India's 2009 Elections: Coalition Politics, Party Competition and Congress Continuity
Publication Year: 2011
India's 2009 Elections is an inquiry into the 15th General Elections of India. It explores how the elections played out, what factors influenced the electorate, and how the elections are an important contribution to India's democracy.
Authored by renowned scholars and analysts from various backgrounds, the collection of articles critically examines multiple areas of the Indian polity:
Coalition and alliance politics, representation, national integration, and women's participation; Dominant party, competitive two-party and multi-party states including Gujarat, West Bengal, Rajasthan, Kerala, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Jammu and Kashmir, and the northeast states; Caste, tribal, and ethnic politics
According to the contributors, the public outcome of the 2009 elections indicated a demand for integrity, continuity, and competence—values that were considered almost obsolete in today's political scenario. At the same ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: Thematic Studies
- Chapter 1: Introduction: Political Stability and Governance Coherence
- Chapter 2: Regional Base and National Dream: Alliance Formation, 2009 National Elections
- Chapter 3: Coalition Politics: Withering of National—Regional Ideological Positions?
- Chapter 4: Region, Representation, and National Cohesion: Public Space in India
- Chapter 5: Federalism, Party System, and Structural Changes in India
- Chapter 6: Gender Discourse in Elections: Constructing a Constituency?
- Chapter 7: The BSP in 2009: Still Making Progress, But Only as a Dalit Party
Part II: Analytical State Studies
- A. One Favored (Dominant) Party System
- Chapter 8: Gujarat: Goebbel's Propaganda and Governance: The 2009 Lok Sabha Elections in Gujarat
- Chapter 9: West Bengal: Mapping a Political Challenge: West Bengal 2009
- B. Alternating Two-Party Systems
- Chapter 10: Rajasthan: Silent Tsunami in Rajasthan: BJP Bastion Busted in 2009
- Chapter 11: Kerala: The LDF's Debacle: Kerala Votes for National Stability
- Chapter 12: Maharashtra: Maharashtra: Still a Bipolar System, But Turmoil Ahead
- Chapter 13: Karnataka: The Surge of Saffron: Some Genuine and Some Imitation?
- Chapter 14: Andhra Pradesh: Political Mobilization, Competitive Populism, and Changing Party Dynamics in Andhra Pradesh
- C. Multi-Party States
- Chapter 15: Bihar: Identity Politics Recycled: 2009 Lok Sabha Election in Bihar
- Chapter 16: Jammu and Kashmir: Ethnic—Religious Crisis and Electoral Democracy: Jammu and Kashmir Elections, 2008 and 2009
- Chapter 17: Northeast India: Democracy, Ethnic Fractionalization, and Competitive Politics: The Case of States in Northeast India
Copyright © Paul Wallace and Ramashray Roy, 2011
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
India's 2009 elections: coalition politics, party competition, and Congress continuity/edited by Paul Wallace, Ramashray Roy.
Includes bibliographical references and index. 1. Elections—India. 2. India. Parliament. Lok Sabha—Elections, 2009. 3. India—Politics and government—1977- I. Wallace, Paul, 1931- II. Roy, Ramashray.
ISBN: 978-81-321-0583-1 (HB)
The SAGE Team: Elina Majumdar, Arpita Dasgupta, Vijay Sah and Deepti Saxena
N. Gerald (Jerry) Barrier passed away on June 6, 2010 shortly before his 70th birthday. A major scholar in Punjab and Sikh studies in the Department of History at the University of Missouri in Columbia, Jerry also promoted books and bibliography about India through South Asia Books in the United States. We deeply miss our dear friend and colleague.
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List of Tables and Figures[Page ix]Tables
- 1.1 2009 Elections: Lok Sabha Party Results 4
- 1.2 2009 Elections: Coalition and Party Results 5
- 1.3 2009 Elections: National and State Recognized Political Parties and Symbols 6
- 1.4 Support for the UPA Government in the 15th Lok Sabha 13
- 1.5 Leading Party Seats and Vote Percentages 1984–2009 14
- 1.6 State Results Lok Sabha Election 2009 15
- 1.7 Number of Regular and Reserved Seats in the Lok Sabha by State, 2009 16
- 3.1 Performance of National and Regional Parties 45
- 3.2 Transfer from Center to States as Percentage of Gross Revenue Receipts of the Center: Finance Commission Period Average 53
- 3.3 Trends in Expenditure to GDP Ratio 54
- 3.4 Caste-wise Candidate Summary: Lok Sabha Elections, 1971–2009 55
- 6.1 Gender-wise Breakdown of Voters, Contestants, and Elected Candidates in India for 1957–2009 112
- 6.2 Party-wise Female Candidates and Female Office Bearers in 2009 122
- 6.3 Perception of Teachers from Northern India on Women Issues Raised by Political Parties in 2009 124
- 7.1 BSP Vote Percentage in Seven General Elections 143
- 7.2 BSP Vote by State in 2009/2004 (Where It Has Crossed the 5 Percent Mark) 144
- 7.3 The BSP Candidates and MLAs in 2007 (2002) in Uttar Pradesh 145 [Page x]
- 7.4 Voting Pattern of the UP Castes and Communities in 2002 and 2007 145
- 7.5 Caste and Community of the BSP Candidates in Uttar Pradesh: 2009 Lok Sabha Elections 149
- 7.6 Caste and Community of BSP Candidates in Maharashtra: 2009 Lok Sabha Elections 150
- 7.7 Anti-incumbency Factor in UP 151
- 7.8 Satisfaction with Performance of UPA and BSP Governments among UP Voters 151
- 7.9 Vote of the Congress/BSP by Caste and Community 152
- 7.10 Caste and Community of Mayawati's Government in 2007 154
- 7.11 The Dalit Vote for the BSP in Seven States 156
- 7.12 Congress Percent Lead over the BSP in Different Categories of Dalits 156
- 7.13 The BSP Vote in UP by Caste and Community 157
- 7.14 Vote of the Congress/BSP by Locality 157
- 7.15 Vote of the Congress/BSP by Class 158
- 8.1 Whose Performance Was Considered while Voting for the Lok Sabha: State or Central Government? 185
- 8.2 Perception of the People Regarding Improvement or Otherwise in Gujarat between 2002–07 186
- 8.3 Percent Preference of 2009 Voters for the Prime Minister after Elections 187
- 8.4 Vote by Class in the 2007 and 2009 Elections 188
- 9.1 Percent of Votes Polled by Different Parties in Parliamentary Election 2009 in West Bengal 198
- 9.2 Constituency-wise Percentage Points of Valid Votes Polled by Political Parties in Parliamentary Election 2009 in Districts of West Bengal 199
- 9.3 Human Development Indices of Districts in West Bengal 202
- 9.4 Percentage of SC, ST, and Muslims of the Total Population of West Bengal and Each District of West Bengal 207 [Page xi]
- 10.1 Party Results 1991–2009 223
- 10.2 Comparative Voting Turnouts in 2008 Assembly and 2009 Parliamentary Elections 224
- 10.3 Party and Poll Percentage 2009 226
- 11.1 A Framework of Alliances and Parties on the Eve of 2009 Elections 238
- 11.2 Vote Share and Seats of Major Alliances 239
- 11.3 Vote Share of Major Parties 240
- 11.4 Caste-Religion Wise Preference of Parties 244
- 11.5 Voter's Views on SNC Lavalin Case 246
- 11.6 Have You Heard about the Corruption Charges against Pinarayi Vijayan in the Lavlyn Scam? 246
- 11.7 Approval Rating on LDF's Alliance with Abdul Nassir Maudani 247
- 11.8 Who Should Lead the UDF in Kerala? 248
- 11.9 A Non-coalition View on Voter's Party Preferences 248
- 11.10 Who Should Lead the LDF in Kerala: V.S. Achutanandan or Pinarayi Vijayan? 249
- 12.1 Rank Order Correlations between Party Votes and Size of Linguistic Groups: Bombay Municipal Elections, 1985 256
- 12.2 Seats Contested, Won, and Share Votes of Parties 262
- 12.3 Seats Contested and Won by Regions 264
- 12.4 Share Votes of Parties by Social Background 265
- 13.1 Karnataka Lok Sabha Elections (2004 and 2009): Seats Won and Share of Votes by Parties 279
- 13.2 Karnataka Lok Sabha Elections 2009: Seats Won Contested and Won by Administrative/Political Regions 280
- 13.3 Votes of the Political Parties by Social Background of the Voters 280
- 14.1 Parliamentary Electoral Profile of Parties in AP: 1984–2009 296
- 14.2 2009 Assembly Elections: Regional Break-up 297
- 14.3 Who Voted for Whom in Andhra Pradesh 298
- 6.1 Party-wise Female Candidates and Member of Parliament in 2009 123
- 7.1 Percentage of Votes Polled by BSP Candidates 141
- 7.2 Votes Polled by the Candidates of the BSP 142
- 8.1 BJP and Congress Votes in Lok Sabha Elections (1991–2009) 168
- 8.2 BJP and Congress Votes in Assembly Elections (1990–2007) 168
- 8.3 Level of Satisfaction among Voters with the Congress-led UPA Government 187
- 16.1 Voter Participation in Jammu and Kashmir Assembly Elections by District: 1996–2008 336
List of Abbreviations[Page xiii]
AAS Association for Asian Studies AC Arunachal Congress ADA Arunachal Democratic Alliance AFSPA Armed Forces Special Powers Act AGP Assam Gana Parishad AIADMK All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam AICC All India Congress Committee AIIMS All India Institute of Medical Sciences AP Andhra Pradesh APHC All Party Hurriyat Conference AUDF Asom United Democratic Front BAMCEF Backward and Minority Communities Employee's Federation BC Backward Class BJD Biju Janata Dal BJP Bhartiya Janata Party BKU Bhartiya Kisan Union BPL Below Poverty Line BPPF Bodoland People's Progressive Front BSP Bahujan Samaj Party CDP Community Development Programme CM Chief Minister CNG Compressed Natural Gas CPI Communist Party of India CPI(M) Communist Party of India (Marxist) CPI(ML) Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) CPI(ML)(L) Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) (Liberation) CPM Communist Party Marxist CSDS Centre for Study of Developing Societies [Page xiv] DAN Democratic Alliance of Nagaland DIC(K) Democratic Indira Congress (Karunakaran) DK Dakshina Kazhagam DMK Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam DUDA Department of Underdeveloped Areas DWCRA Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas EBC Extreme Backward Caste FB Forward Bloc GSPC Gujarat State Petrochemical HSPDP Hill State People's Democratic Party ICMR Indian Council of Medical Research IFDP Indian Federation Democratic Party INC Indian National Congress INLD Indian National Lok Dal INPT Indigenous Nationalist Party of Tripura IOU Index of Opposition Unity IPFT Indigenous Peoples Front of Tripura ISC Inter-state Council IT Information Technlogy IUML Indian Union Muslim League J&K Jammu and Kashmir JD(S) Janata Dal (Secular) JD(U) Janata Dal (United) JMM Jhakhand Mukti Morcha JNURP Jawaharlal Nehru Urban Renewal Programme JSM Jammu State Morcha KC(J) Kerala Congress (Joseph) KC(M) Kerala Congress (Mani) KCR K.C. Rao KPCC Kerala Pradesh Congress Committee KYKL Kanglei Yawol Kanna Lup LDF Left Democratic Front LF Left Front LJP Lok Janshakti Party LS Lok Satta MDMK Manumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam MIM Majlis Ittehad-ul Muslimeen [Page xv] MLA Member of Legislative Assembly MNF Mizo National Front MNS Maharashtra Navnirman Sena MP Member of Parliament MPA Meghalaya Progressive Alliance MPC Mizoram People's Conference MPP Manipur People's Party MRPS Madiga Reservation Porata Samithi MUF Muslim United Front NC National Conference NCP Nationalist Congress Party NCW National Commission for Women NDA National Democratic Alliance NDC National Development Council NES National Election Study NGO Non-governmental Organization NLFT National Liberation Front of Tripura NLHP National Loktantrik Hind Party NNC Naga National Council NPF Nagaland People's Front NREG National Rural Employment Guarantee NREGS National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme NSCN-IM National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Isak-Muivah) NSCN-K National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Khaplang) NTR N.T. Rama Rao OBC Other Backward Caste PDA People's Democratic Alliance PDP People's Democratic Party PDS Public Distribution System PM Prime Minister PMK Pattali Makkal Katchi POTA Prevention of Terrorist Activities Act PPP Public-Private Partnership PRI Panchayat Raj Institution PRP Praja Rajyam Party RJD Rashtriya Janata Dal RPI Republican Party of India [Page xvi] RSP Revolutionary Socialist Party RSS Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh SAD Shiromani Akali Dal SAIR South Asian Intelligence Review SASB Shri Amarnath Shrine Board SC Scheduled Caste SEZ Special Economic Zone SFI Students Federation of India SHG Self Help Group SIT Special Investigative Team SJD Samajwadi Janata Dal SP Samajwadi Party SS Shiv Sena ST Scheduled Tribe SUC Socialist Unity Center TDP Telugu Desam Party TMC Trinamul Congress TRS Telangana Rashtra Samithi TUJS Tripura Upajati Juba Samity UDF United Democratic Front UDP United Democratic Party UK United Kingdom ULB United Left Bloc ULFA United Liberation Front of Asom UN United Nations UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund UP Uttar Pradesh UPA United Progressive Alliance US United States VHP Vishwa Hindu Parishad VIP Very Important Person WHO World Health Organization YMA Young Mizo Association YSR Y. Rajasekhar Reddy
Indian democracy and politics are intertwined and complex. Elections provide a window into the process and the basis for important political judgments. In this—our fourth successive election volume with SAGE Publications—we continue our national and state level presentations by outstanding analysts of Indian politics. Each volume examines a limited number of national concerns and selected state studies. The present volume on the 2009 elections continues this tradition. Together, the four volumes—beginning with the 1998 elections—provide an extended presentation and analysis of national and state politics in scope and depth that is without parallel in Indian scholarship.
Our appreciation for the success of this, as well as preceding volumes, is first and foremost to the authors of our chapters. They include personnel from two research organizations, the Institute of Development and Communications in Chandigarh (IDC) and the Centre National de la Recherché Scientifique (CNRS) in France. The Hindu, a leading Indian daily newspaper and Frontline, its nationally-prominent news weekly, provides us with one of India's leading journalist. An exceptional group of distinguished scholars rounds out our list of contributors.
Once again, SAGE Publications India provided professional support. Dr Sugata Ghosh, Vice President Commissioning, met with the co-editors in New Delhi to review the initial plan and provide the go-ahead for the project. Elina Majumdar, now Commissioning Editor, managed the bulk of the editorial work assisted by Arpita Dasgupta, Editor and Neelakshi Chakraborty, Editorial Assistant. We are grateful for their assistance.
A number of institutions, in addition to SAGE Publications, cooperated in making this volume possible. Once again, the Centre for the Study of Developing Societies in Delhi graciously allowed the use of its invaluable data from the Center's election surveys. Official data [Page xviii]from the national Election Commission of India, as well as its state branches provide detailed results in a wide variety of useful formats. Appreciation also is extended to the university and research institutions represented by our contributors.
Many individuals also contributed with valuable suggestions, critiques, and information. Each of the contributors could compile a lengthy list. All of us have endeavored to be accurate.
Finally, as this book goes to press, non-violent, Gandhian-type revolutions in Tunisia and Egypt raise basic issues pertaining to democracy and elections. They suggest a comparison with India. During the 20-month Emergency in India from 1975–77, promulgated by then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, India became an authoritarian system. Opposition leaders representing a broad spectrum from the left to the right, secular and religious, were imprisoned. They were released and fair elections were held. The freed opposition leaders joined in a new umbrella political grouping, the Janata Party, which decisively defeated Indira Gandhi's Congress Party and then returned India to democracy. Contributors to this volume are proud of India's record with democracy and elections despite its well-publicized problems.
India's model may be appropriate to countries such as Egypt. Differences of substance will change. An anti-Mubarak consensus united Egypt's population in February 2011 until he resigned on the 11th. That allowed for the establishment of procedures and the existence of public space that could offer an opportunity for effective representation in a democratic system. What the emerging leaders and the people make of their system and the evolving role of the military will differ from time to time. Questions of effective representative and public policy will remain, but people power provides a critical foundation. People power won out in Tunisia and Egypt. Earlier, it triumphed in the Philippines against dictator Ferdinand Marcos, and in the Velvet Revolution led by Vaclav Havel in Czechoslovakia. Empowerment of the people has to be continually validated through elections and other forms of public participation as in India.
About the Editors and Contributors[Page 394]Editors
Paul Wallace is Professor Emeritus of Political Science at the University of Missouri, Columbia. He has been a consultant on South Asia to members of the US Senate Foreign Relations Committee, the US Attorney General's Office, defense lawyers, and other agencies in North America and has received five Smithsonian funded awards for national election studies in India. In September 2003, Prof. Wallace served as the expert witness on Sikh violence at the Air India trial in Vancouver, Canada. He lectures throughout India, almost on an annual basis. In January 2009, he served as a major participant in celebrating the 15th Anniversary of the Institute of Development and Communications in Chandigarh, India. His research in India also includes a Senior Fulbright Research Award, and funding from the Ford Foundation, the American institute of Indian Studies, and various government and non-government groups in India. Professor Wallace is the author or editor of seven books and more than 40 book chapters and articles. His last book, with Ramashray Roy, was India's 2004 Elections: Grass-roots and National Perspectives (2007). His most notable chapter publication is “Counterterrorism in India: Khalistan & Kashmir” in the 2007 book titled Democracy and Counterterrorism: Lessons from the Past. A forthcoming publication is “Sikh Militancy and Non-violence,” in Pashaura Singh's edited book Sikhism in Global Context.
Ramashray Roy is a founding member and former director (1976–82) of the Centre for the Study of Developing Societies (CSDS), Delhi. He has recently served as a visiting Fellow at the G.B. Pant Institute of Social Sciences, Allahabad. During a long and distinguished career, Professor Roy has taught at several prestigious universities including the University of Texas, Austin; the University of California at both [Page 395]Los Angeles and Berkeley; and the University of Missouri, Columbia. A recipient of Woodrow Wilson and Ford Foundation Fellowships, Professor Roy has also been a National Professor of the University Grants Commission (UGC) in 1987 and a National Fellow of the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) from 1994 to 1996. His areas of interest include political parties, bureaucracy, electoral behavior, Indian politics, development, Gandhian thought, and political philosophy. His most recent of over 20 books is Democracy in India: Form and Substance (2005).Contributors
Amiya K. Chaudhuri taught political science in Calcutta and Vidyasagar before his present position as a Fellow in Maulana Azad Institute of Asian Studies, Ministry of Culture, Government of India, Kolkata. His latest publication is Contemporary Politics and Changing Economy of Bihar (2010). In addition, he has authored several books, book chapters, and more than two-dozen journal articles. He continues to add to his total of more than 200 newspaper articles.
Rainuka Dagar is Director (Research), Gender Studies Unit, at the Institute for Development and Communication (IDC). Her work focuses on two separate research fields—gender and justice, and democratic governance. In the domain of gender, her engagement is with the study of the politics of gender constructs, gender positioning in multicultural societies, and gender in conflict dynamics with an application of culturally sensitive methodologies. Her recent publications include Rethinking Female Foeticide: Perspective and Issues (2007) and Mapping Criminal Justice Delivery in India (2009), which is co-authored.
Jyotirindra Dasgupta is Professor Emeritus of Political Science at the University of California, Berkeley. His work has focused on development politics, language planning, ethnic mobilization, and socioeconomic development in India and in comparative perspective. His publications include Language Conflict and National[Page 396]Development: Group Politics and National Language Policy in India (1968) and Authority, Priority, and Human Development (1981). Recent publications deal with different aspects of multicultural democratization and federal development processes.
Rajesh Dev is Assistant Professor of Political Science at Delhi University. Prior to this, he was a faculty member in the Department of Political Science at Women's College, Shillong, and visiting faculty in Political Science in the Department of Law, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong. His research interests are in areas of political ethnography, identity politics and democratic discourse, and human rights. His co-edited books include Ethnonarratives, Identity and Experience in Northeast India and Ethnic Identities and Democracy (2006). He has also authored numerous articles and chapters. He serves as Executive Secretary of argueIndia, a research group based in Shillong.
Raghavendra Keshavarao Hebsur is former Professor of Social Sciences and a Deputy Director of Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS), Mumbai. His work includes Reactions to the Reservations for Other Backward Classes: A Comparative Study of Four States, Vol. 4 (1980). He has co-authored with three colleagues, Factors Contributing to the Bombay Riots and Violence, 1992–93, published in 1995.
Christophe Jaffrelot has been Director of CERI (Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Internationales) at Sciences Po (Paris) between 2000 and 2008. He is Research Director at the CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) and teaches South Asian politics and history at Sciences Po. His most significant publications are The Hindu Nationalist Movement and Indian Politics: 1925 to the 1990s (1996), India's Silent Revolution: The Rise of the Lower Castes in North India (2003), and Dr Ambedkar and Untouchability: Analysing and Fighting Caste (2005). He has also edited Pakistan: Nationalism Without a Nation? (2002) and co-edited with P. Van der Veer, Patterns of Middle Class Consumption in China and India (2008); with S. Kumar, Rise of the Plebeians? The Changing Face of Indian Legislative Assemblies (2009), and with L. Gayer, Militias of South Asia (2010).[Page 397]
G. Gopa Kumar is Head of the Department of Political Science and Dean of Social Sciences, University of Kerala, and Director General of the Institute of Parliamentary Affairs, Government of Kerala. He served as the Kerala State Coordinator for the CSDS election studies during 1996–2008. He has authored seven books and over 120 research articles. His awards include a Fulbright, Indo-Shastri, Indo-French Cultural Exchange, and Australia—India Council. He also served as Visiting Professor in the USA and Canada. His major publications include Congress Party and State Politics (1984), Regional Parties and State Politics (1986), and Future of Parliamentary Democracy in India (2007).
Pramod Kumar is Director, Institute for Development and Communication (IDC), Chandigarh and Chair, Punjab Governance Reforms Commission (PGRC). His work focuses on three interrelated themes of politics of development, violence, and governance; politics of conflict management; and resolution and practice of democracy through empirical methodologies and analysis of public policy and peoples movements. He is a recipient of the prestigious Homi Bhabha Award for the year 1988–90 for his work on ‘Causation and Forms of Ethnic Conflicts and Inter-ethnic Co-operation in India’. His publications are Polluting Sacred Faith; Punjab Crisis: Context and Trends; Victims of Militancy in Punjab (co-authored); Towards Understanding Communalism (edited); and Mapping Criminal Justice Delivery in India (co-authored).
Binoy Shanker Prasad holds a PhD in political science from the University of Missouri-Columbia, USA. A former Fulbright scholar, his teaching and research career extends from Delhi University, Jawaharlal Nehru University, and Mithila University in India to Centennial College and Ryerson University in Canada. He has been an analyst of the politics of Bihar, his native state, for 30 years. His recent book is Violence Against Minorities: Riots and the State in the United States and India (2010).
Maneesha Roy is a faculty member in the Department of Political Science at Sri Guru Nanak Dev Khalsa College, Delhi University. [Page 398]She has completed her PhD, MPhil, and MA degrees from Delhi University. She is a recipient of the ICSSR Doctoral Fellowship in 2002 and UGC's Junior Research Fellowship in 1999. Her research interests include Indian politics, particularly religious and caste mobilization and electoral politics in India. She has authored several articles and a number of chapters.
Ghanshyam Shah, retired professor from JNU, is at present National Fellow, Indian Institute of Advanced Study, Shimla. He has authored more than 12 books in the field of political science and sociology, that includes Social Movements in India (2004), Caste and Democratic Politics in India (2004), and Dalit Identity and Politics (2001). At present, he is working on “Globalisation, Civil Society and Governance.”
Bhawani Singh retired as Professor and Head of the Department of Political Science, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur. He has written ten books including Confessional Terror: The Dateline to Death (2007), co-authored with Vibhuti Singh Shekhawat, Mizoram: The Politics of Tribal Homeland (2009), and Nagaland: The Politics of Alternate Discourse (2009). In addition to this, he has also edited 10 books.
Vibhuti Singh Shekhawat is Associate Professor at Humanities and Social Sciences Department in Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur. He is MA, MPhil, and PhD (Political Science), MA (Sociology), and also holds a MBA degree. He has contributed a dozen articles and has written seven books including: Supreme Court and Judicial Independence (1996), Confessional Terror: The Dateline to Death (2007), and Shri Lanka: The Politics of Tamil Eelam, co-authored with Bhawani Singh (2009).
Karli Srinivasulu is Professor of Political Science at Osmania University, Hyderabad, India. He has been Visiting Fellow at University of Oxford and Senior Fellow of the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR). His interests include political theory, agrarian and Dalit movements, and public policy. He is presently doing a research on the Politics of Special Economic Zones (SEZs) [Page 399]and State and Business relations in India. His forthcoming book is Karamchedu, Chunduru and Beyond Dalit Movement in Andhra Pradesh. He authored the chapters on Andhra Pradesh for the Wallace—Roy volumes on the 1999 and 2004 elections.
Praveen Krishna Swami is Associate Editor of The Hindu, and is based in New Delhi. He reports on security and intelligence issues.