India Higher Education Report 2017: Teaching, Learning and Quality in Higher Education

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N. V. Varghese, Anupam Pachauri & Sayantan Mandal

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    Preface

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    List of Tables

    List of Abbreviations

    AC

    academic council

    AFT

    American Federation of Teachers

    AHELO

    assessment of higher education learning outcomes

    AICTE

    All India Council on Technical Education

    AIIMS

    All-India Institute of Medical Sciences

    AISHE

    All India Survey on Higher Education

    AIU

    Association of Indian Universities

    AMU

    Aligarh Muslim University

    API

    academic performance indicator

    AQAR

    annual quality assurance report

    ARWU

    Academic Ranking of World Universities

    ASCs

    academic staff colleges

    ASOS

    academic staff orientation scheme

    ATIs

    advanced training institutions

    AUBR

    assessment of university-based research

    BCom

    bachelors in commerce

    BEd

    bachelors in education

    BCI

    Bar Council of India

    BHU

    Banaras Hindu University

    BoM

    board of management

    BoS

    board of studies

    CAT

    Common Admission Test

    CBCS

    choice-based credit system

    CCA

    continuous and comprehensive assessment

    CEC

    Consortium for Educational Communication

    CFTIs

    centrally funded technical institutions

    CGPA

    cumulative grade point average

    CHE

    Centre of Higher Education

    CINQF

    Council of Implementation of National Qualification Framework

    CIS

    course of independent study

    CP

    comprehensive project

    CPD

    continuing professional development

    CPE

    Centre for Potential for Excellence

    CPI

    cumulative performance index

    CPRHE

    Centre for Policy Research in Higher Education

    CSR

    corporate social responsibility

    CWCU

    Centre for World-Class Universities

    CWUR

    Centre for World University Ranking

    DBT

    direct benefit transfer

    DCI

    Dental Council of India

    DGE&T

    Directorate General of Employment and Training

    DGT

    Directorate General of Training

    DST

    Department of Science and Technology

    EC

    European Commission

    EEE

    Effective Education for Employment

    EHEA

    European Higher Education Area

    EQA

    external quality assurance

    EQAR

    European Quality Assurance Register

    EQC

    examining quality culture

    EQF

    European qualification framework

    ESG

    European standards and guidelines

    EU

    European Union

    EUA

    European Union Association

    EUREQA

    empowering universities to fulfil their responsibility for quality assurance

    FDC

    faculty development centres

    FGD

    focus group discussion

    GER

    gross enrolment ratio

    GO

    graduation outcome

    HE

    higher education

    HEEACT

    Higher Education Accreditation Evaluation Council University Ranking

    HEIs

    higher education institutions

    HRDCs

    Human Resource Development Centres

    IA

    internal assessment

    IAMR

    Institute of Applied Manpower Research

    ICAR

    Indian Council for Agricultural Research

    ICC

    Implementation Core Committee

    ICRIER

    Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations

    ICSSR

    Indian Council of Social Science Research

    ICT

    information communication technologies

    IGNOU

    Indira Gandhi National Open University

    IIE

    Indian Institute of Education

    IIMs

    Indian Institutes of Management

    IIScs

    Indian Institutes of Science

    IISERs

    Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research

    IITs

    Indian Institutes of Technology

    ILO

    International Labour Organization

    INFLIBNET

    Information and Library Network

    IQA

    internal quality assurance

    IQAC

    internal quality assurance cell

    ISTE

    Indian Society for Technical Education

    JNU

    Jawaharlal Nehru University

    LMS

    learning management system

    LOI

    letter of intent

    MCI

    Medical Council of India

    MQR

    minimum qualifications regulation

    MCQ

    multiple choice questions

    MGAHV

    Mahatma Gandhi Antarrashtriya Hindi Vishwavidyalaya

    MHRD

    Ministry of Human Resource and Development

    MKU

    Madurai Kamaraj University

    MOL&E

    Ministry of Labour and Employment

    MOOCs

    massive open online courses

    MSD&E

    Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship

    MSU

    Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda

    MSW

    masters in social work

    NAAC

    National Assessment and Accreditation Council

    NBA

    National Board of Accreditation

    NC

    national coordinators

    NCERT

    National Council of Educational Research and Training

    NCGTC

    National Credit Guarantee Trustee Company

    NCME

    National Council on Measurement in Education

    NCTE

    National Council for Teacher Education

    NCVT

    National Council for Vocational Training

    NEA

    National Education Association

    NEP

    new education policy

    NET

    national eligibility test

    NHEQF

    National Higher Education Qualification Framework

    NIEPA

    National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration

    NIRF

    National Institutional Rankings Framework

    NITI

    National Initiative for Transformation of Institutions

    NKC

    National Knowledge Commission

    NLRC

    national level review committee

    NMEICT

    National Mission on Education Through ICT

    NPE

    national policy on education

    NPM

    new public management

    NPTEL

    National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning

    NQF

    national qualification frameworks

    NSDA

    National Skill Development Agency

    NSDC

    National Skill Development Corporation

    NSDF

    National Skill Development Framework

    NSQF

    National Skill Qualification Framework

    NTTCs

    national teachers training centres

    NUEPA

    National University of Educational Planning and Administration

    NVEQF

    National Vocational Education Qualification Framework

    OBE

    outcome based education

    ODE

    open and distance education

    OERs

    open educational resource

    OI

    outreach and inclusivity

    OPs

    orientation programmes

    OS

    overall score

    OU

    open university

    PBAS

    performance-based appraisal system

    PD

    professional development

    PDGHE

    postgraduate diploma in higher education

    PG

    postgraduate

    PGDDE

    PG diploma in distance education

    PIs

    principal investigators

    PL

    professional learning

    PMKVY

    Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana

    PMMMNMTT

    Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya National Mission on Teachers and Teaching

    PoA

    programme of action

    PPP

    purchasing power parity

    PPP

    public–private partnership

    PS

    number of publications reported in Scopus

    PSE

    post-secondary education

    PTR

    Pupil–teacher ratio

    PU

    Panjab University

    PUBMED

    number of publications reported in Pubmed

    PW

    number of publications reported in Web of Science

    QAu

    quality audit

    QA

    quality assurance

    QF

    qualification frameworks

    QIF

    quality indicator framework

    QIP

    quality improvement programme

    QS

    Quacquarelli Symonds

    QS Asia

    Quacquarelli Symonds Asian Ranking of Universities

    QSWUR

    Quacquarelli Symonds World University Ranking Systems

    RCs

    refresher courses

    RECs

    regional engineering colleges

    RPP

    research and professional practice

    RQFs

    regional qualifications frameworks

    RUSA

    Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan

    SADC

    Southern African Development Community

    SCDL

    Symbiosis Centre for Distance Learning

    SCHE

    State Council of Higher Education

    SCIE

    Science Citation Index-Expanded

    SGPA

    semester grade point average

    SME

    subject matter expert

    SPAs

    Schools of Planning and Architecture

    SPI

    semester performance index

    SSC

    sectoral skill council

    SSCI

    social science citation index

    SSDM

    State Skill Development Mission

    SSR

    self-study report

    SV

    skill vouchers

    SWAYAM

    Study Web of Active Learning by Young and Aspiring Minds

    TEIs

    teacher education institutions

    THE BRICS

    Times Higher Education Ranking of Universities in Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa

    THE World

    Times Higher Education Ranking of World Universities

    TLCs

    teaching–learning centres

    TLR

    teaching, learning and resources

    UA

    external assessment conducted by the university

    UG

    undergraduate

    UGC

    University Grants Commission

    UKPSF

    UK Professional Standard Framework

    UPE

    university with potential for excellence

    US

    United States

    USIEF

    United States–India Educational Foundation

    UTQ

    university teaching quality

    VET

    vocational education and training

    VPN

    virtual private network

    WRO

    Western regional office

    WTO

    World Trade Organization

    WUR

    world university ranking

    WURS

    world university ranking systems

    Preface

    Investing in education is rewarding. Research evidence in the recent decades shows that investing in the quality of education is more rewarding to nations and individuals than extending the number of years of stay in schools. Investing in the quality of education results in higher rates of economic growth. Higher education graduates from good quality institutions enjoy a preference in hiring for employment and higher earnings, which encourages households to invest more in education and children and youth to stay for longer periods of time in schools and universities.

    The increasing social demand for education combined with the willingness to invest by public authorities and students has resulted in the fast expansion and massification of the higher education sector in many developing countries such as India. The expansion process, no doubt, has contributed to increasing access to higher education. Increasing student diversity and improved representation of the under-represented groups is a sign of the possibilities of levelling-off of social inequalities in access to higher education. The increasing student diversity calls for moving away from the traditional ways of teaching–learning processes and classroom practices.

    The higher education institutions of today are compelled to enhance quality to remain competitive. However, enhancing the quality of an expanding system continues to be a major challenge facing higher education in most countries. The establishment of external quality assurance mechanisms, the move towards constructing world-class universities and the popularity of global ranking of universities put pressure on the institutions to improve quality, attain global reputation and remain relevant. The quality parameters influence student choice of institutions of study, resource mobilization capacity and survival of institutions in the context of globalization and market competition.

    The low learning levels, poor quality and declining employment prospects of higher education graduates have been inviting criticism in India. The pressure is for effective interventions in quality to ensure curriculum coherence, productivity of teachers and learning outcomes to regain the confidence and credibility of the sector. India, like most countries, has set up external quality assurance mechanisms to accredit institutions, established internal quality assurance cells to monitor quality at institutional levels, developed a national higher education ranking methodology and put in place initiatives to establish world-class universities/eminent institutions.

    India established the National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) and National Board of Accreditation (NBA) in 1994 as external quality assurance agencies. The NAAC and NBA have been carrying out accreditation in general and technical higher education. NAAC takes into account seven criteria for their assessment. They are curricular aspects; teaching, learning and evaluation; research, consultancy and extension; infrastructure and learning resources; student support and progression; governance, leadership and management; and innovations and best practices. As of 2017, nearly 60 per cent of the universities and 25 per cent of the colleges are accredited.

    NAAC prepared the guidelines for the establishment of internal quality assurance cells (IQAC) in 2007. IQACs are envisaged as the post-accreditation quality assurance measures to be initiated at the institutional levels. While external quality assurance (EQA) intervention is mostly once in five years, the IQAC is a regular system of monitoring quality operating within the institutions of higher education. The experience with regard to the functioning of the IQACs indicates that they have not become effective agents of change and quality monitoring at the institutional levels. The Centre for Policy Research in Higher Education (CPRHE) study on the effects of accreditation and functioning of IQAC cells shows good scope for improving these interventions to make them more effective.

    The present India Higher Education Report (IHER 2017), the third in the series initiated by the CPRHE of the National University of Educational Planning and Administration (NUEPA), raises some of important issues pertaining to quality of higher education in India. The series is envisaged to provide an in-depth analysis of some of the critical dimensions of higher education in India, with contributions from eminent scholars engaged in research, policy and planning in the area of higher education. The first report—IHER 2015—provided a comprehensive account of the higher education situation in the country, focusing on various challenging issues facing the higher education sector in India. The second report—IHER 2016—focused on issues related to equity and diversity in higher education.

    IHER 2017 is devoted to the theme of quality and teaching– learning in higher education. The themes included in this book cover a wide range of areas pertaining to different aspects of the theme of quality and teaching–learning in higher education. The CPRHE has succeeded in mobilizing well-known scholars in the area to address these issues. We are grateful to the authors of various chapters for their valuable contributions and for their continued support. I take this opportunity to place on record my deep appreciation of my faculty colleagues at CPRHE/NIEPA, Dr Anupam Pachauri and Dr Sayantan Mandal, for their sustained efforts and contribution to prepare this book.

    N. V. Varghese

    Acknowledgements

    The CPRHE has published the first and second issues in the India Higher Education Report (IHER 2015 and IHER 2016) series. We are happy to present the third book—IHER 2017—titled Teaching, Learning and Quality. IHER 2017 discusses various aspects of quality concerns in higher education in India, focussing on quality assurance, rankings, research and teaching–learning in India. This book, as the previous ones, is the outcome of support received from various intellectuals and institutions and the efforts put in by the CPRHE.

    IHER 2015 was a comprehensive book covering various issues and challenges facing higher education in the country. It was felt that the subsequent issues should focus on specific themes. IHER 2016 on the theme of Equity is the second in the series and has been published by SAGE. The proposal for the third IHER theme, that is Teaching, Learning and Quality, was discussed and approved in the executive committee (EC) meeting of the CPRHE in 2016. We would like to express our sincere thanks to members of the EC of the CPRHE.

    We remain grateful to our previous vice-chancellors, Professor R. Govinda and Professor J. B. G. Tilak, for their guidance and support at every stage in the progress of the preparation of the IHER series.

    The current book of the IHER includes chapters by some of the leading academics and policy-makers in higher education. They not only contributed their individual chapter but also contributed substantially to shape the current volume through their extensive comments on chapters by other authors. We gratefully acknowledge the valuable contribution of all the authors.

    We are grateful to the registrar, NIEPA, Shri Basavaraj Swamy, publication officer, Dr Pramod Rawat, and his team for their support in facilitating the publication process and procedures.

    We thank the SAGE team, especially Mr Rajesh Dey, Ms Sharmila Abraham and Ms Supriya Das, who interacted with us at different stages in the processing of the document for publication.

    We are also grateful to all colleagues in CPRHE, Professor Mona Khare, Dr Nidhi S. Sabharwal, Dr Garima Malik, Dr Jinusha Panigrahi and Dr Malish CM, for their continuous support and several rounds of review comments. Ms Anuneeta Mitra must be thanked for the support with checking the references in the report.

    Ms Anjali Arora, Mayank Rajput and Monica Joshi extended all logistics support to organize peer review meetings and contacting the authors. We gratefully acknowledge their support to the efforts to prepare this book.

    N. V. VargheseAnupam PachauriSayantan Mandal
  • About the Editors and Contributors

    Editors

    N. V. Varghese is the Vice-chancellor, National University of Educational Planning and Administration, and also the founding director of the Centre for Policy Research in Higher Education at NUEPA. Formerly, he was the Director, International Institute of Educational Planning, Paris.

    Anupam Pachauri is Assistant Professor at the Centre for Policy Research in Higher Education at the National University of Educational Planning and Administration. At CPRHE, she leads a national research project ‘Quality of Higher Education in India—A Study of External and Internal Quality Assurance at the Institutional Level’.

    Sayantan Mandal is Assistant Professor at the Centre for Policy Research in Higher Education at the National University of Educational Planning and Administration. At CPRHE, he leads a national research project on teaching–learning in higher education in India.

    Contributors

    N. Jayaram is Professor at the Master of Public Policy Programme at the National Law School of India University, Bengaluru. He is former Director of the Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bengaluru (2006–2008).

    B. S. Madhukar is the Founder Director, Quality Assurance Cell, University of Mumbai, and presently Adviser at National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC), Bengaluru.

    Santosh Panda is Professor of Distance Education at Staff Training and Research Institute, Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi.

    K. Pushpanadham is Professor of Educational Management at the Department of Educational Administration, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat.

    Furqan Qamar is Secretary General, Association of Indian Universities (AIU); former Vice-chancellor, Central University of Himachal Pradesh and University of Rajasthan; and former Advisor (Education), Planning Commission.

    M. Rajivlochan is Professor at the Department of History and Director, Internal Quality Assurance Cell, Panjab University, Chandigarh, Punjab.

    Meeta Rajivlochan is in the Indian Administrative Service, MH-90, and has served as Administrator for eight years in some of India's best institutions of higher education and research.

    Vimal Rarh is Associate Professor at SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, where she is the Project Head of ‘Guru Angad Dev Teaching Learning Centre’ of MHRD, created under the Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya National Mission on Teachers and Training (PMMMNMTT) scheme of the Government of India. She is also the Principal Investigator for e-PG Pathshala project of UGC and MHRD in chemistry, and the Deputy Director of Centre for e-Learning at SGTB Khalsa College.

    Chiranjib Sen is Professor at the School of Continuing Education and University Resource Centre, Azim Premji University, Bengaluru. He was a Professor at and the Founding Chairperson of the Centre for Public Policy (CPP) at IIM Bangalore. He was the member of the task force on faculty shortage and design performance appraisal systems, MHRD, Government of India, in 2011.

    G. D. Sharma is currently the CEO at the Society for Education and Economic Development, and is a former Professor, National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration.

    Aarti Srivastava is Associate Professor, Department of Higher and Professional Education, National University of Educational Planning and Administration.

    Mariamma Varghese is former Vice-chancellor of the SNDT Women's University and a Senior Consultant to NAAC.


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