Informal Learning in Youth Work

Books

Janet R. Batsleer

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Acknowledgements

    Thank you to colleagues and students at MMU who have offered support during the writing of this book.

    An early version of Chapter 3 was presented to the Council of Europe Seminar on Young People and Social Exclusion in Budapest, November 2005.

    Especially thank you to people who read work in draft: Bernard Davies, Mary Marken, Vera Martins, Rebecca O' Rourke, Carol Packham, Alison Ronan, John Shiers, Jean Spence, Diane Watt and to the anonymous reviewer for helpful feedback.

    Margaret Beetham read the whole thing.

    You are none of you responsible for any of the shortcomings.

    Thank you to Julian and to Greg, and to Margaret. You know what for!

  • References

    Adams, J. (2007) Go Girls! Supporting Girls' Emotional Development and Building Self-esteem. Brighton: TSA.
    Ahmed, S. (2004) The Cultural Politics of Emotion. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    Allport, G. (1954) The Nature of Prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Anthias, F. and Yuval Davis, M. (1992) Racialised Boundaries: Race, Gender, Colour and Class in the Anti-Racist Struggle. London: Routledge.
    Archard, D. (2004) Children: Rights and Childhood. London: Routledge.
    Arnstein, S. (1969) ‘A ladder of citizen participation in the USA, Journal of American Institute of Planners, 35 (4): 216–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01944366908977225
    Back, L. (1996) New Ethnicities and Urban Culture: Racism and Multiculture in Young Lives. London: UCL Press.
    Badham, B. (2004) Act by Right. Leicester: National Youth Agency.
    Bamber, J. (2002) ‘Educational groupwork and active citizenship: towards a theoretical framework’, Youth and Policy74: 1–17.
    Banks, S. (ed.) (1999) Ethical Issues in Youth Work. London: Routledge.
    Barry, M. (ed.) (2006) Youth Policy and Social Inclusion: Critical Debate with Young People. London: Routledge.
    Batsleer, J. (1996) Working with Girls and Young Women in Community Settings. Ashgate: Arena.
    Batsleer, J. (2003) ‘Practices of friendship’, in Gilchrist, R., Jeffs, T. and Spence, J. (eds), Architects of Change: Studies in the History of Community and Youth Work. Leicester: National Youth Agency.
    Beckford, R. (2004) God and the Gangs: An Urban Toolkit for Those Who Won't Be Bought Out, Sold Out or Scared Out. London: DLT.
    Ben-Ari, A. and Gil, S. (1998) ‘Perceptions of life and death among suicidal gay adolescents’, Omega, Journal of Death and Dying, 37(2): 107–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/33B3-YBP6-0NLX-A9Q1
    Bennett, A. (2000) Popular Music and Youth Culture: Music Identity and Place. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Bennett, A. and Kahn-Harris, K. (eds) (2004) After Sub-Culture: Critical Studies in Contemporary Youth Culture. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Bhaba, H. and Gilman, S. (2001) ‘Just talking: tête à tête’, in Salamensky, S. I. (ed.), Talk, Talk, Talk: The Cultural Life of Everyday Conversation. London: Routledge.
    Blake, S. and Brown, R. (2007) Boys' Own: Supporting Self-esteem and Emotional Resourcefulness. Brighton: TSA.
    Boal, A. (1992) Games for Actors and Non-Actors. London: Routledge.
    Boal, A. (1998) The Legislative Theatre Using Performance to Make Politics. London: Routledge.
    Boal, A. (2000) Theatre of the Oppressed. London: Pluto Press.
    Borden, I. (1998) ‘An affirmation of urban life: skateboarding and socio-spatial censorship in the late twentieth century city’, ARCHIS, 1998(5).
    Borden, I. (2001) Skateboarding, Space and the City: Architecture and the Body. New York: Berg.
    Bradshaw, J. et al. (2004) The Drivers of Social Exclusion. London: Social Exclusion Unit Office of the Deputy Prime Minister.
    Brent, J. (2004) ‘Communicating what youth work achieves: the Smile and the Arch’, Youth and Policy, 84: 69–73.
    Bridge, G. and Watson, S. (2003) A Companion to the City. Oxford: Blackwell. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470693414
    Bynner, J. and Parsons, S. (2001) ‘Qualifications, basic skills and accelerating social exclusion’, Journal of Education and Work, 14(3): 279–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13639080120086102
    Cameron, D. and Kulick, D. (2003) Language and Sexuality. Cambridge: CUP. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511791178
    Cantle, T. (2001) Community Cohesion: A Report of the Review Team. London: Home Office.
    Carpenter, V. and Young, K. (1986) Coming in from the Margins. Youth Work with Girls and Young Women. Leicester: National Association of Youth Clubs.
    Cass, V. C. (1979) ‘Homosexual identity formation: a theoretical model’, Journal of Homosexuality, 4(3): 219–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v04n03_01
    Catan, L. (2004) Becoming Adult: Changing Youth Transitions in the 21st Century. Brighton: Trust for the Study of Adolescence.
    Chambers, E. (2003) Roots for Radicals: Organizing for Power, Action and Justice. New York and London: Continuum.
    Chauhan, V. (1989) Beyond Steel Bands and Samosas: Black Young People in the Youth Service. Leicester: National Youth Bureau, Commission for Racial Equality.
    Chauhan, V. (2003) ‘Revolutionising youth work: black perspectives in global youth work’, Youth and Policy, 80: 34–44.
    Cohen, P. (1997) Rethinking the Youth Question. London: Routledge.
    Cohen, P. (1990) Really Useful Knowledge? Photography and Cultural Studies in Pre-Vocational Education. London: Trentham.
    Cohen, S. (1972) Folk Devils and Moral Panics. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Coles, B. (2005) ‘Youth policy 1995–2005: From “the Best Start” to “Youth Smatters”’, Youth and Policy, 89, Autumn: 7–26.
    Collander Brown, D. (2005) ‘Being with another as a professional practitioner’, Youth and Policy, 86, Winter: 33–47.
    Colley, H. (2003) Mentoring for Social Inclusion: A Critical Approach to Nurturing Mentor Relationships. Falmer and London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203458310
    Colley, H. and Hodkinson, P. (2001) ‘Problems with bridging the gap: The reversal of structure and agency in addressing school exclusion’, Critical Social Policy, 21(3): 335–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026101830102100304
    Condor, S. (2006) ‘Public prejudice as collaborative accomplishment: towards a dialogic social psychology of racism’, Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 16: 1–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/casp.845
    Cowie, H. and Wallace, P. (2000) Peer Support in Action: From Bystanding to Standing By. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446219126
    Crimmens, D. and Whalen, A. (1999) ‘Rights-Based Approaches to Work with Young People’, in Banks, S. (ed.), Ethical Issues in Youth Work. London: Routledge.
    Cross, W.E. (1980) ‘Models of psychological nigrescence. A literature review’, in JonesR.L. (ed.), Black Psychology. New York: Harper & Row.
    Dadzie, S. (1997) Blood, Sweat and Tears. Leicester: Youth Work Press.
    Davies, B. (1999) A History of the Youth Service in England Vol. 1 1939–1979. From Voluntaryism to Welfare. Leicester: Youth Work Press.
    Davies, B. (2000) Streetcred? Values and Dilemmas in Mental Health Work with Young People. Manchester: 42nd Street.
    Davies, B. (2005) Youth Work: A Manifesto for Our Times. Leicester: National Youth Agency.
    Davies, D. (1995) Pink Therapy: A Guide for Working with Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Clients. London: Open University Press.
    Davis, M. and Wallbridge, D. (1987) Boundary and Space: An Introduction to the Work of D.W. Winnicott. London and New York: Brunner-Routledge.
    Dean, J. (1996) Solidarity of Strangers. Feminism after Identity Politics. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Delgado, R. (2001) Critical Race Theory: An Introduction. New York: New York University Press.
    Denham, J. (2002) Building Cohesive Communities: A Report of the Ministerial Review Group on Public Order and Community Cohesion. London: Home Office.
    Department of Education and Science (1991) Youth Work with Young People with Disabilities: A Report by HMI. London: DES.
    Department of Health (2004) Teenage Parents: Who Cares?London: DOH Teenage Pregnancy Unit.
    Development Education Association (2004) Global Youth Work Training and Practice Manual. London: DEA.
    Dillard, A. (1975) Pilgrim at Tinker Creek. London: Picador.
    Dowrick, S. (1992) Intimacy and Solitude: Balancing Closeness and Independence. London: The Women's Press.
    Erikson, E.H. (1968) Identity, Youth and Crisis. New York: Norton.
    Factor, F., Chauhan, V. and Pitts, J. (2001) The RHP Companion to Working with Young People. Lyme Regis: Russell House.
    Fahmy, E. (2005) ‘Youth, poverty and social exclusion’, in Gordon, D., Levitas, R. and Pantazis, C. (eds), Poverty and Social Exclusion in Britain: The Millennium Survey. Bristol: Policy Press. pp. 347–73.
    Fanon, F. (1986) Black Skins, White Masks. London: Pluto Press.
    Field, J. (2003) Social Capital. London: Routledge.
    Fine, N. and Macbeth, F. (1992) Playing with Fire: Training in the Creative Use of Conflict. Leicester: National Youth Agency.
    42nd Street (2005) Not Exactly Congratulations: Exploring the Emotional Wellbeing of Teenage Mothers and the Relevance of Postnatal Depression. Manchester: 42nd Street.
    Fraser, N. (1995) ‘From redistribution to recognition: dilemmas of justice in a post-socialist age’, New Left Review, 1(212), July-August. pp. 68–93.
    Freedman, M. (1993) The Kindness of Strangers: Adult Mentors, Urban Youth and the New Voluntarism. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Freire, P. (1972) Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Furlong, A. and Cartmel, C. (2007) Young People and Social Change. New Perspectives. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
    Gaine, C. (1995) Still No Problem Here, Anti-Racism in Predominantly White Schools. Stoke on Trent: Trentham.
    Geldard, D. and Geldard, K. (1999) Counselling Adolescents: The Pro-active Approach. London: Sage.
    Gibson, A. and Davies, B. (1967) The Social Education of the Adolescent. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Gilchrist, R. and Jeffs, T. (eds) (2001) Settlements, Social Changes and Community Action. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    Gilchrist, R., Jeffs, T. and Spence, J. (2003) Architects of Change: Studies in the History of Community and Youth Work. Leicester: National Youth Agency.
    Gilchrist, R., Jeffs, T. and Spence, J. (2006) Drawing on the Past: Essays in the History of Community and Youth Work. Leicester: National Youth Agency.
    Gilligan, C. (1982) In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development. Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press.
    Gilroy, P. (1993) The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness. London and New York: Verso.
    Goetschius, G. and Tash, J. (1967) Working with Unattached Youth. Problem, Approach, Method. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Gramsci, A. (1971) Selections from the Prison Notebooks. London: Lawrence & Wishart.
    Green, M. and Christian, C. (1998) Accompanying Young People on the Spiritual Path. London: The National Society/Church House.
    Griffin, C. (1993) Representations of Youth: The Study of Youth and Adolescence in Britain and America. Cambridge: Polity.
    Griffin, C. (2004) ‘Representations of the Young’, in Roche et al. (eds), Youth in Society. London: Sage.
    Hahn, K. (1965) Harrogate address on Outward Boundhttp://www.kurthahn.org/writings
    Hall, S. (1990) ‘Cultural Identity and Diaspora’, in Rutherford, (ed.), Identity: Community, Culture, Difference. London: Lawrence & Wishart.
    Hall, S. (2000) ‘Conclusion: the multicultural question’, in Hannibal-Paci, C. (2002) Un/settled Multiculturalisms: Diasporas, Entanglements, Transruptions. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Hall, S. and Jefferson, T. (eds) (1976) Resistance through Rituals: Youth Subcultures in Postwar Britain. London: Hutchinson.
    Hannibal-Paci, C. (2002) Un/settled Multiculturalisms: Diasporas, Entanglements, Transruptions. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Haraway, D. (1991a) ‘A Cyborg manifesto’, in Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature. London: Free Association Books.
    Haraway, D. (1991b) ‘Reading Buci Emeceta’, in Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature. London: Free Association Books.
    Harrison, R. and Wise, C. (2005) Working with Young People. London: Sage.
    Hart, R. (1992) Children's Participation from Tokenism to Citizenship. Florence: Innocenti Research Centre.
    Haug, F. (1987) Female Sexualisation: Memory, Work and Politics. London: Verso.
    Hawkins, P. and Shohet, R. (2003) Supervision in the Helping Professions. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
    Hebdige, D. (1979) Subculture: The Meaning of Style. London: Methuen. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203139943
    Hebdige, D. (1988) Hiding in the Light: On Images and Things. London: Comedia.
    Henderson, S., Holland, J., McGrellis, S., Sharpe, S. and Thomson, R. (2007) Inventing Adulthoods: A Biographical Approach to Youth Transitions. London: Sage.
    Hewitt, R. (1986) White Talk, Black Talk: Inter-racial Friendship and Communication among Adolescents. London: Cambridge University Press.
    HMI (2001) Youth Work with People with Disabilities. London: DES.
    Hodgson, L. (2004) ‘Manufactured civil society: counting the cost’, Critical Social Policy, 24(2): 139–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0261018304041948
    Home Office (2001) Community Cohesion A Report of the Independent Review Team chaired by Ted Cantle (The Cantle Report). London: Stationery Office.
    hooks, b. (1993) Sisters of the Yam: Black Women and Self-Recovery. Boston, MA: South End Press.
    hooks, b. (1994) Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom. London and New York: Routledge.
    Howson, C. and Sallah, M. (2007) Working with Black Young People. Lyme Regis: Russell House Press.
    Hunt, R. and Jensen, J. (2007) The School Report: The Experiences of Young Gay People in Britain's Schools. London: Stonewall.
    Issitt, M. (2000) ‘Critical professionals and reflective practice: the experience of women practitioners in health, welfare and education’, in Batsleer, J. and Humphries, B. (eds), Welfare, Exclusion and Political Agency. London: Routledge.
    Jeffs, T. and Smith, M. (eds) (1987) Youth Work. London: Macmillan.
    Jeffs, T. and Smith, M. (eds) (1988) Young People, Inequality and Youth Work. London: Macmillan.
    Jeffs, T. and Smith, M.K. (1996a) Informal Education-Conversation, Democracy and Learning. Derby: Education Now Publishing Co-op.
    Jeffs, T. and Smith, M. (1996b) ‘Getting the dirtbags off the street: curfews and other solutions to juvenile crime’, Youth and Policy, 52: 1–14.
    Jeffs, T. and SmithM.K. (2002) ‘Individualisation and Youth Work’, Youth and Policy, 76: 39–65.
    Jeffs, T. and Smith, M.K. (2006) ‘Where is Youth Matters taking us?’Youth and Policy, 91: 23–40.
    John, G. (1981) In the Service of Black Youth. A Study of the Political Culture of Youth and Community Work with Black People in English Cities. Leicester: National Association of Youth Clubs.
    John, G. (2006) Taking a Stand: Gus John Speaks on Education, Race, Social Action and Civil Unrest. Manchester: Gus John Partnership.
    Jones, G. (2002). The Youth Divide: Diverging Paths to Adulthood. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
    Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2006) What Will it Take to End Child Poverty? Findings July 2006. York: JRF.
    Khan, M.G. (ed.) (2006) Special issue on Muslim youth work, Youth and Policy, Summer.
    Kirkby, P. and Bryson, S. (2002) Measuring the Magic? Evaluating and Researching Young People's Participation in Public Decision Making. London: Carnegie Young Persons' Initiative.
    Kitzinger, C. and Wilkinson, S. (1995) ‘Transitions from heterosexuality to lesbianism: The discursive production of lesbian identities’, Developmental Psychology, 31: 95–104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.31.1.95
    Ledwith, M. and Asgill, P. (2000) ‘Critical alliance: Black and white women working together for social justice’, Community Development Journal35(3): 290. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cdj/35.3.290
    Lees, S. (1983) Losing Out: Sexuality and Adolescent Girls. London: Hutchinson.
    Levitas, R. (2004) The Inclusive Society? Social Exclusion and New Labour. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Lister, R., Smith, N., Middleton, S. and Cox, L. (2005) ‘Young people and citizenship’, in Barry, M. (ed.), Youth Policy and Social Inclusion: Critical Debate with Young People. London: Routledge.
    Local Government Association (2006) Children in Trouble. London: LGA Report.
    Lorenz, W. (1994) Social Work in a Changing Europe. London: Routledge.
    Luxmoore, N. (2000) Listening to Young People in School, Youth Work and Counselling. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    Matthews, R. and Young, J. (eds) (2003) The New Politics of Crime and Punishment. Devon: Willan.
    McDonald, R. and Marsh, J. (2005) Disconnected Youth? Growing Up in Britain's Poor Neighbourhoods. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
    McPherson, W. (1999) The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry. Cm 4262–I. London: Home Office.
    Memmi, A. (1965) The Colonizer and the Colonized. New York: Orion Press.
    Mental Health Foundation (1999) Bright Futures: Promoting Children and Young People's Mental Health. London: Mental Health Foundation.
    Merton, B. et al. (2004) An Evaluation of the Impact of Youth Work in England. Nottingham: DFES.
    Miles, S., Pohl, A., Stauber, B. and Walther, A. (2002) Communities of Youth: Cultural Practice and Informal Learning. Aldershot: Ashgate.
    Milner, M. (1986) A Life of One's Own. London: Virago.
    Mistry, T. and Brown, A. (1991) ‘Black/white co-working in groups’, Groupwork, 4 (2): 18–24.
    Moss, B. (2005) Religion and Spirituality. Lyme Regis: Russell House Press.
    NAPO (2005) Asbos: An Analysis of the First Six Years. London: NAPO (July).
    Nussbaum, M. (1999) Sex and Social Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Nussbaum, M. and Sen, A. (1993) The Quality of Life. Oxford: Clarendon Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/0198287976.001.0001
    Oakley, A. (2004–5) ‘The researcher's agenda for evidence’, in What Kind of Evidence Does Government need?Special issue of Evaluation and Research in Education, 18 (1 & 2): 12–27.
    Oldfield, C. and Fowler, C. (2004) Mapping Children and Young People's Participation in England. Dfes Research Report 584. London: DFES.
    Ord, J. (2004) ‘The youth work curriculum and the transforming Youth Work agenda’, Youth and Policy, 83: 43–60.
    Ord, J. (2007) Youth Work Process, Product and Practice: Creating an Authentic Curriculum in Work with Young People. Lyme Regis: Russell House.
    Palmer, S. (2002) Multicultural Counselling. A Reader. London: Sage.
    Perrin, J. (2006) The Climbing Essays. Edinburgh: Neil Wilson.
    Phillips, A. (1993) On Kissing, Tickling and Being Bored. London: Faber.
    Pierson, J. and Smith, J. (2001) Rebuilding Communities: Common Problems and Approaches. Basingstoke: Palgrave. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9781403919878
    Piper, D. E. (2007) Young People, Suicide and Self-Harm. Brighton: TSA.
    Richardson, L. D. and Wolfe, M. (eds) (2001) Principles and Practice of Informal Education: Learning through Life. Falmer: Routledge.
    Roche, J. (2004) ‘Children's rights participation and dialogue’ in Roche, J., Tucker, S., Thomson, R. and Flynn, R., Youth in Society. London: Sage.
    Roche, J., Tucker, S., Thomson, R. and Flynn, R. (2004) Youth in Society. London: Sage.
    Rose, N. (1996) Inventing Ourselves: Psychology, Power and Personhood. New York and Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511752179
    Roy, A. (2002) Sydney Peace Prize Lecturehttp://www.smh.com.au.
    Rutherford, J. (ed.) (1990) Identity: Community, Culture, Difference. London: Lawrence & Wishart.
    Salamensky, S. I. (ed.) (2001) Talk, Talk, Talk: The Cultural life of Everyday Conversation. London: Routledge.
    Sawbridge, M. and Spence, J. (1991) The Dominance of the Male Agenda in Community and Youth Work. Durham: Durham University Press.
    Scott, J. (1990) Domination and the Arts of Resistance. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
    Sen, A. (1999) Development as Freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Sennett, R. (2003) Respect in a World of Inequality. New York: Norton.
    Smith, M. (1988) Developing Youth Work. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Smith, M. (1993) Local Education: Community, Conversation, Praxis. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
    Smith, M. E. and Smith, M. K. (2002) ‘Friendship: theory and experience’, in The Encyclopaedia of Informal Education. http://www.infed.org/encyclopaedia.htm
    Smithson, H. and Flint, J. (2006) ‘Responding to young people's involvement in antisocial behaviour: a study of local initiatives in Manchester and Glasgow’, Youth and Policy, 93 Autumn: 21–39.
    Social Exclusion Unit (1999) Teenage Pregnancy. Cm 4342. London: The Stationery Office.
    Spandler, H. and Warner, S. (2007) Beyond Fear and Control: Working with Young People Who Self-harm. Manchester: 42nd Street.
    Spence, J. (2006) ‘Working with girls and young women: a broken history’, in Gilchrist, R., Jeffs, T. and Spence, J.Drawing on the Past: Essays in the History of Communty and Youth Work. Leicester: National Youth Agency.
    Spence, J. and Devanney, C. (2007) Youth Work: Voices of Practice. Leicester: National Youth Agency.
    Stratford, E. (2002) ‘On the edge: a tale of skaters and urban governance’, Social and Cultural Geography, 3(2): 193–204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14649360220133943
    Tate, S. (2005) Black Skins, Black Masks: Hybridity, Dialogism, Performativity. London: Ashgate.
    Thomas, P. (2003) ‘Young people, community cohesion and the role of youth work in building social capital’, Youth and Policy, 81: 41–60.
    Thomas, T. (2005) ‘The continuing story of the ASBO’, Youth and Policy, 87 (Spring): 5–14.
    Thomas, T. (2007) ‘A year of tackling anti-social behaviour: some reflections on realities and rhetoric’, Youth and Policy, 94 (Winter): 5–19.
    Thompson, K. (1998) Moral Panics. London and New York: Routledge.
    Thompson, N. (ed.) (2002) Loss and Grief: A Guide for Human Service Practitioners. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
    Tronto, J. (1993) Moral Boundaries: A Political Argument for an Ethic of Care. London: Routledge.
    UNICEF Report Card Seven (2007) Child Poverty in Perspective: An Overview of Child Wellbeing in Rich Countries. Florence: UNICEF.
    Valentine, G. (2004) Public Space and the Culture of Childhood. London: Ashgate.
    Walkerdine, V., Lucey, H. and Melody, J. (2002) Growing up Girl: Psychosocial Explorations of Gender and Class. Basingstoke: Macmillan Palgrave.
    Webb, M. (2001) ‘Working with Black young people’, in Factor, F. et al., The RHP Companion to Working with Young People. Lyme Regis: Russell House.
    Wetherell, M. and Potter, J. (1992) Mapping the Language of Racism. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    Williams, L.O. (1988) Partial Surrender: Race and Resistance in the Youth Service. Basingstoke: Falmer Press.
    Williams, R. (2004) Silence and Honey Cakes. Oxford: Lion.
    Willis, P. (1990) Common Culture. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Wilson, R. (2006) What Works for Reconciliation?Belfast: Democratic Dialogue.
    Winnicott, D.W. (1964) The Child, the Family and the Outside World. London: Penguin.
    Winnicott, D.W. (1971) Playing and Reality. London: Tavistock.
    Wolfe, M. (2001) ‘Conversation’, in Richardson, L.D. and Wolfe, M. (eds), Principles and Practice of Informal Education: Learning Through Life. London: Routledge. pp. 124–37
    Woolley, H. and Johns, R. (2001) ‘Skateboarding: the city as playground’, Journal of Urban Design, 6(2): 211–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13574800120057845
    Young, I. M. (2000) Inclusion and Democracy. Oxford Political Theory Series. Oxford: OUP.
    Young, K. (1999) ‘The youth worker as guide, philosopher and friend’, in Banks, S. (ed.), Ethical Issues in Youth Work. London: Routledge.
    Young, K. (2006) The Art of Youth Work. Lyme Regis: Russell House.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website