India Higher Education Report 2017: Teaching, Learning and Quality in Higher Education
Publication Year: 2018
Understanding teaching, learning and quality in higher education requires in-depth engagement with theoretical discourse and empirical evidences. With this objective, the Centre for Policy Research in Higher Education (CPRHE) has initiated multiple research activities to develop deeper insights into quality concerns in higher education. India Higher Education Report 2017 evaluates the Indian higher education system in terms of teaching, learning and quality and presents a comprehensive analysis of reforms that took place in these domains. Organized into three major parts—ranking, research and quality; teachers and teaching–learning; and quality management—this book discusses changes and issues that have affected the country's higher education system in recent times. This seminal work is a must-have for scholars and researchers of education, social science and public policy.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: : Rankings, Research and Quality
- Chapter 2: World University Ranking Systems: Are They Indicators of Quality?
- Chapter 3: Measuring Performance of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) and the National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF)
- Chapter 4: Research on Higher Education in India
Part II: : Teachers and Teaching–Learning
- Chapter 5: Availability and Shortages of Teachers in Higher Education
- Chapter 6: Professional Development of Teachers in Higher Education
- Chapter 7: Critical Perspectives of Teaching–Learning in Indian Higher Education
- Chapter 8: Developing e-Content for Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs): An Experience of Teaching–Learning Centre
- Chapter 9: Student Assessments in Higher Education
- Chapter 10: Choice-based Credit System (CBCS) and Semester System in Indian Higher Education
Part III: : Quality Management
- Chapter 11: Quality and Accountability in Higher Education
- Chapter 12: Managing Quality at Institutional Level
- Chapter 13: Effects of External and Internal Quality Assurance on Indian Higher Education Institutions
- Chapter 14: Finance and Quality: The Reshaping of Higher Education
- Chapter 15: Qualification Frameworks for Improving Quality and Relevance of Education
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Varghese, N. V., editor. | Pachauri, Anupam, editor. | Mandal, Sayantan, editor.
Title: India higher education report 2017: teaching, learning and quality in higher education/edited by N. V. Varghese, Anupam Pachauri, and Sayantan Mandal.
Description: New Delhi, India; Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE, 2018. | Includes bibliographical references and index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2018013019 (print) | LCCN 2018028256 (ebook) | ISBN 9789352807185 (Web PDF) | ISBN 9789352807178 (E pub 2.0) | ISBN 9789352807161 (hardback: alk. paper)
Subjects: LCSH: Education, Higher—India. | Educational equalization—India.
Classification: LCC LA1153 (ebook) | LCC LA1153 .I4685 2018 (print) | DDC 378.00954—dc23
LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2018013019
ISBN: 978-93-528-0716-1 (HB)
SAGE Team: Rajesh Dey, Sandhya Gola, Shobana Paul and Ritu Chopra
Published by Vivek Mehra for SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd, typeset in 10.5/13 pts Bembo by Zaza Eunice, Hosur, Tamil Nadu, India and printed at Chaman Enterprises, New Delhi.
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List of Tables[Page vii]
- 2.1 Top Ten Oldest Universities in the World 25
- 2.2 Metrics for QS Ranking and Weightage in Overall Score 27
- 2.3 THE Ranking and Weightage in Overall Score 28
- 2.4 ARWU Ranking and Weightage in Overall Score 29
- 2.5 WUR and Weightage in Overall Score 30
- 2.6 Top 10 Universities Ranked by Different WUR Systems in 2016 31
- 2.7 List of Top 10 Universities Ranked by Different WUR Systems, 2016 32
- 2.8 Number of Universities by Countries Ranked Between 11 and 100 by WUR Systems 34
- 2.9 Subjects Considered in Various Ranking Systems 36
- 2.10 Ten Top Ranking Universities in Economics Ranked by Three Systems of WURs 38
- 3.1 Parameters and Sub-parameters Used by NIRF for Ranking Higher Education Institutions 53
- 3.2 Number of Different Types of HEIs Which Participated in India Ranking 2017 56
- 3.3 Types of HEIs Emerging as Top 100 HEIs 58
- 3.4 Maximum, Minimum and Average Score of Top 100 HEIs in India Ranking 2017 59
- 3.5 Overall Scores Obtained by HEIs in India Ranking 2017 59
- 3.6 Teaching, Learning and Resources (TLR) Scores Obtained by HEIs in India Ranking 2017 60
- 3.7 Graduation Outcome (GO) Scores Obtained by HEIs in India Ranking 2017 61[Page viii]
- 3.8 Research and Professional Practice (RPP) Scores 61
- 3.9 Outreach and Inclusivity (OI) Scores Obtained by HEIs in India Ranking 2017 62
- 3.10 Perception (PR) Scores Obtained by HEIs in India Ranking 2017 63
- 6.1 Old and New Professionalism 137
- 6.2 Professional Development of Higher Education Teachers World-wide 138
- 6.3 OPs and RCs (and Participants) Conducted ASCs (1998–2016) 146
- 6.4 Operation Strategy for Teacher Educator Refresher 158
- 7.1 Desired Characteristics of an Effective Teacher: Students’ and Teachers’ Opinions 182
- 10.1 Showing the Number of Students Who Graduated from Different Streams 242
- 12.1 Short Descriptions of Simplified Development Phases 285
- 13.1 Dimensions of Policy Variables and Institutional Impact 298
- 13.2 Shift in Global Trends in QA of Higher Education 302
- 13.3 Milestones in Quality Assurance of Indian Higher Education 304
- 13.4 NAAC Criterion and Weightage for the Assessment and Accreditation 306
- 13.5 Status of NAAC Accreditation (23 January 2017) 309
- 13.6 Guidelines for IQAC Composition 314
- 13.7 Institutional Grading 325
- 13.8 Calculation of Grade Qualifier Across Types of HEIs 325[Page ix]
- 14.1 Public Expenditure on Education as a Share of GDP 334
- 14.2 Public Expenditure on Education and Higher Education 336
- 14.3 Jawaharlal Nehru University Income for the Year 2015–2016 345
- 14.4 Establishment, Academic, Administrative and General Expenses of JNU for 2015–2016 346
- 14.5 Academic Expenses 347[Page x]
List of Figures[Page xi]
- 3.1 Scores vs. Ranking: Combination of Parameters 64
- 6.1 A Generic CPD Framework for Higher Education 155
- 6.2 CPD Pathway(s) 159
- 8.1 Four Quadrants e-Learning Model 197
- 8.2 The Important Stages of e-Content Development 198
- 8.3 Structure of e-PG Pathshala Postgraduate MOOCs 202
- 10.1 Showing Total Number of Students Who Passed from Different Streams 242
- 11.1 Quality Assurance and Accountability Matrix in Higher Education in India 269[Page xii]
List of Abbreviations[Page xiii]
American Federation of Teachers
assessment of higher education learning outcomes
All India Council on Technical Education
All-India Institute of Medical Sciences
All India Survey on Higher Education
Association of Indian Universities
Aligarh Muslim University
academic performance indicator
annual quality assurance report
Academic Ranking of World Universities
academic staff colleges
academic staff orientation scheme
advanced training institutions
assessment of university-based research
bachelors in commerce
bachelors in education
Bar Council of India
Banaras Hindu University
board of management
board of studies
Common Admission Test
choice-based credit system
continuous and comprehensive assessment[Page xiv]
Consortium for Educational Communication
centrally funded technical institutions
cumulative grade point average
Centre of Higher Education
Council of Implementation of National Qualification Framework
course of independent study
continuing professional development
Centre for Potential for Excellence
cumulative performance index
Centre for Policy Research in Higher Education
corporate social responsibility
Centre for World-Class Universities
Centre for World University Ranking
direct benefit transfer
Dental Council of India
Directorate General of Employment and Training
Directorate General of Training
Department of Science and Technology
Effective Education for Employment
European Higher Education Area
external quality assurance
European Quality Assurance Register
examining quality culture
European qualification framework
European standards and guidelines[Page xv]
European Union Association
empowering universities to fulfil their responsibility for quality assurance
faculty development centres
focus group discussion
gross enrolment ratio
Higher Education Accreditation Evaluation Council University Ranking
higher education institutions
Human Resource Development Centres
Institute of Applied Manpower Research
Indian Council for Agricultural Research
Implementation Core Committee
Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations
Indian Council of Social Science Research
information communication technologies
Indira Gandhi National Open University
Indian Institute of Education
Indian Institutes of Management
Indian Institutes of Science
Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research
Indian Institutes of Technology
International Labour Organization
Information and Library Network[Page xvi]
internal quality assurance
internal quality assurance cell
Indian Society for Technical Education
Jawaharlal Nehru University
learning management system
letter of intent
Medical Council of India
minimum qualifications regulation
multiple choice questions
Mahatma Gandhi Antarrashtriya Hindi Vishwavidyalaya
Ministry of Human Resource and Development
Madurai Kamaraj University
Ministry of Labour and Employment
massive open online courses
Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship
Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda
masters in social work
National Assessment and Accreditation Council
National Board of Accreditation
National Council of Educational Research and Training
National Credit Guarantee Trustee Company
National Council on Measurement in Education
National Council for Teacher Education
National Council for Vocational Training
National Education Association
new education policy[Page xvii]
national eligibility test
National Higher Education Qualification Framework
National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration
National Institutional Rankings Framework
National Initiative for Transformation of Institutions
National Knowledge Commission
national level review committee
National Mission on Education Through ICT
national policy on education
new public management
National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning
national qualification frameworks
National Skill Development Agency
National Skill Development Corporation
National Skill Development Framework
National Skill Qualification Framework
national teachers training centres
National University of Educational Planning and Administration
National Vocational Education Qualification Framework
outcome based education
open and distance education
open educational resource
outreach and inclusivity
open university[Page xviii]
performance-based appraisal system
postgraduate diploma in higher education
PG diploma in distance education
Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana
Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya National Mission on Teachers and Teaching
programme of action
purchasing power parity
number of publications reported in Scopus
number of publications reported in Pubmed
number of publications reported in Web of Science
quality indicator framework
quality improvement programme
Quacquarelli Symonds Asian Ranking of Universities
Quacquarelli Symonds World University Ranking Systems
regional engineering colleges[Page xix]
research and professional practice
regional qualifications frameworks
Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan
Southern African Development Community
Symbiosis Centre for Distance Learning
State Council of Higher Education
Science Citation Index-Expanded
semester grade point average
subject matter expert
Schools of Planning and Architecture
semester performance index
sectoral skill council
social science citation index
State Skill Development Mission
Study Web of Active Learning by Young and Aspiring Minds
teacher education institutions
Times Higher Education Ranking of Universities in Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa
Times Higher Education Ranking of World Universities
teaching, learning and resources
external assessment conducted by the university
University Grants Commission
UK Professional Standard Framework
university with potential for excellence
United States[Page xx]
United States–India Educational Foundation
university teaching quality
vocational education and training
virtual private network
Western regional office
World Trade Organization
world university ranking
world university ranking systems
Investing in education is rewarding. Research evidence in the recent decades shows that investing in the quality of education is more rewarding to nations and individuals than extending the number of years of stay in schools. Investing in the quality of education results in higher rates of economic growth. Higher education graduates from good quality institutions enjoy a preference in hiring for employment and higher earnings, which encourages households to invest more in education and children and youth to stay for longer periods of time in schools and universities.
The increasing social demand for education combined with the willingness to invest by public authorities and students has resulted in the fast expansion and massification of the higher education sector in many developing countries such as India. The expansion process, no doubt, has contributed to increasing access to higher education. Increasing student diversity and improved representation of the under-represented groups is a sign of the possibilities of levelling-off of social inequalities in access to higher education. The increasing student diversity calls for moving away from the traditional ways of teaching–learning processes and classroom practices.
The higher education institutions of today are compelled to enhance quality to remain competitive. However, enhancing the quality of an expanding system continues to be a major challenge facing higher education in most countries. The establishment of external quality assurance mechanisms, the move towards constructing world-class universities and the popularity of global ranking of universities put pressure on the institutions to improve quality, attain global reputation and remain relevant. The quality parameters influence student choice of institutions of study, resource mobilization capacity and survival of institutions in the context of globalization and market competition.[Page xxii]
The low learning levels, poor quality and declining employment prospects of higher education graduates have been inviting criticism in India. The pressure is for effective interventions in quality to ensure curriculum coherence, productivity of teachers and learning outcomes to regain the confidence and credibility of the sector. India, like most countries, has set up external quality assurance mechanisms to accredit institutions, established internal quality assurance cells to monitor quality at institutional levels, developed a national higher education ranking methodology and put in place initiatives to establish world-class universities/eminent institutions.
India established the National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) and National Board of Accreditation (NBA) in 1994 as external quality assurance agencies. The NAAC and NBA have been carrying out accreditation in general and technical higher education. NAAC takes into account seven criteria for their assessment. They are curricular aspects; teaching, learning and evaluation; research, consultancy and extension; infrastructure and learning resources; student support and progression; governance, leadership and management; and innovations and best practices. As of 2017, nearly 60 per cent of the universities and 25 per cent of the colleges are accredited.
NAAC prepared the guidelines for the establishment of internal quality assurance cells (IQAC) in 2007. IQACs are envisaged as the post-accreditation quality assurance measures to be initiated at the institutional levels. While external quality assurance (EQA) intervention is mostly once in five years, the IQAC is a regular system of monitoring quality operating within the institutions of higher education. The experience with regard to the functioning of the IQACs indicates that they have not become effective agents of change and quality monitoring at the institutional levels. The Centre for Policy Research in Higher Education (CPRHE) study on the effects of accreditation and functioning of IQAC cells shows good scope for improving these interventions to make them more effective.
The present India Higher Education Report (IHER 2017), the third in the series initiated by the CPRHE of the National University of Educational Planning and Administration (NUEPA), raises some of [Page xxiii]important issues pertaining to quality of higher education in India. The series is envisaged to provide an in-depth analysis of some of the critical dimensions of higher education in India, with contributions from eminent scholars engaged in research, policy and planning in the area of higher education. The first report—IHER 2015—provided a comprehensive account of the higher education situation in the country, focusing on various challenging issues facing the higher education sector in India. The second report—IHER 2016—focused on issues related to equity and diversity in higher education.
IHER 2017 is devoted to the theme of quality and teaching– learning in higher education. The themes included in this book cover a wide range of areas pertaining to different aspects of the theme of quality and teaching–learning in higher education. The CPRHE has succeeded in mobilizing well-known scholars in the area to address these issues. We are grateful to the authors of various chapters for their valuable contributions and for their continued support. I take this opportunity to place on record my deep appreciation of my faculty colleagues at CPRHE/NIEPA, Dr Anupam Pachauri and Dr Sayantan Mandal, for their sustained efforts and contribution to prepare this book.
The CPRHE has published the first and second issues in the India Higher Education Report (IHER 2015 and IHER 2016) series. We are happy to present the third book—IHER 2017—titled Teaching, Learning and Quality. IHER 2017 discusses various aspects of quality concerns in higher education in India, focussing on quality assurance, rankings, research and teaching–learning in India. This book, as the previous ones, is the outcome of support received from various intellectuals and institutions and the efforts put in by the CPRHE.
IHER 2015 was a comprehensive book covering various issues and challenges facing higher education in the country. It was felt that the subsequent issues should focus on specific themes. IHER 2016 on the theme of Equity is the second in the series and has been published by SAGE. The proposal for the third IHER theme, that is Teaching, Learning and Quality, was discussed and approved in the executive committee (EC) meeting of the CPRHE in 2016. We would like to express our sincere thanks to members of the EC of the CPRHE.
We remain grateful to our previous vice-chancellors, Professor R. Govinda and Professor J. B. G. Tilak, for their guidance and support at every stage in the progress of the preparation of the IHER series.
The current book of the IHER includes chapters by some of the leading academics and policy-makers in higher education. They not only contributed their individual chapter but also contributed substantially to shape the current volume through their extensive comments on chapters by other authors. We gratefully acknowledge the valuable contribution of all the authors.
We are grateful to the registrar, NIEPA, Shri Basavaraj Swamy, publication officer, Dr Pramod Rawat, and his team for their support in facilitating the publication process and procedures.[Page xxvi]
We thank the SAGE team, especially Mr Rajesh Dey, Ms Sharmila Abraham and Ms Supriya Das, who interacted with us at different stages in the processing of the document for publication.
We are also grateful to all colleagues in CPRHE, Professor Mona Khare, Dr Nidhi S. Sabharwal, Dr Garima Malik, Dr Jinusha Panigrahi and Dr Malish CM, for their continuous support and several rounds of review comments. Ms Anuneeta Mitra must be thanked for the support with checking the references in the report.
Ms Anjali Arora, Mayank Rajput and Monica Joshi extended all logistics support to organize peer review meetings and contacting the authors. We gratefully acknowledge their support to the efforts to prepare this book.
About the Editors and Contributors[Page 369]Editors
N. V. Varghese is the Vice-chancellor, National University of Educational Planning and Administration, and also the founding director of the Centre for Policy Research in Higher Education at NUEPA. Formerly, he was the Director, International Institute of Educational Planning, Paris.
Anupam Pachauri is Assistant Professor at the Centre for Policy Research in Higher Education at the National University of Educational Planning and Administration. At CPRHE, she leads a national research project ‘Quality of Higher Education in India—A Study of External and Internal Quality Assurance at the Institutional Level’.
Sayantan Mandal is Assistant Professor at the Centre for Policy Research in Higher Education at the National University of Educational Planning and Administration. At CPRHE, he leads a national research project on teaching–learning in higher education in India.Contributors
N. Jayaram is Professor at the Master of Public Policy Programme at the National Law School of India University, Bengaluru. He is former Director of the Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bengaluru (2006–2008).
B. S. Madhukar is the Founder Director, Quality Assurance Cell, University of Mumbai, and presently Adviser at National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC), Bengaluru.
[Page 370]Santosh Panda is Professor of Distance Education at Staff Training and Research Institute, Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi.
K. Pushpanadham is Professor of Educational Management at the Department of Educational Administration, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat.
Furqan Qamar is Secretary General, Association of Indian Universities (AIU); former Vice-chancellor, Central University of Himachal Pradesh and University of Rajasthan; and former Advisor (Education), Planning Commission.
M. Rajivlochan is Professor at the Department of History and Director, Internal Quality Assurance Cell, Panjab University, Chandigarh, Punjab.
Meeta Rajivlochan is in the Indian Administrative Service, MH-90, and has served as Administrator for eight years in some of India's best institutions of higher education and research.
Vimal Rarh is Associate Professor at SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, where she is the Project Head of ‘Guru Angad Dev Teaching Learning Centre’ of MHRD, created under the Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya National Mission on Teachers and Training (PMMMNMTT) scheme of the Government of India. She is also the Principal Investigator for e-PG Pathshala project of UGC and MHRD in chemistry, and the Deputy Director of Centre for e-Learning at SGTB Khalsa College.
Chiranjib Sen is Professor at the School of Continuing Education and University Resource Centre, Azim Premji University, Bengaluru. He was a Professor at and the Founding Chairperson of the Centre for Public Policy (CPP) at IIM Bangalore. He was the member of the task force on faculty shortage and design performance appraisal systems, MHRD, Government of India, in 2011.
[Page 371]G. D. Sharma is currently the CEO at the Society for Education and Economic Development, and is a former Professor, National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration.
Aarti Srivastava is Associate Professor, Department of Higher and Professional Education, National University of Educational Planning and Administration.
Mariamma Varghese is former Vice-chancellor of the SNDT Women's University and a Senior Consultant to NAAC.