Ideology and Politics

Books

John Schwarzmantel

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Preface and Acknowledgements

    This book attempts to offer a broad survey of the state of political ideologies today, with special reference to the context of contemporary liberal-democratic societies. Two introductory chapters try to paint a general picture of the ideological scene and then seek to indicate the nature and current difficulties of those ideologies which have hitherto been the dominant ones. The book is then divided into two main parts. Part One analyses what are here called the ‘old’, ‘traditional’ or ‘established’ ideologies of modernity, conventionally placed on a Left–Right spectrum of political debate. These are the ideologies of liberalism, socialism, conservatism and nationalism. These chapters try to explain why these ideologies are all in a state of crisis when faced with a society more fragmented and diffuse than the society in which they originated. Part Two discusses what are here called ‘new’ or more ‘molecular’ ideologies of feminism and environmental or green politics. It then proceeds to analyse the appeals of identity politics as well as the attempts to respond to such identity politics by developing ideas of community, citizenship and multiculturalism. A subsequent chapter discusses current radical ideologies of protest expressed in the alternative globalisation movement. The aim here is to offer a characterisation of such ideologies and see where they fit in, if at all, to the familiar Left–Right map of ideological debate. A concluding chapter argues against the view that the current scene is one of ‘the end of ideology’ or of ‘post-ideological politics’. It seeks to advance the idea of a ‘counter-ideology’ emerging to challenge what is at present the dominant perspective of neo-liberalism in which market relations and quantitative criteria of output and measurable product are presented as the only acceptable ones.

    At the end of each chapter there is a short selection of books or articles relevant to the themes treated in that chapter. This selection is meant to indicate material useful to those readers wishing to pursue those particular topics further.

    The material dealt with here covers large themes to be tackled within the limits of one book. I hope it will be useful in offering a broad survey and in indicating the nature of current debates over the role of ideology in politics and indeed in making a modest contribution to these debates. I think these are important issues, given the relative paucity and narrow limits of political discussion, at least in the confines of official party politics and electoral competition. Anything that widens the scope of political debate is, in my opinion, to be welcomed.

    I am very grateful to Lucy Robinson, David Mainwaring and Sally Hoffmann of Sage Publications for their encouragement and assistance. I derived great benefit from the comments of a number of readers on the planned outline of the book, and am especially grateful for the extensive and thoughtful remarks of one of these readers who provided many helpful suggestions. I would also like to acknowledge a general debt to three practitioners of social science (one of them sadly no longer with us) whom I have had the great good fortune to know personally and whose work has been an inspiration and illumination to me, even when I did not always agree with their particular conclusions. Even though none of these three mentioned has had any direct input into the present book, I wish to express my debt to the work of Zygmunt Bauman, David Beetham and Ralph Miliband as my mentors and models of what work in social and political science should be like.

    JohnSchwarzmantelLeeds, June 2007
  • Bibliography

    Alter, Peter (1994) Nationalism (
    2nd edition
    ). London: Edward Arnold.
    Anderson, Benedict (1991) Imagined Communities. Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism (
    revised edition
    ). London and New York: Verso.
    Archibugi, Daniele (ed.) (2003) Debating Cosmopolitics. London: Verso.
    Arneil, Barbara (2006) Diverse Communities: The Problem with Social Capital. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511490156
    Azmanova, Albena (2004) ‘The Mobilisation of the European Left in the Early 21st Century’, European Journal of Sociology, XLV(2): 273–306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0003975604001468
    Bakunin, Michael (1973) Selected Writings. Edited and introduced by ArthurLehning. London: Jonathan Cape.
    Balibar, Etienne and Wallerstein, Immanuel (1991) Race, Nation, Class: Ambiguous Identities. London: Verso.
    Barry, Brian (2001) Culture and Equality. An Egalitarian Critique of Multiculturalism. Cambridge: Polity.
    Bauer, Otto (2000) The Question of Nationalities and Social Democracy. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Bauman, Zygmunt (1997) Postmodernity and its Discontents. Cambridge: Polity.
    Bauman, Zygmunt (1999) In Search of Politics. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Bauman, Zygmunt (2000) Liquid Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Beck, Ulrich (2006) The Cosmopolitan Vision. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Bell, Daniel (1965) The End of Ideology: On the Exhaustion of Political Ideas in the Fifties (
    revised edition
    ). New York: The Free Press.
    Benhabib, Seyla (ed.) (1996) Democracy and Difference. Contesting the Boundaries of the Political. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Benhabib, Seyla (2002) The Claims of Culture. Equality and Diversity in the Global Era. Princeton, NJ and Oxford: Princeton University Press.
    Berlin, Isaiah (1969) ‘Two Concepts of Liberty’, in I.Berlin, Four Essays on Liberty. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Bernstein, Eduard (1993). The Preconditions of Socialism. Edited and translated by HenryTudor. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511802584
    Billig, Michael (1995) Banal Nationalism. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221648
    Bobbio, Norberto (1987) The Future of Democracy. A Defence of the Rules of the Game. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Bobbio, Norberto (1996) Left and Right. The Significance of a Political Distinction. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Bradley, Ian (2007) Believing in Britain. The Spiritual Identity of ‘Britishness’. London: I.B. Tauris.
    Brubaker, Rogers (1996) Nationalism Reframed: Nationhood and the National Question in the New Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511558764
    Brugger, Bill (1999) Republican Theory in Political Thought: Virtuous or Virtual?London: Macmillan. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780333982303
    Brunkhorst, Hauke (2005) Solidarity. From Civic Friendship to a Global Legal Community. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Bryant, Christopher G.A. (2006) The Nations of Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Bullock, Alan and Shock, Maurice (eds) (1956) The Liberal Tradition. From Fox to Keynes. London: A. & C. Black.
    Burke, Edmund (1968) Reflections on the Revolution in France. Edited by C.C.O'Brien. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Burke, Edmund (1993) Pre-Revolutionary Writings. Edited by I.Harris. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139168090
    Burke, Jason (2004) Al-Qaeda. The True Story of Radical Islam. London: Penguin.
    Colley, Linda (2005) Britons: Forging the Nation, 1707–1837 (
    2nd edition
    ). New Haven, CT: Yale Nota Bene.
    Constant, Benjamin (1988) ‘The Liberty of the Ancients compared with that of the Moderns’ in B.Constant, Political Writings. Edited by B.Fontana. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Conway, David (2004) In Defence of the Realm. The Place of Nations in Classical Liberalism. Aldershot: Ashgate.
    Coole, Diana (2000) ‘Threads and plaits or an unfinished project? Feminism(s) through the twentieth century’, Journal of Political Ideologies, 5(1): 35–54; reprinted in M.Freeden (ed.) (2001) Reassessing Political Ideologies: The Durability of Dissent. London and New York: Routledge.
    Della, Porta Donatella and Tarrow, Sidney (eds) (2005) Transnational Protest and Global Activism. Lanham, MD and Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield.
    Deutscher, I. (1970) The Prophet Unarmed. Trotsky: 1921–1929. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Dobson, Andrew and Eckersley, Robyn (eds) (2006) Political Theory and the Ecological Challenge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511617805
    Eckersley, Robyn (1992) Environmentalism and Political Theory: Toward an Ecocentric Approach. London: UCL Press.
    Engels, Friedrich (1970) ‘Socialism: Utopian and Scientific’, in KarlMarx and FrederickEngels, Selected Works in three volumes (Vol. 3). Moscow: Progress Publishers.
    Eriksen, Thomas Hylland (2007) ‘Nationalism and the Internet’, Nations and Nationalism, 13(1): 1–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8129.2007.00273.x
    Festenstein, Matthew (2005) Negotiating Diversity. Culture, Deliberation, Trust. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Festenstein, Matthew and Kenny, Michael (eds) (2005) Political Ideologies. A Reader and Guide. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Fichte, Johann Gottlieb (1991) Die Grundzüge des gegenwärtigen Zeitalters, in Fichte, Werke, Band 8. Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt: Friedrich Frommann Verlag.
    Fisher, William F. and Ponniah, Thomas (eds) (2003) Another World is Possible. Popular Alternatives to Globalization at the World Social Forum. London: Zed Books.
    Fraser, Nancy (1997) Justice Interruptus. Critical Remarks on the ‘Postsocialist’ Condition. London: Routledge.
    Freeden, Michael (1996) Ideologies and Political Theory: A Conceptual Approach. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Freeden, Michael (1998) ‘Is nationalism a distinct ideology?’Political Studies, 46(4): 748–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9248.00165
    Freeden, Michael (2003) Ideology. A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Fukuyama, Francis (1992) The End of History and the Last Man. London: Hamish Hamilton.
    Fukuyama, Francis (2006) After the Neocons: America at the Crossroads. London: Profile.
    Galbraith, John K. (1992) The Culture of Contentment. Boston and London: Houghton Mifflin Co.
    Gamble, Andrew (1994) The Free Economy and the Strong State: the Politics of Thatcherism. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Gaus, Gerald F. (2000) ‘Liberalism at the end of the century’, Journal of Political Ideologies, 5(2): 179–99. Reprinted in M.Freeden (ed.) (2001), Reassessing Political Ideologies. The Durability of Dissent. London and New York: Routledge.
    Gellner, Ernest (1998) Nationalism. London: Phoenix.
    Gentile, Emilio (2002) ‘Fascism in power: the totalitarian experiment’, in A.Lyttelton (ed.), Liberal and Fascist Italy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Giddens, Anthony (1994) Beyond Left and Right: the Future of Radical Politics. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Giddens, Anthony (1998) The Third Way. The Renewal of Social Democracy. Cambridge: Polity.
    Giddens, Anthony (ed.) (2003) The Progressive Manifesto. New Ideas for the Centre-Left. Cambridge: Polity.
    Gill, Stephen (2000), ‘Toward a postmodern prince? The battle in Seattle as a moment in the new politics of globalisation’, Millennium, 29(1): 131–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03058298000290010101
    Girardet, Raoul (ed.) (1966) Le Nationalisme Français 1871–1914. Paris: Armand Colin.
    Goldman, Emma (1977) ‘The Failure of the Russian Revolution’, in G.Woodcock (ed.), The Anarchist Reader. London: Fontana/Collins.
    Gordon, Uri (2007) ‘Anarchism reloaded’, Journal of Political Ideologies, 12(1): 29–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13569310601095598
    Gramsci, Antonio (1971) Selections from the Prison Notebooks of Antonio Gramsci. Edited and translated by QuintinHoare and GeoffreyNowell-Smith. London: Lawrence and Wishart.
    Gramsci, Antonio (1994) Pre-Prison Writings. Edited by RichardBellamy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Gray, John (1995) Enlightenment's Wake: Politics and Culture at the Close of the Modern Age. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203450635
    Gray, John (2000) Two Faces of Liberalism. Cambridge: Polity.
    Greenfeld, Liah (1992) Nationalism. Five Roads to Modernity. Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press.
    Habermas, Jürgen (1989) The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Cambridge: Polity.
    Habermas, Jürgen (1991) ‘What Does Socialism Mean Today? The Revolutions of Recuperation and the Need for New Thinking’, in RobinBlackburn (ed.), After the Fall. The Failure of Communism and the Future of Socialism. London: Verso.
    Habermas, Jürgen (1998) The Inclusion of the Other. Studies in Political Theory. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Habermas, Jürgen (2001) The Post-national Constellation: Political Essays. Cambridge: Polity.
    Halliday, Fred (1999) Revolution and World Politics. The Rise and Fall of the Sixth Great Power. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Harvey, David (2005) A Brief History of Neoliberalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Hastings, Max (2006) ‘Cameron is about to discover his big problem: the Conservative Party’. The Guardian, 2 October, p. 30.
    Hayek, Friedrich (1988) The Fatal Conceit. The Errors of Socialism. London: Routledge.
    Hayek, Friedrich (2006) The Constitution of Liberty (
    Routledge Classics edition
    ). Introduction by Irwin M.Stelzer. Abingdon: Routledge.
    Held, David (2004) Global Covenant. The Social Democratic Alternative to the Washington Consensus. Cambridge: Polity.
    Hobhouse, L.T. (1964) Liberalism. Introduction by Alan P.Grimes. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Hobsbawm, Eric. (1990) Nations and Nationalism since 1780. Programme, Myth, Reality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Hobsbawm, Eric (1994) Age of Extremes. The Short Twentieth Century, 1914–1991. London: Michael Joseph.
    Howarth, David (2004) ‘Hegemony, Political Subjectivity and Radical Democracy’ in SimonCritchley and OliverMarchart (eds), Laclau: A Critical Reader. London and New York: Routledge.
    Huntington, Samuel P. (1998) The Clash of Civilisations and the Remaking of World Order. London: Touchstone.
    Hutchinson, John and Smith, Anthony D. (eds) (1994) Nationalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Inglehart, Ronald (1990) Culture Shift in Advanced Industrial Society. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Ionescu, Ghita (ed.) (1976) The Political Thought of Saint-Simon. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Isaac, Jeffrey C. (1998) ‘The Meanings of 1989’, in Jeffrey C.Isaac, Democracy in Dark Times. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
    Judt, Tony (2005) Postwar. A History of Europe since 1945. London: William Heinemann.
    Kale, Steven D. (1992) Legitimism and the Reconstruction of French Society 1852–1883. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press.
    Kautsky, Karl (1983) Selected Political Writings. Edited and translated by PatrickGoode. London and Basingstoke: The Macmillan Press Ltd.
    Kautsky, Karl (1988) ‘Socialist Democracy’ in DavidMcLellan (ed.), Marxism. Essential Writings. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Keck, Margaret E. and Sikkink, Kathryn (1998) Activists Beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics. Ithaca, NY and London: Cornell University Press.
    Kelly, Paul (ed.) (2002) Multiculturalism Reconsidered. Culture and Equality and its Critics. Cambridge: Polity.
    Kepel, Gilles (2004) The War for Muslim Minds: Islam and the West. Cambridge, MA: Belknap.
    Klein, Naomi (2000) No Logo: No Space, No Choice, No Jobs. London: Flamingo.
    Kriegel, Annie (1972) The French Communists: Profile of a People. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Kukathas, Chandran (2003) The Liberal Archipelago: A Theory of Diversity and Freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/019925754X.001.0001
    Kumar, Krishan (2003) The Making of English National Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511550058
    Kurasawa, Fuyuki (2004) ‘A Cosmopolitanism from Below: Alternative Globalisation and the Creation of a Solidarity without Bounds’, European Journal of Sociology, XLV(2): 233–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0003975604001444
    Kymlicka, Will (1995) Multicultural Citizenship. A Liberal Theory of Minority Rights. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Kymlicka, Will (2001) Politics in the Vernacular: Nationalism, Multiculturalism and Citizenship. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/0199240981.001.0001
    Kymlicka, Will and Opalski, Magda (eds) (2001) Can Liberal Pluralism be Exported? Western Political Theory and Ethnic Relations in Eastern Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Laclau, Ernesto and Mouffe, Chantal (2001) Hegemony and Socialist Strategy. Towards a Radical Democratic Politics. London: Verso.
    Leggewie, C. (2005) ‘On voit se développer une sorte d'espace politique européen’, Le Monde, 21 September.
    Löwy, Michel and Betto, Frei (2003) ‘Values of a New Civilisation’, in William F.Fisher and ThomasPonniah (eds) Another World is Possible. Popular Alternatives to Globalisation at the World Social Forum. London: Zed Books.
    Machelon, Jean-Pierre (1976) La république contre les libertés?: Les restrictions aux libertés publiques de 1879 à 1914. Paris: Presses de la Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques.
    Maistre, Joseph de (1994) Considerations on France. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139170758
    Markell, Patchen (2000) ‘Making Affect Safe for Democracy? On “Constitutional Patriotism”’Political Theory, 28(1): 38–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0090591700028001003
    Marx, Karl and FrederickEngels (1970) Selected Works in three volumes. Moscow: Progress Publishers.
    Marx, Karl (1974) The First International and After. Political Writings, Volume Three. Edited by DavidFernbach. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Marx, Karl (1975) Early Writings. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.
    Marx, Karl (2000) Selected Writings. Edited by DavidMcLellan. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Mill, James (1992) Political Writings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Mill, John Stuart (1989) On Liberty and Other Writings. Edited by StefanCollini. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Miller, David (1989) Market, State and Community: Theoretical Foundations of Market Socialism. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Miller, David (1995) On Nationality. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Mitchell, Juliet (1984) Women: The Longest Revolution: Essays on Feminism, Literature, and Psychoanalysis. London: Virago.
    Moschonas, Gerassimos (2002) In the Name of Social Democracy. The Great Transformation: 1945 to the Present. London: Verso.
    Negri, Antonio (2005) The Politics of Subversion. A Manifesto for the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Neumann, F. (1957) The Democratic and the Authoritarian State. New York: The Free Press.
    Nicolet, Claude. (1982) L'idée Républicaine en France. Essai d'Histoire Critique. Paris: Gallimard.
    Nimni, Ephraim (ed.) (2005) National Cultural Autonomy and its Critics. London: Routledge.
    Nussbaum, Martha (1996) For Love of Country: Debating the Limits of Patriotism. Boston: Beacon Press.
    Parekh, Bhiku (ed.) (1973) Bentham's Political Thought. London: Croom Helm.
    Parekh, Bhiku (2000) Rethinking Multiculturalism. Cultural Diversity and Political Theory. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Pettit, Philip (1999) Republicanism. A Theory of Freedom and Government. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph (1967) Oeuvres Choisies. Edited by JeanBancal. Paris: Gallimard.
    Putnam, Robert D. (2000) Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon and Schuster.
    Rawls, John (1996) Political Liberalism. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Rawls, John (2001) The Law of Peoples, with ‘The idea of Public Reason Revisited’. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Rebérioux, Madeleine (1994) Jaurès. La Parole et l'Acte. Paris: Gallimard.
    Rorty, Richard (1995) ‘Movements and Campaigns’, Dissent, Winter: 55–60.
    Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (1968) The Social Contract and Discourses. London: Dent.
    Ruthven, Malise (2004) Fundamentalism. The Search for Meaning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Ryan, Alan (ed.) (1992) After The End of History. London: Collins and Brown.
    Salisbury, Robert Cecil (1972) Lord Salisbury on Politics. A Selection of his Articles in The Quarterly Review 1860–1883. Edited by PaulSmith. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Sassoon, Donald (1996) One Hundred Years of Socialism. The West European Left in the Twentieth Century. London: I.B. Tauris.
    Schmitt, Carl (1996) The Concept of the Political. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Schnapper, Dominique (1994) La Communauté des Citoyens: sur l'Idée Moderne de Nation. Paris: Gallimard.
    Scruton, Roger (2006) ‘Conservatism’, in AndrewDobson and RobynEckersley (eds) Political Theory and the Ecological Challenge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Steger, Manfred B. (2005) ‘Ideologies of globalisation’, Journal of Political Ideologies, 10(1): 11–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1356931052000310263
    Stelzer, Irwin (ed.) (2004) Neoconservatism. London: Atlantic Books.
    Tan, Kok-Chor (2004) Justice without Borders: Cosmopolitanism, Nationalism and Patriotism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511490385
    Tarrow, Sidney (2005) The New Transnational Activism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511791055
    Taylor, Charles (1994) ‘The Politics of Recognition’, in A.Gutmann (ed.), Multiculturalism. Examining the Politics of Recognition. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Tocqueville, A. de (1966) Democracy in America. Edited by J.P.Mayer and MaxLerner. New York: Harper & Row.
    Turner, Rachel S. (2007) ‘The “rebirth of liberalism”: the origins of neo-liberal ideology’, Journal of Political Ideologies, 12(1): 67–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13569310601095614
    Vertovec, Steven and Cohen, Robin (eds) (2002) Conceiving Cosmopolitanism. Theory, Context and Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Weber, Eugen (1977) Peasants into Frenchmen: The Modernisation of Rural France 1870–1914. London: Chatto & Windus.
    Wollstonecraft, Mary (1994) Political Writings. Edited by JanetTodd. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Woodcock, George (ed.) (1977) The Anarchist Reader. London: Fontana/Collins.
    Zizek, Slavoj (ed.) (1994) Mapping Ideology. London: Verso.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website