Inclusion Coaching for Collaborative Schools
Publication Year: 2013
Lead your team to inclusion success—with quantifiable results! Use Karten's hands-on guide to establishing coaching baselines, introducing research-based inclusion strategies, and promoting inclusion schoolwide.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: Collaborative Inclusion Knowledge
- Chapter 1: The Students
- Chapter 2: Inclusion Coaching Roles and Partnerships
- Chapter 3: Connecting the Rules to Inclusion Coaching Strategies
Part II: Establishing Inclusion Coaching Baselines
- Chapter 4: Beginning Steps of an Inclusion Coaching Program
- Chapter 5: Adaptations, Skills, and Differentiation
- Chapter 6: Curriculum Planning
Part III: Strengths and Challenges of Inclusion
- Chapter 7: Inclusion Matters
- Chapter 8: Organization and Communication
- Chapter 9: Inclusion Lenses
- Chapter 10: Taking the Inclusion Walk: Instruction, Data, and Assessments
Part IV: Professional Development
Part V: Inclusion Coaching Realities
A SAGE Company
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications Ltd.
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
B 1/1 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
Mathura Road, New Delhi 110044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte. Ltd.
3 Church Street
#10-04 Samsung Hub
Copyright © 2013 by Corwin
All rights reserved. When forms and sample documents are included, their use is authorized only by educators, local school sites, and/or noncommercial or nonprofit entities that have purchased the book. Except for that usage, no part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
All trade names and trademarks recited, referenced, or reflected herein are the property of their respective owners who retain all rights thereto.
Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
A catalog record of this book is available from the Library of Congress.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
13 14 15 16 17 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquisitions Editor: Jessica Allan
Associate Editor: Julie Nemer
Editorial Assistant: Heidi Arndt
Production Editors: Cassandra Margaret Seibel and Melanie Birdsall
Copy Editor: Melinda Masson
Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
Proofreader: Caryne Brown
Indexer: Wendy Allex
Cover Designer: Gail Buschman
Permissions Editor: Karen Ehrmann
Thanks to all of the dedicated professionals, families, and students who continually, seamlessly, patiently, and collaboratively discover ways to make inclusion work. Learners with disabilities who are included in the general education classroom shine when everyone believes that successful outcomes are the bottom line. Inclusion then goes beyond the legislative mandates since the general education classroom becomes not only the first option of service, but also the best one possible for students with and without disabilities. Kudos to all of you!
Additional thanks go to the following people at Corwin who are my collaborative partners and coaches. Jessica Allan, my acquisitions editor, your sage advice and guidance are greatly appreciated and respected. Thanks to associate editor Julie Nemer, editorial assistant Lisa Whitney, production editors Cassandra Margaret Seibel and Melanie Birdsall, cover designer Gail Buschman, and copy editor Melinda Masson. Your assistance at each step of the book's production is immeasurable and defines how Corwin facilitates an environment of high expectations and professionalism.
Finally, I'd like to include thanks to my husband, son, family, colleagues, and friends who offer their ongoing support. The world is a fun place with you by my side. Let's continue to collaborate.Publisher's Acknowledgments
Corwin gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the following reviewers:
Andrea Hume, NBCT
Special Education Teacher
Oakdale Elementary School
Kelli S. Kercher
Special Education Team Leader
Murray City School District
MILA Elementary School
Merritt Island, FL
Director of Curriculum
Addison Northwest Supervisory Union
Vergennes, VT[Page viii]
About the Author
The teaching profession today involves both students and educators being consummate learners. Research offers opportunities, but instructional coaches assist with the implementation. The role of an inclusion coach is a collaborative one that is intended to help school leaders view inclusion through a positive lens to build teams of players who are prepared to face inclusion challenges with effective strategies across the curriculum. Schools in the United States—from Florida to Seattle to New York City—as well as in Canada, have inclusion coaches who are formally given that name, while other schools have a variety of people who assume that role—for example, learning disabilities teacher consultants, supervisors, instructional coaches, and principals. It may be a new position in some schools or delegated to experienced special or general education personnel or team leaders, mentors, or coaches who are already on staff, in addition to outside educational consultants who help move the inclusion needle. Schools that do not have inclusion coaches are now realizing the importance of offering teachers this type of collaborative, structured, and ongoing support to promote both student and educator success.
This resource promotes inclusion as a viable and beneficial setting for students when it matches and correlates the needs of individual students, educators, and classrooms with appropriate instruction and supports. Inclusion, a term that is not defined in educational legislation, occurs each day in neighborhood schools when students with and without disabilities learn side by side with their age-level peers in the general education classroom. Coaching offers professional and respectful support and feedback within trusting pedagogical relationships. Collaboration occurs when ideas and resources are shared and reflected upon to formulate new plans, improve current ones, and move forward in programs. And last, but not least, a school is a place where students are taught knowledge and skills alongside their peers. Thereby—as its title, Inclusion Coaching for Collaborative Schools, indi-cates—this resource offers professional ways for educational communities to collectively apply these terms to benefit learners of all ability levels with care and concern for the students and educators as well as the concept of inclusion.
Inclusive school environments are the preparatory settings that allow individuals with disabilities to be part of inclusive societies. The legislation states that students are to receive a free and appropriate public education in the least restrictive environment. Students today are often offered an education within the general education classroom accompanied by the supplementary supports and services. How this inclusive education occurs requires systematic thought, preparation, and ongoing professionalism. Administrators, teacher leaders, supervisors, coaches, general and special educators, families, and students are [Page xii]aware that inclusion is a complex process. Students with disabilities comprise a heterogeneous group. This range includes students with significant intellectual disabilities along with students with diverse emotional, behavioral, social, language, sensory, communicative, motor, and learning needs. The physical placement of students with disabilities in the general education class from preschool onward begins the inclusive process, but providing the necessary and ongoing resources, supports, and services to both students and educators ensures that students’ academic, social, emotional, behavioral, and communicative goals are achieved.
Ideal inclusive settings do not exist without much labor and preparation. Administrators, educators, related staff, students, and their families collaboratively formulate and shape the inclusive factors. There are benefits derived when school leaders offer educators collaborative opportunities. This includes higher teacher satisfaction and student achievement (Guarino, Santibanez, & Daley, 2006; Kardos & Johnson, 2007). Veteran teachers share responsibilities with newer teachers, and professional growth is increased for all with curriculum, instruction, and professional development (Goddard, Goddard, & Taschannen-Moran, 2007). This collaboration ranges from having more planning time together, to observing one another, to classroom management, to mapping lesson units of study, to inclusion strategies, and more. Together, all parties ensure that the inclusive environment is an appropriate one for students with and without disabilities. Inclusion coaching practices allow learners to thrive from being placed in the inclusion setting, instead of students facing frustrations or educators becoming overwhelmed. Inclusion requires that each school and classroom effectively include students with the appropriate lessons, supports, and strategies. This resource propagates that inclusion coaching within a collaborative environment helps everyone to continually implement and reflect on the best inclusion choices for school structures and classroom practices.
Inclusion, although never a generic program, has basic governing rules. The following five two-word sentences sound simplistic, but as the book unfolds, each of these inclusion rules will be expanded on to be certain that inclusion always rules! These pictorial symbols appear on corresponding pages when they come into play, the goal being for these icons to be internalized into each and every inclusive setting.
Basic Inclusion Rules:
- Be professional.
- Be compassionate.
- Be structured.
- Be aware.
- Be reflective.[Page xiii]
Overall, rules help us move forward and boost productivity, yet each inclusion classroom and grade has different students, teachers, and curriculum standards that require individual considerations and appropriate inclusion applications. Countries around the world, along with private and public organizations, including schools, are governed and influenced by rules. Rules are tweaked over time; hence the U.S. Constitution was written, followed by the Bill of Rights with amendments to accommodate different situations. School districts have local education agencies, parent committees, boards of education, administrative directives, and instructional student support teams that discuss, debate, enforce, and amend district policies and practices. Individualized education programs (IEPs) are written and then reviewed; inclusion rules and coaching strategies also require ongoing review.
Good leadership guides its staff with clear signals, consistent focus, and appropriate actions that are directed toward improvements (McClure, 2008). This book affirms that inclusion coaches are a collaborative part of this process to help teachers and students achieve high results.
This resource is sectioned into five parts. Part I of Inclusion Coaching for Collaborative Schools offers a foundation of collaborative inclusion knowledge and defines the coaching roles of administrators, learning support teams, educators, teacher mentors, co-teachers, related staff, families, and students. It includes information about learners and descriptive ways that school decision makers, coaches, and educators ensure that inclusion is embraced and implemented within appropriate school and classroom structures. Part II establishes coaching baselines and offers ideas on how the inclusion principles are aligned to learner profiles with lesson differentiation, inclusion goals, norms, planning, strategies, and curriculum practices that align with the Common Core State Standards. A consideration for the needs of whole classes, small groups, and individual students and for the importance of reviewing results is delineated. English language arts, math, and cross-disciplinary lessons are connected to the inclusion principles and coaching rules. Part III talks about the strengths and challenges of inclusion with factors such as scheduling, funding, co-teaching responsibilities, how to close the gaps and ambiguities, and addressing the attitudes that appear within shared environments and individual classrooms. Coaching planners and staff activities are offered. Part IV outlines ideas for specific professional development actions, ranging from learning more about disabilities to formulating professional roles with inclusion bridges that maximize individual competencies. This includes outlining 21st century inclusion competencies from teams to peers and book clubs. Part V invites readers to have inclusion inferences beyond the data to think about the longevity of inclusion in their environments to ensure ongoing student achievements. Inclusion coaching vignettes and curriculum connections are offered. Delineated activities threaded throughout the book also offer ways to engage staff in reflective and collaborative inclusion practices. As denoted by icon in the margin, many of these forms are also available online as downloadable PDFs. Inclusion coaching strategies require professional collaboration, structure, compassion, awareness, and reflections that connect the learning to each and every student and educator. The first chapter begins with the most important people involved, namely, the students. Refer to Table I.1 for an overview, and then read on for more specifics.[Page xiv]
Inclusion Coaching for Collaborative Schools at a Glance Activities and Documents Objectives for School Leaders Part I Figure 1.1 Sample Individualized Education Program Form To offer a model of essential elements to include in students’ individualized education programs Figure 2.1 Inclusion Coaching Checklist To plot staff baseline levels of communication, leadership, and professionalism for inclusion improvement plans Collaborative Inclusion Knowledge To present a template to organize and share thoughts with educators during coaching debriefing sessions Figure 2.4 Response to Intervention (RTI) Form To provide structure for staff to review whole-class, small-group, and individual student responses to intervention at set time periods each marking period To invite educators to vary their co-teaching models Figure 2.8 Family Collaborations: Proactive Approaches To develop healthy homeschool partnerships by collaboratively formulating an agreed-upon set of responsibilities for each environment Figure 2.9 Communication Logs To encourage staff to continually document family contacts Figure 3.1 INCLUDE Planner To plan annual, monthly, and weekly inclusion actions to individualize, naturalize, collaborate, communicate, learn, understand, and evaluate Part II Inclusion Coaching Agenda To offer a model timeline of annual inclusion topics for general and special education teachers Establishing Inclusion Coaching Baselines To highlight basic inclusion principles for coaches and educators Figure 4.4 Inclusion Principle 17: Applicable Standards-Based Curriculum Example To remind educators to think of ways to increase student self-awareness of levels and progress Part II Figure 4.5 How I/We Will Infuse These Big Ideas into Lessons To invite educators to apply 18 principles to learners across populations, subjects, and grade levels Establishing Inclusion Coaching Baselines Figure 4.6 Inclusion Norms: Establishment and Expectations To collaboratively establish inclusion norms and expectations at the beginning of each school year Figure 4.7 Big Ideas of Inclusion To help educators focus on the objectives, procedures, assessments, and follow-ups of inclusion classroom coaching programs Figure 5.1 Class Monitoring and Curriculum-Based Assessments and Weekly Interventions To offer a sample of types of accommodations and modifications for both instruction and assessments Figure 5.2 Inclusion Survey To obtain feedback from staff before coaching sessions begin to determine current inclusion and co-teaching levels, experiences, and concerns and to structure the coaching and professional development To collaboratively highlight and match students’ strengths and interests with social, emotional, behavioral, physical, and communicative objectives Figure 5.5a Differentiation Rubric To offer staff the categories and degrees of lesson differentiation Figure 5.5b Differentiation Ideas To allow educators an opportunity to plan a differentiated unit of study To encourage staff to outline unit objectives for each quarter and month at the onset of the year Figure 6.6 Applying the CCSS for English Language Arts to Inclusive Classrooms To offer a model for staff to see how English language arts standards-based lesson objectives are delivered to the whole class, small groups, and individual students Figure 6.7 Eight CCSS Standards of Mathematical Practice: Grades K–12 To apply Common Core State Standards math practices to classroom scenarios to increase student achievement Figure 6.8 Let's Do This Together: Cross-Curricular Planner to Strengthen Connections To invite educators to share their plans with each other to tap into one another's strengths, insights, and collaborative expertise to develop cross-curricular lessons Part III Figure 8.1 Inclusion Structures for Educators and Students To offer inclusion practices and nonexamples Strengths and Challenges of Inclusion Figure 8.2 Inclusion Coaching: Our Goals for the Year To present a sample August–June agenda of annual goals for a K–6 school Figure 8.3 Communications Between an Inclusion Coach and K–6 Teachers To delineate co-teacher concerns, plans, goals, and strategies to strengthen partnerships Figure 8.4 Middle School Team Meetings To review the communications of educators of students in Grades 5–8 with corresponding action plans and coaching recommendations Figure 8.5 Inclusion Coaching Planning Sheet: My/Our Thoughts About … To invite educators to express their inclusion thoughts about differentiated lessons, applying appropriate strategies and classroom structures Figure 9.1 Disability-Curriculum Analogies To generate discussion and promote positive attitudes about disabilities Inclusion and Co-Teaching Wish List To discuss effective co-teaching structures Assessment Insights To increase professional knowledge of assessments and resources Part IV Figure 11.1 Inclusion Frameworks To increase collaborative knowledge of inclusion practices that consider the planning, preparation, environments, instructional strategies, and professional development Figure 11.2 Our Inclusion Framework To encourage professionals to prepare, create, collaborate, communicate, and learn more about successful inclusion factors Professional Development To increase staff knowledge of professional standards and associated skills Figure 11.5 Online Resources and Professional Organizations To encourage professional exploration of available inclusion resources To offer online investigation of different disabilities students present within general education classrooms to promote collaborative next steps Journal and Magazine Choices To offer staff journals and magazines as resources to capitalize on the knowledge to advance professional growth and, in turn, students’ skills Part IV Figure 12.1a Team Planner To invite staff to continually document inclusion interventions at scheduled planning dates Figure 12.1b Formative and Summative Progress Monitoring and Assessment Notes To encourage professionals to keep quarterly anecdotal notes on students Professional Development Figure 12.2 Books to Gain Increased Sensitivities and Knowledge About disABILITIES To provide titles of adult reads about disABILITIES across genres for professional book clubs to discuss and learn more about differences Literature Ties:
- The Don't-Give-Up Kid and Learning
- The Man Who Loved Clowns
- Singing Hands
To offer bibliotherapy choices on elementary and secondary levels to increase students’ knowledge of disabilities Part V Figure 14.1 Inclusion Curriculum Coaching Connections To relate inclusion coaching to curriculum examples Inclusion Coaching Realities Figure 14.2 Sixth-Grade Social Studies Assignment: Original and Compartmentalized To offer snapshots of inclusion coaching scenarios and curriculum connections Figure 15.1 Revisiting Inclusion Rules To encourage staff to reflect on how they plan to continually apply structure, awareness, compassion, professional collaboration, and reflection in inclusive classrooms Figure 15.2 Inclusion Coaching Is as Easy as the ABCs To remind professionals of all of the collaborative inclusion coaching basics
Bibliography[Page 177]lberta Education. (2009, February). The principal quality practice guideline: Promoting successful school leadership in Alberta. Retrieved June 22 2012, from http://education.alberta.ca/media/949129/principal-quality-practice-guideline-english-12feb09.pdfAlberta Education. (2009, June). Setting the direction framework. Canada: Author.2010). Preventing problem behaviors: Schoolwide programs and classroom practices. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin., & (2009). The coaching toolkit. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin., & (All Things PLC. (n.d.). Guidelines for applying as a national model of a professional learning community at work. Retrieved from www.allthingsplc.info/evidence/guide-allthingsplc.info/evidence/guide-lines.php,2009). Confronting the unknown: Principal preparation training in issues related to special education. AASA Journal of Scholarship & Practice, 5(4), 5–9., & (Animoto Productions. (2013). Unlimited videos for educators. Retrieved from at http://animoto.com/educationApplication to Students with Disabilities. (n.d.). Retrieved from www.corestandards.org/assets/application-to-students-with-disabilities.pdf2011). Inclusion: By choice or by chance? International Journal of Inclusive Education, 15(1), 29–39., & (2001). Teachers’ beliefs about co-teaching. Remedial and Special Education, 22(4), 245–255.. (2009). Helping students with autism spectrum disorders in general education classrooms manage transition issues. Teaching Exceptional Children, 41(4), 16–21., & (1977). Social learning theory. New York: General Learning Press.(2012). Closing the teaching gap: Coaching for instructional leaders. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.(2010). 21st century skills: Rethinking how students learn. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree., & (2006). Building social relationships: A systematic approach to teaching social interaction skills to children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and other social disorders. Shawnee Mission, KS: Autism Asperger.(2002). The school portfolio toolkit: A planning, implementation, and evaluation guide for continuous school improvement. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.(2007). Recognizing and supporting the critical roles of teachers in special education leadership. Exceptionality, 15(3), 163–176.[Page 178](2009). Does contact reduce prejudice or does prejudice reduce contact? A longitudinal test of the contact hypothesis among majority and minority groups in three European countries. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 843–856., & (1998). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education, 5(1), 7–75., & (2006). Peer supports and inclusive education: An underutilized resource. Theory Into Practice, 45(3), 224–229., & (2005). The administrative role in transforming secondary schools to support inclusive evidence-based practices. American Secondary Education, 33(3), 21–32.. (2011). Commentary: A response to “Preparing special education administrators for inclusion in diverse, standards-based contexts,” by and (2010). Teacher Education and Special Education, 34(1), 71–78., & (1997). Collaborative instruction: Is it an effective option for inclusion in secondary classrooms? Learning Disability Quarterly, 20(4), 293–316.. ., & . (2001). Secondary school reform, inclusion, and authentic assessment. Madison: Wisconsin Center for Education Research.. ., & . (2012). Launching Project RESPECT. Homeroom, February 15. Retrieved from www.ed.gov/blog/2012/02/launching-project-respect/(2011). Tackle challenges and build relationships using tools for meaningful relationships. JSD, 32(3), 68–69.(2004). The alignment of alternate assessment content with academic and functional curricula. Journal of Special Education, 37(4), 211–223., & (2006). The role of teacher qualities in collaboration. Exceptional Children, 72, 169–185., & (2007). The gap between beliefs and practices: Early childhood practitioners’ perceptions about inclusion. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 21(3), 229., & (2009). The proper consultant's stance in diversity and inclusion: “Be all you can be” typified by the four “be attitudes.” Diversity Factor, 17(1), 1–6.(1999). A survey of general and special education teachers’ perceptions and in-service needs concerning inclusion. International Journal of Disability, Development, and Education, 46 (2), 143–156., & (2012). Simplifying response to intervention: Four essential guiding principles. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree., & (2005). When is appreciative inquiry transformational? A meta-case analysis. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 41(2), 161–181., & . (2005). The biological science curriculum study (BSCS). Retrieved from www.miamisci.org/ph/lpintro5e.html(2001). Strengths-based child portfolios: A professional development activity to alter perspectives of children with special needs. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 21(3), 152–162., & (2007). Secondary inclusion: Strategies for implementing the consultative teacher model. Education, 127(3), 344–350., & (2006). Promoting access to the general education curriculum using peer support strategies. Research & Practice for Persons With Severe Disabilities, 31(4), 284–292.[Page 179], & (2011). Efficacy and social validity of peer support arrangements for adolescents with disabilities. Exceptional Children, 78(1), 107–125., & (2005). Increasing peer interaction for students with severe disabilities via paraprofessional training. Exceptional Children, 71, 431–444., & . (Center for Applied Special Technology. (2012). Transforming education through universal design for learning. Retrieved from www.cast.org/Center for Applied Special Technology. (n.d.). About UDL: What is universal design for learning? Retrieved from www.cast.org/udl/Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice. (n.d.). Classwide peer tutoring. Retrieved from http://cecp.air.org/familybriefs/docs/PeerTutoring.pdf2010). Providing immediate feedback to co-teachers through bug-in-ear technology: An effective method of peer coaching in inclusion classrooms. Teacher Education and Special Education, 33(1), 83–96., & (2012). Facilitating the effective implementation of evidence-based practices through teacher-parent collaboration. Teaching Exceptional Children, 44(3), 22–30., & (Council of Chief State School Officers & National Governors Association. (2012). Common Core State Standards Initiative: English language arts standards and mathematics standards. Retrieved from www.corestandards.org/Council for Exceptional Children. (2013a). CEC ethical principles and practice standards for special education professionals. Retrieved from www.cec.sped.org/Standards/Ethical-Principles-and-Practice-StandardsCouncil for Exceptional Children. (2013b). Professional standards news. Retrieved from www.cec.sped.org/Standards/Standards-for-Professional-Preparation?sc_lang=enCouncil for Exceptional Children. (2013c). Yes I Can! Awards. Retrieved from www.cec.sped.org/About-Us/CEC-Award-Programs/Yes-I-Can-Awards/Yes-I-Can-Award-Winners?sc_lang=en2010). Predicting community opposition to inclusion in schools: The role of social dominance, contact, intergroup anxiety, and economic conservatism. Journal of Psychology, 144(2), 121–144., & (2010). The teacher attitudes toward inclusion scale (TAYIS) technical report. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Eastern Educational Research Association., & (2007). Enhancing professional practice: A framework for teaching (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD.(2009). Teaching learning: What matters? Educational Leadership, 66(5), 46–53., & (2008). How to coach teachers who don 't think like you: Using literacy strategies to coach across content areas. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.(1916). Democracy and education. Infants and Young Children, 16(4), 296–216.(Disabled World. (2006). Famous people with disabilities. Retrieved from http://www.dis-abled-world.com/artman/publish/article_0060.shtmlDoing What Works. (n.d.). School principal/reflective leadership strategies. Retrieved from http://dww.ed.gov/2004). Schools are learning communities. Educational Leadership, 61(8), 6–11.(2008). Revisiting professional learning communities at work: New insights for improving schools. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.[Page 180], & (2006). Learning by doing: A handbook for professional learning communities at work. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree., & (2011). Leaders of learning: How district, school, and classroom leaders improve student achievement. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree., & (2012). The 5-point plan: Fostering successful partnerships with families of students with disabilities. Teaching Exceptional Children, 44(3), 6–13., & (2008). Reducing behavior problems in the elementary school classroom: A practice guide (NCEE #2008–012). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/publications/practiceguides, & (2008). Considering tier 3 within a response-to-intervention model. Retrieved from www.rtinetwork.org/. (2011). Wordle. Retrieved from www.wordle.net/(2005). Brief, amazing moments of inclusion. International Journal of Whole Schooling, 1(2), 15–16.(2008). Achieving inclusion through CLAD: Collaborative learning assessment through dialogue. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 12(4), 423–439., & (4811jc. (2009). Animal School. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o8limRtHZPs2009). Learning of arbitrary association between visual and auditory novel stimuli in adults: The “bond effect” of haptic exploration. PLoS ONE 4(3), e4844. Retrieved from www.plosone.org, & (2009). Interactions: Collaboration skills for school professionals (6th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon., & (2010). Inclusion of children with disabilities: Teachers’ attitudes and requirements for environmental accommodations. International Journal of Whole Schooling, 25(2), 89–99., & (2004). Not separate, but equal. Teacher Magazine, 15(5), 47.(2009). The don 't-give-up kid and learning disabilities (4th ed.). Fairport, NY: Verbal Images Press.(2007). Soft skills in big demand. In “Ready for what? Preparing students for college careers, and life after high school.” Ed Week, June 12.(2011). Perceptions of the barriers to effective inclusion in one primary school: Voices of teachers and teaching assistants. Support for Learning, 26(2), 56–63.(2007). A theoretical and empirical investigation of teacher collaboration for school improvement and student achievement in public elementary schools. Teachers College Record, 109(4), 877–896., & (2008). First year special educators’ relationships with their general education colleagues. Teacher Education Quarterly, 35(1), 141–157.(2006). Teacher recruitment and retention: A review of the recent empirical literature. Review of Educational Research, 76(2), 173–208., & . (2010). A phenomenological analysis on the views on co-teaching applications in the inclusion classroom. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 10(1), 311–331.[Page 181], & (2007). Ten roles for teacher leaders. Teachers as Leaders, 65(1), 74–77., & (2000). Building bridges between science and special education: Inclusion in the science classroom. Electronic Journal of Science Education, 4(3). Retrieved from http://wolfweb.unr.edu/homepage/crowther/ejse/haskell.html(2008). Making collaboration work in inclusive high school classrooms: Recommendations for principals. Intervention in School & Clinic, 43(5), 277–28.(2012). Data dynamics: Aligning teacher team, school, & district efforts. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.. (InclusionEducation 's channel. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/user/inclusioneducationIRIS Center. (n.d.). Star legacy modules: Accessing the general education curriculum: Inclusion considerations for students with disabilities. Retrieved from http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/agc/cresource.htm2010). Coherent instructional improvement and PLCs: Is it possible to do both? Phi Delta Kappan, 91(6), 38–45.(2009). Determining professional development needs of general education educators in teaching students with disabilities in Hawaii. Professional Development in Education, 35(4), 635–654., & (2005). Parental involvement and student achievement: A meta-analysis. Family Involvement Research Digest. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Family Research Project. Retrieved from www.gse.harvard.edu/hfrp/publications_resourcespublications_series/family_involvement_research_digests/parental_involvement_and_student_achievement_a_meta_analysis. (2012). Inclusive inquiry science using peer-mediated embedded instruction for students with moderate intellectual disability. Exceptional Children, 78(3), 301–317., & (Josephson Institute. (2012). Character counts. Retrieved from http://charactercounts.org/sixpillars.html2003). Inclusive classrooms: What practicing teachers want to know. Action Teacher Education, 25(1), 20–26., & . (2007). On their own and presumed expert: New teachers’ experience with their colleagues. Teachers College Record, 109(9), 2083–2106. Retrieved from portal. macam.ac.il/DbImage.aspx?image=file&id=1754, & . (2007). More inclusion strategies that work! Aligning student strengths with standards. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.(2008a). Embracing disabilities in the classroom: Strategies to maximize students ’ assets. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.(2008b). Inclusion activities that work! Grades 6 –8. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.(2009a). Inclusion succeeds with effective strategies: Grades K –5 (Laminated guide). Port Chester, NY: National Professional Resources, Dude Publishing.(2009b). Inclusion succeeds with effective strategies: Grades 6 –12 (Laminated guide). Port Chester, NY: National Professional Resources, Dude Publishing.(2010a). Inclusion lesson plan book for 21st century educators. Port Chester, NY: National Professional Resources.(2010b). Inclusion strategies and interventions. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.(2010c). Inclusion strategies that work! Research-based methods for the classroom (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.(2011). Inclusion lesson plan book for the 21st century ((Teacher training edition). Port Chester, NY: Dude Publishing.[Page 182]2012a). Common core standards: Unique practices for inclusive classrooms: English language arts (Laminated guide). Port Chester, NY: Dude Publishing.(2012b). Common core standards: Unique practices for inclusive classrooms: Mathematics (Laminated guide). Port Chester, NY: National Professional Resources, Dude Publishing.(2001). Awakening the sleeping giant: Helping teachers develop as leaders (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin., & (2010). Results coaching: The new essential for school leaders. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin., & (1903). Optimism: An essay. New York: T.Y. Crowell.(Kennedy Krieger Institute. (2012). One child with autism: Why a one-size-fits-all approach doesn't work in autism education. Potential Magazine. Retrieved from www.kennedykrieger.org/potential-online/potential-spring-2009/one-child-autism-why-one-size-fits-all-approach-doesnt-work-autism-educationKhan Academy. (2012). The one world schoolhouse: Education reimagined. Retrieved from www.khanacademy.org/Kids on the Block. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.kotb.com/2010). Inclusion classrooms and teachers: A survey of current practices. International Journal of Special Education, 25(3), 43–56., & (2008). Assessing impact: Evaluating staff development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.(2012). Meet the promise of content standards: Investing in profes sional learning. Oxford, OH: Learning Forward. Retrieved from www.learningforward.org/docs/pdf/meetpromiseinvesting.pdf, & (2008). Facts and fallacies: Differentiation and the general education curriculum for students with special education needs. Support for Learning, 23(2), 55–62.(1987). Welcome to Holland. Retrieved from http://www.our-kids.org/Archives/Holland.html. (2007). Instructional coaching: A partnership approach to improving instruction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.(2009). Coaching approaches and perspectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.(Ed.). (2011). What good coaches do. Educational Leadership, 69(2), 18–22.(2008). Studying the impact of instructional coaching. University of Kansas: Kansas Coaching Project at the Center for Research on Learning and Department of Special Education. Retrieved from http://instructionalcoach.org/research/tools/paper-studying-the-impact-of-instructional-coaching, & (2009). Promoting inclusion in secondary schools through appreciative inquiry. American Secondary Education, 38(1), 77–91., & (2011). The ABCs of evidence-based practice for teachers. Teaching Exceptional Children, 43(5), 8–19., & (Learning Forward. (2011). Standards for professional learning. Oxford, OH: Author. Retrieved from www.learningforward.org/index.cfm1960). To kill a mockingbird. New York: Grand Central.(2010). Impact of curriculum modifications on access to the general education curriculum for students with disabilities. Exceptional Children, 76(2), 213–233., & . (2011–2012). Academic ROI: What does the most good? Educational Leadership, 69(4), 34–39.[Page 183](2012a). The 2012 Brown Center Report on American Education. Brookings Institution, February 16. Retrieved from www.brookings.edu/research/reports/2012/02/16-brown-education(2012b, April 18). Does the common core matter? Education Week, 31(28), 32.(2012). Inclusive schools: Moving beyond access to outcomes. Teaching Exceptional Children, 44(4), 6.(Maryland State Department of Education. (2012). School improvement in Maryland: Introduction to the classroom-focused improvement process (CFIP). Retrieved from http://mdk12.org/process/cfip2010). Just add water. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Oz5L7RWw8E4(MasteryConnect. (2012). Time-saving formative assessment tools: Free Common Core app. Retrieved from http://www.masteryconnect.com/2001). How to summarize single-participant research: Ideas and applications. Exceptionality, 9, 227–244., & (2007). Peers helping peers. Educational Leadership, 64(5), 54–58., & (2008). The benefits of teacher collaboration: Essentials on educational data and research analysis. Retrieved from www.districtadministration.com/article/benefits-teacher-collaboration(2003). Nothing wrong with being wrong! Independent School, 62(3), 12.(2004). Team-based learning: A transformative use of small groups in college teaching. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing., & (Eds.). (Microsoft. (2013). AutoSummarize a document in Microsoft Office Word. 2007 Retrieved from http://www.microsoft.com/education/en-us/teachers/how-to/Pages/autosummarize-document.aspx2008). Types of reading disability. Retrieved from www.readingrockets.org/article/28749, & (1997). Tom ás and the library lady. New York: Knopf.(National Association of State Directors of Special Education. (n.d.). IDEA partnership. Retrieved from www.ideapartnership.org/National Center on Universal Design for Learning, at CAST. (2011). Videos about UDL. Retrieved from www.udlcenter.org/resource_library/videos/udlcenter/udlNational Center on Universal Design for Learning, at CAST. (2012). Videos about UDL. Retrieved from www.udlcenter.org/resource_library/videos/udlcenter/udlNational Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2012). Illuminations: Resources for teaching math. Retrieved from http://illuminations.nctm.org/ActivityDetail.aspx?ID=11National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities. (2010, September). Transition to adulthood. Retrieved from http://www.nichcy.org/schoolage/transitionadult/National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities. (2012, December). Overview of early intervention. Retrieved from http://www.nichcy.org/babies/overview/National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities. (n.d.). Especially for … families and communities. Retrieved from http://nichcy.org/families-community2006). Postsecondary settings and transition services for students. Focus on Exceptional Children, 39(4), 1–8., & (2005). Accessing the general education curriculum. Including students with disabilities in standards-based reform (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.[Page 184], & (2009). A principal's dilemma: Full inclusion or student's best interests? Journal of Cases in Educational Leadership, 12(1), 12–25.(2001). Making science accessible to all: Results of a design experiment in inclusive classrooms. Learning Disability Quarterly, 24, 15–32., & (1988). Effects of corrective feedback on word accuracy and reading comprehension of readers with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 21, 546–550., & . (2007). Organizing instruction and study to improve student learning (NCER 2007– 2004). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Research. Retrieved from http://ncer.ed.gov, & (2007). Teachers’ in-flight thinking in inclusive classrooms. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 40(5), 427–435.(Pearson Education. (2011). Assessment Training Institute. Retrieved from http://www.assessmentinst.com/1926). Language and thought of the child. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Company, Inc.(1929). The child 's conception of the world. London: Kegan Paul.(PORTCO. (2010). Disabilities no obstacle for these 2. Retrieved from http://portco.org/2010/08/648/2003). A comprehensive educational approach for children with autism spectrum disorders. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes., & (Professional Development Partnership. (n.d.). A common language for professional learning communities. Retrieved from http://www.state.nj.us/education/profdev/pd/teacher/common.pdfProject Wisdom. (2013). Helping students make wiser choices. Retrieved from http://www.projectwisdom.com/2005). Life success for students with learning disabilities: A parent 's guide. Retrieved from http://www.ldonline.org/article/12836/, & . (2006). Singing hands. New York: Clarion.(1940s). Animal school. Cincinnati, OH: Assistant Superintendent of Schools.(2011). Elements of grading: A guide to effective practice. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.(2006). The neuroscience of leadership. Strategy Business. Retrieved from http://www.strategy-business.com/article/06207?gko=6da0a, & (2012). How to be a visible principal. ASCD Education Update, 54(5), 1, 6–7.(2011). Research-based educational practices for students with autism spectrum disorders. Teaching Exceptional Children, 43(3), 56–64., & (2005). Creating inclusive classrooms: Effective and reflective practices for all students (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.(2009). Classroom testing and assessment for all students: Beyond standardization. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.(2012). Teaching students not to sweat the test. Phi Delta Kappan, 93(6), 20–25.(2011). Finding efficiencies in special education programs. Education Week, 30(16), 32–34.[Page 185](2009). Increasing achievement by focusing grade-level teams on improving classroom learning: A prospective, quasi-experimental study of Title I schools. American Educational Research Journal, 46(4), 1006–1033., & (SCERTS Model. (2012). Welcome to the SCERTS Model website. Retrieved from http://www.scerts.com/2012). Seeking saving in special ed. District Administrator, 48(1), 36–57.(2011). Providing immediate feedback to co-teachers through bug-in-ear technology: An effective method of peer coaching in inclusion classrooms. Teacher Education and Special Education, 33(1), 83–96., & (School Administration Publishing. (2012). School leadership briefing: ISLLC standards. Retrieved from http://www.schoolbriefing.com/isllc-standards/2010). Do special education interventions improve learning of secondary content? A meta-analysis. Remedial & Special Education, 31(6), 437–449., & (2007). Co-teaching in inclusive classrooms: A metasynthesis of qualitative research. Exceptional Children, 73(4), 392–416., & (2011). Co-teaching: Getting to know your partner. Teaching Exceptional Children, 43(5), 32–38., (Solution Tree. (n.d.). All things PLC. Retrieved from http://allthingsplc.info/2007). How the special needs brain learns. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.(2007). A roadmap to college and career readiness. Education Week, 26(11), 93–96.(2009). Student centered coaching. SouthEast Education Network. Retrieved from www.seenmagazine.us/Sections/ArticleDetail/tabid/79/ArticleID/234/smid/403/reftab/292/Default.aspx(Teacher Leadership Exploratory Consortium. (2012). Teacher Leader Model Standards. Retrieved from http://www.teacherleaderstandards.org/ThinkExist.com. (2012a). Alan Lakein quotes. Retrieved from http://thinkexist.com/quotation/planning_is_bringing_the_future_into_the_present/194902.htmlThinkExist. (2012b). Maria Montessori quotes. Retrieved from http://thinkexist.com/quotation/the_greatest_sign_of_success_for_a_teacher-is_to/215943.html1999). The differentiated classroom: Responding to the needs of all learners. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.(2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD.(2006). Implementing differentiation of instruction with understanding by design: Connecting content and kids. Alexandria, VA: ASCD., & (2009). Alternate assessment: Have we learned anything new? Exceptional Children, 75(2), 233–252., & (UCtelevision. (2008). My experience with autism. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2wt1IY3ffoUU.S. Department of Education. (2003). Grants: Formula grant definition. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/fund/grant/about/formgrant.htmlU.S. Department of Education. (2010, December 23). Twenty-ninth annual report to Congress on the implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Parts B and C.. 2007 Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/about/reports/annual/osep/2007/parts-b-c/index.htmlU.S. Department of Education. (n.d.). Apply for a grant. Retrieved from http://www.ed.gov/fund/grants-apply.html[Page 186]U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences. (n.d.). What works clearinghouse. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/2008). A guide to co-teaching: Practical tips for facili tating student learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin., & (2010). Collaborating with students in instruction and decision-making: The untapped resource. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin., & (2010). Connecting teachers, students, and standards: Strategies for success in diverse and inclusive classrooms. Alexandria, VA: ASCD., & (2008). Engineering successful inclusion in standards-based urban classrooms. Middle School Journal, 39(5), 24–30., & (2007). Promoting research-based practices through inclusion? Theory Into Practice, 46(4), 291–300., & (1962). Thought and language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(1978). Mind and society: The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.. (2009). Family quality of life: A framework for policy and social service provisions to support families of children with disabilities. Journal of Family Social Work, 12(2), 144–167., & (2011). Forum on accommodations in the 21st century: Critical considerations for stu dents with disabilities. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, National Center on Educational Outcomes, and Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers, Assessing Special Education Students State Collaborative on Assessment and Student Standards., & (2003). Data-driven dialogue: A facilitator 's guide to collaborative inquiry. Sherman, CT: MiraVia., & (2012). Exploring formative assessment as a tool for learning: Students’ experiences of different methods of formative assessment. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 37(6), 747–760., & (2011). A diploma worth having. Education Leadership, 66(6), 28–33.(2006). Understanding by design (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall., & (2011). Embedded formative assessment. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.(2010). Multipliers: How the best leaders make everyone smarter. New York: HarperCollins.(2008). Brain compatible practices for the classroom: Grades K –6 [DVD]. Port Chester, NY: National Professional Resources.(1992). The man who loved clowns. New York: Putnam.. (A curriculum-based measurement: A manual for teachers. Retrieved from www.jimwrightonline.com/pdfdocs/cbaManual.pdf(n.d.).2003). Snacks and skills: Teaching children functional counting skills. Teaching Exceptional Children, 35(5), 46–51., & (