Indian Youth in a Transforming World: Attitudes and Perceptions
This book comprises the first nationwide study based on face-to-face interviews with 5000 youth to capture the popular mood of this important demographic segment of contemporary India. It records their perceptions of various issues, ranging from modernity, development, globalization and unemployment, to leisure and lifestyle, social networks and family, and their hopes and aspirations for the future. While it breaks some myths about them, on one hand, it helps strengthen some commonly shared perceptions about them, on the other.
Indian Youth in a Transforming World: Attitudes and Perceptions underlines that Indian youth reflect an authentic multiplicity of aspirations, ‘world views’ and interest, quite like the rich tapestry of India's diversity. It indicates that they are a mix of continuity with change. However, they stand distinct in ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
Copyright © CSDS 2009
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We are most happy to place on record our gratitude to the Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung for initiating and commissioning this study on ‘Youth Attitudes’ in India. Here we will like to convey our special thanks to Mr. Jörg Wolff from KAS for his continuous support and involvement at various levels of deliberations from the very beginning of the project.
The project has been possible because of the institutional support that we received from the Centre for the Study of Developing Societies, Delhi.
We are also grateful to the members of the Advisory Board, Coordination Committee and the International Advisory Board for their expert suggestions and review comments during the initial conceptualisation of the study till its finalisation.
Our special acknowledgement also goes to Prof. Suhas Palshikar, Co-Director Lokniti for his inputs throughout the project and to Prof. Pradeep Chibber from University of California, Berkeley, who was specially invited by the Steering Committee of the project for his expert comments on the data analysis.
We would also like to give special thanks to Prof. N. Jayaram from Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bangalore and Coordination Committee member Prof. Sasheej Hegde for their detailed review of all the Case Studies commissioned under the KAS-CSDS Youth Study.
We would also like to thank the Research Team at Lokniti (CSDS), Lokniti Network members, and the data analysis team of CSDS. Finally, we thank those who helped us with layout designing and provided us with administrative support, at every stage.
The Big Story[Page vii]
- Young men are more fashion conscious as compared to young women.
- Young rural men are more supportive of promotion of greater gender equality by the government as compared to their urban counterparts.
- Small town youth are more satisfied with the existing educational facilities in comparison to those from villages and big cities.
- Young women in cities are least supportive of reservation for women in parliament.
- Corruption, illiteracy and terrorism are not primary national concerns among the Indian youth.
- Dalit and Tribal youth have higher aspirations in life as compared to those from Forward Castes and OBCs.
- For Indian youth, guarantee of employment should be first priority for the nation followed by provision of quality health care and educational facilities.
- More than two-third of the Indian youth consider alcohol consumption to be unacceptable.
- Urban youth favour improved friendly relations with Pakistan as compared to rural youth.
- Youth from small towns have the highest levels of aspirations in life as compared to those from metropolitan cities and villages.
- Poverty is seen as the major concern of national importance among all sections of the youth in India.
- Youth from towns are more optimistic about their future as compared to those from villages and cities.
Executive Summary[Page viii]
The executive summary of the findings of this youth study are presented below. The report indicates that in significant ways the youth in India mirror continuity with change. On significant parameters they think very much like the older generations. In many other critical areas, they have chosen to tread a different path. The study has also found that the youth in India mirror many of the goals, aspirations and attitudes of youth across the world. The study also reports that in select areas the attitude and choices of the Indian youth vary significantly from those of the younger generation the world over. The study has been divided into seven thematic chapters and each section below reports the major findings of the seven chapters.Trust and Circles of Belonging
Youth appeared to voice the flavour of the changing times in terms of their levels of inter-personal social trust and circles of belonging even while reflecting the ‘social environment’ that shapes the reality and the times that they live in. In social interactions that they nurture and nourish, Indian youth have pushed traditional boundaries. The youth demonstrate a moderate level of inter-personal trust in those they interact with. The intensity of trust is significantly higher among those who are a part of their ‘immediate social circle’. Youth reported limited experience of being discriminated against. Critical differences in trends are produced by three important variables—access to higher education, improved socio-economic status and exposure to urban life. These cause important and significant variations in the nature of social transactions that the Indian youth are exposed to and are a part of.[Page ix]Family and Social Networks
The study developed an Index of Parental Authority and an Index of Family Values to understand what influences the way youth think and act in their personal and social domains. The nature of parental authority is both a by-product of a set of value preferences and also something that shapes the world view that youth tend to develop on matters linked to family life and social relationships. It is clearly apparent that tradition and modernity play out in multiple ways in the lives of young people in India. The nature of the social structure and the dynamics of social relationships that the youth are exposed to, appear to shape their family values in particular and their social values in general.Leisure and Lifestyle
The study analysed the leisure habits of the young in India. They are intrinsically linked to their socio-economic status, educational levels and place of stay. Television is a crucial source of entertainment and an important leisure activity for most youth, especially those residing in urban areas and those who are educated. Internet use is largely limited to the cities and almost exclusively among those who have had the benefit of higher education. Wearing fashionable clothes is important for a large segment of the youth. This often reflects an aspiration rather than a fact of life.Politics and Democracy
The study finds that the youth in India buck the global trend of declining interest in politics. The youth not only show a high level of interest in politics. There is no decline in this interest across generations. There is a reasonably high level of participation in all forms of [Page x]politics—direct, indirect, formal or non-formal—as well among the youth. Their trust in democracy is also significantly high. Educational levels and media exposure appear to clearly influence their reflections on democracy and politics.Governance and Development
The youth identified unemployment and poverty as the two major challenges that people faced. When it comes to other issues of national importance and what the priority of the government should be, the youth are in favour of the government tackling the problem of HIV/AIDS as the first priority followed by maternal health and reducing child mortality rates. Ensuring greater gender equality too is given high priority by the youth. Women seem to lay a greater emphasis on this issue than men. While there is support for reservation of seats for women in Parliament and State Legislatures, this support is much less among the men living in towns and cities as compared to those living in the villages.Nation and the World
There does not seem to be too high a level of awareness among the youth about the changes taking place in the contemporary world. A vast majority of them are not aware of globalisation. By and large, only the educated youth and those who live in cities know about globalisation. Consequently, it is the educated that tend to support globalisation more. The youth, showed a high level of awareness when it came to India's friends and foes. While a larger number of youth were aware of the United States they differed in their views on how India's relations with it should develop. There was interesting variance on how India should engage with the world.[Page xi]Anxieties and Aspirations
The anxieties and aspirations of the youth are clearly linked to three variables: their socio-economic status, educational level and whether they live in urban or rural areas. The aims and aspirations of the youth living in villages are often linked to the immediate world that they confront in their daily lives. Metropolitan India tends to present youth with a different set of anxieties and aspirations. Youth in small, emerging towns and cities seem to be at the threshold of the real change. Not yet fully cut off from their rural roots but significantly influenced by the scent of urbanisation and all its trappings, the high level of expectations as reflected both in their anxieties and aspirations underscore this point.
Overall, the study clearly indicates that the youth in India are on the cusp of change and represent an authentic multiplicity of aspirations, ‘world views’ and interest truly mirroring the rich tapestry of diversity that India is.[Page xii]
Through the Lens of Indian Youth: An Overview[Page xiii]
Two words, multiple and challenging, can be used to pithily describe India. To say that there are multiple religions, languages, cuisines, ethnicities, dress styles, ecosystems, markets, political organisations, customs, sports, film traditions, music preferences, etc is to state the obvious and yet one cannot avoid beginning any discussion of India by stating this truism if only to dissuade the enthusiast who wants to offer an essentialist view of India. Trying to present any one of these worlds is hence a big challenge since the sweep of easy generalisation is unavailable and yet we have to offer some less easy generalisations if only to explain the causal processes involved.
What is true for the larger canvas is also true for the world of Indian youth, a fascinating section of the population that is existentially located across different regions, social groups, economic segments, educational levels, and even sartorial choices. There are multiple worlds in which youth reside. These worlds socialize them in different ways. The worlds are not static since they too have been impacted by the processes of modernity and the forces of globalisation. The challenge that we confront is, therefore, to map the dynamics of this change, to see how the processes that are producing transformation are being refracted through the lens of Indian youth. After recognizing that there are multiple life-worlds, and multiple responses to the encounter with modernity and globalisation, we have, here, set about exploring the world of Indian youth. This report is the first product of that exploration.Background to the Study
This study had its genesis when the Konrad Adenauer Stiftung (KAS) initiated and commissioned, in 2007, Lokniti programme of the Centre for the Study of Developing Societies to investigate the attitudes and perspectives of Indian Youth. The mandate that the [Page xiv]KAS gave was broad because they too saw this as a great opportunity to understand India's youth especially since India is seen as the new happening place by the global media. The changes taking place in the world of Indian youth will, it is believed, have a global impact in areas that range from economy to security, from culture to politics. Exploring the attitudes of Indian youth is therefore valuable to understand the present and also to prepare for the future. It would also help us compare youth in India with youth in other regions of the world, most specifically in Germany where the Shell Youth study has been one of the iconic studies on youth that has periodically, now for nearly six decades, produced snapshots of German youth. KAS thought it would be a good idea to step outside Germany and support a similar study in another region of the world. India offered itself as an ideal location because it is currently on the threshold of a significant ‘demographic dividend’, a historical chance for the society and polity to convert an unharnessed resource into a major societal asset.
In recent times studies have established a positive association between what is termed the age structure transition (specifically, a rising share of working age people in a population) and economic growth in India and China. Indeed, demographers and economists have predicted higher growth prospects for India compared to China over the next thirty years, since, as they put it, the effect of the fertility decline and the bulge of population age cohort in the working age group will sharpen in India in the coming decades. According to current estimates, India is—and will remain for some time—one of the youngest countries in the world. The following population figures from the World Bank gives a clear picture of the potential of India's demographic dividend. In 2000 India, Brazil and China had nearly 34% of their population as youth as compared to less than 28% in Germany and the USA. In 2020 India alone will have 34% of youth in its population while all [Page xv]the other large countries will have dropped below 31% including China which will be 28.5% (see Appendix). In 2020, it is estimated, the average Indian will be only 29 years old, compared with the average age of 37 years in China and the US, 45 in west Europe and Japan. This demographic process entails a massive and growing labour force which, it is held, will deliver profound benefits in terms of growth and prosperity. The changed age structure of India's population also means an overall younger population as something more than simply a statistical fact since it has political and social consequences for India and the world. Exploring the attitudes and perspectives of India's young population, therefore, becomes as much an exercise of historical curiosity as it is a political necessity.
There are, therefore, several reasons for this study: comparative, in that it helps us see how Indian youth share or diverge from the attitudes and perspectives of youth elsewhere; policy planning, in that we need to create policies and to provide for new institutions that will take advantage of the promised demographic dividend; and academic, in that we can contribute to the interesting and rich debate on whether there is a single or whether there are multiple routes to entering, encountering, and engaging with modernity. But more on this later.Some Preliminary Concerns:
The study began with trying to sort out a big definitional issue. Who would be considered as youth? Would age be the sole criteria, or personal and social responsibility, or autonomy from family, or marital status, or individuality of personality, or preferences with respect to lifestyle, etc. We found ourselves in the middle of a complex cultural conundrum and finally, after several meetings of the advisory group that had been constituted to steer the project (see acknowledgements), we decided to limit our definition [Page xvi]of youth to only the age cohort. Here too we had a problem since youth in India, as officially recognised by the Government of India, is all those in the age group 15–35. This was at variance with the youth cohort in most countries of the global north where it is 14–25—now the lower end is 12 years because of the early onset of puberty—since that is seen as a distinct segment of the population which has distinct attributes. In India, in contrast, and also interestingly in many other countries of the global south, the age group considered youth is the same as that of India, which is 15–34. Does this tell us something about the different cultural contexts of the youth, of their different life chances? Does it tell us something about the link between economic prosperity and the constitution of cultural selves?
To delve into the world of youth in India we decided to do both an attitudinal survey of youth across the country (see the appendices for the sampled locations, the methodology, and the questionnaire administered) and also commission several case studies. (see Appendix for the list of case studies). This dual strategy of entering this new brave, brazen, and bewitching world, we expected, would give us both quantitative and qualitative insights. The report as it is presented here has data from both approaches, the survey data which makes up the main body of the text together with the statistical appendix, while the case studies provide the embellishments and have been inserted periodically into the commentary to give a sense of the multiple layers of reality involved and also little glimpses into other aspects of the universe of youth in addition to that of attitudes and perspectives. These are small vignettes which are presented, alongside the commentary on attitudinal data, with the expressed intention of producing exclamations of surprise at the sites frequented by youth, smiles at the subtlety of the experiences, empathy at the challenges faced, and wonder at the fortitude of youth in India. Vignettes have also been extracted from newspapers which also tell their own story.
[Page xvii]The study as it progressed repeatedly brought home to us the fact that not only are there new dimensions that we were unprepared for, but also how fast the world (worlds?) of youth is changing, with respect to values, perception, language, sartorial sense, aesthetics, etc. While the experience of being young is universal it takes different forms, partly cultural and political, partly personal and biographical. Indeed, with particular reference to the latter, it is important to recognize that people everywhere negotiate culture (or rather cultural processes) in terms of the cognitive and material resources available to them, and also that they are both products and producers of these cultural processes. When these cultural processes involve young people, even within the extended frame of reference lent by our survey—and indeed precisely because of this—we are dealing with distinctive attitudes and perceptions that need to be taken seriously in any negotiation of the space of modern India. There is a new world rising and we appear ill equipped to understand it.
Indeed, since the late 1990s, there has been some recognition of the idea that the visions and ideals informing the young in India possess a crucial significance in the contemporary context of liberalisation and globalisation. The study centres on the idea that the youth/adulthood distinction does not hold in the Indian context, because far too often in this context the young come to take on (or are not free from) adult responsibilities. To be sure, we realize that much writing on youth in terms of socialisation, education or human development depicts youth as objects of adult activity, and in breaking with this emphasis the present report seeks to come to terms with the world of the young from their own point of view. There is above all a consistent and systematic concern to show how Indian youth, across locales and different contexts, are active agents—in different ways and with varying force—in the construction of the meanings and forms that make up their worlds.[Page xviii]The Structure of the Report:
The nexus of agency and meaning-making, in the context of India's young, is thus at the heart of this study. We have tried to account for it in the course of seven chapters mapping the ‘personal/experiential’ and the ‘political/historical’ context of India's youth. These are interesting axes along which to locate our findings since they, in a sense, suggest the two frames that will help us understand the multiplicity of attitudes that we need to recover. By identifying the distinct chapters as we have done—trust and circles of belonging, family and social networks, leisure and lifestyle, politics and democracy, governance and development, nation and the world, and anxiety and aspiration—we have captured the rubrics that are significant for the story we want to tell. They traverse, respectively, the immediate social circles that youth relate to, how socially and materially endowed they are (implicit in which is an account of constraints and opportunities), the family and social networks they interact with, (again signalling some aspects of constraints and opportunity), their lifestyle pattern, and their anxieties and aspirations. Alternatively, the report also maps the political values and orientations of the youth, including their attitudes to governance and development and to issues of globalisation and of India's role in a transforming world. In reporting this data we have also used the strategy of constructing indices, by combining responses to several questions into one index to indicate a trend, besides presenting the marginals themselves. For those who wish to probe further and deeper we have also given the basic survey data in an appendix.
To add to the value of the story we have used pictures to accompany the narrative. So it is a picture of a poster from a university campus stating ‘what is your identity’ for the overview chapter, since negotiating identity is one of the big themes that define youth, and for the chapter on ‘governance and development’, a picture of a young man throwing old flowers and garlands from a [Page xix]collection basket into a river while in the background can be seen a swanky multi-story building, a poignant visual of the cohabitation of the informal and the formal sectors of the economy reminding one of the rigours of earning a livelihood that some have to endure in contrast with the embarrassment of riches which others are privileged to enjoy. And for the chapter on ‘anxiety and aspiration’ we have used a picture of a painting done by one of our own scholars, Rajiv Kshetri, depicting a young man walking up a garden path, head somewhat bent, looking downwards in the anxiety of perhaps unsuccessful aspiration. There are 10 pictures that have been used and all are suggestive. If a picture is equivalent to a thousand words we may have saved some twelve thousand words of space.The First Insights
The uncertainty about how to report the findings began with the selection of the cover design. A strong candidate for visually representing the new world of youth in India was the idea of a pair of jeans: blue jeans, black jeans, studded jeans, jeans with patch pockets, jeans with messages, jeans, jeans, jeans. They have become a ubiquitous symbol of youth in India, from the large village, to the small town, to the big city; from the designer, to the fake designer, to the locally crafted; from the student at college, to the youth in the informal sector of the economy; from the student's wing of the Congress to the student wing of the Communists (no petty bourgeois attire this), from the troubled regions of India's North East to the conservative temple towns of India's South, a pair of jeans has become the new symbol of having arrived in modernity. Jeans constitute a style statement announcing who you are, your identity. They suggest connection with the global and also perhaps, because of an abundance of local brands and local designs, and the local cultural contexts in which they are situated, that such a connection should not be overstated. Jeans and their place in the symbolic [Page xx]world of Indian youth lend themselves to an interesting cultural deconstruction. An enduring image that is not atypical is of a mother and her daughter walking down M.G. road in a small town, one dressed in a pair of jeans the other in a sari, one unembarrassed at the idea that the shape of her body is noticeable because of the jeans, the other making every effort to conceal hers, one walking with a self confident stride, the other more matter of fact. And yet in this contrast of images there is a connection since the daughter's arm is around her mother who can think of no other body language but this. Is this continuity with change? Is it expressive of a generation gap? Is it a statement on modernity and tradition? Much decoding is called for and our study will only offer some preliminary clues.
Similar insights, which are unavailable from quantitative data, can be selected from our several case studies. From the 15 we chose, of the 50 plus we were offered from across the country, we have cases that can be classified into at least four clusters: (i) those that describe sites at which economic and cultural modernity is negotiated, (ii) those that show how youth are responding to cultural and economic modernity, (iii) those that present different youth perspectives on issues, and (iv) those that display political resistance to new directions to Indian democracy. The case studies show that the number of sites are increasing where youth are negotiating with modernity, from the cyber cafe, to the mall, to the Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) centre, to the beauty and fitness parlour, and of course to the college campus where challenges to tradition are being fought. Identifying these sites is important for us to complete our mapping exercise of the world of youth for it is here where youth face and negotiate between the pulls of tradition and modernity. For example the mall is an interesting site, as the study shows, where conservative families do not mind sending their children since it is safer there than on the street. In the mall they buy little but consume a lot, consume leisure as the case study writer suggested. And the mall is culturally [Page xxi]like the 0800 number since it could be anywhere and displays no distinctive cultural location. The same is the case of the many ways in which youth respond to modernity, particularly transgressing dress codes, what the case study referred to as ‘sexy’ dressing where orthodoxy is being resisted. Such resistance can also be seen in the politics of marginal and oppressed groups who are challenging both traditional authorities from within their own social group as well as hegemonies of the mind and of social practice within the wider society. The nine boxes on the case studies in the report briefly recount the findings of the various case studies.Seven Rubrics
The findings from the survey data can be discussed at two levels; in terms of the specific findings in each rubric and in terms of the general significance of these findings for the larger ongoing debates. Let us begin with the specific findings. If one were to identify at least one interesting finding, from each of the seven rubrics, one would have at least seven issues on which to reflect.
The data on the first rubric on Trust and Circles of Belonging indicates that the social spaces in which youth are located constitute cultural islands with few bridges since the youth, by and large, count among their friends persons of the same religion, caste and gender. This is interesting since it suggests that social borders are still quite strong and border crossings are discouraged and that is why 27% had no friend from the other gender, religion or another caste. Another 21% crossed the border very occasionally. This is an important finding since it tells us that in spite of the big changes that have occurred in polity and economy, in the domain of the social world the changes are more slow. Is this finding a function of the already existing social geography of India where people can be seen to reside in social ghettos i.e., where the opportunity and the need to mix outside one's social group, defined in terms of same gender, caste and religion, is absent, [Page xxii]or is it reflective of prevailing cultural taboos where interaction across one's social group is discouraged if not prohibited. If this marks the world of youth, who are generally more rebellious, how much more forceful must it be in the world of adults. However, border crossings become more frequent when we disaggregate the data along the rural-urban axes or in terms of levels of education.
One can, within one perspective, read this as the prevalence of conservative mores within youth, but could, within another perspective, see it as illustrative of a lack of opportunity for interaction in a situation of greater opportunity, both spatial and material, conservative mores would not hold young people back from making friends across traditional borders. One could read the data to suggest that making friendships across social groups is not a matter of choice but of constraint, and when such constraints are removed by education and plural settings, then people are willing to dismantle the border. This has implications for social trust. The survey shows that people trust their friends more than members of their own caste but since their friends are from their own social group it should not be read as a secular trend. Interpersonal trust, so necessary for the impersonal functioning of institutions, is hence quite thin and this perhaps explains why nepotism occurs. Institutions in India are infected with group loyalties and the basis of this is set in the world of friends that the youth have.
The data on the second rubric, Family and Social Networks, yields an interesting finding about the institution of the family. As expected, there seems to be no clear disjuncture between youth and their parents with varying levels of acceptance of parental authority in areas as diverse as career and marriage. A majority of youth canvassed, as much as 60%, accepted that the final decision on marriage should be taken by parents. This would be unthinkable in most western societies. From it one can see that parental authority has considerable leverage in the life of most Indian [Page xxiii]youth and even though variations are a function of education and socio economic status (SES), with small changes towards more autonomy of decision making as a result of higher SES, it is not enough to undermine the observation that no generation gap exists in India. Youth prefer to remain within the cultural codes of their family and social networks.
One could perhaps read more into this data and hypothesise that the strident individuality of Western youth is not present among Indian youth who are more embedded, and content to be, within the institution of the family. The fact that parental authority is not seen in adversarial but in benign terms can be gauged by the number of respondents (55%) who felt that they would like to bring up their children in more or less the same way as they were brought up. The family remains a key institution in the life-world of Indian youth. One could perhaps argue that even in a situation of expanded choice, youth in India, in contrast to the situation described in rubric one where conservative mores were regarded as a function of limited opportunity, would freely adopt conservative mores with respect to parental authority. Even though inter-religious and inter-caste marriage runs the risk of social violence, as the news report from Bhopal illustrates, one could hazard a view that youth buy in to these cultural mores and do not think that an assertion of individuality means that parents must not have a say in the making of decisions concerning marriage and careers. The Swedish saying that ‘if the Stone Age children had obeyed their parents we would still be living in the Stone Age’, does not appear to hold in India. Or does it?
The third rubric Leisure and Life Style yields this gem of data that dressing up in the latest styles is an important facet of self-expression and that this was a view strongly held by the younger segment of the youth. If on marriage youth seem to be different from their counterparts elsewhere here they seem to be no different. The power of the media, especially the electronic media, seems considerable with a majority [Page xxiv]of youth watching films and serials on television. Some message seems to be getting through and with youth icons from sport and the film industry becoming the models for youth. Jeans, metaphorically, seems to have captured the imagination of Indian youth. Although, in the world of dressing and fashion, youth seem to want to express their individuality and appear to be unconstrained by cultural mores, a point illustrated in greater detail by a case study. Our data tells us that 60% felt that consumption of alcohol was unacceptable. This is a statistic difficult to decipher. Is it an indicator of conservativeness or of progressiveness? Does the image of consumption of alcohol as a marker of modernity carry a cultural baggage? Does it suggest an alternative route to modernity? In what way does the consumption of alcohol relate to the transition from youth into adulthood?
The data on the fourth rubric Politics and Democracy presents a picture of politically engaged Indian youth and hence the concern among the trilateral countries of a declining interest in politics among youth in those countries is not a concern in India where youth exhibit several interesting attitudes: high participation in politics, high trust in democracy, high continuity and engagement in politics across generations, especially where there is a family tradition and—like the general population—a high trust in the army as an institution in contrast to the lowest trust in the police and political parties. The fact that the youth have a robust interest in politics and democracy is a good sign for the future of Indian democracy. India is an intensely political place with sites of democratic practice increasing in the polity as can be seen most vigorously in the university system where student politics is fairly competitive and intense, and currently undergoing reform as per the recommendations of the Lyngdoh report. Their participation is also supported by their political opinions where a large majority of youth believe in the values of democracy such as the importance of the political opposition, the importance [Page xxv]of freedom of expression, and the abjuring of violence to settle disputes etc. It is fair to say that democracy is becoming the commonsense of youth in India and hence arguing for it or defending its value appear to be redundant tasks. The acceptance by youth of the values of democracy indicates that in the political realm, at least, the journey to modernity has been quite straightforward. While there are differences between Indian and Western youth in their dispositions towards politics these may be more a difference of stages between the modern and the post-modern worlds of politics. In India most youth are still in the modern world of endorsing the state and its authority.
From the fifth rubric concerning Governance and Development the big story that is emerging is that of unemployment and poverty. An equal number of 27%, in both cases, listed these two as their biggest concerns. While this, in itself, is not unexpected, it is worth noting that the concerns are highest among those who are non-literate, of low socio-economic status, from rural areas and among marginal groups of dalits and adivasis. This is a cause for alarm since this concern of the lower social strata, that has fewer life chance opportunities, may turn into discontent and this in turn may undermine the commitment to the values of democracy that currently seem to be widely shared by the youth. The increasing violence in rural India, especially in the naxalite affected regions, and among dalit youth protesting against their life situations, something akin to the violence in the urban areas in France, needs to be borne in mind. This finding suggests, more than anything else, that we run the risk of squandering our demographic dividend.
From the sixth rubric Nation and the World the one issue that we could perhaps reflect on is the divided opinion of youth on the advantages and disadvantages of globalisation. The number of those who see it as advantages from among the lower socio economic group was about the same as those who saw it as disadvantageous, and those who saw it as [Page xxvi]disadvantageous dropped with higher income. There seems to be an increasing perception that globalisation is the only way to enter the future and that the older strategies of self-reliance and autarkic development are strategies of the past. And hence, even though there are concerns about the disadvantages, among a large section, these would need to be addressed and would fit into the aspiration to benefit from the demographic dividend. Since the challenge is to convert what is inevitable into an asset we need to democratise development, which is what many of the social movements are asking, in other words to make development more inclusive. For a more just order the policy goal should be both a recognition of the aspiration of a large proportion of youth for the benefits of globalisation and also a series of policy steps to address the concerns of the sizeable number who see it as disadvantageous.
The seventh rubric Anxiety and Aspiration shows that Indian youth have both very high levels of anxiety and high levels of aspiration. Further, on the specific question of how they saw their future and their children's future more than two-thirds saw the future as bright in both instances. Interestingly Indian youth appear to exhibit high levels of anxiety, high aspiration and high optimism about the future. This trend is somewhat puzzling since one would expect anxiety to be inversely related to optimism. Perhaps the only way to make sense of it is to go below the aggregate data and read it through the lens of how different social groups view the present and future. The plurality of worlds in which youth are located would help us account for the variations in these trends. We have not here delved at any length into how the different genders, or social groups such as minorities, dalits, adivasis, or differently abled youth, or even those in different localities, respond to these issues.
Since this will be done in the individual chapters, and since we have also given the marginals in the appendix, let us now move to a discussion of how the data allows us to join the larger discussion about societal change.[Page xxvii]The Big Picture
There are three big aspects, with respects to the ongoing debate on routes to modernity (alternative or common), that this attitudinal data on youth allows us to participate in. The first is to peer at youth attitudes and perspectives through the lens of education. From the data from the seven rubrics we find that those with higher educational levels begin to diverge from the general trend, for example having friends from across genders, caste, and religious groups, willing to assert their own views on marriage and career choices especially if they are different from the parental view, having clearer views on the values of democracy, are more aware of globalisation, and have higher aspirations for the future.
The conclusion is that education counts. Those who are better educated seem more willing to cross borders of social mores and to be more willing to assert their individual preferences. Which makes us ask the hypothetical question: Will the even spread of education at the higher levels, across region and socio economic groups, mean that much of what we regard as the cultural inflexion in youth attitudes and perspectives is in fact only a function of the availability of opportunity and the absence of material constraint. If youth with less advantage and opportunity were to be able to overcome these constraints, through the benefits of higher levels of education, would they then begin to have views similar to those that are currently expressed by those from higher socio economic status (SES). In other words is the thesis of alternative route to modernity somewhat overstated in the context of youth? It may be valid in other domains but is perhaps less so in the world of youth who display attitudes and perspectives similar to youth in other regions of the world.
The second aspect of the big story is the sites at which youth stage their tryst with modernity. This is a peculiar turn of phrase since this involves entering, encountering, aspiring, engaging and perhaps even consuming [Page xxviii]modernity, and since these lend themselves to different logics, to use the telegraphic form of tryst to encapsulate the various experiences may be somewhat illegitimate. The case studies showed the emergence and increasing presence of new sites where this tryst takes place, such as the beauty parlour, gym, cyber cafe, mall, college campus, Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) centre, etc. The site that is the big revelation of the survey data is the small town. Youth in small towns appear to have the highest level of aspiration even compared to metropolitan areas. Because these spaces are perhaps the fastest growing, demographically and economically, and because they can be seen somewhat as half-way houses in terms of opportunity and constraint, as compared to the village and the big city, the small town is perhaps seen as the place where one has broken free from the frustrations of the village and is en-route to the freedom of the city. The other advantage of the small town for most of India's youth is its proximity, both geographical and personal, since there is a likelihood that one would be able here to connect to social networks more easily. The small town is one of the big sites for harnessing the energy of youth in India today.
The third aspect of the big story is the relationship of youth to modernity. If youth, in the West, are generally regarded as the flag-bearers of modernity, in India too they seem to have evolved a bi-cultural identity having elements of both local identity and global identity. The quantitative study of attitudes and perspectives seems to point to the conclusion that Indian youth are not following an alternative route to modernity. The differences in attitude appear to be more a function of material and cognitive opportunity, than of choice, and hence when opportunity is available youth are brought back in step with global trends. This is most evident in the domain of dressing where youth from all social groups and all locations aspire for dress styles that are no different than those in Durban, Sao Paulo or Beijing. Fab India may look local but it is global and to mistake it for local distinctiveness is to miss the point about the [Page xxix]plurality of the global. An interesting point here is to distinguish between practice and tradition, i.e., where the former changes more easily because it is superficial while the latter changes more slowly because it is deeper. Is the form of dressing, practice or tradition? Is it superficial or is it the expression of something deeper that is changing? The study offers us a rich data set from which to explore this issue. In the world of youth in India we are therefore required to grapple with the thesis of alternative routes or multiple routes to modernity. A form and substance debate awaits us here.
But like all things Indian one must end with a puzzle that invites interpretation. Let me describe an ordinary morning, on a working day, at one of the new commuter stations, hi-tech city at Vidya Nagar in Hyderabad. This is a locality inhabited mostly by conservative upper caste Hindus, and the hi-tech city station is one from where persons, who are basically techies, travel to work at the many new IT companies on the outskirts of Hyderabad. The station is new, built specially for serving the hi tech city. The platform is largely populated by young people of both sexes. In the morning one can see them wearing holy marks on their forehead (a marker of tradition) or akshintalu (grains coated with turmeric) on their head, a sign that they performed puja. Many of these young persons are, however, engrossed in listening to music on their i-pods, which is the best of modern technology. Perhaps they are listening to hindi film music, which is as hybrid as you can get. And yet they are standing in clusters that are largely of the same sex. There seems to be no libido pressure here. When the commuter train comes, however, the women and men get into different compartments with the women largely into compartments reserved for women. Is this because of libidinal anxiety or just a concern of safety or just standard all India railway practice? Incredible India![Page xxx]
Appendix I: Sampling for Youth Survey[Page 113]Target GroupThose between Age Group 14–34 Years
The sample for the youth survey was drawn using the multi-stage systematic random sampling technique. The total target sample of 5,000 respondents was distributed in different states in proportion to their share in the youth population. Since distribution of the sample in proportion to the share of the youth in the population would have meant quota of few interviews in small states, many such states were removed from the universe from which the sample was drawn. The states which were removed from the sample were Goa, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Tripura, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim. Taking into consideration the lower completion rate, a sample of 7,176 respondents in the age group of 18–34 years and 2,208 households for selecting respondents in the age group of 14–17 years were drawn from the electoral rolls. When the survey was completed, 5,000 youth from different age groups had been interviewed.Process of Sample Selection
The first stage in the sample selection was sampling of assembly constituencies in each state where the survey was to be undertaken. In each state the assembly constituencies were randomly selected using the Probability Proportionate to Size (PPS) technique.
The second stage in the sample selection was sampling the political unit—the polling booths. In each selected assembly constituency, two polling booths were randomly selected using the systematic random sampling technique. Since the polling booths represent locations in urban areas and villages, this helped in pointing out the locations at which the survey was undertaken. A total of 320 locations were randomly selected for the survey.
The third stage in the sample selection involved the sampling of respondents who were to be interviewed. For this the mix method of sampling the individuals as well as the households was used. Respondents in the age group 18–34 years were selected from the electoral rolls, but for the respondents in the age group of 14–17 years, the household where the survey was to be conducted among the youth were selected.
At the very beginning a sample of 34 respondents was selected using the electoral rolls. The universe for selecting the sample was freshly drawn by deleting the names of all those above the age of 35 years in the electoral rolls of all the sampled polling booths. The sample of 34 respondents was drawn using the systematic random sampling technique from this new universe with names of voters above 35 years deleted from the universe.
Once the sample of 34 respondents had been drawn the names of eight respondents were treated not as respondents but as selected household. In the list of selected individuals, respondent number 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, and 32 were not considered as selected respondents, but as selected households while the rest were treated as selected respondents. The quota for the proportion of households and individuals was decided keeping in mind the share of the youth in the population in the age group of 18–34 years and those in the 14–17 years age group.Selecting Respondents from Selected Household
Now we had two lists: One of the selected respondents and the other of the selected households. The investigators tried to reach the selected respondents and conducted interviews with only those whose names figured in the [Page 114]selected respondents list. There was no substitution for those respondents who could not be contacted or interviewed for various reasons. Strictly only those respondents were interviewed whose names figured on the list of selected respondents.
From the list of selected households, the investigators had the liberty to choose the respondent. There were possibilities of investigator bias while selecting the respondents between ages 14–17 years in the selected households since the respondents had not been selected. While the overall mandate was to maintain a gender balance while selecting the respondents in the selected households, investigators followed a strict procedure for selecting the respondents in the selected household.
In some households the investigator could find both a boy and a girl in the age group of 14–17 years. In such cases, only one respondent was interviewed. While the investigator had the liberty to select either the boy or the girl from such a household, that decision was guided by the profile of interviews in other selected households. In case the investigator had already interviewed some girls in the other households, he selected the boy and vice versa. More than one interview in one household was not allowed.Achieving the Target
While a sample of 24 respondents and eight households was drawn as the list which was to be targeted for the interviews, we ended up interviewing much less respondents than the number of sampled respondents. Of the total 24 respondents who were selected for the survey, on an average about 11–12 interviews were conducted at each polling booth. Amongst the selected households, about 4–5 interviews could be successfully completed under the specified parameters. Keeping in mind the shortfall in the rate of completion, an over sampling was done while drawing the sample both for the respondents as well as for the households.
There were rare occasions in a couple of localities where the investigators could not meet even one respondent in the 14–19 years age bracket in the selected household. In such cases he visited the house next to the one which was the selected household to interview any youth available between in the 14–17 years age group. Nearly 7 per cent of the total interviews were conducted in substituted households for meeting the respondents in the 14–17 years age group.Booster Sample
While a national sample of 5,000 respondents is a good enough sample to draw conclusions about the youth at the national level, this would have constrained us in analysing the data in terms of levels of urbanity, i.e. village youth versus small town youth versus youth living in big cities. Since the sample of 5,000 was proportionately spread across towns and cities, the number of interviews from these small and big cities would have been small enough to not allow a me aningful analysis. Keeping this in mind a booster sample was drawn from the big cities in such a way so that apart from the metropolitan cities, the survey was conducted in all the capital cities of all the state where the survey was undertaken. The booster survey was conducted at 76 locations in the state capitals of the states where the survey was conducted.
The sample of 1,976 respondents in the 18–34 years age group and a sample of 608 households for interviews of those in the 14–17 years age group was randomly selected from the electoral rolls. The total number of booster interviews from the capital cities was 1,216.
The findings of the survey reported in this report are based on the findings of the national representative sample of 5,000 youth from different age groups, gender, castes and localities. The disaggregate analysis for towns and cities includes the booster sample collected from the cities and towns.Field Work
Fieldwork for the youth survey was conducted during April–May 2007. The research investigators, mainly college and university students, were given special training in survey research techniques during a two-day workshop especially organised for this purpose in various states. All the respondents were interviewed in the face-to-face situation using the structured interview schedule.
Appendix II: CSDS-KAS Youth Survey 2007 Questionnaire[Page 115]
I have come from (name of the university if required) Centre for the study of Developing Societies, a research organisation located in Delhi. We are studying the opinion & attitudes of Indian youth for which we will interview hundreds of youths across the country. The findings of the research will be used for writing articles and academic purposes. The names of respondents interviewed in this survey will be kept strictly confidential. The survey is an independent study and is not linked with any political party or government agency. Kindly spare some time for this interview and answer my questions, as I need your active cooperation for making this study successful.
Q1. People have different opinions about the age at which young boys and girls should get married. Which according to you is an ideal age to get married for boys?
Q2. Which according to you is an ideal age to get married for girls?
Q3. Now I am going to ask you about activities which people generally do in their spare time. How regularly do you do the following in your spare time—mostly, sometimes or never? (Read out options)
[Page 116]Q4. (If watches Television.) How regularly do you watch the following on Television—is it daily, more than once a week, rarely or never? (Read out the programmes listed)
Q5. If you recall your childhood days, how would you describe your upbringing - would you say that your upbringing was very strict, strict, not so strict or not at all strict?
- Very strict
- Not so strict
- Not at all strict
- No opinion
Q6. If you think about the way you would like to bring up your children, you would bring them up—exactly the same way your parents brought you up, more or less the same way, differently or very differently?
- Exactly the same way
- More and less the same way
- Very differently
- No Opinion
Q7. How many times have you participated in any protest, demonstration, struggle or movement—Several times, Once or twice or Never
- Several times
- Once or twice
- No openion
Q8. If you recall the number of times you have voted since you became eligible for voting, how would you best describe yourself—have you voted in every election, voted in most elections, voted in some elections, hardly ever voted.
- Voted in every election
- Voted in most elections
- Voted in some elections
- Hardly ever voted
- No answer
- N.A. [Not Eligible or eligible only once]
[Page 117]Q9. Do you think your vote has effect on how things are run in this country or do you think your vote makes no difference?
- Has effect
- Makes no difference
- No Opinion
Q10. How interested are/were your parents in politics - are/were they very interested, interested, not interested or not at all interested?
- Very interested
- somewhat interested
- Not very interested
- Not at all interested
- No response
Q11. Do you study in school/college or have you completed your school/college studies?
- Studying in school
- studying in College
- completed school
- Completed college
- School drop out
- College drop out
- Never went to school
Q11a. (If currently studying in school/college) What is your opinion about attending School/College [Choose whichever applicable]. Do you like to attend School/College- very much, somewhat, or you don't like going to school/college.
- Like very much
- Like Somewhat
- Neither like nor dislike
- Don't like going to school/college
- No Opinion/Distance Education
Q11b. (If studying or completed study) Do you study/studied in government or private school?
- Any other (Specify) ____
Q11c. (If studying or completed study) Where have/are you completed/continuing your schooling - village or city?
Q12. If you take into consideration the overall educational facilities available in India—do you think you are satisfied or dissatisfied with them? (Probe further if ‘fully’ or ‘somewhat’ satisfied or dissatisfied)
- Fully Satisfied
- Somewhat satisfied
- Somewhat dissatisfied
- Fully Dissatisfied
- No opinion
Q13. How would you describe your day-to-day life at school/college/workplace (ask the one applicable) like - is it very stressful, somewhat stressful, somewhat relaxed, or very relaxed?
- Very Stressful
- Somewhat stressful
- Somewhat Relaxed
- Very relaxed
- No opinion
- NA [Unemployed/Home maker]
[Page 118]Q14. Now I am going to read out few things, you tell me how important are they for you – are they very important, somewhat important, somewhat unimportant or not important at all? (Read out options)
Q15. Do you have children?
Q15a. (If no) Would you like to have children in future?
- Can't say
Q16. Would you want your husband/wife (choose whichever applicable) to earn—more than you or less than you?
- Should earn more
- Should earn Less
- Doesnot matter.
- Should not earn/work
- Should earn equal
- No opinion
Q17. We often hear about people being discriminated on various accounts in their day-to-day life. Please tell me how often have you felt discriminated about the following - frequently, sometimes, or never? (Read out the reasons listed)
[Page 119]Q18. Do you watch/see films/movies?
- No Anwer
Q18a. (If yes) Which type of films do you like the most? (Do not read out answer categories)
- Action and adventure
- Films with a message
- Any other (Specify) ___
- No opinion 0. N.A.
Q19. Now I will read out two statements on various issues. Tell me, do you agree with statement one (1) or statement two(2)?
- In matters of marriage boys and girls may be consulted, however the final decision should be taken by parents
- In matters of marriage though the parents may be consulted, the final decision should be left to the boys/girls themselves
- Agree with first
- Agree with second
- No opinion
- In our society, meeting/dating of boys and girls before marriage should be restricted.
- There should be no restriction on meeting/dating of boys and girls before marriage
- Agree with first
- Agree with second
- No opinion
- In our society marriages must take place within one's own caste/community
- There is nothing wrong if boys and girls of different castes/community marry
- Agree with first
- Agree with second
- No opinion
- Once married, a couple must stay together even if it requires certain compromises
- If there are differences with one's partner, there is no harm in getting a divorce.
- Agree with first
- Agree with second
- No opinion
Q20. Do you use Internet?
- No opinion
Q20a. (If yes) What do you use the Internet mainly for? (Do not read out answer categories)
- E Mailing
- Chatting/Social networking
- For Information/Education
- Online Transactions
- Any other (specify) ___
- No opinion
[Page 120]Q20b. (If yes to Q 20) How many hours a week do you spend on the Internet?
No of hours _______ (Record exract number of hours)
- 98 and more
Q21. Have you heard of the term ‘globalisation’?
- No Opinion
Q21a. (If yes) Thinking of overall results/effects of globalisation, do you feel that globalisation leads to more advantages than disadvantages, more disadvantages than advantages or advantages and disadvantages are more or less same?
- More advantages than disadvantages
- More disadvantages than advantages
- Advantages and Disadvantages are more or less same
- No opinion
Q22. Now I will read out a few statements. You tell me for each do you agree or disagree with them? (Probe further whether ‘fully’ or ‘somewhat’ agree or disagree)
Q23. What according to you is the ideal age for a person to get employed (salaried job/self employed/start business)? (Record exact age)_______
- Age no bar
- No opinion
Q24. There are various factors that motivate people to choose their occupation/work. I am going to read out a few considerations irrespective of whether you are seeking a job or not, which will be the most important consideration for your choice of occupation?[Read out options 1 to 4]
- Job with good income.
- Job with security even if it meant a lower salary.
- Job with an opportunity to work with people of your choice.
- Job that gives a feeling of accomplishment/Satisfaction.
- Don't know/No opinion
[Page 121]Q25. Would you like to work in a government service, private service or take up own business/profession?
- Government service
- Private service
- Own Business/Profession.
- Any other (specify) ___
- D.K/No opinion
Q26. Now I am going to read out statements regarding the reservation of seats for SC, ST and OBC communities in higher education and professional courses. Tell me with which statement do you agree the most. (Read out option 1 to 4)
- Seats should be reserved for SC, ST and OBC communities.
- Seats should be reserved for SC, ST but not for OBC communities.
- Seats should be reserved for SC, ST but only for economically weaker (poor) sections of the OBC communities.
- There should be no reservation of seats for any community in higher education.
- No Opinion
Q27. I am going to name a number of institutions. For each one could you tell me how much trust you have in them. Is it great deal of trust, some trust, not very much trust or none at all?
Q28. Do you believe in God?
- Can't say
Q29. How often do you offer prayer/puja/namaj—daily, weekly, occasionally, only on festivals or never?
- Once a Week
- Only during festivals
- NO opinion/answer
[Page 122]Q30. Now I am going to read few statements that deal with peoples’ opinion towards life. Do you agree or disagree with these statements? (Probe further if ‘strongly’ or “somewhat” agree or disagree)
Q31. Thinking of 5 close friends, tell me how many of them are: (Record number)
Q32. I am now going to read out a few things on which the young people generally spend money. Please tell me for each of these how much money do you spend in one month (Read out options and record in rupees)
[Page 123]Q33. There are different opinions about drinking of alcohol. While some believe that a drinking of alcohol within limits is acceptable, while others say drinking alcohol is a bad habit and is not at all acceptable. There are still others who believe that though taking alcohol is not good but is necessary to maintain a social circle. What is your opinion about this?
- Not at all acceptable
- Necessary to maintain social circle
- Not opinion
Q34. I am going to read out two statements about student unions in colleges, tell me whether you agree with statement 1 or with statement 2? (Read out options)
Q35. Now I am going to read out a few statements about peoples’ opinion about politics. For each of them you tell me, whether you agree or disagree. (Probe further if ‘strongly’, or “somewhat” agree or disagree)
Q36. I am going to read out 3 statements regarding reservations of seats for women in parliament and state assemblies. Tell me with which one do you agree the most? [Read out options]
- Since women are underrepresented in parliament & state assemblies, seats should be reserved for them.
- Seats should be reserved in parliament & state assemblies only for women who belong to SC, ST and OBC Communities.
- There should be no reservation for women in parliament & state assemblies.
- No Opinion
Q37. If there is a proposal to reserve seats for youth in the parliament and state assemblies, would you support it or oppose it? (Probe further if “fully” or “somewhat” support or oppose)
- Fully Support
- Somewhat Support
- Somewhat Oppose
- Fully Oppose
- No opinion
[Page 124]Q38. What according to you is the biggest problem faced by India? (Record the answer & consult codebook for coding) ____
- Can't say/No Answer
Q39. There are various issues that a developing country like India needs to address. I am going to read out 3 such issues. What should the priorities of the government in addressing them: (Rank these issues from 1 to 3 in order of priority. 1 being the most important and 3 being the least important)
Q40. People sometimes talk about what should be the goals/aims of the country for the next 10 years. I am going to read out a few priorities of the government. How would you rank these 3 things in terms of their importance – 1 being the most important, 2 important & 3 being least important? (Rank these issues from 1 to 3 in order of priority)
Q41. Now I would read out the names of a few countries. Have you heard the name of [Name of country]? (If Yes) How would you describe the relation of (Name of the country) with India - very friendly, friendly or not so friendly? (Read out options)
[Page 125]Q42. While deciding about career and academic options different families adopt different ways to take decisions. Among some families parents take all the decisions while in other families the parents and children discuss these matters together. Still there are some families in which children enjoy complete freedom in such matters. What has been your experience?
- My parents decide everything
- Parents and I discuss together
- I enjoy complete freedom
- No Opinion/Can't say
Q43. I am going to read out 3 statements about how people could remain happy. Tell me with which statement do you agree with the most? (Read out options)
- To be happy in life one needs a family
- One can be happy with or without family
- One is happier alone, even without a family.
- No opinion
Q44. Now I would ask you how much trust do you have in people from various groups? I will show you a ladder with 1 to 10 steps (Show Card). If you place at step 1 those groups on whom you have a great deal of trust and at step 10 those groups on whom you have no trust then where would you place—
Q45. Different countries of the world play different roles in the global, socio-political and economic matters. In your opinion, what kind of role should India play in these international matters?
- No Opinion
Q46. Now I will read out two statements on various issues. Tell me whether you agree with statement one (1) or statement two (2)?
Q47. There are different opinions regarding government's handling of terrorism. Some people say that terrorist activities in India are a result of failure of the government. Others say that the government is doing its best to control terrorist activities. What is your opinion about it?
- Terrorist activities in India are a result of failure of the government
- Government is doing its best to control terrorist activities
- No opinion
Q48. How would you compare your family's financial condition with that of your relatives? Do you think your family's economic condition is better than most of your relatives, or your relatives are in a much better condition as compared to your family, or there is hardly any difference?
- My family's economic condition is better than most of my relatives
- My family's economic condition is worse than that of my relatives
- No Difference
- No response
Q49. Few years from now, how do you foresee your future? Do you think your life will become very bright, somewhat bright or there will hardly be any change?
- Very bright
- Somewhat bright
- No Difference
- Dark future/bad future
- No Opinion/Can't say
Q50. Do you think your children will have a better life than that of yours, worse than yours or that there will hardly be any difference?
- Live a better life
- Live a worse life
- No difference
- No Opinion/Can't say
[Page 127]Q51. I am going to read out a few statements. Tell me, whether you agree or disagree. (Probe further whether strongly or somewhat agree or disagree)
Q52. There are various issues that a developing country like India needs to address. I am going to read out 3 such issues. What should be the priorities of the government in addressing them: (Rank these issues from 1 to 3 in order of priority, 1 being the most important and 3 being the least important)
Q53. I am going to read out few statements about the impact of Panchayat Raj tell me whether you agree or disagree with each. (Probe further whether ‘fully’ or ‘somewhat’ agree or disagree)
[Page 128]Q54. If you had an opportunity, would you like to settle in a foreign country?
- Can't say
Q54a. (If yes) If you get an opportunity, which country will be your most preferred choice for settling down? (Record the name of country) ___
Q55. Young people have various kinds of insecurities/anxieties in their lives. I will read out a few such insecurities. Tell me to what extent are you insecure about the following- to a great extent, somewhat or not at all? (Read out options)
Q56. Considering all the people with whom you interact in your day-to-day life, who do you think are you influenced by the most in your own life. (Do not read out answer categories)
- Siblings - brother/sister
- Seniors at office
- Any other (Specify) ___
- Not Influenced
- No Opinion
B1. What is your age? (As mentioned by the respondent in completed years) ____
B1a. Age (According to the Voter List) ____ (Not to be asked)
B2. Gender: 1. Male 2. Female
B3. What is your marital status?
- Living with someone, but unmarried
B4. Till what level have you studied _____ (Record exactly and consult code book)
B4a. Till what level have your father and your mother studied?
B5. What is your current education/employment status-
- Student not seeking employment
- Student seeking/doing part time employment
- Fully employed
- Partly employed
B6. (Even if partly or fully employed), What is your main occupation?[Read exactly and consult code book] ____ 99 Unemployed
B6a. (If the respondent is not the main earner) What is/has been the main occupation of the main earner of the family? ____ (Record exactly and consult the code book)
B7. How regularly do you read the newspaper - daily, frequently, rarely or never?
- No Opinion
B8. What is your Caste/Jati-biradari/Tribe name? (Probe further, if Respondent mentions ambiguous surname) ________ (Consult state code book, or master list)
B8a. And what is your caste group? (Ascertain and consult SC/ST/OBC list in code book)
- Scheduled Caste (SC)
- Scheduled Tribe (ST)
- Other Backward Caste (OBC)
B9. Which religion do you follow?
- Other (Specify) ______
[Page 130]B10. Generally, which language do you speak at home? _________ (Record exact answer & consult codebook for coding)
- Town (Below 1 lakh)
- City (Above 1 lakh)
- Metropolitan City (Above 10 lakh)
(If in doubt consult the electoral roll. If not stated on either then it is classed as a village)
B11a. (If Town/City) Type of house where R lives (own or rented)
- House/Flat/Bungalow with 4 or more bedrooms
- House/Flat with 3 or 4 bedrooms
- House/Flat with 2 bedrooms (With kitchen and bathroom)
- House/Flat with 2 Pucca rooms (With kitchen)
- House/Flat with 2 Pucca rooms (Without kitchen)
- House with 1 Pucca room (With kitchen)
- House/Flat with 1 Pucca room (Without kitchen)
- Mainly Kutcha house
- Slum/Jhuggi Jhopri/fully Kutcha 0. N.A. (Not applicable)
B11b. (If Village) Type of house where R lives (own or rented)
- Pucca (both wall and roof made of pucca material)
- Pucca-kucha (Either wall or roof is made of pucca material and of other kutcha material)
- Kutcha (both wall and roof are made of kutcha material other than materials mentioned in category 4)
- Hut (both wall and roof are made of grass, leaves, mud, un-burnt brick or bamboo) 0. NA
B 12. Number of rooms in use in the household ______
B 13. Total number of family members living in the household? (Adults ____ Children ____)
B14. Do you or your family member have the following:[Page 131]
B 15. Do you personally have the following:
B 16. Total monthly household income [Approx]:
- Upto Rs. 1,000
- Rs. 1,001 - Rs. 2,000
- Rs. 2,001 - Rs. 3,000
- Rs. 3,001 - Rs. 4,000
- Rs. 4,001 - Rs. 5,000
- Rs. 5,001 - Rs. 10,000
- Rs. 10,001 - Rs. 20,000
- Rs. 20,001 - Rs. 50,000
- 50,001 and above
- Name of the State _______
- Name of the State _______
- Name of the Village/Locality ______
- Date of interview ______
- Name of the respondent ______
- Name of the investigator ______
- Name of the supervisor ______
Appendix III: CSDS-KAS Youth Survey: Marginals for Appendix Basic Findings of All Questions[Page 132]Table 1: Ideal age for boys to get marriedTable 2: Ideal age for girls to get marriedTable 3a: Frequency of listening to musicTable 3b: Frequency of going out with friendsTable 3c: Frequency of reading books/magazines/periodicalsTable 3d: Frequency of playing games/sports
[Page 133]Table 3e: Frequency of watching filmsTable 3f: Frequency of watching televisionTable 4a: Frequency of watching religious programmes on televisionTable 4b: Frequency of watching films on televisionTable 4c: Frequency of watching news/political debates on television
[Page 134]Table 4d: Frequency of watching sports on televisionTable 4e: Frequency of watching business news on televisionTable 4f: Frequency of watching music vedios on televisionTable 4g: Frequency of watching TV serials/soaps on televisionTable 4h: Frequency of watching reality shows on television
[Page 135]Table 5: Way of being brought upTable 6: Compared to their upbringing, the way respondents would like to bring up their childrenTable 7: Frequency of participating in protest, demonstration, struggle or movementTable 8: Frequency of voting in electionsTable 9: Efficacy in voteTable 10: Parent's interest in politics
[Page 136]Table 11: Status of educationTable 11a: Degree of liking to attend school/collegeTable 11b: Type of school respondent studies or studied inTable 11c: Location of school respondent studies or studied inTable 12: Satisfaction with overall educational facilities available in India
[Page 137]Table 13: Degree of daily stress at school/college/workplaceTable 14a: Importance given to higher educationTable 14b: Importance given to being interested in politicsTable 14c: Importance given to taking responsibilityTable 14d: Importance given to dressing up according to latest trendsTable 14e: Importance given to getting married
[Page 138]Table 15: ChildrenTable 15a: Aspiration to have childrenTable 16: Wanting spouse to earnTable 17a: Frequency of being discriminated on economic statusTable 17b: Frequency of being discriminated on the basis of casteTable 17c: Frequency of being discriminated on the basis of gender
[Page 139]Table 17d: Frequency of being discriminated on the basis of religionTable 17e: Frequency of being discriminated on your state of originTable 18: Watching filmsTable 18a: Types of films watchedTable 19a: Opinion on marriageTable 19b: Opinion on dating
[Page 140]Table 19c: Opinion on inter-caste marriageTable 19d: Opinion on divorceTable 20: Internet usageTable 20a: Purpose of using the internetTable 20b: Weekly hours spent on the internet
[Page 141]Table 21: Awareness about GlobalisationTable 21a: Opinion on GlobalisationTable 22a: Opinion on whether better and cheaper products are available due to increasing global competitionTable 22b: Opinion on whether foreign culture is becoming increasingly dominantTable 22c: Opinion on whether bigger countries wield all the power
[Page 142]Table 22d: Opinion on whether the youth have better emloyment opportunities abroadTable 23: Ideal age for getting employedTable 24: Considerations while choosing a jobTable 25: Preferred sector to work inTable 26: Opinion on reservations in higher education
[Page 143]Table 27a: Degree of trust in central governmentTable 27b: Degree of trust in state governmentTable 27c: Degree of trust in local governementTable 27d: Degree of trust in civil servicesTable 27e: Degree of trust in policeTable 27f: Degree of trust in Army
[Page 144]Table 27g: Degree of trust in courtsTable 27h: Degree of trust in the ParliamentTable 27i: Degree of trust in political partiesTable 27j: Degree of trust in the Election CommissionTable 28: Belief in GodTable 29: Frequency of praying
[Page 145]Table 30a: Whether respondent gives importance to achieving more than othersTable 30b: Whether respondent's decisions in life are personal or taken by othersTable 30c: Whether respondent feels that nowdays one often does things that are not rightTable 30d: Whether respondent feels lonelyTable 30e: Whether respondent thinks she/he manages to achieve goals and plans for successTable 30f: Whether respondent feels that she/he cannot change anything about most things that disturb
[Page 146]Table 30g: Whether respondent thinks that money is very important to remain happyTable 31a: Among five top friends, those from the opposite sexTable 31b: Among five top friends, those from other castesTable 31c: Among five top friends, those from other religions
Table 32a: Average monthly expenditure on watching films Rs. 152Note: Average expediture computed from valid answers. Table 32b: Average monthly expenditure on eating out Rs. 184Note: Average expediture computed from valid answers. Table 32c: Average monthly expenditure on purchasing accessories Rs. 318Note: Average expediture computed from valid answers.[Page 147] Table 32d: Average monthly expenditure on purchasing gadgets and technology products Rs. 175Note: Average expediture computed from valid answers. Table 32e: Average monthly expenditure on phone bills Rs. 225Note: Average expediture computed from valid answers.Table 33: Opinion on drinking alcoholTable 34: Opinion on student's unionTable 35a: Importance of political parties in a democracyTable 35b: Opinion on whether politicians do not care about people like the respondent
[Page 148]Table 35c: Opinion on citizens’ duty to vote during electionsTable 35d: Whether understanding politics is too complicatedTable 35e: Opinion on whether in India power rests with few peopleTable 35f: Whether respondent find politics interestingTable 36: Opinion on reservations of seats for women in Parliament and State Assemblies
[Page 149]Table 37: Support for reserving seats for the youth in ParliamentTable 38: Biggest problem faced in IndiaTable 39a: Priority of government in addressing to reduce child mortalityTable 39b: Priority of government in addressing to maternal health care facilitiesTable 39c: Priority of government in combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseasesTable 40a: Importance in terms of priority given to improving health services
[Page 150]Table 40b: Importance in terms of priority given to providing good educationTable 40c: Importance in terms of priority given to guaranteeing employmentTable 41a: Awareness about China, and opinion on its relationship with IndiaTable 41b: Awareness about America, and opinion on its relationship with IndiaTable 41c: Awareness about Sri Lanka, and opinion on its relationship with IndiaTable 41d: Awareness about Nepal, and opinion on its relationship with India
[Page 151]Table 41e: Awareness about Pakistan, and opinion on its relationship with IndiaTable 41f: Awareness about Russia, and opinion on its relationship with IndiaTable 41f: Awareness about Germany, and opinion on its relationship with IndiaTable 41h: Awareness about Bangladesh, and opinion on its relationship with IndiaTable 42: Way of taking decisions about career/academic options
[Page 152]Table 43: Role of family in personal happinessTable 44a: On a scale of 1 to 10 trust in friendsTable 44b: On a scale of 1 to 10 trust in relativesTable 44c: On a scale of 1 to 10 trust in people from own casteTable 44d: On a scale of 1 to 10 trust in neighboursTable 44e: On a scale of 1 to 10 trust in people from other religions
[Page 153]Table 44f: On a scale of 1 to 10 trust in colleaguesTable 44g: On a scale of 1 to 10 trust in people from other castesTable 45: Opinion on the role India should play in international mattersTable 46a: Opinion on role of India in the regionTable 46b: Opinion on America
[Page 154]Table 46c: Opinion on Indo-Pak relationsTable 47: Opinion regarding government's handling of terrorismTable 48: Opinion on respondent's family's financial condition to that of his/her relativesTable 49: How does the respondent forsees his/her futureTable 50: Opinion on whether's respondent's children will have better life
[Page 155]Table 51a: A viable democracy is not possible without political oppositionTable 51b: Everyone should have the right to express his/her opinion, even if the majority is of a different opinionTable 51c: People should not be allowed to strike and demonstrate if they endanger public orderTable 51d: Conflict exists in every society and can only be resolved through violenceTable 52a: Priority of government in promoting gender equalityTable 52b: Priority of government in addressing environment sustainability
[Page 156]Table 52c: Priority of government in addressing to strengthen our defence systemTable 53a: Due to Panchayats delivery of benefits to people have improvedTable 53b: Panchayats have led to increase in corruptionTable 53c: Panchayats have resulted in reducing discrimination against DalitsTable 53d: Panchayats have empowered womenTable 54: If respondent had an opportunity, whether he would like to settle in a foreign country
[Page 157]Table 54a: Most preferred choice for settling downTable 55a: Extent of insecurity about employmentTable 55b: Extent of insecurity about riots and mob violence in the countryTable 55c: Extent of insecurity about personal healthTable 55d: Extent of insecurity about prospects of respondent's marriageTable 55e: Extent of insecurity about issues within respondent's family
[Page 158]Table 55f: Extent of insecurity about road accidentTable 55g: Extent of insecurity about global terrorismTable 56: Influences in respondent's life
Appendix IV: List of Figures[Page 159]
- Figure 1.1 Frequency of youth interaction levels with opposite gender, other caste and religion 2
- Figure 1.2 Composition of friend circle: A comparison of all Indian youth with urban Indian youth 2
- Figure 1.3 Frequency of interaction of youth by education 3
- Figure 1.4 Levels of interaction with opposite gender 3
- Figure 1.5 Levels of interaction by gender and locality 4
- Figure 1.6 Levels of interaction of young women with men by locality 4
- Figure 1.7 Circle of friends among young men and women from opposite gender and opposite caste 5
- Figure 1.8 Circle of friends among young women from opposite caste, gender and class 5
- Figure 1.9 Lower the age of youth, greater the level of interaction 5
- Figure 1.10 Levels of interaction among youth with opposite gender, other caste and other religion 6
- Figure 1.11 Levels of social trust among youth 7
- Figure 1.12 Primary and secondary circles of trust 8
- Figure 1.13 Levels of trust in own and other caste 8
- Figure 1.14 Levels of trust in persons of own and other religions 9
- Figure 1.15 Grounds of discrimination 9 [Page 160]
- Figure 1.16 Experience of discrimination by youth 12
- Figure 1.17 Lower the SES of youth, higher the likelihood of facing discrimination 12
- Figure 1.18 Lower caste youth are more likely to face discrimination 12
- Figure 1.19 Muslim youth are more likely to face discrimination 13
- Figure 1.20 Youth in metropolis are least likely to face discrimination 13
- Figure 2.1 Nature of parental authority experienced by youth 18
- Figure 2.2 Socio economic status of youth and nature of parental authority experienced by them 18
- Figure 2.3 Youth's experience of parental authority by gender and locality 19
- Figure 2.4 Youth's experience of parental authority by locality 20
- Figure 2.5 Youth's experience of parental authority and pattern of decision making 20
- Figure 2.6 Family values of youth 21
- Figure 2.7 Family values among youth by gender 22
- Figure 2.8 Family values among youth by locality 22
- Figure 2.9 Family values among youth by gender and locality 22
- Figure 2.10 Family values among youth by socio economic status 23
- Figure 2.11 Family values among youth by education 24
- Figure 2.12 Illiterate and poor youth are more likely to be conservative 25
- Figure 2.13 Opinion of the youth on earnings of spouse 25
- Figure 2.14 Youth attach higher value to institution of family 26 [Page 161]
- Figure 3.1 Leisure time availed by youth 32
- Figure 3.2 Lower the age of youth, greater is the propensity to be involved in leisure activities 32
- Figure 3.3 Higher the education of youth, greater is the propensity to be involved in leisure activities 33
- Figure 3.4 Youth in metros are more likely to enjoy leisure time 33
- Figure 3.5 Young women are less likely to enjoy leisure time 34
- Figure 3.6 Young women in village are more likely to enjoy leisure time 34
- Figure 3.7 Higher the socio economic status of youth, greater the intensity of leisure activities 34
- Figure 3.8 Employed youth are more likely to be involved in leisure activities 35
- Figure 3.9 Frequency of television viewing by socio economic status (SES) 36
- Figure 3.10 Frequency of television viewing by education 36
- Figure 3.11 Frequency of television viewing by locality 37
- Figure 3.12 Frequency of internet users among different sections of the youth 39
- Figure 3.13 Opinion of the youth on dressing up in latest styles 40
- Figure 3.14 Importance of dressing up for youth by age, SES and locality 41
- Figure 3.15 Opinion on dressing up in latest style by gender 42
- Figure 3.16 Opinion on consumption of alcohol 44
- Figure 4.1 Levels of interest in politics 48
- Figure 4.2 Interest in politics by gender 48
- Figure 4.3 Interest in politics by locality 49 [Page 162]
- Figure 4.4 Interest in politics by educational status 50
- Figure 4.5 Perceptions of youth regarding their parents' interest in politics 51
- Figure 4.6 Parents' interest in politics by locality 51
- Figure 4.7 Interest in politics and belief in democracy 51
- Figure 4.8 Youth's belief in democracy 52
- Figure 4.9 Belief in democracy by locality 55
- Figure 4.10 Belief in democracy by media exposure 55
- Figure 4.11 Political parties are necessary in a democracy 56
- Figure 4.12 A viable democracy is not possible without political opposition 56
- Figure 4.13 Every one should have the right to express his/her opinion even though the majority have a different opinion 56
- Figure 4.14 It is citizen's duty to vote during elections 57
- Figure 4.15 Voting behaviour among the youth 58
- Figure 4.16 Voting behaviour by locality 58
- Figure 4.17 Interest in politics and voting 58
- Figure 4.18 Participation in political protest by education 59
- Figure 4.19 Participation in political protest by locality 60
- Figure 4.20 Trust in Institutions 60
- Figure 5.1 Major problems identified by the youth 66
- Figure 5.2 Youth's perception of national problems by locality 67 [Page 163]
- Figure 5.3 Educated and uneducated both identify poverty and employment as biggest problems of the nation 67
- Figure 5.4 Youth's perception of national problems by caste 68
- Figure 5.5 Youth's perception of national problems by caste 68
- Figure 5.6 Satisfaction with existing educational facilities by locality 69
- Figure 5.7 Opinion on government's handling of terrorism 70
- Figure 5.8 Opinion on handling of terrorism by locality 70
- Figure 5.9 Opinion by religion on government's handling of terrorism 71
- Figure 5.10 What should be the first priority of the government? 71
- Figure 5.11 Opinion on employment as top priority by location, education and SES 72
- Figure 5.12 Opinion of youth on priority health issues 72
- Figure 5.13 Opinion of youth on HIV/AIDS as the priority health issue by locality and education 72
- Figure 5.14 Rural and poor youth attach higher importance to maternal health 74
- Figure 5.15 Rural and poor young women attach higher importance to maternal health 74
- Figure 5.16 Opinion of youth on reducing child mortality as a priority health issue by locality and SES 75
- Figure 5.17 Media exposure and priority for health related issues 75
- Figure 5.18 Priority among youth for gender equality, strengthening defence system and environment sustainability 75 [Page 164]
- Figure 5.19 Opinion on gender equality at first priority by gender and education 76
- Figure 5.20 Opinion on gender equality by SES 76
- Figure 5.21 Opinion of young men on gender equality by location 77
- Figure 5.22 Support for reservation in higher educational institutions 78
- Figure 5.23 Support for reservations for SC/ST and OBC by caste 78
- Figure 5.24 Lower stratum among upper castes are more likely to oppose reservation 79
- Figure 5.25 Reservations and gender 79
- Figure 5.26 Support for reservation for women 80
- Figure 5.27 Support for reservation of seats for youth in parliament and state legislature 80
- Figure 6.1 Awareness about globalisation 84
- Figure 6.2 Awareness about globalisation by locality and education 84
- Figure 6.3 Awareness of globalisation by media exposure 85
- Figure 6.4 Opinions of youth on advantages and disadvantages of globalisation 85
- Figure 6.5 Opinion about the advantages of globalisation by gender, locality and education 86
- Figure 6.6 Opinion on advantages and disadvantages of globalisation by SES 86
- Figure 6.7 Higher the exposure to media, greater the support for globalisation 89
- Figure 6.8 Outcome of globalisation 89 [Page 165]
- Figure 6.9 Higher the SES of youth, greater the endorsement for cheaper goods being available 90
- Figure 6.10 Rural youth less likely to endorse cheaper goods being available 90
- Figure 6.11 Awareness about globalisation and employment opportunities abroad 91
- Figure 6.12 Those aware of globalisation are more likely to agree that big countries wield all the power 91
- Figure 6.13 Higher educational attainment greater is the agreement that big countries wield all the power 91
- Figure 6.14 Higher the level of media exposure, greater is the agreement that big countries wield all the power 92
- Figure 6.15 Awareness about neighbouring countries 92
- Figure 6.16 Majority believe, India enjoys friendly relationship with her neighbours 93
- Figure 6.17 How should India treat her neighbours? 93
- Figure 6.18 Indo-Pak relationship: those who say… 93
- Figure 6.19 Support for friendly relations with Pakistan by locality, religion and education 94
- Figure 6.20 Awareness about distant countries 94
- Figure 6.21 Those saying India has friendly relation with… 94
- Figure 6.22 India and her relations with the US 95
- Figure 7.1 Levels of personal anxiety 100
- Figure 7.2 Levels of anxiety by age and martial status 100 [Page 166]
- Figure 7.3 Levels of anxiety by marital status and SES 101
- Figure 7.4 Levels of anxiety by occupational status 101
- Figure 7.5 Levels of anxiety by locality 103
- Figure 7.6 Levels of aspiration among youth 103
- Figure 7.7 Levels of aspiration among youth by locality 104
- Figure 7.8 Levels of aspiration among youth by caste 104
- Figure 7.9 Higher the education, greater the level of aspiration among youth 105
- Figure 7.10 Higher the SES of youth, greater the level of aspiration among them 105
- Figure 7.11 Higher the level of aspiration, greater the desire for higher education among youth 106
- Figure 7.12 Higher the level of aspiration, greater the level of anxiety among youth 107
- Figure 7.13 Overwhelming majority of youth are optimistic about future 107
- Figure 7.14 Uncertainty about the future by age, caste and SES 108
- Figure 7.15 Those having higher levels of aspiration are least likely to be uncertain about future 108
Appendix V: Case Studies Commissioned for the KAS-CSDS Youth Study[Page 167]
No. Case Study Title Name and Institution Affiliation of the Expert 1. Youth and the Entertainment Mall: A Study of ‘Prasads Imax’ in Hyderabad C. Ramachandraiah Centre for Economic and Social Studies (CESS), Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. 2. Journey Towards Equality: A Study of Enrolment Pattern of Muslim Girls at Undergraduate Level (General Stream Courses) in University of Mumbai Suniti Nagpurkar V.E.S. College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Sindhi Society, Chembur, Mumbai. 3. Modern Youth and Embodied Work: A Study in Kolkata Swati Ghosh Economics Department, Rabindra Bharati University, West Bengal. 4. Whither Formalism, Fundamentalism or Feminism? Sania Mirza, ‘Sexy’ Dressing and the Politics of Youth Perception Surbhi Tiwari Department of Sociology, University of Pune. 5. Regimes of Control: Hindi Films and Political Cultures of Youth in Manipur Yengkhom Jilangamba Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. [Page 168] 6. Spheres of Rage: Understanding Dalit Youth in Maharashtra Gopal Guru Centre for Political Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi. No. Case Study Title Name and Institution Affiliation of the Expert 7. Youth Residing in Two Slum Areas of Mumbai Rohini Kashikar Sudhakar Department of Continuing and Adult Education and Extension Work, SNDT Women's University, Mumbai. 8. Shaping the Life: Kerala Youth respond to changing Socio-economic Order Rajesh Kumar Komath School of Social Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kerala. & Rakkee Thimothy Centre for Economic Studies and Planning, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi. 9. Image and Identification among the Indian Call Centre Workers Jonathan Murphy Cardiff University Business School, Cardiff, UK. 10. Virtual Socialisation via Cyber Cafes: Narratives of Youth from Ranchi Shweta Jha Apeejay Institute of Management & Information Technology, New Delhi. 11. Youth in Violent Conflict in Jammu and Kashmir: A Case Study of Perceptions and Attitudes of Minority Community Students of Jammu University, Kashmir University and Migrant's Camp Falendra K. Sudan Department of Economics, University of Jammu, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir. 12. Struggle for a Need-based Development: Life History of an Adivasi Youth in Chhattisgarh Govinda Chandra Rath G.B. Pant Social Science Institute, Uttar Pradesh. [Page 169] 13. Illiterate and Semi literate youth in democratic India: Their Hopes, Struggles and Aspirations Jasvir Singh Independent Researcher. No. Case Study Title Name and Institution Affiliation of the Expert 14. Child Marriage in Rajasthan—Coping with the Mephistopheles? Pinki Solanki Independent Researcher. 15. Youth and Student Politics: A Case Study of Jamia Milia Islamia: New Delhi Pushkar Raj People's Union for Civil Liberty, Delhi.
Appendix VI: Socio-Economic and Demographic Profile of Indian Youth[Page 170][Page 171]A3.1: Proportion of Youth by Age, Gender, Residence, Caste/Tribe and Religion[Page 172]A3.2: Distribution of Youth by Age, Gender, Residence, Caste/Tribe and Religion[Page 173]A3.3: Completed Levels of Education of Youth by Sex, Residence, Caste/Tribe and Religion[Page 174]A3.4: Work Status of Youth by Sex, Residence, Cste/Tribe and Religion—2001A3.5: Projected Proportion of Youth in Selected CountriesA3.6: Gross Enrolment Ratios in Selected Countries—2004[Page 175]A3.7: Economic Activity Rate by Age Group and Sex—2000/2001A3.8: Unemployment Rate among Youth (Aged 15–24)—2000/2001
A3.9: Demographic Diversity in India: 2001 As % of total population Male 51.7 Female 48.3 Age Group 0–14 35.4 15–34 33.8 35–59 23.1 60+ 7.7 Residence Rural 72.2 Urban 27.8 Caste/Tribe SC 16.2 ST 8.2 Religion Hindus 80.5 Muslims 13.4 Christians 2.3 Sikhs 1.9 Others 1.9Source: Census of India, Office of Registrar General, Total population of India–1028610328 (Census 2001).[Page 176]Pictures and Contributors/Collectors
- Cover Page-Photograph courtesy Hindustan Times (http://www.hindustantimes.com)
- Human Chain of Youth—Photograph contributed by Kinjal Sampat
- Prove Your Identity—Photograph contributed by Rahul Verma
- Graphics on overview page—contributed by Rajiv Kshetri
- Graphic at the bottom of The Big Story: contributed by Rajiv Kshetri
- Graphic at bottom of every page—contributed by Rajiv Kshetri
- Chapter One: A Group of Youth—Photograph contributed by Kinjal Sampat
- Chapter Two: Youth with Family Members—Photograph contributed by Vanita Leah Falcao
- Chapter Three: Two different shoes of Youth—Photograph contributed by Naysa Ahuja
- Chapter Four: Youth in Memory of Bhopal Gas Tragedy—Photograph contributed by Kinjal Sampat
- Chapter Five: A Youth Throwing Remains of Used Flower in River—Photograph contributed by Vanita Leah Falcao
- Chapter Six: Bollywood Picture at the gate of Madam Tausad, London—Photograph contributed by Banasmita. Bora
- Chapter Seven: A Youth Walking Down the Pathways in a Desolate Forest—Painting Titled as ‘Passing Through’ by Rajiv Kshetri.