Infant Cognition: Predicting Later Intellectual Functioning

Books

John Colombo

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Sage Series on Individual Differences and Development

    RobertPlomin, Series Editor

    The purpose of the Sage Series on Individual Differences and Development is to provide a forum for a new wave of research that focuses on individual differences in behavioral development. A powerful theory of development must be able to explain individual differences, rather than just average developmental trends, if for no other reason than that large differences among individuals exist for all aspects of development. Variance—the very standard deviation—represents a major part of the phenomenon to be explained. There are three other reasons for studying individual differences in development: First, developmental issues of greatest relevance to society are issues of individual differences. Second, descriptions and explanations of normative aspects of development bear no necessary relationship to those of individual differences in development. Third, questions concerning the processes underlying individual differences in development are more easily answered than questions concerning the origins of normative aspects of development.

    Editorial Board

    Dr. Paul B. Baltes

    Director, Max Planck Institute for Human Development and Education

    Dr. Dante Cicchetti

    Director, Mt. Hope Family Center, University of Rochester

    Dr. E. Mavis Heatherington

    Professor of Psychology, University of Virginia

    Dr. Carroll E. Izard

    Professor of Psychology, University of Delaware

    Dr. Robert B. McCall

    Director, Office of Child Development, University of Pittsburgh

    Michael Rutter

    Professor of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, London, England

    Dr. Richard Snow

    Professor of Education and Psychology, Stanford University

    Dr. Stephen J. Suomi

    Chief, Laboratory of Comparative Ethology, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

    Dr. Elizabeth J. Susman

    Professor of Nursing and Human Development, The Pennsylvania State University

    Books in this Series

    Volume 1 HIGH SCHOOL UNDERACHIEVERS: What Do They Achieve as Adults?

    Robert B. McCall, Cynthia Evahn, and Lynn Kratzer

    Volume 2 GENES AND ENVIRONMENT IN PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT

    John C. Loehlin

    Volume 3 THE NATURE OF NURTURE

    Theodore D. Wachs

    Volume 4 YOUNG CHILDREN'S CLOSE RELATIONSHIPS: Beyond Attachment

    Judy Dunn

    Volume 5 INFANT COGNITION: Predicting Later Intellectual Functioning

    John Colombo

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Dedication

    per Dante anche Fiorenza

    Tables and Figures

    Series Editor's Preface

    I am pleased to welcome John Colombo's book to the Sage Series on Individual Differences and Development. I confidently predict that this book will become a classic because it caps a new wave of interest in individual differences in infant cognition. This is the best example of what can happen when a field that traditionally focused on normative themes of development begins to consider individual variations on those themes, the very standard deviation.

    Personally, this book puts to rest an irritation that has bothered me for a decade. Ten years ago, the current edition of the Handbook of Child Psychology was published. I was on sabbatical and went through the thousands of pages, page by page, keeping myself alert by recording the number of pages that referred to individual differences. Day after day my irritation rose because more than 70% of the pages are normative, not even mentioning individual differences. The worst offenders were the chapters from the heartland of experimental research: perception. A total of 189 large pages of text with small print consists of chapters on visual perception; auditory and speech perception; and attention, learning, and memory. Not a single page in these three chapters refers to individual differences.

    The relative disregard of individual differences is unfortunate because, as Dr. Colombo's book attests, experimental psychologists have designed especially sensitive, process-oriented measures that can be very profitably applied to the investigation of individual differences. Other domains are also likely to profit by following the example of infant cognition by moving in the direction of individual differences. Two of the other chapters in the handbook that do not address individual differences are prime candidates: language and brain development.

    Colombo's book also exemplifies some of the stresses that emerge as a field turns to consider individual differences. Compared to the study of means, the study of variance is more demanding in three ways. First, it is more demanding psychometrically. Dr. Colombo emphasizes that tests of infant cognition must be made more reliable. Indeed, consistent predictions of childhood cognitive abilities from these infant tests are all the more remarkable given the modest reliability of the infant tests. Second, individual differences research requires larger samples, but this strains against the intensive testing requirements of most measures of infant cognition. Third, individual differences research employs different statistics, the statistics of individual differences. These statistics focus on variability rather than treating it as “error valiance” in analyses of mean differences between groups. A subtle and somewhat paradoxical strain is that the statistics of individual differences are readily translated into the amount of variance explained. In contrast, analyses of group differences focus on statistical significance. The focus on variance explained is often humbling because it rudely reminds us, for example, that correlations of about .45 between tests of infant cognition and childhood cognitive ability only explain about 20% of the variance.

    However, despite its bitter taste, this is important medicine. The preoccupation of the social and behavioral sciences with statistical significance has left a mountain of statistically significant results that are insignificant by any definition of societal relevance. The emphasis on variance explained is a virtue of individual differences research. Any mean group difference can also be converted to a statement of effect size. Rarely do such differences explain as much as 20% of the variance.

    Another impediment to studying individual differences is that individual differences research often seems atheoretical. Without a theory, data gathering can lead to a collection of inconsequential facts. The issue, however, is not a dichotomy between theory and data but rather the balance between them. Researchers interested in individual differences tend to start with data and stay close to their data; their theories often remain implicit. As Dr. Colombo indicates in his preface, he was reluctant to be theoretical and speculative and was persuaded to do so only by persistent prodding by friends. The last chapter of this volume proves that his friends were right. Dr. Colombo develops a theory, although he modestly insists on calling it only a “speculative, tentative, working hypothesis,” that focuses on the processes underlying individual differences in infant cognition. This chapter sets the agenda for research in this field, an agenda that will maintain the field's momentum far into the next century.

    RobertPlomin

    Preface

    The proliferation of research on individual differences in development has been especially dramatic in the study of information processing in the preverbal human infant. Much recent work has sought measures that might reflect aspects of information processing during infancy, with the hope that such measures might offer better prediction of later intellectual functioning than that afforded by more traditional standardized infant tests. This recent work has, to a degree, confirmed and realized this hope; four different measures that were developed as part of basic laboratory work on attention and learning during infancy have been shown to predict to later childhood intellectual performance.

    The purpose of this volume is to present the historical and procedural contexts of these four measures of infant cognition; this is accomplished in four distinct steps. First, the history of the development of the measure is reviewed, followed by a relatively nontechnical account of how the measures are collected. Next, the psychometric properties of the measure involved are reviewed, leading to the final step, a review of the evidence on the predictive validity of the measure. On this last point, along with presenting evidence on how well the infant measure predicts to subsequent childhood measures (lagged prediction), the degree to which the infant measure in question relates to other characteristics evident during the infancy period (concurrent prediction) is also addressed.

    Two other issues are addressed in this book with respect to the predictive validity of these measures from infancy. The first deals with criticisms directed toward this research concerning the strength of the predictions involved (which have been declaimed as only modest in nature). The second concerns the number and nature of the infant information processing components thought to underlie this prediction.

    There is both too much and not enough in this volume. Even the most casual reader will notice that I have spent more time on some measures than on others; the disproportionate length of Chapter 2 has caught the attention of several readers of earlier drafts of the book. Chapter 2 is a little longer because the measures discussed there have a longer history than do measures discussed in Chapter 3. During this more protracted history, there has been considerable variance with which the measures have been collected and applied. As a result, there is much confusion over which measures are best, and what they might reflect. Therefore, I have expended some effort in trying to clear some of this up in Chapter 2, particularly with respect to visual habituation. I hope that the reader will allow me this indulgence. Furthermore, some things are missing. For example, although I had been urged to review the research on the behavior genetics of infant information processing in Chapter 4, I have not done so because there are others who are more facile in the concepts and subtleties that guide that work. I have instead referred the reader to much more competent summaries of that area than I could have provided in the space allowed. This should not connote to the reader discomfort with either the topic or this research; behavior genetics is an exciting and fruitful field, particularly for the student of development.

    In the course of writing this volume, I have accrued many debts. First, I thank Dr. Robert Plomin for asking me to contribute to the Sage Series, and C. Deborah Laughton at Sage for her unwarranted patience and tact. Dr. Plomin, Dr. Lee A. Thompson at Case Western Reserve University, and a third (anonymous) reviewer offered cogent and helpful comments on the first draft of the manuscript. Dr. Jeffrey W. Fagen at St. John's University and Dr. Marshall M. Haith at the University of Denver also provided critical suggestions on Chapter 3; I am especially grateful to Dr. Haith, who most graciously provided me with a copy of the complete file of unpublished materials on the visual anticipation paradigm and a cogent account of his theoretical interpretation of what occurs within it.

    Here at Kansas, earlier drafts of either all or some of the manuscript were read and reviewed by Dr. Aletha Huston, Janet Frick, Jennifer Ryther, and Charlie Cleanthous (who helped me in securing permissions for tables and figures from other sources). Sara Coleman assisted in compiling the index.

    In addition to the credits acknowledged above, I owe debts to a number of other individuals into whose stimulating intellectual environments I have stumbled at one time or another during my career. Dr. Frances Degen Horowitz facilitated and counseled my work during most of the past decade; whatever level of maturity and sensibility that I may be judged to possess at this point in my life may be reasonably attributed to her. J. Ken Nishita, Jack Meacham, Jim Pomerantz, and my adviser, Bob Bundy, were pivotal influences during my years at the State University of New York at Buffalo.

    This book in many ways represents the influence of my longtime friend and collaborator, D. Wayne Mitchell, now at Southwest Missouri State University. Wayne and I worked together in conceptualizing the book, and his contribution is evident throughout Chapter 1. Furthermore, credit for the program of research on fixation duration, which is described in somewhat excruciating detail in Chapter 2, is equally shared with him. Unfortunately, Wayne had to withdraw from the project, because of other commitments, and would not allow himself to be listed as a co-author without a higher degree of specific contribution to it. Although he is not listed on the cover or title pages of this book, without his professional and personal support and counsel to me over the past 12 years, it would most certainly not exist.

    Finally, I am most grateful for the support and encouragement of a relatively recent collaborator in my life, Dr. Dale Walker.

    These acknowledgments aside, any errors of commission, omission, or misinterpretation that appear on the pages that follow are mine alone. In the past few years, I have been criticized on more than one occasion (and by more than one individual) for not being theoretical enough. Indeed, during a recent promotion review at the University of Kansas, a letter from an outside evaluator contained the criticism that I rarely speculated “beyond the data” at hand. (Luckily, the subcommittee viewed this as a positive attribute, and I got the promotion.) In any case, I have been encouraged to be a little more speculative in this volume, and I have tried to comply, especially in the concluding and admittedly speculative final chapter. Whatever the ultimate disposition of the model proposed there, I hope that students of the field find this bit of work helpful, and that it serves to generate further interest and inquiry into this important area of developmental psychology.

    JohnColombo, Lawrence, Kansas, May 1993
  • References

    Ackerman, P.L. (1987). Individual differences in skill learning: An integration of psychometric and information processing perspectives. Psychological Bulletin, 102, 3–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.102.1.3
    Ackerman, P.L., Sternberg, R.J., & Glaser, R. (1989). Learning and individual differences: Advances in theory and research. New York: Freeman.
    Anderson, J.R. (1983). The architecture of cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Anokhin, P.K. (1964). The developing brain. Progress in Brain Research, 9, 54–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6123%2808%2963131-3
    Appelbaum, M., & McCall, R.B. (1983). Design and analysis in developmental psychology. In W.H.Kessen (Ed.), Handbook of child development (Vol. 1, pp. 415–476). New York: Academic Press.
    Arehart, D.M., & Haith, M.M. (1990a, April). Memory for space-time rules in the infant visual expectation paradigm. Paper presented at the meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Seattle, WA.
    Arehart, D.M., & Haith, M.M. (1990b, May). Evidence for space-time rule transfer in 13-week-old infants. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Developmental Psychobiology Research Group, Estes Park, CO.
    Arehart, D.M., & Haith, M.M. (1991). Evidence for visual expectation violations in 13-week-old infants. Paper presented at the meeting of the Society for Research on Child Development, Seattle, WA.
    Aslin, R.N. (1985). Oculomotor measures of visual development. In G.Gottleib & N.Krasnegor (Eds.), Measurement of audition and vision in the first year of postnatal life: A methodological overview (pp. 319–417). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    Barten, S., & Ronch, J. (1971). Continuity in the development of visual behavior in young infants. Child Development, 42, 1566–1571. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1127921
    Bashinski, H., Werner, J., & Rudy, J. (1985). Determinants of infant fixation: Evidence for a two-process theory. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 39, 580–598. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-0965%2885%2990058-X
    Bayley, N. (1931). The consistency of mental growth during the first year. Psychological Bulletin, 28, 225–226.
    Bayley, N. (1933). The California first-year mental scale. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Bayley, N. (1936). The California infant scale of motor development. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Bayley, N. (1940). Studies in the development of young children. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Bayley, N. (1965). Comparisons of mental and motor test scores for ages 1–15 months by sex, birth order, race, geographical location, and education of parents. Child Development, 36, 379–411. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1126464
    Bayley, N. (1969). The Bayley scales of infant development: Birth to two years. New York: The Psychological Corporation.
    Bayley, N. (1970). The development of mental abilities. In P.Mussen (Ed.), Carmichael's manual of child psychology (Vol. I, pp. 1163–1209). New York: John Wiley.
    Bayley, N., & Schaefer, E.S. (1964). Correlations of maternal and child behaviors with the development of mental abilities: Data from the Berkeley Growth Studies. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 29 (6, Whole No. 97). http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1165805
    Benson, J.B., Cherny, S.S., Haith, M.M., & Fulker, D.W. (1992). Rapid assessment of infant predictors of adult IQ: The midtwin-midparent approach. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Psychology, University of Denver, Denver, CO.
    Berg, C.A., & Sternberg, R.J. (1985). Response to novelty: Continuity vs. discontinuity in the developmental course of intelligence. In H.W.Reese (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 15, pp. 1–47). New York: Academic Press.
    Berlyne, D.E. (1958). The influence of complexity and albedo of stimuli on visual fixation in the human infant. British Journal of Psychology, 49, 315–318. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.1958.tb00669.x
    Berntson, G.G., Tuber, D.S., Ronca, A.E., & Bachman, D.S. (1983). The decerebrate human: Associative learning. Experimental Neurology, 81, 77–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0014-4886%2883%2990158-9
    Bertenthal, B.B., Campos, J.J., & Haith, M.M. (1983). The partial-lag design: A method for controlling spontaneous regression in the infant control procedure. Infant Behavior and Development, 6, 331–338. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0163-6383%2883%2980041-1
    Binet, A., & Simon, H. (1905). Sur la necessite d'etablir un diagnostic scientifique des etats inferieurs de l'intelligence [On the necessity of establishing a scientific diagnosis of lesser levels of intelligence]. L'Annee Psychologique, 11, 191–224.
    Binet, A., & Simon, H. (1911). A method for measuring the development of the intelligence of young children. Lincoln, IL: Courier.
    Bornstein, M.H. (1984, April). Infant attention and caregiver stimulation: Two contributions to early cognitive development. International Conference on Infant Studies, New York, NY.
    Bornstein, M.H. (1985). How infant and mother jointly contribute to developing cognitive competence in the child. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), 82, 7470–7473. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.82.21.7470
    Bornstein, M.H. (1989). Sensitive periods in development: Structural characteristics and causal interpretations. Psychological Bulletin, 105, 179–197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.105.2.179
    Bornstein, M.H., & Benasich, A.A. (1986). Infant habituation: Assessments of individual differences and short-term reliability at five months. Child Development, 57, 87–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1130640
    Bornstein, M.H., Pecheaux, M.G., & Lecuyer, R. (1988). Visual habituation in human infants: Development and rearing circumstances. Psychological Research, 50, 130–133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00309213
    Bornstein, M.H., & Sigman, M.S. (1986). Continuity in mental development from infancy. Child Development, 57, 251–274. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1130581
    Borstelmann, L.J. (1983). Children before psychology: Ideas about children from antiquity to the late 1800s. In P.Mussen (Series Ed.) & W.Kessen (Volume Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 1. History, theory and methods (pp. 1–40). New York: John Wiley.
    Brackbill, Y. (1958). Extinction of the smiling response in infants as a function of reinforcement schedules. Child Development, 29, 115–124.
    Bronson, G. (1982). The scanning patterns of human infants: Implications for visual learning. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    Bronson, G. (1991). Infant differences in rate of visual encoding. Child Development, 62, 44–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1130703
    Brooks, J., & Weinraub, M. (1976) A history of infant intelligence testing. In M.Lewis (Ed.), Origins of intelligence (pp. 19–58). New York: Plenum. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-6961-5_2
    Brooks-Gunn, J., & Weinraub, M. (1983). Origins of infant intelligence testing. In M.Lewis (Ed.), Origins of intelligence (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 25–66). New York: Plenum.
    Brown, W., & Thomson, G.W. (1921). The essentials of mental measurement. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11188-000
    Buhler, C. (1930). The first year of life. New York: John Day. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11625-000
    Buhler, C., & Hetzer, H. (1935). Testing children's development from birth to school age. New York: Farrar and Rinehart.
    Butterfield, E., & Dickerson, D. (1976). Cognitive theory and mental development. In N.R.Ellis (Ed.), International review of mental retardation (Vol. 8). New York: Academic Press.
    Butterfield, E., Siladi, D., & Belmont, J.M. (1980). Validating theories of intelligence. In H.Reese (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 17, pp. 96–162). New York: Academic Press.
    Byrne, J.M., Clark-Tousenard, M.E., Hondas, B.J., & Smith, I.M. (1985, April). Stability of individual differences in infant visual attention. Society for Research in Child Development, Toronto, Ontario.
    Campione, J.C., Brown, A.L., & Ferrara, R.A. (1982). Mental retardation and intelligence. In R.J.Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of human intelligence (pp. 392–491). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Canfield, R.L. (1991, April). Stability of RT and visual expectancies from 4 to 6 months of age. Paper presented at the meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Seattle, WA.
    Canfield, R.L., & Haith, M.M. (1991). Young infants’ visual expectations for symmetric and asymmetric stimulus sequences. Developmental Psychology, 27, 1–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.27.2.198
    Cardon, L.R., & Fulker, D.W. (1991). Sources of continuity in infant predictors of later IQ. Intelligence, 15, 279–293. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0160-2896%2891%2990037-E
    Caron, A.J., Caron, R.F., & Glass, P. (1983). Responsiveness to relational information as a measure of cognitive functioning in nonsuspect infants. In T.Field & A.M.Sostek (Eds.), Infants born at risk (pp. 181–209). New York: Grune & Stratton.
    Caron, R.F., & Caron, A.J. (1968). The effects of repeated exposure and stimulus complexity on visual fixation in infants. Psychonomic Science, 10, 207–208.
    Carroll, J.B. (1976). Psychometric tests as cognitive tasks: A new “structure of intellect.” In L.B.Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp. 27–56). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Carroll, J.B. (1982). The measurement of intelligence. In R.J.Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of human intelligence (pp. 29–122). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Catalano, F.L., & McCarthy, D. (1954). Infant speech as a possible predictor of intelligence. Journal of Psychology, 38, 203–209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00223980.1954.9712930
    Cattell, J. (1890). Mental tests and measurements. Mind, 15, 373–381. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mind/os-XV.59.373
    Cattell, J., & Farrand, L. (1896). Physical and mental measurements of the students of Columbia University. Psychological Review, 3, 618–648. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0070786
    Cattell, P. (1960). The measurement of intelligence of infants and young children. New York: The Psychological Corporation. (Original work published 1940)
    Clifton, R.K. (1974). Heart rate conditioning in the newborn infant. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 13, 43–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-0965%2872%2990006-9
    Cohen, J., & Cohen, P. (1983). Applied multiple regression/correlation for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Cohen, L.B. (1969). Observing responses, visual preferences, and habituation to visual stimuli in infants. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 7, 419–433. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-0965%2869%2990004-6
    Cohen, L.B. (1972). Attention-getting and attention-holding processes of infant visual preferences. Child Development, 43, 869–879. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1127638
    Cohen, L.B. (1976). Habituation of infant visual attention. In T.Tighe & R.Leaton (Eds.), Habituation (pp. 207–238). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Cohen, L.B. (1981). Examination of habituation as a measure of aberrant infant development. In S.L.Friedman & M.D.Sigman (Eds.), Preterm birth and psychological development (pp. 241–253). New York: Academic Press.
    Cohen, L.B., DeLoache, J.S., & Pearl, R.D. (1977). An examination of interference effects in infants’ memory for faces. Child Development, 48, 88–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1128885
    Cohen, L.B., & Gelber, E.C. (1975). Infant visual memory. In L.Cohen & P.Salaptek (Eds.), Infant perception: From sensation to cognition (Vol. 1, pp. 347–404). New York: Academic Press.
    Cohen, L.B., & Menten, T.G. (1981). The rise and fall of infant habituation. Infant Behavior and Development, 4, 269–280. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0163-6383%2881%2980029-X
    Coldren, J.T. (1988, April). Habituation of infant attention during social interaction tasks. International Conference on Infant Studies, Washington, DC.
    Colombo, J. (1982). The critical period concept: Research, methodology, and theoretical issues. Psychological Bulletin, 91, 260–275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.91.2.260
    Colombo, J., & Bundy, R.S. (1983). Infant response to auditory familiarity and novelty. Infant Behavior and Development, 6, 305–311. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0163-6383%2883%2980039-3
    Colombo, J., & Fagen, J.W. (Eds.). (1990). Individual differences in infancy. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Colombo, J., & Horowitz, F.D. (1985). A parametric study of the infant control procedure. Infant Behavior and Development, 8, 117–121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0163-6383%2885%2980023-0
    Colombo, J., Laurie, C.A., Martelli, T.A., & Hartig, B.R. (1984). Stimulus context and infant orientation discrimination. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 37, 576–586. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-0965%2884%2990077-8
    Colombo, J., & Mitchell, D.W. (1988). Infant visual habituation: In defense of an information processing analysis. European Bulletin of Cognitive Psychology/ Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive, 8, 455–461.
    Colombo, J., & Mitchell, D.W. (1990). Individual differences in early visual attention: Fixation time and information processing. In J.Colombo & J.W.Fagen (Eds.), Individual differences in infancy (pp. 193–228). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Colombo, J., Mitchell, D.W., & Coldren, J.T. (1989). Discrimination learning in Down syndrome infants. Unpublished manuscript, Infant Cognition Laboratory, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS.
    Colombo, J., Mitchell, D.W., Coldren, J.T., & Freeseman, L.J. (1991). Individual differences in infant visual attention: Are short lookers faster processors or feature processors?Child Development, 62, 1247–1257. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1130804
    Colombo, J., Mitchell, D.W., Dodd, J., Coldren, J.T., & Horowitz, F.D. (1989). Longitudinal correlates of infant visual behavior in the paired-comparison paradigm. Intelligence, 13, 33–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0160-2896%2889%2990004-4
    Colombo, J., Mitchell, D.W., & Horowitz, F.D. (1988). Infant visual behavior in the paired-comparison paradigm: Test-retest and attention-performance relations. Child Development, 58, 1198–1210. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1130483
    Colombo, J., Mitchell, D.W., O'Brien, M., & Horowitz, F.D. (1987a). The stability of visual habituation during the first year of life. Child Development, 57, 474–488. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1130524
    Colombo, J., Mitchell, D.W., O'Brien, M., & Horowitz, F.D. (1987b). Stimulus and motoric influences on visual habituation to facial stimuli at three months of age. Infant Behavior and Development, 10, 173–181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0163-6383%2887%2990032-4
    Cooley, W.W. (1976). Who needs general intelligence? In L.B.Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp. 57–61). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Cooper, R. (1990, April). Novelty preference testing and visual habituation procedures: Reliabilities and relationships between measures at 3 months of age. Presented at the International Conference on Infant Studies, Montreal, Quebec.
    Cornell, E.H. (1979). Infants’ recognition memory, forgetting, and savings. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 28, 359–374. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-0965%2879%2990095-X
    Cronbach, L.J. (1957). The two disciplines of scientific psychology. American Psychologist, 12, 671–684. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0043943
    Cronbach, L.J. (1972). Beyond the two disciplines of scientific psychology. American Psychologist, 30, 116–127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0076829
    Cronbach, L.J. (1975). Five decades of public controversy over mental testing. American Psychologist, 33, 1–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.30.1.1
    Dannemiller, J.L. (1984). Infant habituation criteria: I. A Monte Carlo study of the 50% decrement criterion. Infant Behavior and Development, 7, 147–166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0163-6383%2884%2980055-7
    Deary, I. (1988). Intelligence and encoding speed in infants, adults, and children. European Bulletin of Cognitive Psychology, 8, 462–468.
    DeLoache, J.S. (1976). Rate of habituation and visual memory in infants. Child Development, 47, 145–154. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1128293
    DiLalla, L.F., Thompson, L.A., Plomin, R., Phillips, K., Fagan, J.F., Haith, M.M., Cyphers, L.H., & Fulker, D.W. (1990). Infant predictors of preschool and adult IQ: A study of infant twins and their parents. Developmental Psychology, 26, 759–769. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.26.5.759
    Estes, W.K. (1976). Intelligence and cognitive psychology. In L.B.Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp. 295–305). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Fagan, J.F. (1970). Memory in the infant. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 9, 217–226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-0965%2870%2990087-1
    Fagan, J.F. (1971). Infant recognition memory for a series of visual stimuli. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 11, 27–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-0965%2871%2990080-4
    Fagan, J.F. (1973). Infants’ delayed recognition memory and forgetting. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 16, 424–450. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-0965%2873%2990005-2
    Fagan, J.F. (1974). Infant recognition memory: The effects of length of familiarization and type of discrimination task. Child Development, 45, 351–356.
    Fagan, J.F. (1977). An attention model of infant recognition. Child Development, 48, 345–359. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1977.tb01171.x
    Fagan, J.F. (1981). Infant intelligence. Intelligence, 5, 239–243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0160-2896%2881%2980011-6
    Fagan, J.F. (1984a). The intelligent infant: Theoretical implications. Intelligence, 8, 1–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0160-2896%2884%2990002-3
    Fagan, J.F. (1984b). The relationship of novelty preferences during infancy to later intelligence and recognition memory. Intelligence, 8, 339–346. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0160-2896%2884%2990016-3
    Fagan, J.F., & Knevel, C. (1989, April). The prediction of above-average intelligence from infancy. Paper presented at the Society for Research in Child Development, Kansas City, MO.
    Fagan, J.F., & McGrath, S. (1981). Infant recognition memory and later intelligence. Intelligence, 5, 121–130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0160-2896%2881%2990002-7
    Fagan, J.F., & Shepard, P. (1986). The Fagan test of infant intelligence. Cleveland, OH: InfanTest Corporation.
    Fagan, J.F., Singer, J., Montie, J., & Shepard, P. (1986). Selective screening device for the early detection of normal or delayed cognitive development in infants at risk for later mental retardation. Pediatrics, 78, 1021–1026.
    Fagen, J.W., & Ohr, P. (1990). Individual differences in infant conditioning and memory. In J.Colombo & J.W.Fagen (Eds.), Individual differences in infancy (pp. 155–192). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Fantz, R.L. (1956). A method for studying early visual development. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 6, 13–15.
    Fantz, R.L. (1961). The origin of form perception. Scientific American, 204, pp. 66–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0561-66
    Fantz, R.L. (1964). Visual experience in infants: Decreased attention to familiar patterns relative to novel ones. Science, 146, pp. 668–670. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.146.3644.668
    Fantz, R.L., & Fagan, J.F. (1975). Visual attention to size and number of pattern details by term and preterm infants during the first six months. Child Development, 46, 3–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1128828
    Fantz, R.L., Fagan, J.F., & Miranda, S.B. (1975). Early visual selectivity. In L.Cohen & P.Salapatek (Eds.), Infant perception: Prom sensation to cognition (Vol. 1, pp. 249–346). New York: Academic Press.
    Fenson, L., Sapper, V., & Minner, D.G. (1974). Attention and manipulative play in the one-year-old child. Child Development, 45, 757–764. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1127842
    Fillmore, E.A. (1936). Iowa tests for young children. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press.
    Fitzgerald, H., & Porges, S. (1971). A decade of infant conditioning research. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 17, 79–117.
    Freeseman, L.J., Colombo, J., & Coldren, J.T. (in press). Individual differences in infant visual attention: I. Four-month-olds’ discrimination and generalization of global and local properties. Child Development.
    Friedman, S., Bruno, L.A., & Vietze, P. (1974). Newborn habituation to visual stimuli: A sex difference in novelty detection. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 18, 242–251. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-0965%2874%2990104-0
    Furfey, P.H., & Muehlenbein, J. (1932). The validity of infant intelligence tests. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 40, 219–233.
    Gagne, R. (Ed.). (1967). Learning and individual differences. Columbus, OH: Merrill.
    Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.
    Gardner, H. (1987). The mind's new science: A history of the cognitive revolution. New York: Basic Books.
    Garrett, H.E. (1928). The relation of tests of memory and learning to each other and to general intelligence in a highly selected adult group. Journal of Educational Psychology, 19, 601–613. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0074718
    Garrison, K.C. (1928). The correlation between intelligence test scores and success in certain rational organization problems. Journal of Applied Psychology, 12, 621–630. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0072565
    Gekoski, M., Fagen, J.W., & Pearlman, M.A. (1984). Early learning and memory in the preterm infant. Infant Behavior and Development, 7, 267–276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0163-6383%2884%2980042-9
    Gesell, A.L. (1925). The mental growth of the preschool child. New York: MacMillan.
    Gesell, A.L., & Amatruda, C.S. (1941). Developmental diagnosis. New York: Hoeber.
    Gesell, A.L., & Amatruda, C.S. (1945). The embryology of behavior: The beginnings of the human mind. New York: Harper.
    Gesell, A.L., & Amatruda, C.S. (1954). Developmental diagnosis. New York: Hoeber.
    Gesell, A.L., & Amatruda, C.S. (1962). Developmental diagnosis: Normal and abnormal child development, clinical methods and practical applications. New York: Harper.
    Gesell, A.L., & Ilg, F.E. (1943). Infant and child in the culture of today. New York: Harper.
    Gesell, A.L., Thompson, H., & Amatruda, C.S. (1934). An atlas of infant behavior. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11333-000
    Glaser, R. (1984). Education and thinking: The role of knowledge. American Psychologist, 39, 93–104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.39.2.93
    Gould, S.J. (1981). The mismeasure of man. New York: Norton.
    Green, J. (1990). Analyzing individual differences in development: Correlations and cluster analysis. In J.Colombo & J.W.Fagen (Eds.), Individual differences in infancy (pp. 77–112). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Greenberg, D.J., Uzgiris, I.C., & Hunt, J.M. (1970). Attentional preference and experience: III. Visual familiarity and looking time. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 117, 123–135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00221325.1970.10533942
    Groves, P.M., & Thompson, R.F. (1970). Habituation: A dual-process theory. Psychological Review, 77, 419–450. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0029810
    Hainline, L., & Riddell, P. (1992, May). The effects of visual deficits on the Fagan test of infant intelligence. Presented at the International Conference on Infant Studies, Miami, FL.
    Haith, M.M. (1990, April). The formation of visual expectations in early infancy. Paper presented at the International Conference on Infant Studies, Montreal, Quebec.
    Haith, M.M. (1991). Gratuity, perception-action, integration, and future orientation. In F.S.Kessel, M.H.Bornstein, & A.J.Sameroff (Eds.), Contemporary constructions in the child: Essays in honor of William Kessen (pp. 23–41). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Haith, M.M., Hazan, C., & Goodman, G.S. (1988). Expectation and anticipation of dynamic visual events by 3.5-month-old babies. Child Development, 59, 467–479. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1130325
    Haith, M.M., & McCarty, M.E. (1990). Stability of visual expectations at 3.0 months of age. Developmental Psychology, 26, 68–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.26.1.68
    Harris, P.L. (1973). Eye movements between adjacent stimuli: An age change in infancy. British Journal of Psychology, 64, 215–218. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.1973.tb01345.x
    Hayes, L.A., Ewy, R.D., & Watson, J.S. (1982). Attention as a predictor of learning in infants. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 34, 38–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-0965%2882%2990029-7
    Hess, E.H. (1975). The tell-tale eye. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
    Horowitz, F.D. (1969). Learning, developmental research, and individual differences. In H.W.Reese & L.P.Lipsitt (Eds.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 83–126). New York: Academic Press.
    Horowitz, F.D. (1987, April). Discussant's comments. In J.Colombo (Chair), Individual differences in infancy: Reliability, stability, and prediction. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Baltimore, MD.
    Horowitz, F.D., Paden, L.Y., Bhana, K., Aitchison, R., & Self, P.A. (1972). Developmental changes in infant visual fixation to differing complexity levels among cross-sectionally and longitudinally studied infants. Developmental Psychology, 7, 88–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0032695
    Horowitz, F.D., Paden, L.Y., Bhana, K., & Self, P.A. (1972). An infant control procedure for the study of infant visual fixations. Developmental Psychology, 7, 90.
    Hunt, E.B. (1980). Intelligence as an information processing concept. Journal of British Psychology, 71, 449–474. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.1980.tb01760.x
    Hunt, E.B., Frost, N., & Lunneborg, C. (1973). Individual differences in cognition: A new approach to intelligence. In G.H.Bower (Ed.), Psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 7, pp. 87–123). New York: Academic Press.
    Hunt, E.B., Lunneborg, C., & Lewis, J. (1975). What does it mean to be high verbal?Cognitive Psychology, 7, 194–227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0010-0285%2875%2990010-9
    Hunt, J.M. (1970). Attentional preference and experience: I. An introduction. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 117, 99–107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00221325.1970.10533940
    Husband, R.W. (1941). Intercorrelations among learned abilities: III. The effects of age and spread of intelligence among relationships. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 58, 431–444.
    Ingram, E.M., & Fitzgerald, H.E. (1974). Individual differences in infant orienting and autonomic conditioning. Developmental Psychobiology, 7, 359–367. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dev.420070413
    Jacobson, S.W., Jacobson, J.J., O'Neill, J.M., Padgett, R.J., Frankowski, J.J., & Bihun, J.T. (1992). Visual expectation and dimensions of infant information processing. Child Development, 63, 711–724. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1131356
    Janos, O., & Papousek, H. (1977). Acquisition of appetitional and palpebral conditional reflexes by the same infants. Early Human Development, 1, 91–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-3782%2877%2990032-9
    Jeffrey, W.E., & Cohen, L.B. (1971). Habituation in the human infant. In H.W.Reese (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 2, pp. 63–97). New York: Academic Press.
    Jencks, C. (1972). Inequality. New York: Basic Books.
    Kagan, J., & Lewis, M. (1965). Studies of attention in the human infant. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 11, 95–127.
    Kail, R. (1991a). Processing time declines exponentially during childhood and adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 27, 259–266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.27.2.259
    Kail, R. (1991b). Developmental change in speed of processing during childhood and adolescence. Psychological Bulletin, 109, 490–501. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.109.3.490
    Kail, R. (1991c). Development of processing speed in childhood and adolescence. In H.W.Reese (Ed.), Advances in child behavior and development (Vol. 23, pp. 151–185). New York: Academic Press.
    Kamin, L.J. (1975). The science and politics of IQ. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Kaplan, P.S., Werner, J.S., & Rudy, J.W. (1988). Habituation, sensitization, and infant visual attention. In C.Rovee-Collier (Ed.), Advances in infancy research. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    Kessen, W., Haith, M.M., & Salapatek, P.H. (1970). Human infancy: Abibliography and guide. In P.Mussen (Ed.), Carmichael's manual of child psychology (pp. 287–446). New York: John Wiley.
    Knobloch, T., & Pasamanick, N. (1974). Gesell and Amatruda's developmental diagnosis (
    3rd ed.
    ). Hagerstown, MD: Harper & Row.
    Kopp, C., & McCall, R.B. (1982). Predicting mental development for normal, at risk, and handicapped infants. In P.B.Baltes & O.G.Brim (Eds.), Life-span development and behavior (Vol. 4, 35–63). New York: Academic Press.
    Kuhlmann, F. (1912). A revision of the Binet-Simon system for measuring the intelligence of children. Journal of Psycho-Aesthetics, 16, 113–139.
    Kuhlmann, F. (1922). A handbook of mental tests. Baltimore: Warwick and York.
    Lamarre, G., & Pomerleau, A. (1985, July). The meaning of individual differences in early habituation. International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development, Tours, France.
    Lasky, R.E. (1979). Serial habituation or regression to the mean?Child Development, 50, 568–570. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1129436
    Lasky, R.E., & Spiro, T. (1980). The processing of tachistoscopically presented visual stimuli by five-month-old infants. Child Development, 51, 1292–1294. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1129576
    Lewis, M. (1969). A developmental study of information processing within the first three years of life: Response decrement to a redundant signal. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 34 (9, Whole No. 133). http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1165696
    Lewis, M. (1976). What do we mean when we say “infant intelligence scores”? A sociopolitical question. In M.Lewis (Ed.), Origins of intelligence (pp. 1–18). New York: Plenum. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-6961-5_1
    Lewis, M. (1983). On the nature of intelligence: Science or bias? In M.Lewis (Ed.), Origins of intelligence (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 1–24). New York: Plenum.
    Lewis, M., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (1981). Visual attention at three months as a predictor of cognitive functioning at two years of age. Intelligence, 5, 131–140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0160-2896%2881%2990003-9
    Lewis, M., Kagan, J., & Kalafat, J. (1966). Patterns of fixation in the young infant. Child Development, 37, 63–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1126429
    Linfert, H.E., & Hierholzer, H.M. (1928). A scale for measuring the mental development of infants during the first years of life. Baltimore: Williams and Witkin.
    Malcuit, G., Pomerleau, A., & Lamarre, G. (1988a). Habituation, visual fixation, and cognitive activity in infants: A critical analysis and attempt at a new formulation. European Bulletin of Cognitive Psychology/Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive, 8, 415–440.
    Malcuit, G., Pomerleau, A., & Lamarre, G. (1988b). Author's response. European Bulletin of Cognitive Psychology/Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive, 8, 539–547.
    Maurer, D., & Lewis, T.L. (1979). Peripheral discrimination by three-month-old infants. Child Development, 50, 276–279. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1129072
    Mayes, L., & Kessen, W. (1989). Maturational changes in measures of habituation. Infant Behavior and Development, 12, 437–450. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0163-6383%2889%2990025-8
    McCall, R.B. (1972). Similarity in developmental profile among related pairs of human infants. Science, 178, pp. 1004–1005. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.178.4064.1004
    McCall, R.B. (1976). Toward an epigenetic conception of mental development. In M.Lewis (Ed.), Origins of intelligence (pp. 97–122). New York: Plenum. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-6961-5_4
    McCall, R.B. (1979a). Qualitative transitions in behavioral development in the first two years of life. In M.H.Bornstein & W.Kessen (Eds.), Psychological development from infancy: Image to intention (pp. 183–224). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    McCall, R.B. (1979b). The development of intellectual functioning in infancy and the prediction of later IQ. In J.D.Osofsky (Ed.), Handbook of infant development (pp. 707–741). New York: John Wiley.
    McCall, R.B. (1979c). Individual differences in the pattern of habituation at 5 and 10 months of age. Developmental Psychology, 15, 559–569. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0078088
    McCall, R.B. (1983). A conceptual approach to early mental development. In M.Lewis (Ed.), Origins of intelligence (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 67–106). New York: Plenum.
    McCall, R.B. (1990). Infancy research: Individual differences. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 36, 117–140.
    McCall, R.B. (in press). A meta-analysis of infant habituation and recognition memory performance as predictors of later IQ. Child Development.
    McCall, R.B., Hogarty, P.S., Hamilton, J.S., & Vincent, J.H. (1973). Habituation rate and the infant's response to visual discrepancies. Child Development, 44, 280–287. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1128048
    McCall, R.B., Hogarty, P.S., & Hurlburt, N. (1972). Transitions in infant sensorimotor development and the prediction of childhood IQ. American Psychologist, 27, 728–748. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0033148
    McCall, R.B., & Kagan, J. (1967). Stimulus-schema discrepancy and attention in the infant. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 5, 381–390. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-0965%2867%2990066-5
    McCall, R.B., & Kagan, J. (1970). Individual differences in the infant's distribution of attention to stimulus discrepancy. Developmental Psychology, 2, 159–170. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0028602
    McCall, R.B., Kennedy, C.B., & Dodds, C. (1977). The interfering effect of distracting stimuli on the infant's memory. Child Development, 48, 79–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1128884
    McCarty, M.E., & Haith, M.M. (1989a, April). Rule-transfer in the infant visual expectation paradigm. Paper presented at the meetings of the Society for Research in Child Development, Kansas City, MO.
    McCarty, M.E., & Haith, M.M. (1989b, April). Predictability and its effects on infant visual expectations. Paper presented at the meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Kansas City, MO.
    Meacham, J.A., and Colombo, J. (1979). External cues facilitate prospective remembering in 5- and 7-year-olds. Journal of Educational Research, 3, 299–301.
    Millar, W.S. (1972). A study of operant conditioning under delayed reinforcement in early infancy. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 37 (Whole No. 147). http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1165687
    Millar, W.S. (1985). The effect of proximal and distal feedback on the contingency learning of 6- and 12-month-old normal and perinatally compromised infants. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 26, 789–800. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1985.tb00592.x
    Miller, D.J. (1972). Visual habituation in the human infant. Child Development, 43, 481–493. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1127550
    Miller, D.J., Ryan, E.B., Aberger, E., McGuire, M.D., Short, E.J., & Kenny, D.A. (1979). Relationships between assessments of habituation and cognitive performance in the early years of life. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 2, 159–170. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016502547900200204
    Miller, D.J., Ryan, E.B., Short, E.J., Ries, P.G., McGuire, M.D., & Culler, M.P. (1977). Relationships between early habituation and later cognitive performance in infancy. Child Development, 48, 658–661. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1128670
    Miller, D.J., Ryan, E.B., Sinnott, J.P., & Wilson, M.A. (1976). Serial habituation in two-, three-, and four-month-old infants. Child Development, 47, 341–349. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1128787
    Miller, G.A., Galanter, E., & Pribram, K.H. (1960). Plans and the structure of behavior. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10039-000
    Miranda, S.B., & Fantz, R.L. (1970). Recognition memory in Down syndrome and normal infants. Child Development, 45, 651–660. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1127831
    Mitchell, D.W., & Colombo, J. (1989, April). Fixation time as a predictor of 3- and 4-month-olds’ learning, retention, and transfer. Society for Research in Child Development, Kansas City, MO.
    Mitchell, D.W., & Horowitz, F.D. (1988, April). Processing of high- and low-saliency stimulus features by 3- and 4-month-old infants. International Conference on Infant Studies, Washington, DC.
    Mitchell, D.W., & Steiner, L. (1984, April). Individual differences in habituation performance: Implications for recovery behavior. International Conference on Infant Studies, New York, NY.
    Moss, H., & Robson, K. (1968). Maternal influences in early social visual behavior. Child Development, 39, 401–409. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1126954
    Navon, D. (1977). Forest before trees: The precedence of global features in visual perception. Cognitive Psychology, 9, 353–383. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0010-0285%2877%2990012-3
    Navon, D. (1983). How many trees does it take to make a forest?Perception, 12, 239–254. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/p120239
    Neisser, U. (1967). Cognitive psychology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
    Nelson, C., & Horowitz, F.D. (1983). The perception of facial expressions and stimulus motion by two- to five-month-old infants using holographic stimuli. Child Development, 54, 868–877.
    Nettelbeck, T. (1983). Inspection time and intelligence. In P.A.Vernon (Ed.), Speed of information-processing and intelligence (pp. 295–346). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    Nettelbeck, T., & Rabbitt, P.M.A. (in press). Aging, cognitive performance, and mental speed. Intelligence.
    O'Connor, M., Cohen, S., & Parmelee, A.H. (1984). Infant auditory discrimination in preterm and fullterm infants as a predictor of 5 year intelligence. Developmental Psychology, 20, 159–165.
    Ohr, P.S. (1989). Learning and memory in Down syndrome infants. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, St. John's University, New York.
    Olson, G.M. (1976). An information-processing analysis of visual memory and habituation in infants. In T.Tighe & R.Leaton (Eds.), Habituation (pp. 239–277). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Pancratz, C., & Cohen, L.B. (1970). Recovery of habituation in infants. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 9, 208–216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-0965%2870%2990086-X
    Papousek, H. (1967). Conditioning during postnatal development. In Y.Brackbill & G.G.Thompson (Eds.), Behavior in infancy and early childhood: A book of readings (pp. 259–274). New York: Free Press.
    Pearce, J.M., & Hall, H. (1980). A model for Pavlovian learning: Variations in the effectiveness of conditioned but not of unconditioned stimuli. Psychological Review, 87, 532–552. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.87.6.532
    Pecheaux, M-G., & Lecuyer, R. (1983). Habituation rate and free exploration tempo in 4-month-old infants. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 6, 37–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016502548300600103
    Pellegrino, J.W., & Glaser, R. (1979). Cognitive correlates and components in the analysis of individual differences. Intelligence, 3, 187–214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0160-2896%2879%2990017-5
    Ramey, C.T., & Ourth, L.L. (1971). Delayed reinforcement and vocalization rates of infants. Child Development, 42, 291–297. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1127083
    Rescorla, R.A., & Wagner, A.R. (1972). A theory of Pavlovian conditioning: Variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and nonreinforcement. In A.H.Black & W.F.Prokasy (Eds.), Classical conditioning II: Current research and theory (pp. 64–99). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
    Resnick, L.B. (1976). Changing conceptions of intelligence. In L.B.Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp. 1–12). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Reymert, M.L. (1920). Questionnaire for the observation of a young child from birth to two years of age. Pedagogical Seminary, 27, 200–204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08919402.1920.10532850
    Richards, J.E. (1985). The development of sustained visual attention in infants from 14 to 26 weeks of age. Psychophysiology, 22, 409–416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.1985.tb01625.x
    Richards, J.E. (1987). Infant visual sustained attention and respiratory sinus arrhythmia. Child Development, 58, 488–496. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1130525
    Richards, J.E. (1988). Heart rate changes and heart rate rhythms and infant visual sustained attention. In P.H.Ackles, J.R.Jennings, & M.G.H.Coles (Eds.), Advances in psychophysiology (Vol. 3, pp. 189–221). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    Richards, J.E. (1989). Development and stability of HR-defined, visual sustained attention in 14, 20, and 26 week old infants. Psychophysiology, 26, 422–430. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.1989.tb01944.x
    Richards, T.W., & Nelson, V.L. (1939). Abilities of infants during the first eighteen months. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 55, 299–318.
    Ritz, E., Woodruff, A.B., & Fagen, J.W. (1984). Short- and long-term stability of habituation rate and looking time in four-month-old infants. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 144, 285–286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00221325.1984.9923434
    Rose, D., Slater, A., & Perry, H. (1986). Prediction of childhood intelligence from habituation in early infancy. Intelligence, 10, 251–263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0160-2896%2886%2990019-X
    Rose, S.A. (1981). Developmental changes in infants’ retention of visual stimuli. Child Development, 52, 227–233. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1129235
    Rose, S.A. (1983). Differential rates of visual information processing in full-term and preterm infants. Child Development, 54, 1189–1198. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1129674
    Rose, S.A. (1988). Differential visual fixations and infant cognition. European Bulletin of Cognitive Psychology/Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive, 8, 499–502.
    Rose, S.A., & Feldman, J. (1987). Infant visual attention: Stability of individual differences from 6 to 8 months. Developmental Psychology, 23, 490–498. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.23.4.490
    Rose, S.A., & Feldman, J. (1990). Infant cognition: Individual differences and developmental continuities. In J.Colombo & J.F.Fagen (Eds.), Individual differences in infancy (pp. 247–270). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Rose, S.A., Feldman, J., McCarton, C., & Wolfson, J. (1988). Information processing in seven-month-old infants as a function of risk status. Child Development, 59, 589–603. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1130559
    Rose, S.A., Feldman, J., & Wallace, I. (1988). Individual differences in infant information processing: Reliability, stability, and prediction. Child Development, 59, 1177–1197. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1130482
    Rose, S.A., Feldman, J., & Wallace, I. (1992). Infant information processing in relation to six-year cognitive outcomes. Child Development, 63, 1126–1141. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1131522
    Rose, S.A., Feldman, J., Wallace, I., & Cohen, P. (1991). Language: A partial link between infant attention and later intelligence. Developmental Psychology, 27, 798–805. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.27.5.798
    Rose, S.A., Feldman, J., Wallace, I., & McCarton, C. (1989). Infant visual attention: Relation to birth status and developmental outcome during the first 5 years. Developmental Psychology, 25, 560–576. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.25.4.560
    Rose, S.A., Gottfried, A., & Bridger, W. (1978). Cross-modal transfer in infants: Relationship to prematurity and socioeconomic background. Developmental Psychology, 17, 661–669. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.17.5.661
    Rose, S.A., Gottfried, A., Melloy-Carminar, P., & Bridger, W. (1982). Familiarity and novelty preferences in infant recognition memory: Implications for information processing. Developmental Psychology, 18, 704–713. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.18.5.704
    Rose, S.A., & Wallace, I. (1985a). Cross-modal and intra-modal transfer as predictors of mental development in full-term and preterm infants. Developmental Psychology, 21, 949–962. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.21.6.949
    Rose, S.A., & Wallace, I. (1985b). Visual recognition memory: A predictor of later cognitive functioning in preterms. Child Development, 56, 885–891. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1130096
    Rovee, C., & Rovee, D. (1969). Conjugate reinforcement of infant exploratory behavior. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 8, 33–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-0965%2869%2990025-3
    Rovee-Collier, C.K. (1986). The rise and fall of infant classical conditioning research: Its promise for the study of early development. In L.P.Lipsitt & C.K.Rovee-Collier (Eds.), Advances in infancy research (Vol. 4, pp. 139–159). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    Rovee-Collier, C.K. (1987). Learning and memory in infancy. In J.D.Osofsky (Ed.), Handbook of infant development (pp. 98–148). New York: John Wiley.
    Rovee-Collier, C.K. (1988). The adaptive significance of habituation in infancy. European Bulletin of Cognitive Psychology/Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive, 8, 503–511.
    Rovee-Collier, C.K., & Fagen, J.W. (1981). The retrieval of memory in early infancy. In L.P.Lipsitt (Ed.), Advances in infancy research (Vol. 1, pp. 225–254). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    Rovee-Collier, C.K., Sullivan, M.W., Enright, M., Lucas, D., & Fagen, J.W. (1980). Reactivation of infant memory. Science, 208, pp. 1159–1161. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.7375924
    Ruddy, M., & Bornstein, M.H. (1982). Cognitive correlates of infant attention and maternal stimulation over the first year of life. Child Development, 53, 183–188. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1129651
    Ruff, H.A. (1975). The function of shifting fixations in the visual perception of infants. Child Development, 46, 857–865. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1128390
    Ruff, H.A. (1990). Individual differences in sustained attention during infancy. In J.Colombo & J.W.Fagen (Eds.), Individual differences in infancy (pp. 247–270). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Saayman, G., Ames, E.W., & Moffitt, A. (1964). Response to novelty as an indicator of visual discrimination in the human infant. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1, 189–198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-0965%2864%2990021-9
    Salthouse, T.A., & Kail, R. (1988). Memory development throughout the life span: The role of processing rate. In P.B.Baltes & O.Brim (Eds.), Life-span development and behavior (Vol. 5, pp. 89–116). New York: Academic Press.
    Sameroff, A.J., & Cavanaugh, P.J. (1979). Learning in infancy: A developmental perspective. In J.D.Osofsky (Ed.), Handbook of infant development (pp. 334–392). New York: John Wiley.
    Sattler, J.M. (1988). Assessment of children. San Diego: J. M. Sattler.
    Sears, R.R. (1975). Your ancients revisited: A history of child development. In E.M.Hetherington (Ed.), Review of child development research (Vol. 5, pp. 1–74). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Shepard, P., Fagan, J.F., & Knevel, C. (1990). Predicting later cognitive deficit from recognition memory at 3 to 5 months. Presented at the meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Seattle, WA.
    Shirley, M.M. (1931). The first two years: A study of twenty-five babies. I. Postural and locomotor development. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Shirley, M.M. (1933a). The first two years: A study of twenty-five babies. II. Intellectual development. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Shirley, M.M. (1933b). The first two years: A study of twenty-five babies. III. Personality manifestations. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Sidman, M. (1960). Tactics of scientific research. New York: Basic Books.
    Sigman, M. (1983). Individual differences in infant attention: Relations to birth status and intelligence at five years. In T.Field & A.M.Sostek (Eds.), Infants born at risk (pp. 271–293). New York: Grune & Stratton.
    Sigman, M., Cohen, S., Beckwith, L., Asarnow, R., & Parmelee, A.H. (1991). Continuity in cognitive abilities from infancy to 12 years of age. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Psychology, University of California at Los Angeles.
    Sigman, M.D., Cohen, S.E., Beckwith, L., & Parmelee, A.H. (1985, July). Infant attention in relation to intellectual abilities in childhood. International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development, Tours, France.
    Sigman, M.D., Cohen, S.E., Beckwith, L., & Parmelee, A.H. (1986). Infant attention in relation to intellectual abilities in childhood. Developmental Psychology, 22, 431–437. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.22.6.788
    Simon, T. (1916). Les deux premieres annees de l'enfant [The first two years of infancy]. Bulletin de la Societe Wore Etude psychologic des Enfants, 108, 1–64.
    Simrall, D. (1947). Intelligence and the ability to learn. Journal of Psychology, 13, 27–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00223980.1947.9917317
    Siqueland, E., & DeLucia, J. (1969). Visual reinforcement of non-nutritive sucking. Science, 165, pp. 1144–1146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.165.3898.1144
    Slater, A., Cooper, R., Rose, D., & Perry, H. (1985, July). The relationship between infant attention and learning, and linguistic and cognitive abilities at 18 months and at 4.5 years. Presented at the meeting of the International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development, Tours, France.
    Sokolov, E. (1963). Perception and the conditioned reflex. Oxford: Pergamon.
    Sontag, L.W., Baker, C.T., & Nelson, V.L. (1958). Mental growth and personality development: A longitudinal study. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 23 (Whole No. 68). http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1165594
    Spearman, C. (1904). “General intelligence” objectively determined and measured. American Journal of Psychology, 15, 201–293. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1412107
    Spearman, C. (1923). The nature of “intelligence” and the principles of cognition. London: MacMillan.
    Stamps, L.E. (1977). Temporal conditioning of heart rate responses in newborn infants. Developmental Psychology, 3, 624–629. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.13.6.624
    Stamps, L.E., & Porges, S.W. (1975). Heart rate conditioning in newborn infants: Relationships among conditionability, heart rate variability, and sex. Developmental Psychology, 11, 424–431. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0076666
    Stern, W. (1912). Psychologische methoden der intelligenz-prufung [Psychological methods of intelligence testing]. Leipzig: Barth.
    Sternberg, R.J. (1985). Beyond IQ: A triarchic theory of human intelligence. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Sternberg, R.J., & Powell, J.S. (1982). Theories of intelligence. In R.J.Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of human intelligence (pp. 975–1006). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Sternberg, R.J., & Salter, W. (1982). Conceptions of intelligence. In R.J.Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of human intelligence (pp. 3–28). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Sternberg, R.J., & Wagner, R.K. (1989). Individual differences in practical knowledge and its application. In P.L.Ackerman, R.J.Sternberg, & R.Glaser (Eds.), Learning and individual differences: Advances in theory and research (pp. 255–278). New York: Freeman.
    Stevenson, H.W. (1970). Learning in children. In P.Mussen (Ed.), Carmichael's manual of child psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 849–938). New York: John Wiley.
    Stirnimann, F. (1944). Ubr das forbenempfinden neugeborener [On the premature newborn]. Annates Paediatrici, 163, 1–25.
    Stott, L.H., & Ball, R.S. (1965). Infant and preschool mental tests: Review and evaluation. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 30 (3, Whole No. 101). http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1165720
    Stutsman, R. (1931). Mental measurement of preschool children with a guide for the administration of the Merrill-Palmer scale of mental tests. Yonkers-on-Hudson, NY: World Book.
    Tamis-LeMonda, C., & Bornstein, M.H. (1989). Habituation and maternal encouragement of attention in infancy as predictors of toddler language, play, and representational competence. Child Development, 60, 738–751. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1130739
    Terman, L.M. (1916). The measurement of intelligence. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10014-000
    Thompson, L.A. (1989). Developmental behavioral genetic research on infant information processing: Detection of continuity and change. In S.Doxiadis (Ed.), Early influences shaping the individual (pp. 67–83). New York: Plenum. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-5634-9_7
    Thompson, L.A., Fagan, J.F., & Fulker, J. (1991). Prediction of specific cognitive abilities at 36 months from infant novelty preferences. Child Development, 62, 530–538. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1131128
    Thompson, R.F., & Glanzman, D.L. (1976). Neural and behavioral mechanisms of habituation and sensitization. In T.Tighe & R.Leaton (Eds.), Habituation (pp. 49–94). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Thompson, R.F., & Spencer, W.A. (1966). Habituation: A model phenomenon for the study of neuronal substrates of behavior. Psychological Review, 73, 16–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0022681
    Trabue, M.R., & Stockbridge, F.P. (1922). Measure your mind. New York: Doubleday.
    Tuber, D.S., Berntson, G.G., Bachman, D.S., & Allen, J.N. (1980). Associative learning in premature hydranencephalic and normal twins. Science, 210, pp. 1035–1037. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.7192015
    Turco, T.L., & Stamps, L.E. (1980). Heart rate conditioning in young infants using a visual conditional stimulus. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 29, 117–125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-0965%2880%2990095-8
    Tyler, L.E. (1976). The intelligence we test: An evolving concept. In L.B.Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp. 13–26). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Underwood, B.J. (1975). Individual differences as a crucible for theory construction. American Psychologist, 30, 128–134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0076759
    Uzgiris, I.C., & Hunt, J.M. (1970). Attentional preference and experience: II. An exploratory longitudinal study of the effect of visual familiarity and responsiveness. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 117, 109–121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00221325.1970.10533941
    Valentine, C.W. (1913). The colour perception and colour preferences of an infant during its fourth and eighth months. British Journal of Psychology, 6, 363–386.
    Vernon, P.A. (Ed.). (1983). Speed of information processing and intelligence. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    Wagner, S.H., & Sakovits, L.J. (1986). A process analysis of infant visual and cross-modal recognition memory: Implications for an amodal code. In L.P.Lipsitt & C.K.Rovee-Collier (Eds.), Advances in infancy research (Vol. 4, pp. 195–217). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    Watson, J.S. (1968). Operant fixation in visual preference behavior of infants. Psychonomic Science, 12, 241–242.
    Watson, J.S. (1979). Early learning and intelligence. In M.Lewis (Ed.), Origins of intelligence (pp. 199–222). New York: Plenum.
    Watson, J.S., and Ewy, R.D. (1983). Early learning and intelligence. In M.Lewis (Ed.), Origins of intelligence (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 225–254). New York: Plenum.
    Wentworth, N. (1988, April). Infant expectations: What, where, when. Paper presented at the International Conference on Infant Studies, Washington, DC.
    Wentworth, N., & Haith, M.M. (1987, April). Reaction and anticipation in infants’ tracking of visual movement. Paper presented at the meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Baltimore, MD.
    Werner, E.E., & Bayley, N. (1966). The reliability of Bayley's revised scale of mental and motor development during the first year of life. Child Development, 37, 39–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1126427
    Wetherford, M.J., & Cohen, L.B. (1973). Developmental changes in infant visual preferences for novelty and familiarity. Child Development, 44, 416–424. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1127994
    White, S., & Plum, G. (1964). Eye movement photography during children's discrimination learning. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1, 327–338. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-0965%2864%2990025-6
    Wilson, R.S. (1972). Twins: Early mental development. Science, 175, pp. 914–917. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.175.4024.914
    Wolf, T.H. (1973). Alfred Binet. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Wyckoff, L.B. (1952). The role of observing responses in discrimination learning. Psychological Review, 59, 431–442. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0053932
    Yarrow, L., Klein, R., Lomonaco, S., & Morgan, G. (1975). Cognitive and motivational development in early infancy. In B.Friedlander, G.Sterritt, & G.Kirk (Eds.), Exceptional infant (Vol. 3, pp. 491–502). New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    Yerkes, R.M. (1921). Psychological examining in the United States army. Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences, 15, 1–890.

    About the Author

    John Colombo received his Ph.D. in Developmental Psychology from the State University of New York at Buffalo in 1981. Since 1988 he has been a member of the faculty of the Department of Human Development at the University of Kansas in Lawrence. His research specialty is the early development of attention, perception, and learning, with a special emphasis on individual differences. His other interests include various topics within the general area of neurobehavioral development. He has published more than 40 articles in journals such as Child Development, Developmental Psychology, Infant Behavior and Development, the Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, the Journal of Experimental Psychology, and Psychological Butletin. He is a member of the Society for Research in Child Development, the American Psychological Society, and the Psychonomic Society. He currently serves on the editorial board of the journal Child Development, and co-edited the 1990 volume, Individual Differences in Infancy (with Jeffrey Fagen), and a special issue of the Merrill-Palmer Quarterly on the topic of infant development (with Frances Degen Horowitz).


    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website