase in the long run
    • Social influence model Model that assumes that media use is a context-dependent result of subjective perceptions of task and media characteristics
    • Social information processing Theory of media choice and use, which challenges social presence and media richness theories by stating that regardless of the medium used, communicators will want to establish meaningful social relationships, and adapt their linguistic and textual behaviours in order to be able to communicate socially relational signals via ‘lean’ media as well
    • Social presence Degree to which users experience the psychological proximity of other individuals via media that differ in non-verbal signals, proximity, orientation and physical appearance
    • Social system A set of interrelated units that are engaged in joint problem-solving to accomplish a common goal
    • Standardization The degree to which open or closed standards are being used to allow infrastructure, hardware and software, middleware and applications to be interoperable and compatible
    • Strategy, authority, force Implementation strategy based on authoritative approach and sanctions
    • Strategy, competitive potential Change in strategy driven by the introduction of new information and communication technology, one of the four ways to move through the strategic alignment model
    • Strategy, empirical-rational Implementation strategy based on the assumption that members of an organization act rationally and will use an application if convinced of its value
    • Strategy execution Change in ICT infrastructures and processes driven by change in operations, one of the four ways to move through the strategic alignment model
    • Strategy, normative-re-educative Implementation strategy based on the assumption that members of an organization are geared towards satisfying context-dependent needs, and focusing on influencing norms and perceptions
    • Structural model of technology Theory based on principal of duality of technology (result of human action and tool) and interpretive flexibility of technology
    • Structuration Process by which social structures are produced and reproduced in social life
    • Suitability Fit between the tasks that have to be performed and the possibilities that technologies have to offer
    • Synchronous communication Communication where there is a simultaneous presence of partners in the communication process
    • System development Method for developing systems, that is, information and communication systems, based on system engineering principles
    • Technology Acceptance Model See Model, technology acceptance
    • Technological determinism See Determinism, technology
    • Technology pull Clear demand for specific technological solutions
    • Technology push Autonomous process of developing knowledge and technology resulting in technologies that are useful and will be adopted and used
    • Technology, social shaping of Technology seen as an outcome of complex social interactions that define the meaning and use of technology
    • Technology transformation Change in strategy driven by technology, one of the four ways to move through the strategic alignment model
    • Terminals Devices at the border of a network that present or make entry of data possible
    • Tracking and tracing Distant monitoring of products, persons and transportation vehicles
    • Triability The extent to which an innovation can be tested and experimented with on a limited scale
    • Trust Knowing what can be expected from others
    • Unstructured messages Electronic messages that do not have a fixed format, such as e-mail and short message services, contrary to structured messages, such as electronic data interchange exchanges that have a fixed format
    • Use Application of ICT in their daily activities by members of an organization
    • Usefulness, perceived Degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance his or her performance
    • Utopian Positive view of technology, stressing the benefits of (information and communication) technology for organizations
    • Value, business Trade-off between preceived benefits and total costs (or sacrifices) for delivering a product or service for customers in target markets
    • Value, customer Trade-off between perceived benefits and costs (or sacrifices) of (obtaining) a product or service for customers in target markets
    • Workflow management Management of work and process-related activities
    • Workflow management Soft-and orgware that supports the management of work and
    • systems process-related activities


    Accenture (2003) ‘Egovernment leadership: engaging the customer’,
    Adams, D.A., Nelson, R.R. and Todd, P.A. (1992) ‘Perceived usefulness, ease of use, and usage of information technology: a replication’, MIS Quarterly, 16(2): 227–247.
    Adelaar, T., Bouwman, H. and Steinfield, C. (2004) ‘Enhancing customer value through click and mortar e-commerce: implications for geographical market reach and customer type’, Telematics and Informatics, 21(2): 167–182.
    Aerts, A., Goossenaerts, J., Hammer, D. and Wortmann, J. (2004) ‘Architectures in context: on the evolution of business, application software and service platform architectures’, Information and Management, 41(6): 781–794.
    Afuah, A. and Tucci, C. (2001) Internet Business Models and Strategies. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill, Irwin.
    Ahuja, M.K. and Carley, K.M. (1998) ‘Network structure in virtual organizations’, Journal of Computer-mediated Communication, 3(4),
    Ananova (October 2001) ‘Staff sacked by e-mail’, retrieved from, February 2004.
    Ananova (September 2003) ‘Jail for men who divorce wives by text’, retrieved from
    Ananova (5 September 2003) ‘Workers “need help turning computers on”’, retrieved from
    Anderson, M.C., Banker, R.D. and Ravindran, S. (2003) ‘The new productivity paradox’, Communications of the ACM, 46(3): 91–94.
    Andriessen, J.H.T.H. (1989) ‘Nieuwe media in organisaties: gebruikt of niet?’ (New media in organizations: used or non-used?), in H.Bouwman, and N.Jankowski (eds), Interactieve Media op Komst (The Rise of New Media). Amsterdam: Otto Cramwinckel Uitgever. pp. 17–28.
    Andriessen, J.H.T.H. (1994) ‘Conditions for successful adoption and implementation of telematics in user organizations’, in J.H.T.H.Andriessen and R.A.Roe (eds), Telematics and Work. Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 409–439.
    Aron, D. and Sampler, J.L. (2003) Understanding IT: A Manager's Guide. Harlow: Prentice Hall.
    Au, Y.A. and Kauffman, R.J. (2003) ‘What do you know? Rational expectations in information technology adoption and investment’, Journal of Management Information Systems, 20(2): 49–76.
    Automatiserings Gids (AG) (2004) Automatiserings Gids, 2 April.
    Baily, M.N. and Chakrabarti, A. (1988) Innovation and the Productivity Crisis, Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
    Bannister, F. and Remenyi, D. (1999) ‘Value perception in it investment decisions’, Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation, 3(1),
    BBC News (8 January 2004) ‘Messaging programs bring instant risk’, retrieved March 2004 from
    Bedell, E.F. (1985) The Computer Solution: Strategies for Success in the Information Age. Homewood, IL: Dow-Jones Irwin.
    Bemelmans, T.M.A. (1991) Bestuurlijke informatiesystemen en automatisering (Management Information Systems and Automation). Leiden/Antwerpen: Stenfert Kroese.
    Bentivenga, S. (2002) ‘Politics and new media’, in L.Lievrouw and S.Livingstone (eds), Handbook of New Media. London: Sage. pp. 50–62.
    Berghout, E. and Meertens, F.J.J. (1992) ‘Investeringsportfolio voor het beoordelen van voorstellen voor informatiesystemen’ (Investment portfolio for the assessment of proposals for IT systems), Informatie, 34: 677–689.
    Boehm, B. (1988) ‘A spiral model for software development and enhancement’, Computer, 21(5): 61–72
    Bongers, F. and Holland, C. (2001) ‘Elektronische vergadersystemen als medium voor interactief beleid’ (Electronic meeting systems as medium for interactive policy), in H.Bouwman (ed.), Communicatie in de informatiesamenleving (Communication in Information Society). Utrecht: Lemma. pp. 191–215.
    Bongers, F., Bouwman, H., Holland, C. and Kerkhofs, J. (1998) Interactief beleid in bits and bytes, Een evaluatie van de Internet-debatten over ‘Transmurale Gezondheidszorg’ en ‘Technologie & Criminaliteit’ (Interactive Policy in Bits and Bytes: Evaluation of Internet Debates on ‘eHealth’ and ‘Technology and Crime’). Delft: tno-stb.
    Boonstra, J.J. (1992) Integrale Organisatie-ontwikkeling, vormgeven aan fundamentele veranderingsprocessen in organisaties. 2e druk. Utrecht: Lemma.
    Botan, C.H., and Vorvoreanu, M. (2000) ‘What are you really saying to me? Electronic surveillance in the work place’, paper presented at the International Communication Association Conference, Acapulco, Mexico.
    Boulton, R., Elliott, T., Libert, B. and Samek, S. (2000) ‘A business model for the new economy’, Journal of Business Strategy, July-August: 29–35.
    Bouras, C., Katris, N. and Triantafillou, V. (2003) ‘An electronic voting service to support decision-making in local government’, Telematics and Informatics, 20(3): 255–274.
    Bouwman, H. (1998) ‘Effectiviteit van Intranet en andere vormen van ict’ (Effectiveness of Intranets and other ICT-application), in V.Damoiseaux and A.van Ruler (eds), Effectiviteit in het communicatiemanagement. Zoektocht naar criteria voor professioneel succes (Effectiveness in communication managememt: Search for Criteria for Professional Success). Houten: Bohn, Stafleu and Van Loghum. pp. 115–128.
    Bouwman, H. and Christoffersen, M. (1992) ‘Videotex in a broader perspective: from failure to future medium?’, in H.Bouwman and M.Christoffersen (eds), Relaunching Videotex. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic. pp. 165–176.
    Bouwman, H. and Ham van den, E. (2003) ‘Business models and eMetrics, a state of the art’, in B.Preissl, H.Bouwman and C.Steinfield (eds), Elife after the Bust. Berlin: Physica Verlag. pp. 65–82.
    Bouwman, H. and Neijens, P. (1991) ‘Een meta-analyse van videotex-literatuur: een aanzet tot een acceptatiemodel voor de consumentenmarkt’ (A meta-analysis of videotex literature: an impulse towards an adoption model for the consumer market), Massacommunicatie (Mass Communication), 19(2): 134–149.
    Bouwman, H. and Slaa, P. (1992) ‘L'adoption du vidéotex par un marché de consommateurs: tentative de prédiction d'une masse critique (Videotex adoption by consumers: a tentative prediction of critical mass)’, Technologies de l'information et société (Technologies of Information and Society), 4(1): 75–95.
    Bouwman, H., Fielt, E. and Smit, A. (2001) Click and Mortar E-commerce in Rotterdam. Enschede: Telematica Insituut.
    Bouwman, H., Hertog den, P. and Holland, C. (2000) ‘Measuring e-commerce’, Trends in Communication, 2000(6): 13–35.
    Bouwman, H., Staal, M. and Steinfield, C. (2001) ‘Klantenervaring en Internet concepten’, (Consumer experience and Internet concepts), Management & Informatie (Management and Information), 9(6): 52–60.
    BouwmanH., Hes, R., Porte La, T. and Westerveld, J.R. (2000) ict in huis. De Magnetron als informatiebron. Trends in Informatie – en communicatietechnologie in de huiselijke omgeving in het jaar 2010. (ICT at Home: The Magnetron as an Information Source: Trends in ICT in the Home Environment in 2010). Den Haag: SCP.
    Brown, J. S. and Duguid, P. (2000) The Social Life of Information. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
    Brussaard, B.K. (1992) ‘Informatisering en het functioneren van de openbare sector’ (Information systems and public functions), in P.H.A.Frissen, A.Koers and I.Snellen (eds), Orwell of Athene? Democratie en informatiesamenleving (Democracy and Information Society). Den Haag: nota/sdu. pp. 131–150.
    Brynjolfsson, E. (1993) ‘The productivity paradox of information technology: review and assessment’, Communications of the ACM, 26(12): 67–77.
    Brynjolfsson, E. and Hitt, L.M. (1998) ‘Beyond the productivity paradox: computers are the catalyst for bigger changes’, Communications of the ACM, 41(8): 49–55.
    Business Week (2003) ‘WiFi means business’, Business Week, 28 April, retrieved March 2004 from
    Carlson, J. R. and Zmud, R.W. (1997) ‘Channel expansion theory and the experiential nature of media richness perceptions’, Academy of Management Journal, 42(2): 153–170.
    Castells, M. (1996) The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture, Vol. I: The Rise of the Network Society. Cambridge, MA, and Oxford: Blackwell.
    Castells, M. (2001) The Internet Galaxy, Reflections on the Internet, Business and Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    CBS (2001) De digitale economie 2001 (Digital Economy 2001). Voorburg: CBS, Ministerie van ez.
    Chau, P.Y.K. and Hu, P.J.W. (2002) ‘Investigating healthcare professionals’ decisions to accept telemedicine technology: an empirical test of competing theories', Information & Management, 39(4): 297–311.
    Chen, Z. and Dubinsky, A. (2003) ‘A conceptual model of perceived customer value in e-commerce: a preliminary investigation’, Psychology and Marketing, 20(4): 323–347.
    Cisco Systems Inc. (1998) Building a Global Networked Business; Global Networked Business Approach and Architecture Overview, San Jose, CA: Cisco Systems,
    Clark, K.B. (1989) ‘Project scope and project performance: the effect of parts strategy and supplier involvement on product development’, Management Science, 35(10): 1247–1263.
    CNN (September 2003) ‘Firm bans e-mail at work’, retrieved from, February 2004.
    Cohan, P. (1999) Net Profit: How to Invest and Compete in the Real World of Internet Business. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Cohen, M.D., March, J.I.G. and Olsen, J.P. (1972) ‘A garbage can model of organizational choice’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 17(1): 1–25.
    Coleman, J.S. (1990) Foundations of Social Theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Commissie ict en Overheid (Cie. Docters van Leeuwen) (2001) Burger en overheid in de informatiesamenleving (Citizen and Government in the Information Society). Den Haag: Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken, http://www.minbzk.contents/pages/00007384/eindrapport_comm_ict_overheid_9–01.pdf.
    Computerworld (2003) ‘Wireless gets down to business’, Computerworld, 5 May, retrieved March 2004 from,10801,80864,00.html.
    Conner, K.R. and Prahalad, C.K. (1996) ‘A resource-based theory of the firm: knowledge versus opportunism’, Organization Science, 7(5): 477–501.
    Contractor, N. and Eisenberg, E. (1990) ‘Communication networks and new media in organizations’, in J.Fulk and C.W.Steinfield (eds), Organizations and Communication Technology. Newbury Park, ca: Sage. pp. 143–172.
    Cozijnsen, A.J. and Vrakking, W.J. (1986) Handboek voor strategisch innoveren. Een internationale balans (Handbook for Strategic Innovations: An International Balance). Deventer: Kluwer.
    Crafts, N. (2001) ‘The Solow productivity paradox in historical perspective’,
    Culbertson, S. (2002). Transformed Government: Case Studies on the Impact of E-government in Public Administrations.
    Cited in OECD E-Government Task Force (2003) ‘The case of e-government: excerpts from the OECD report “The E-government Imperative”’, OECD Journal on Budgeting, 3(1): 61–96.
    Daft, R.L. (1995). Organization Theory and Design. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing.
    Daft, R.L. and Lengel, R.H. (1984) ‘Information richness: a new approach to managerial behavior and organizational design’, in L.L.Cummings and B.M.Staw (eds), Research in Organizational Behavior, vol. 6. Greenwich, CT: jai Press. pp. 191–233.
    Daft, R.L. and R.H.Lengel (1986) ‘Organizational information requirements, media richness and structural design’, Management Science, 32(5): 554–71.
    Dahlén, M. (1999) ‘Closing in on the web consumer: a study in Internet shopping’, in E.Bohlin (ed.), Beyond Convergence, Communications in the New Millennium. Amsterdam: Elsevier. pp. 121–137.
    Davis, F.D. (1989) ‘Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology’, MIS Quarterly, 13(3): 319–340.
    Davis, F.D. and Venkatesh, V. (1996) ‘A critical assessment of potential measurement biases in the technology acceptance model: three experiments’, International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 45(1): 19–45.
    De Vries, E.J. (1998) ‘Information at the moment of truth: case study design’, Primavera Working Paper 98–10. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam/Primavera.
    Deitel, H.M., Deitel, P.J. and Steinbuhler, K. (2001) E-Business and e-Commerce for Managers. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
    Demkes, R. (1999). ‘COMET; A Comprehensive Methodology for Supporting Telematics Investment Decisions’. PhD. Dissertation, Telematica Instituut, Enschede.
    Depla, P. (1995) Technologie en de vernieuwing van de lokale democratie, Vervolmaking of vermaatschappelijking (Technology and Change in Local Democracy). Den Haag: vuga.
    DeSanctis, G. and Monge, P. (1999) ‘Communication processes for virtual organizations’, Organization Science, 10(6): 693–703.
    DeSanctis, G. and Poole, M. (1994) ‘Capturing the complexity in advanced technology use: adaptive structuration theory’, Organization Science, 5(2): 121–147.
    Dialogic (2001). E-government: de vraagkant aan bod: Een inventarisatie van de wensen en verwachtingen van burgers over de elektronische overheid. (E-government: the demand side: an inventory of needs and expectations of citizens with regard to the digital government). Utrecht: Dialogic, http://www.minbzk.contents/pages/00007384/eindrapport_comm_ict_overheid_bijlage_dialogic_9-01.pdf.
    Dimmick, J., Kline, S. and Stafford, L. (2000) ‘The gratification niches of personal e-mail and the telephone’, Communication Research, 27(2): 227–248.
    Dos Santos, B.L. (1991) ‘Justifying investments in new information technologies’, Journal of Management Information Systems'7(4): 71–90.
    Ducatel, K. (1994) Employment and Technical Change in Europe: Work Organization, Skills and Training. Edward Elgar.
    Dutton, W.H. (1999) ‘The virtual organization; tele-access in business and industry’, in G.DeSanctis and J.Fulk (eds), Shaping Organization Form: Communication, Connection and Community. Thousand Oaks, ca: Sage. pp. 473–195.
    Earle, N. and Keen, P. (2000) to.profit: Inventing Business Models that Deliver Value and Profit. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Eason, K. and Harker, S. (1994) ‘Developing teleinformatics systems to meet organizational requirements’, in J.H.E.Andriessen and R.A.Roe (eds), Telematics and Work. Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 355–367.
    Eastin, M.A. (2002) ‘Diffusion of e-commerce: an analysis of the adoption of four e-commerce activities’, Telematics and Informatics, 19(3): 251–267.
    eEurope (2003) ‘Web-based survey on electronic public services’,
    Ende van den, J. (1998a) ‘Techniek in het kantoor’ (Office technology), in Techniek in Nederland in de twintigste eeuw. Deel I, Kantoor en informatietechnologie (Technology in the Netherlands in the Twentieth century. Part 1 Office and Informationtechnology). Zutphen, Stichting Historie der Techniek, Walburg Pers. pp. 211–217.
    Ende van den, J. (1998b) ‘De Computerrevolutie’ (Computer revolution), in Techniek in Nederland in de twintigste eeuw. Deel I, Kantoor en informatietechnologie. (Technology in the Netherlands in the Twentieth century. Part 1 Office and Informationtechnology). Zutphen, Stichting Historie der Techniek, Walburg Pers. pp. 341–348.
    Erin Research (2003) Citizens First. Toronto: Institute of Public Administration of Canada.
    Ernst and Young (1998) Creating value through global networked business: Cisco case study, updated from 1997 original,
    Faber, E. and Bouwman, H. (2003a) ‘Designing business models for mobile sevices. Exploring the connections between customer value and value networks. 3rd International Conference on Electronic Business, Business Paradigms: Strategic Transformation and Partnerships’, paper presented at the International Conference on Electronic Business, Singapore.
    Faber, E., Ballon, P., Bouwman, H., Haaker, T., Rietkerk, O. and Steen, M. (2003b) ‘Designing business models for mobile ICT services’, paper presented to Workshop on concepts, metrics and visualisation, at the 16th Bled Electronic Commerce Conference eTransformation, Bled, Slovenia.
    Faber, E., Haaker, T., Bouwman, H. and Rietkerk, O. (2003) ‘Business Models for personalized real-time traffic information in cars: which route to take?’, in J.Gordijn and M.Jansen (eds), Proceedings of the First International E-services Workshop, ICEC 2003, Pittsburg. pp. 29–37.
    Fishbein, M. and Ajzen, I. (1975) Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Flichy, P. (1995) Dynamics of Modern Communication: The Shaping and Impact of New Communication Technologies. London: Sage.
    Fokkinga, L., Glastra, M. and Huizinga, H. (1996) LAD – Het lineair ontwikkelen van informatiesystemen (Linear Development of Information Systems). Schoonhoven: Academic Service.
    Frambach, R.T. (1993) ‘An integrated model of organizational adoption and diffusion of innovations’, European Journal of Marketing, 27(5): 22–41.
    Frissen, P.H.A. (1996) De virtuele staat, politiek, bestuur, technologie: een postmodern verhaal (Virtual State: Politics, Administration, Technology: a Post-modern Story). Schoonhoven: Academic Service.
    Fulk, J. (1993) ‘Social construction of communication technology’, Academy of Management Journal, 36(5): 921–950.
    Fulk, J. and DeSanctis, G. (1999) ‘Articulation of communication technology and organizational form’, in G.DeSanctis and J.Fulk (eds), Shaping Organizational Form; Communication, Connection and Community. Thousand Oaks, ca: Sage. pp. 5–32.
    Fulk, J., Heino, R., Flanagin, A.J., Monge, P.R., Kim, K. and Lin, W-Y. (2000) ‘Intranet functionality as collective action’, paper presented at the International Communication Association conference, Acapulco, Mexico.
    Fulk, J., Schmitz, J. and Steinfield, C.W. (1990) ‘A social influence model of technology use’, in J.Fulk and C.W.Steinfield (eds), Organizations and Communication Technology. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. pp. 117–142.
    Fulk, J., Steinfield, C.W., Schmitz, J. and Power, J.G. (1987) ‘A social information processing model of media use in organizations’, Communication Research, 14(5): 529–552.
    Galbraith, J. (1973) Designing Complex Organizations. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Gartner Group (1995) ‘Electronic mail’, conference presentation, Stamford, CT, Gartner Group.
    Gordon, R.J. (2000). ‘Does the “new economy” measure up to the great inventions of the past?’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 4(14): 49–74.
    Grant, R.M. (1996) ‘Toward a knowledge-based view of the firm’, Strategic Management Journal, 17(Winter Special Issue): 109–122.;2-P
    Grimshaw, D., Breu, K. and Myers, A. (2000) Exploiting E-business: A Survey of UK Industry. Cranfield: Information Systems Research Centre, School of Management, Cranfield University.
    van Gurchom, M., Wit de, D. and Franken, H. (1996) ‘Strategisch inzetten van IT en Telematica toepassingen’ (Strategic application of IT and applications of telematics), Management & Informatie, 4(4): 48–58.
    Gustafsson, J., Herrmann, A. and Huber, F. (2003) ‘Conjoint analysis as an instrument of market research practice’, in J.Gustafsson, A.Herrmann and F.Huber (eds), Conjoint Measurement, Methods and Applications. Berlin: Springer. pp. 5–46.
    Hacker, K. and Van Dijk, J. (eds) (2000) Digital Democracy, Issues of Theory and Practice. London, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Hambeukers, D. (2001) ‘Business cases AGPS’, master thesis, Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands.
    Hammer, M. and Mangurian, G.E. (1987) ‘The changing value of communications technology’, Sloan Management Review, 28(2): 65–71.
    Hawkins, R. (2003) ‘Looking beyond the .com bubble: exploring the form and function of business models in the electronic marketplace’, in B.Preissl, H.Bouwman and C.Steinfield (eds), E-life after the Bust. Berlin: Physica Verlag.
    Hawryszkiewycz, I. (1997) Designing the Networked Enterprise. Boston, MA: Artech House.
    Hedman, J. and Kalling, T. (2003) ‘The business model concept: theoretical underpinnings and empirical illustrations’, European Journal of Information Systems, 12: 49–59.
    Heliview (2000) ICT Monitor 2000. Breda: Heliview.
    Henderson, B. (1984) The Logic of Business Strategy. Cambridge: Ballinger.
    Henderson, J.C. and Venkatraman, N. (1993) ‘Strategic alignment: leveraging information technology for transforming organizations’, IBM Systems Journal, 32(1): 4–16.
    Hindle, K. and Dulmains, P. (2000) ‘Beyond e-commerce: an entrepreneurial business modelling method for profitable e-venturing’, in S.Klein, B.O'Keefe, J.Gricar and M.Podlogar (eds), Proceedings of the Electronic Commerce Conference in Bled. The End of the Beginning. Research. Kranj: Moderna Organizcija. pp. 21–49.
    Hinds, P. and Kiesler, S. (1999) ‘Communication across boundaries: work, structure and use of communication technologies in a large organization’, in G.DeSanctis and J.Fulk (eds), Shaping Organization Form: Communication, Connection and Community. Thousand Oak, ca: Sage. pp. 211–246.
    Hochstrasser, B. (1994) ‘Justifying IT investments’, in L.Willcocks (ed.), Information Management – the Evaluation of Information Systems Investments. London: Chapman and Hall. pp. 151–169.
    Hofstede, G. (1991) Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. London: McGraw-Hill.
    Huysman, M. and De Wit, D. (2000) Kennisdelen in de praktijk. Vergaren, uitwisselen en ontwikkelen van kennis met ICT (Knowledge Sharing in Practice: Collection, Exchange and Development of Knowledge with ICT). Den Haag: Van Gorcum.
    Huysman, M. and Van Baalen, P. (eds) (2001) ‘Communities of Practice’, Trends in Communication, 4(8): pp. 3–5.
    Information Week (3 November 2003) ‘Keep far-flung employees close’, retrieved March 2004, from
    Information Week (4 March 2004) ‘Microsoft shows off technology you don't know you need yet’, retrieved March, 2004, from
    Internet Week (5 March 2004) ‘Automakers adopt EBXML for e-business’, retrieved March 2004, from
    Internet Week (30 October 2003) ‘E-mail use eroded by spam and IM’, retrieved March 2004, from
    van Irsel, H.G.P. and Swinkels, G.J.P. (1992) ‘Investeren in IT: take IT or leave IT’ (Investment in IT: take IT or leave IT), Informatie (Information), 34(Special Issue: Evaluation of IT investments): 624–636.
    Jaeger, P.T. and Thompson, K.M. (2004) ‘Social information behavior and the democratic process: information poverty, normative behavior, and electronic government in the United States’, Library and Information Science Research, 26(1): 94–107.
    Jankowski, N. and Van Selm, M. (2001) ‘ICT en samenleving, vier terreinen voor onderzoek’ (ICT and society: four research domains), in H.Bouwman (ed.), Communicatie in de informatiesamenleving. (Communication in Information Society). Utrecht: Lemma. pp. 217–250.
    Janssen, M. (2003) ‘Webservices and component-based developments’, TU Delft white paper.
    Janssen, M., Wagenaar, R. and Beerens, J. (2003) ‘Towards a flexible ICT-architecture for multichannel service provisioning’, Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-36), Hilton Waikoloa Village, Big Island, 6–9 January (proceedings on CD-Rom).
    Johnson, B. and Rice, R.E. (1987) Managing Organizational Innovation: The Evolution from Word Processing to Office Information Systems. New York: Columbia University Press.
    de Jong, M.W. (1993) ‘De productiviteitsparadox in de dienstensector’ (Productivity paradox in the service sector), Management & informatie, 1(4): 25–34.
    Kaplan, R.S. and Norton, D.P. (1992) ‘The balanced scorecard: measures that drive performance’, Harvard Business Review, 70(1): 71–79.
    Kaplinsky, R. and Morris, M. (2001) ‘A handbook for value chain research’, retrieved on 6 December 2004, from
    Katz, J. and Rice, R.E. (2003) Social Consequences of Internet Use: Access, Involvement and Interaction. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Kelly, K. (1997) ‘New rules for the new economy’, Wired, 5(9): 140–144, 186–197,
    Kiesler, S., Siegel, J. and McGuire, T.W. (1984) ‘Social psychological aspects of computermediated communication’, American Psychologist, 39(10): 1123–1134.
    Kim, S.-H. and Lee, J. (1991) ‘A contingency analysis of the relationship between IS implementation and IS success’, Information Processing and Management, 27(1): 111–128.
    Kim, W. (1990) ‘Object-oriented databases: definition and research directions’, IEEE Transactions on knowledge and data engineering, 2(3): 327–341.
    Kling, R. (1996) ‘Hopes and horrors: technological utopianism and anti-utopianism in narratives of computerization’, in R.Kling (ed.), Computerization and Controversy. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. pp. 40–48. (
    1st edn
    , 1991, edited with C. Dunlop.)
    Kothandaraman, P. and Wilson, D. (2001) ‘The future of competition: value creating networks’, Industrial Marketing Management, 30: 379–389.
    Koufaris, M. (2002) ‘Applying the technology acceptance model and flow theory to online consumer behaviour’, Information Systems Research, 13(2): 205–223.
    Kraut, K.E., Rice, R.E., Cool, C. and Fish, R.S. (1998) ‘Varieties of social influence: the role of utility and norms in the success of a new communication medium’, Organization Science, 9(4): 437–453.
    Krcmar, H. (1992) ‘Computer aided team. Ein Uberblick’ (Computer aided team: an overview), Information Management, 7(1), 6–9.
    Krim, J. (2003) ‘Spam's cost to business escalates’, Washington Post, 13 March.
    Krugman, P. (1997) ‘Speed trap. The fuzzy logic of the “new economy’”, Slate, 19 December,
    Krugman, P. (1998) ‘Entertainment values. Will capitalism go Hollywood?’Slate, 23 January,
    La Porte, T.M. (1999) ‘National differences in how governments use websites’, in T.Sprehe (ed.), The Internet Connection: Your Guide to Government Resource. Washington, DC: Thomas Sprehe. pp. 21–28.
    Lahti, R.K. (1996) Group Decision Making in Organizations: Can Models Help? CSWT Reports, University of North Texas,
    Lee, A. (1994) ‘Electronic mail as a medium for rich communication: an empirical investigation using hermeneutic interpretation’, MIS Quarterly, 18(2): 143–157.
    Legris, P., Ingham, J. and Collerette, P. (2003) ‘Why do people use information technology? A critical review of the technology acceptance model’, Information and Management, 40(3): 191–204.
    Lewin, K. (1954) ‘Frontiers in group dynamics’, in D.Cartwright (ed.), Field Theory in Social Science: Selected Theoretical Papers by Kurt Lewin. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. pp. 188–237.
    Liao, Z. and Tow Cheung, M. (2001) ‘Internet-based e-shopping and consumer attitudes: an empirical study’, Information and Management, 38(5): 299–306.
    van Lieshout, M. and Mol, A. (1989) ‘Integrate van IT in de samenleving: een sociaal experiment?’ (Integrating IT in society: a social experiment?), in H.Bouwman and N.Jankowski (eds), Interactieve media op komst (New Media Emerge). Amsterdam: Otto Cramwinckel Uitgever. pp. 158–166.
    Limburg, D. (2002) Making Telework a Reality. Enschede: Twente University Press.
    Linton, J.D. (2002) ‘Implementation research: state of the art and future directions’, Technovation, 22(1): 65–79.
    Low, J. and Cohen Kalafut, P. (2002) Invisible Advantage: How Intangibles are Driving Business Performance. Cambridge, MA: Perseus.
    Maes, R. (1999) Reconsidering Information Management through a Generic Framework. Amsterdam: PrimaVera Working Paper99–15.
    Mahadevan, B. (2000) ‘Business models for Internet-based e-commerce’, California Management Review, 42(4): 55–69.
    Maitland, C., Van de Kar, E., De When Montalvo, U. and Bouwman, H. (2003) ‘Mobile information and entertainment services: business models and service networks’, in G.M.Giaglis, H.Werthner, V.Tschammer and K.A.Froeschl (eds), 2nd International Conference on Mobile Business. Osterreichische Computer Gesellschaft. pp. 69–86.
    March, J.G. and Simon, H. (1993) Organizations (
    2nd edn
    ). Cambridge, MA: Blackwell. (
    1st edn
    , 1958).
    Markus, M. L. (1987) ‘Toward a “critical mass” theory of interactive media: universal access, interdependence and diffusion’, Communication Research, 14(5): 491–511.
    Markus, M.L. (1990) ‘Toward a critical mass theory of interactive media’, in J.Fulk and C.W.Steinfield (eds), Organizations and Communication Technology. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. pp. 194–218.
    Markus, M.L. (1994a) ‘Finding a happy medium: explaining the negative effects of electronic communication on social life at work’, ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 12(2): 119–149.
    Markus, M.L. (1994b) ‘Electronic mail as the medium of managerial choice’, Organization Science, 5(4): 502–527.
    McAfee, A. (2003) ‘When too much IT knowledge is a dangerous thing’, MIT Sloan Management Review, 44(2): 83–89.
    McCreadie, M. and Rice, R. (1999) ‘Trends in analyzing access to information. Part I: Cross-disciplinary conceptualizations of access’, Information Processing and Management, 35(1): 45–76.
    McDonagh, J. (2001) ‘Not for the faint hearted: social and organizational challenges in IT-enabled change’, Organizational Development Journal, 19(1): 11–19.
    McKinsey and Co. in collaboration with CAPS Research (2001) Coming in to Focus Using the Lens of Economic Value to Clarify the Impact of B2B E-marketplaces. CapsMcKinsey 200 Colorcom.pdf.
    McLean, I. (1989) Democracy and New Technology. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    McLoughlin, I. and Clark, J. (1995) ‘Technological change and work’, in N.Heap, R.Thomas, G.Einon, R.Mason and H.MacKay (eds), Information Technology and Society. London: Sage. pp. 149–178.
    McLuhan, M. (1964) Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    van Mierlo, S. (1999) ‘Het blijft sukkelen met systeem GSD Amsterdam’ (Pervasive problems with benefit system municipality Amsterdam), in Automatisering Gids, 31 December.
    Miller, R. and Lessard, D. (2000) The Strategic Management of Large Engineering Projects: Shaping Institutions, Risks and Governance. Boston, MA: MIT Press.
    Miller, S.J., Hickson, D.J. and Wilson, D.C. (1996) ‘Decision making in organizations’, in S.R.Clegg, C.Hardy and W.R.Nord (eds), Handbook of Organization Studies. London: Sage. pp. 293–312.
    Mintzberg, H. (1983) Structure in Fives: Designing Effective Organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Mintzberg, H. (1989) Mintzberg on Management: Inside Our Strange World of Organization. New York: Free Press.
    Mogard, K. (2000) ‘Information and communication technology empowerment – and the dual potentialities of ICT’, master thesis in European communication. Amsterdam: ISHSS.
    Monge, P. and Contractor, N. (2003) Theories of Communication Networks. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Monge, P. and Fulk, J. (1999) ‘Communication technology for global network organizations’, in G.DeSanctis and J.Fulk (eds). Shaping Organization Form: Communication, Connection and Community. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. pp. 71–101.
    Monge, P.R., Fulk, J., Kalman, M.E., Flanagin, A.J., Parnassa, C. and Rumsey, S. (1998) ‘Production of collective action in alliance-based inter-organizational communication and information systems’, Organization Science, 9(3): 411–433.
    Morrison, C.J. and Berndt, E.R. (1990) ‘Assessing the productivity of information technology equipment in the US manufacturing industries’, National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper #3582.
    Nahapiet, J. and Ghoshal, S. (1998) ‘Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organizational advantage’, Academy of Management Review, 40(2): 242–266.
    Newell, S., Scarbrough, H. and Swan, J. (2001) ‘From global knowledge management to internal electronic fences: contradictory outcomes of intranet development’, British Journal of Management, 12(2): 97–111.
    Ngwenyama, O. and Lee, A. (1997) ‘Communication richness in electronic mail: critical social theory and the contextuality of meaning’, MIS Quarterly, 21(2): 145–167.
    Nonaka, I. and Takeuchi, H. (1995) The Knowledge-Creating Company. New York: Oxford University Press.
    OECD (2003) ‘OECD e-government flagship report. The e-government imperative’, GOV/PUMA (2003)6/ANN. 27th session of the Public Management Committee, Paris,$file/the%20e-government%20imperative%20%20finaI.pdf.
    van Oirsouw, R., Spaanderman, J. and De Vries, H. (1993) Informatie-economie. Investeringsstrategie voor de informatievoorziening. (Information Economics: Investment Strategy for Information Provision). Schoonhoven: Academic Service.
    Oliver, P., Marwell, G. and Texeira, R. (1985) ‘A theory of critical mass I: interdependence, group heterogeneity, and the production of collective action’, American Journal of Sociology, 91(3): 522–56.
    Olson, M. (1965) The Logic of Collective Action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    van Oost, E. and Van Hoorn, T. (1998) ‘De opkomst van de computer’ (The emergence of computers), in J.van den Ende (ed.), Techniek in Nederland in de twintigste eeuw. Deel I, Kantoor en informatietechnologie (Technology in the Netherlands in the 20th century. Part 1 Office and Information Technology). Zutphen: Stichting Historie der Techniek, Walburg Pers. pp. 289–304.
    Orlikowski, W. and Hofman, J.D. (1997) ‘An improvisational model for change management: the case of groupware technologies’, Sloan Management Review, (38)2: 11–21.
    Orlikowski, W., Yates, J., Okamura, K. and Fujimoto, M. (1999) ‘Shaping electronic communication: the meta-structuring of technology in the context of use’, in G.DeSanctis, and J.Fulk (eds), Shaping Organization For: Communication, Connection and Community. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. pp. 135–173.
    Orlikowski, W.J. (1992) ‘The duality of technology: rethinking the concept of technology in organizations’, Organization Science, 3(3): 398–427.
    Orlikowski, W.J. (2000) ‘using technology and constituting structures: a practice lens for studying technology in organizations’, Organization Science, 11(4): 404–428.
    Paans, J. (1993) Teleparticipatie, elektronische participatie als vorm van bestuurlijke vernieuwing in de gemeentelijke democratie (Tele-Democracy: Electronic Participation as a Model for Administrative Renewal in a Local Democracy). Leiden: Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid Rijksuniversiteit Leiden.
    Parker, M. (1996) Strategic Transformation and Information Technology: Paradigms for Performing while Transforming. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Parker, M.M., Benson, R.J, and Trainor, H.E. (1988) Information Strategy and Economics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Peiro, J.M. and Prieto, F. (1994) ‘Telematics and organizational structure and process: an overview’, in J.H.E.Andriessen and R.A.Roe (eds), Telematics and Work. Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 175–207.
    Petrovic, O. and Kittl, C. (2003) ‘Capturing the value proposition of a product or service’, position paper for the international workshop on business models, Lausanne, Switzerland, October.
    Pettigrew, A. and Whipp, R. (1993) Managing Change for Competitive Success. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
    Picard, R.G. (1989) Media Economics: Concepts and Issues. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Poole, M. and DeSanctis, G. (1990) ‘understanding the use of group decision support systems: the theory of adaptive structuration’, in J.Fulk and C.Steinfield (eds), Organisations and Communication Technology. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. pp. 173–193.
    Popescu-Zeletin, R., Abranowski, S., Fikouras, I., Gasbaronne, G., Gebler, M., Henning, S., Van Kranenenburg, H., Postschy, H., Postmann, E. and Raatikainen, K. (2003) ‘Service architecture for the wireless world’, Computer Communications, 26(1): 19–25.
    Porter, M.E. (1980) Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors. New York: Free Press.
    Porter, M.E. (1985) Competitive Advantage: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors. New York: Free Press.
    Porter, M.E. and Millar, V.E. (1985) ‘How information gives you competitive advantage’, Harvard Business Review, 63(4): 149–160.
    Powell, W.W. (1990) ‘Neither market nor hierarchy: network forms of organizations’, in B.Slaw (ed.), Research in Organizational Behavior. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. pp. 295–336.
    Presley, A., Sarkis, J., Barnett, W. and Liles, D. (2001) ‘Engineering the virtual enterprise: an architecture-driven modelling approach’, International Journal of Flexible Manufacturing Systems, 13(2): 145–162.
    Quintas, P. (1996) ‘Software by design’, in R.Mansell and R.Silverstone (eds), Communication by Design: The Politics of Information and Communication Technologies. Oxford: Oxford university Press. pp. 74–102.
    Qvortrup, L. (1994) ‘Telematics and organizational communication: trends in organizational communications’, in J.H.E.Andriessen and R.A.Roe (eds), Telematics and Work. Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 367–390.
    Radicati, S. and Khmartseva, M. (2003) ‘The IT cost of spam’, The Messaging Technology Report, 12(8): 2–10.
    Raessens, B. (2001) E-business Your Business. Over de effectiviteit van E-commerce (E-business Your Business: On the Effectiveness of E-commerce). Utrecht: Lemma.
    Rappa, M. (2000) Managing the Digital Enterprise,
    Rayport, F.J. (1999) ‘The truth about business internet business models’, Strategy+Business, 16 (third quarter): 1–3.
    Rayport, F.J. and Jaworski, B.J. (2001) e-Commerce. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
    Reicher, S., Spears, R. and Postmes, T. (1995) ‘A social identity model of de-individuation phenomena’, in W.Stroebe and M.Hewstonde (eds), European Review of Social Psychology 6. Chichester: Wiley. pp. 161–198.
    Renkema, T.J.W. (1996) Investeren in de informatie-infrastructuur – Richtlijnen voor besluitvorming in organisaties (Investment in Information Infrastructure Guidelines for Management Decisions in Organizations). Deventer: Kluwer Bedrijfswetenschappen. retrieved on 6 December 2004 from
    Rice, R. (1999) ‘Multiple theories, issues, data and methods for understanding the implementation of an information system’, Trends in Communication, 5: 39–51.
    Rice, R.E. (2002) ‘Primary issues in Internet use: access, civic and community involvement, and social interaction and expression’, in L.Lievrouw and S.Livingstone (eds), Handbook of New Media. London: Sage. pp. 105–130.
    Rice, R.E. and Rogers, E. (1980) ‘Reinvention in the innovation process’, Knowledge, 1(4): 490–514.
    Roach, S.S. (1991) ‘Services under siege – the restructuring imperative’, Harvard Business Review, 69(5): 82–92.
    Rogers, E.M. (1983) Diffusion of Innovations. New York: Free Press.
    Rojo, A. and Ragsdale, R. (1997) ‘Participation in electronic forums’, Telematics and Informatics, 13(1): 83–96.
    Sarkar, M.B., Butler, B. and Steinfield, C. (1995) ‘Intermediaries and cybermediaries: a continuing role for mediating players in the electronic marketplace’, Journal of ComputerMediated Communications, 1(3),
    Sarkar, M.B., Butler, B. and Steinfield, C. (1998) ‘Cybermediaries in the electronic marketspace: towards theory building’, Journal of Business Research, 41(3): 215–221.
    Schepers, W. (2002). Business IT Alignment. Oplossingen voor de productiviteitsparadox (Business IT Alignment: Solutions for the Productivity Paradox). Utrecht: University of Utrecht, Department of Informatics and Information Science.
    Schick, A.G., Gordon, L.A. and Haka, S. (1990) ‘Information overload: a temporal approach’, Accounting, Organizations and Society, 15(3): 199–220.
    Schmitz, J. and Fulk, J. (1991) ‘Organizational colleagues, media richness, and electronic mail: a test of the social influence model of technology use’, Communication Research, 18(4): 487–523.
    Seddon, P. and Lewis, G. (2003) ‘Strategy and business models: what is the difference’, 7th Pacific-Asia Conference on Information Systems, Adelaide, 10–13 July.
    Selz, D. (1999) ‘Value webs. Emerging forms of fluid and flexible organisations: thinking, organising, communicating and delivering value on the Internet’, dissertation, St. Gallen.
    Seybold, P.B. (1998); How to Create a Profitable Business Strategy for the Internet and Beyond. New York: Random House.
    Shapiro, C. and Varian, H.R. (1999) Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
    Shea, R. (1994) Netiquette. San Francisco, CA: Albion Book.
    Short, J., Williams, E. and Christie, B. (1976) The Social Psychology of Telecommunications. London: Wiley.
    Simon, H.A. (1957) Models of Man. New York: Wiley.
    Simons, L. (2001) ‘Cisco-case study. Increasing the value of web and call center channels for customer contact’, paper presented to 2nd McMaster World Congress on the Management of Electronic Commerce, Hamilton, Canada.
    Sitkin, S.B., Sutcliffe, K.M. and Barrios-Choplin, J.R. (1992) ‘A dual-capacity model of communication media choice in organizations’, Human Communication Research, 18(4): 563–598.
    Sluis van der, A. (2001) ‘Internet communities en communities in een werkomgeving’ (Internet community's and community's in the working place), in H.Bouwman (ed.), Communicatie in de informatiesamenleving (Communication in Information Society). Utrecht: Lemma. pp. 117–138.
    Slywotzky, A.J. (1996) Value Migration: How to Think Several Moves Ahead of the Competition. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Press.
    Snowball, D. (1980) ‘Some effects of accounting expertise and information load: an empirical study’, Accounting, Organizations and Society, 5(3): 323–338.
    Spears, R. and Lea, M. (1992) ‘Social influence and the influence of the ‘social’ in computer-mediated communication’, in M.Lea (ed.), Contexts of Computer-Mediated Communication. Hemel-Hempstead: Harvester-Wheatsheaf. pp. 30–65.
    Spears, R. and Lea, M. (1994) ‘Panacea or panopticon? The hidden power in computermediated communication’, Communication Research, 21(4): 427–459.
    Spears, R., Lea, M. and Postmes, T. (2000) ‘Social-psychological theories of computermediated communication: social pain or social gain?’, in P.Robinson and H.Giles (eds), The Handbook of Language and Social Psychology. Chichester: Wiley. pp. 601–623.
    Sproull, L. and Kiesler, S. (1986) ‘Reducing social context cues: electronic mail in organizaitonal communication’, Management Science, 32(11): 1492–1512.
    Sproull, L. and Kiesler, S. (1991) Connections; New Ways of Working in the Networked Organization. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Steinfield, C. (2003) ‘Click & brick e-commerce’, in B.Preissl, H.Bouwman and C.Steinfield (eds), E-life after the Bust. Berlin: Physica Verlag. pp. 101–116.
    Steinfield, C., Bouwman, H. and Adelaar, T. (2001) ‘Combining physical and virtual channels: opportunities, imperatives and challenges’, in B.O'Keefe, C.Loebbecke, J.Gricar, A.Pucihar and G.Lenart (eds), e-Everything: e-Commerce, e-Government, e-Household, e-Democracy. Proceedings of the 14th Bled Electronic Commerce Conference, University of Maribor, Bled, Slovenia, pp. 783–796.
    Steinfield, C., De Wit, D., Adelaar, T., Bruins, A., Fielt, E., Hoefsloot, M., Smit, A. and Bouwman, H. (2001) ‘Pillars of virtual enterprises: leveraging physical assets in the new economy’, Info, 3(3): 203–215.
    Stojanovic, Z., Dathanayake, A. and Sol, H. (2001) ‘A methodology framework for component-based system development support’, in J.Krogstie, K.Siau and T.Halpin (eds), Proceedings of the 6th Caise/IFIP8.1 International Workshop on Evaluation of Modeling Methods in System Analysis and Design. Interlaken: EMMSAD'01.
    Strassmann, P.A. (1990) The Business Value of Computers. New Canaan, CT: Information Economics Press.
    Tanis, M. and Postmes, T. (2003) ‘Social cues and impression formation in CMC’, Journal of Communication, 53(4): 676–693.
    Tapscott, D. (1996) The Digital Economy: Promise and Peril in the Age of Networked Intelligence. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Tapscott, D., Ticoll, D. and Lowy, A. (2000) Digital Capital: Harnessing the Power of Business Webs. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
    Tiggelaar, B. (2001) Internet-strategie 2.0 (Internet Strategy 2.0). Amsterdam: Prentice Hall.
    Timmers, P. (1998) ‘Business models for e-commerce’, Electronic Markets, 8(2): 3–7,
    Timmers, P. (1999) Electronic Commerce: Strategies and Models for Business-to-Business Trading. Chichester: Wiley.
    Tolido, R. (1996) IAD – Het evolutionaire ontwikkelen van informatiesystemen (Evolutionary Development of Information Systems). Schoonhoven: Academic Service.
    Trevino, L.K., Daft, R.L. and Lengel, R.H. (1990) ‘Understanding managers' media choices: a symbolic interactionist perspective’, in J.Fulk and C.W.Steinfield (eds), Organizations and Communication Technology. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. pp. 71–94.
    van Tulder, R., and Junne, R. (1988) European Multinationals in Core Technologies. Chichester and New York: Wiley.
    Turban, E., Lee, J., King, D. and Chung, H.M. (2000) Electronic Commerce: A Managerial Perspective. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Tweede Kamer (1990–91) Beleidsnotitie informatievoorziening openbare sector (BIOS-I). De computer gestuurd (White Paper Information Provision and the Public Sector: The Managed Computer). TK 1990–1991, 20644, nrs. 1–2.
    Tyre, M.J. and Orlikowski, W.J. (1994) ‘Windows of opportunity: temporal patterns of technological adaptation in organizations’, Organization Science, 5(1): 98–118.
    Umble, E., Haft, R. and Umble, M. (2003) ‘Enterprise resource planning: implementation procedures and critical success factors’, European Journal of Operation Research, 146(2): 241–257.
    Van den Hooff, B. (2004) ‘Electronic coordination and collective action; use and effects of electronic calendaring and scheduling’, Information and Management, 42(1):103–114.
    Van den Hooff, B. (in press) ‘A learning process in e-mail use: a longitudinal case study of the interaction between organization and technology’, Behaviour and Information Technology.
    Van den Hooff, B., Elving, W., Meeuwsen, J.M. and Dumoulin, C. (2003) ‘Knowledge sharing in knowledge communities’, in M.Huysman, E.Wenger and V.Wulf (eds), Communities and Technologies. Deventer: Kluwer Academic. pp. 119–142.
    Van den Hooff, B.J. (1995) ‘For what it's worth: de strategische waarde van communicatietechnologieën voor organisaties’ (For what it's worth: strategic value of communication technology for organizations), Informatie en informatiebeleid, 13(2): 34–43.
    Van den Hooff, B.J. (1997) Incorporating Electronic Mail: Adoption, Use and Effects of Electronic Mail in Organizations. Amsterdam: Otto Cramwinckel Uitgever.
    Van den Hooff, B.J. (2000) ‘Dynamiek in ICT en organisatie: Vier fasen van innovatie’ (Dynamics in ICT and organizations: four phases in innovation), Tijdschrift voor communicatiewetenschap, 28(4): 318–333.
    Van Dijk, J.A.G.M. (1997). Nieuwe media en politiek, Informatie-en communicatietechnologie voor burgers, politici en ambtenaren. (New Media and politics: Information and Communication Technology for Citizens, Politicians and Civil Servants). Houten: Bohn Stafleu Van Loghum.
    Van Dijk, J.A.G.M. (1999) ‘Elektronische Discussies bij Interactieve Beleidsvorming’ (Electronic meetings and interactive policy-making), Bestuurskunde, 8(5): 1999–2009.
    Van Dijk, J.A.G.M. (2001a) De Netwerkmaatschappij, Sociale aspecten van nieuwe media (Network Societ, Social Dimensiosn of New Media). Houten: Bohn Stafleu van Loghum. (
    1st edn
    , 1991.)
    Van Dijk, J.A.G.M. (2001b) ‘Digitale democratie; illusie en realiteit’ (Digital democracy: illusion and reality), in H.Bouwman (ed.), Communicatie in de informatiesamenleving. (Communication in Information Society). Utrecht: Lemma. pp 165–190.
    Veld van't, S. (1990) 16 Methoden voor systeemontwikkeling. Een vergelijkend rapport van de NGGO (16 System Development Methods: A Comparative Analysis for NGGO). Amsterdam: Tutein Nolthenius.
    Venkatesh, A. (1999) ‘Virtual models of marketing and consumer behavior’, paper presented to the ESRC Virtual Society Program Workshop: E-commerce and the restructuring of consumption, London.
    Venkatesh, V., Morris, M.G., Davis, F.D. and Davis, G.B. (2003) ‘User acceptance of information technology: toward a unified view’, MIS Quarterly, 27(3): 425–478.
    Versteeg, G. and Bouwman, H. (2004) ‘Business architecture: a new paradigm to relate business strategy to ICT’, paper presented to ECIS 2004, Turku, Finland.
    Vinkenburg, H.H.M. (1995) Stimuleren tot perfectie: kritieke factoren bij het verbeteren van dienstverlening (Stimulating to Perfection: Critical Factors for Improving Services). Groningen: Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
    Viscio, A.J. and Pasternack, B. (1996) Toward a New Business Model: Strategy and Business. Booz, Allen and Hamilton,
    Walden, E.A. and Browne, G.J. (2002) ‘Information cascades in the adoption of new technology’, Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Information Systems. Barcelona, Spain, pp. 435–443, retrieved from, 6 December 2004.
    Walther, J.B. (1992) ‘Interpersonal effects in computer-mediated interaction: a relational perspective’, Communication Research, 19(1): 52–90.
    Walther, J.B. (1996) ‘Computer-mediated communication: impersonal, interpersonal and hyperpersonal interaction’, Communication Research, 23(1): 3–43.
    Walton, R. (1989) Up and Running, Integration Information Technology and the Organization. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
    Wang, Y. (2002) ‘The adoption of electronic tax filling systems: an empirical study’, Government Information Quarterly, 20(4): 333–352.
    Weggeman, M. (1997) Kennismanagement. Inrichting en sturing van kennisintensieve organisaties (Knowledge Management: Design and Management of Knowledge Intensive Organizations). Schiedam: Scriptum.
    Weggeman, M. (2000) Kennismanagement: de praktijk (Knowledge Management: Practices). Schiedam: Scriptum.
    Weick, K.E. (1990) ‘Technology as equivoque: sense-making in new technologies’, in P.S.Goodman, L.S.Sproull and associates (eds), Technology and Organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. pp. 1–44.
    Weill, P. and Vitale, M.R. (2001) Place to Space: Migrating to E-business Models. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
    WiFi Alliance (2003), retrieved in 2003.
    Wigand, R. (2000) ‘New business paradigms for the e-economy: evolving electronic commerce models’, paper presented to Conference on New Business Paradigms for the e-Economy, Brussels: European Commission, Directorate General Information Society.
    Wigand, R., Picot, A. and Reichwald, R. (1997) Information, Organization and Management: Expanding Markets and Corporate Boundaries. Chichester: Wiley.
    Winston, B. (1998) Media Technology and Society: A History from the Telegraph to the Internet. London: Routledge.
    Winter, S.J. and Taylor, S.L. (1996) ‘The role of IT in the transformation of work: a comparison of post-industrial, industrial and proto-industrial organization’, Information Systems Research, 7(1): 5–21.
    de Wit, O. (1994) ‘De beginjaren van het Nederlandse telefoniesysteem’ (The early years of Dutch telephony), Informatie & informatiebeleid (Information and Information Policy), 13(3): 30–42.
    Wit de, O. and Ende van den, J. (1998) ‘Het kantoor in een stroomversnelling na de tweede wereldoordlog’ (The office after World War II), in J.van den Ende (ed.), Techniek in Nederland in de twintigste eeuw. Deel I, Kantoor en informatietechnologie (Technology in the Netherlands in the 20th Century. Part 1 Office and Information Technology). Zutphen, Stichting Historie der Techniek, Walburg Pers. pp. 271–287.
    Wit, O. de and Huiter, H. (1998) ‘De opkomst van de moderne administratie’ (The emergence of modern administrations), in J.Van der Ende (ed.), Techniek in Nederland in de twintigste eeuw. Deel I, Kantoor en informatietechnologie (Technology in the Netherlands in the 20th Century. Part 1 Office and Information Technology). Zutphen, Stichting Historie der Techniek, Walburg Pers, pp. 219–235.
    Woudstra, E. and Van Gemert, L. (1994) ‘Planning van de interne communicatie: Een kader’ (Planning of internal communication: a framework), Handboek interne communicatie (Handbook Internal Communication): C5.2.3-C5.2.28.
    Yorukoglu, M. (1998) ‘The information technology productivity paradox’, Review of Economic Dynamics, 1(2): 551–592.
    Zee van der, H.T.M. (1995) ‘De vijf denkparadigma's binnen het opleidings-en ontwikkelingsveld’ (Five paradigms in the training and development domain), Management and Organization, (2): 107–134.
    Zee van der, H.T.M. and Koot, W.J.D. (1989) ‘IT-assessment, een kwalitatieve en kwantitatieve evaluatie van de informatieverzorging vanuit een strategisch perspectief’ (IT assessment: a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of information management from a strategic perspective), Informatie (Information), 31(11): 805–900.
    Zuurmond, A. (1994) De infocratie, Een theoretische en empirische heroriëntatie op Weber's ideaaltype in het informatietijdperk (Infocracy: A Theoretical and Empirical Reorientation on Weber's Gestalt in the Information Age). Den Haag: Phaedrus.

    Author Index

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website