Improving Intercultural Interactions: Modules for Cross-Cultural Training Programs
Publication Year: 1994
Training modules prepared and extensively tested by distinguished professionals in cross-cultural training and research make up this valuable resource for consultants, counselling psychologists and personnel officers. The modules encourage productive and effective intercultural interactions in a variety of settings - business, education and the social and health services. Each module combines experiential exercises, self-assessment instruments, traditional written teaching material, case studies and//or critical incidents, and addresses: awareness of culture and cultural differences; knowledge necessary for adjustment; and the challenges to people's equilibrium brought about by intercultural experiences. Furthermore, each m
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: The Content of Cross-Cultural Training: An Introduction
- The World of Business
- Chapter 2: Working Cooperatively with People from Different Cultures
- Chapter 3: Cross-Cultural Training for the Global Executive
- Chapter 4: Gender Relations in the Workplace: Using Approaches from the Field of Cross-Cultural Training
- Chapter 5: Individualism and Collectivism as the Source of Many Specific Cultural Differences
- Chapter 6: Cross-Cultural Training for Adolescents and Professionals Who Work with Youth Exchange Programs
- Chapter 7: Preparing Teachers for an Intercultural Context
- Chapter 8: Intercultural Education at the University Level: Teacher-Student Interaction
- Chapter 9: International Students and International Student Advisers
- Social and Health Services
- Chapter 10: Intercultural Communication for Health Care Professionals
- Chapter 11: Intercultural Interactions in Welfare Work
- Chapter 12: Multicultural Counseling
- Communication across Cultural Boundaries
- Chapter 13: Interpersonal versus Non-Interpersonal Realities: An Effective Tool Individualists Can Use to Better Understand Collectivists
- Chapter 14: Nonverbal Communication in Intercultural Interactions
- Chapter 15: Approaching Cultural Crossover in Language Learning
- Chapter 16: Training Bilinguals to Interpret in the Community
Copyright © 1994 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in an form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Main entry under title:
Improving intercultural interactions : modules for cross-cultural training programs / edited by Richard W. Brislin, Tomoko Yoshida.
p. cm. — (Multicultural aspects of counseling series; 3)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-8039-5409-3. —ISBN 0-8039-5410-7 (pbk.)
1. Intercultural communication. 2. Cross-cultural orientation. 3. Multicultural education. I. Brislin, Richard W., 1945- II. Yoshida, Tomoko. III. Series: Muticultural aspects of counseling; v. 3.
GN345. 6. I46 1994
99 00 01 02 03 04 10 9 8 7 6 5 4
Sage Production Editor: Astrid Virding
Series Editor's Introduction[Page vii]
This volume continues the Multicultural Aspects of Counseling series' emphasis on practical and applied issues that define culture inclusively and defines counseling broadly. While each book in the series emphasizes a specific multicultural perspective, this volume focuses on practical aspects of training as one means of helping. Many publications emphasize cross-cultural training methods and teach the reader “how to” do training, while other books emphasize the content of training. This volume emphasizes a balance of method and content.
The book is divided into modules. A module is significantly different from a book chapter. The modules are collections of materials which guide the reader both on the content of a defined unit of training and the method of delivery for that content. This volume recognizes that much multicultural training is cross-disciplinary and cross-field. Each module will share similarities and differences with each other module, approaching cross-cultural training from different disciplines and fields.
Like the other book in the series, this volume goes beyond the rhetoric about multiculturalism to direct action and applied analysis, focused on decision making and change agents. The reader is directly involved in each module with opportunities to interact as a participant and not just as audience. This cross-disciplinary focus is one of the unique features of this volume.
The Multicultural Aspects of Counseling series defines culture broadly rather than narrowly. That means in addition to ethnographic variables (nationality, ethnicity, language, religion, and so on) the series volumes also focus on demographic variable (such as age, gender, place of residence), status variable (such as social, economic, educational), and affiliation variables (formal as well as informal). This inclusive definition of culture allows each of these social system variables to become salient, according to the demands of the social context, as the primary cultural feature.
[Page viii]The series takes a psychological perspective but, as in the Brislin and Yoshida volume, that perspective is applied to disciplines outside of psychology. Multicultural training needs requires an interdisciplinary focus because the problems themselves are dynamic, as different aspects of the problems become salient. For this reason the helping dimension of the series is defined broadly enough to include multicultural training as one helping intervention.
This volume emphasizes the educational model rather than the medical model in its approach to counseling. The client is viewed as a student or trainee rather than as a patient. The participants in training may themselves be healthy and normal but still have serious problems where some form of helping is appropriate. The modules in this book present a variety of methods for providing multicultural training.
The volume will increase the reader's awareness through challenging culturally-biased assumptions; knowledge, through presenting factual knowledge and information about a particular method, population, or problem; and skill, through identifying right actions based on appropriate awareness and accurate knowledge. This volume will stimulate the reader to consider a variety of different approaches to training according to the different disciplines, fields, and perspectives where multiculturalism is an important factor. The volume is intended to stimulate readers to develop their own unique approaches for training their own clients, students, and target populations.PaulPedersen, Syracuse University, Series Editor
About the Contributors[Page 353]
Dr. Elaine K. Bailey, (EdD, University of Southern California) is Assistant Professor of Management and Industrial Relations, College of Business Administration, at the University of Hawaii. She has directed international business programs through the Pacific Asia Management Institute at the University of Hawaii.
Dr. Richard W. Brislin, (PhD, Psychology, Pennsylvania State University) is Senior Fellow and Project Director at the East-West Center in Honolulu, Hawaii. His recent books include The Art of Getting Things Done: A Practical Guide to the Use of Power (1991) and Understanding Culture's Influence on Behavior (1993). He directs yearly programs for college professors who want to develop intercultural coursework and for cross-cultural trainers who want to expand their skills.
Dr. Kenneth Cushner, (EdD, University of Hawaii) is Associate Professor of Education and Director of the Center for International and Intercultural Education at Kent State University. He is coauthor of the book Intercultural Interactions: A Practical Guide (Sage, 1986) and Human Diversity in Education: An Integrative Approach (1992).
Ms. Carolina Freimanis is a professional interpreter who has been an instructor at the Center for Translation and Interpretation Studies at the University of Hawaii, Manoa. She is currently living in her home country, Venezuela, and is entering the field of health services delivery.
Dr. Neal R. Goodman, (PhD, Sociology, New York University) is Professor of Sociology and Director of the Intercultural Relations Program at St. Peter's College in Jersey City, New Jersey. He has organized his own consulting firm, [Page 354]Global Dynamics, Inc, which offers cross-cultural training programs to major international businesses.
Ms. Colleen Mullavey-O'Byrne is Head of the School of Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, the University of Sydney, Australia. She has recently contributed to the case studies component of the instructor's manual that accompanies an Australian text, The Health of Immigrant Australians: A Social Perspective.
Dr. Paul Pedersen, (EdD, University of Minnesota) is Professor of Counselor Education at Syracuse University. Among his publications are A Handbook for Developing Multicultural Awareness (1986) and Counseling Across Cultures (1989). He has also been director of the major grant for the Development of Intercultural Skilled Counselors (DISC). He serves as an adviser to Sage Publications.
Mr. Mark Sawyer is an East-West Center Degree Participant Scholar and a PhD student in second-language acquisition at the University of Hawaii. He has developed and directed language programs at the International University of Japan over a period of 7 years.
Mr. Ted Singelis is a graduate student in the PhD psychology program at the University of Hawaii. He is also an East-West Center Degree Participant Scholar. After leaving his position of president of Pour la France! Inc. in 1985, he lived and worked in both Japan and Korea.
Mr. Larry E. Smith is Dean, Graduate and Undergraduate Curricula, at the East-West Center in Honolulu, Hawaii. He is coeditor of the journal World Englishes: Journal of English as an International and Intranational Language. One of his recent books is Negotiation Training Through Gaming (1991).
Ms. Tomoko Yoshida is Director of Training, Japanese Programs, ITT Sheraton, Hawaii/Japan Division, in Honolulu, Hawaii. She has been a project fellow at the East-West Center in Honolulu, and she is the coauthor of An Introduction to Intercultural Communication Training (Sage, 1994).