Hybrid Geographies: Natures Cultures Spaces
Publication Year: 2002
Hybrid Geographies critically examines the "opposition" between nature and culture, the material and the social, as represented in scientific, environmental and popular discourses. Demonstrating that the world is not an exclusively human achievement, Hybrid Geographies reconsiders the relation between human and non-human, the social and the material, showing how they are intimately and variously linked.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Introducing Hybrid Geographies
- Section 1: Bewildering Spaces
- Chapter 2: Displacing the Wild: Topologies of Wildlife
- Chapter 3: Embodying the Wild: Tales of Becoming Elephant
- Section 2: Governing Spaces
- Chapter 4: Unsettling Australia: Wormholes in Territorial Governance
- Chapter 5: Reinventing Possession: Boundary Disputes in the Governance of Plant Genetic Resources
- Section 3: Living Spaces
- Chapter 6: Transgressing Objectivity: The Monstrous Topicality of ‘GM’ Foods
- Chapter 7: Geographies of/for a More Than Human World: Towards a Relational Ethics
© Sarah Whatmore 2002
First published 2002
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, inaccordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Inquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
SAGE Publications Ltd
6 Bonhill Street
London EC2A 4PU
SAGE Publications Inc
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
32, M-Block Market
Greater Kailash – I
New Delhi 110 048
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.
ISBN 0 7619 6566 1
ISBN 0 7619 6567 X (pbk)
Library of Congress catalog card number 2002102286
Typeset by Photoprint, Torquay
Printed in Great Britain by Athenaeum Press, Gateshead
Denys E. Whatmore
You embark; you make the voyage; you reach port: step ashore, then. *
* Marcus Aurelius, Meditations (Book Three]. Penguin edition, 1964: 55. Translated by M. Staniforth. Penguin Books, London.[Page vi]
List of Figures and Table[Page viii]
- 2.1 Siting the Roman games (2nd century AD) 17
- 2.2 Mosaic reliefs immortalizing Africanae bestiae in combat 18
- 2.3 Pixelled web image of Caiman latirostris ‘in the wild’ 20
- 2.4 Becoming leopardus in the networks of the venatio25
- 2.5 Organizational relations in global wildlife management 28
- 2.6 Becoming Caiman latirostris in the networks of sustainable use 30
- 3.1 Duchess's entry in the European inventory of Loxodonta Africana41
- 3.2 Paignton Zoo Environmental Park brochure 43
- 3.3 Feeding time at the elephant enclosure, Paignton Zoo 46
- 3.4 Earthwatch Annual expedition guide49
- 3.5 Earthcorps briefing map of ‘Okavango Elephant’ project field sites 52
- 3.6 Botswana's elephants: an Earthwatch ‘wildlife experience’ 55
- 4.1Terra nullius I: the violence of ‘settlement’ 65
- 4.2 Mabo: history makes the headlines 70
- 4.3 Official map of land tenure in Post-Mabo Australia 74
- 4.4 ‘Rednecks’: the pastoralist as metropolitan caricature 84
- 4.5Terra nullius II: pay the rent 89
- 5.1 Action Aid poster campaign: ‘This will make you sick’ 94
- 5.2 Governing PGR: ‘the Global system’ 96
- 5.3In situ centres of plant genetic diversity 102
- 5.4Ex situ genebank collections of plant genetic diversity 103
- 5.5 De/re-territorialising plant genetic resources 115
- 6.1a Arco Seed Company advertisement from the late 1980s: ‘Our taste is a product of culture’ 122
- 6.1b Cartoon from France Soir from the late 1990s: ‘Le secret alimentaire’ 122 [Page ix]
- 6.2 The soybean's nitrogen fixing root nodule 127
- 6.3Glycine max: the soybean in the pod 129
- 6.4 Roundup Ready™ crop notice in an Illinois field 131
- 6.5 Frankenstein as the popular face of GM protests in the UK 134
- 6.6a ‘The two-headed grocer’ 139
- 6.6b ‘The GM vegetable answers back’ 139
- Table 2.1 Performing the wild 32
Preface and Acknowledgements[Page x]
This book has been some time in the making. I have tried to hold on to some sense of this energetic fabrication in the writing which weaves my journeying in the space/times of this research through all manner of sustained and chance encounters with others whose assistance and company afford quite different tacks. I am pleased to be able to acknowledge at least some of these many debts without divesting myself of any responsibility for what follows. These journeys began in 1993 under the auspices of a Global Environmental Change Fellowship funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (award no. L320273073). An early version of chapter 7 was written during this fellowship, which also supported the research on which chapters 4 and 5 are based. The research for the chapters in section 1 was funded by another ESRC research grant 1996–97 (award no. R000222113), while the award of a Haggett Fellowship in 1999 by the School of Geographical Sciences at the University of Bristol facilitated the research for chapter 6 and enabled me to write a large part of this book.
I am grateful to numerous colleagues and friends for ongoing conversations or specific engagements with versions of one or more of the chapters that follow. In this regard, I would like to thank Kay Anderson; Trevor Barnes; Nick Bingham; Fred Buttel; Noel Castree; Gail Davies; David Demeritt; J.D. Dewsbury; Margaret Fitzsimmons; David Goodman; Kevin Hetherington; Steve Hinchliffe; Jane Jacobs; Owain Jones; Jack Kloppenberg; Doreen Massey; Mike Michael; Marc Mormont; Jon Murdoch; Phil O'Neill; Bronwyn Parry; Andrew Sayer; Pierre Stassart; Lorraine Thorne; Nigel Thrift; and Michael Watts. Two people warrant particular mention. First, Lorraine Thorne who has shared with me many of the passionate curiosities and strange journeys ventured here, not least as coauthor of earlier versions of chapters 2 and 3 which she has generously allowed me to re-work for the purposes of this volume. I remember our floor-scale ‘back of the envelope’ diagramming fondly, and miss it still. Secondly, Nigel Thrift whose polymathic energies and enthusiasms have fostered an intellectual current of experimentation at Bristol that has [Page xi]nourished my work, alongside many others, over the years to which this book owes much. If academic work were always such serious fun.
I am also indebted to several people for contributing various forms of expertise solicited in the production of this book. Simon Godden and Jonathan Tooby at Bristol worked with skill and good humour on the figures and illustrations. The library staff at the Food and Agriculture Organization in Rome and the Australian Parliament in Canberra were endlessly helpful in furnishing my documentary requests. Pepe Esquinas-Alcazar kindly made available his rich records and remembrances of the political career of the Commission for Plant Genetic Resources and guided me through the FAO labyrinth. Dr Brian Johnson at English Nature; Dr Amy Plowman and staff at Paignton Zoo; and Mr Geoff Wilson at the Earthwatch Institute, Oxford, all made themselves and various materials available amidst busy schedules. In addition, a number of academic institutions have been generous hosts of study visits and/or workshops which have enriched my thinking. In particular, I would like to thank faculty and graduate students in the Department of Rural Sociology at the University of Wisconsin, Madison; in Environmental Studies at the University of California, Santa Cruz; in the Department of Geography at the University of Newcastle (NSW); and in SEED (the Société, Environnement et Developpement research group) at the Universitaire Luxembourgeoise, Arlon.
As an editor Robert Rojek at Sage has been a model of patient encouragement throughout the protracted writing of this book. More than this, his commitment to the project has spurred me on at difficult moments. It is also to his talent for making connections that I owe the cover. In this regard, I am much indebted to Caroline Tisdall who generously agreed to the use of one of her series of Beuys/Coyote photographs and to Robert Violette of Violette Editions who made the image available for reproduction. I would also like to thank Claire Roberts at Sage for her patient work in securing reproduction rights to this and other images in the book.
Finally, I must thank Keith who has borne the brunt of my prolonged preoccupations with characteristic forebearance; Tom and Anna who have indulged them during their visits; my parents who have been unfailingly supportive even when their needs have been much greater; Jan and Jo whose love and friendship has kept me going through it all; and Meg and Dillon who have kept me company during the long hours at ‘the top of the house’. I dedicate this book to my father, who did not live to see its completion but whose life shapes mine still in so many enduring ways.
The author and publisher wish to thank the following for permission to use copyright material:
The Saarland Museum (Saarbrucken, Germany) for Figure 2.2, Auguet R., ‘Cruelty and civilisation’.
[Page xii]The European EEP, for Figure 3.1, ‘Current wild population of loxodonta africana’, 1997.
Paignton Zoo Environmental Park (Paignton, Devon) for Figure 3.2, ‘Giving Animals a Home They Deserve and a Place You Enjoy’, 1997.
Andrew Ireland, for Figure 4.1, ‘A Perfect Case of Terra Nulltus!’, first reproduced in the Sydney Morning Herald.
Mike Bowers, for Figure 4.2, courtesy of The Age.
John Shakespeare, for Figure 4.4, first reproduced in the Sydney Morning Herald.
Sandy Scheltama, for Figure 4.5, courtesy of The Age.
ActionAid, for Figure 5.1, reproduced with kind permission.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, (Rome, Italy), for Figure 5.3, ‘The twelve megacentres of cultivated plants’, and for Figure 5.4, ‘The world's major national plant gene banks’, both first reproduced in ‘Harvesting Nature's Diversity’, 1993.
ARCO Seed Company, for Figure 6.1a, ‘Our good taste is a product of culture’, first reproduced as company advertisement.
Trez, for Figure 6.1b, his cartoon ‘Le Secret Alimentaire’, first reproduced in France Soir.
National Geographic, for Figure 6.3, for permission to reproduce photograph of soya bean taken by Chris Johns.
Greenpeace, for Figure 6.4, for permission to reproduce photograph ‘Roundup Ready’.
The Guardian, for Figure 6.5, for use of a photograph of a GM Protest march first reproduced in The Guardian.
Colin Wheeler, for Figure 6.6a, his cartoon ‘GM Maize’.
David Austin, for Figure 6.6b, his cartoon ‘GM Potato’
The author and publisher would also like to acknowledge the original source of material adapted for use in this volume:
Figure 2.1, adapted by the author from C. Scarre, (1995) The Penguin historical atlas of ancient Rome, The Penguin Group, New York.
Figure 4.3, adapted by the author from Gelder, K. and Jacobs, J.M. (1998) Uncanny Australia: Sacredness and Identity in a Postcolonial Nation, University of Melbourne Press, Melbourne.
[Page xiii]Figure 6.2, adapted by the author from Rost et al., (1994), ‘Redefining the goals of protein secondary structure prediction’, Journal of Molecular Biology, 235, 13–26.
Every effort has been made to trace all the copyright holders, but if any have been overlooked, or if any additional information can be given, the publishers will be pleased to make the necessary amendments at the first opportunity.
1 For example, environmental sociology (Hannigan, 1995); environmental anthropology (Descola and Palsson, 1996); environmental history (Bird, 1987); and environmental politics (Dobson and Lucardie, 1995).
2 Of course there are notable exceptions to this generalization. Massey (1999b) provides a useful survey of, and intervention in, these ongoing conversations.
3 There are remarkable echoes in Fitzsimmons's critique of Marxist geographers' ‘peculiar silence on the question of nature’ of Merleau-Ponty's critique of the ‘astounding’ lack of attention of Marxist philosophers to the question of nature (1970: 63). Still the most important exception to this ‘silence’ identified by Fitzsimmons is Neil Smith's book, Uneven development (1990/1984).
4 For a critique of dialectical analysis within the geographical fold, see Castree's critique (1996) of Harvey's treatment of nature (1996). On a larger canvass, Cary Wolfe's Critical environments explores the problem for Marxist dialectics in terms of the dilemmas of retaining a strong sense of contradiction without it degenerating into ‘mere antinomy’ or falling into the false assurance of some notion of teleological inevitability (1998: 132).
5 The significance of this stance is that it unsettles any account which is inclined to render messy fragile net-workings as slick consolidated totalities like Science, Capitalism, or the State and, so, recovers a myriad of life-size orderings overshadowed by their heroics (see Gibson-Graham, 1996). The description of such ontological stances as ‘modest’ is first, and best, made by John Law (1994), but see also Callon and Latour (1981). The term ‘situated knowledges’ is, of course, Donna Haraway's (1991a), but it has been widely misconceived as an argument about localizing positionality (for useful clarification, see also Haraway, 2000: 71).
6 While publications do not capture the half of these conversational networks some useful way-markers include review essays (Murdoch, 1997a, 1997b); a retrospective on ANT by ‘practitioners’ (Law and Hassard, 1999); and two journal special issues published in 2000 – Society and Space (18/2) on ANT (edited by Hetherington and Law) and Body and Society (6/3–4) on ‘bodies of nature’ (edited by Macnaghten and Urry). See also Michael (2000).
7 I have some problems with amalgamating the diverse countercurrents to the humanist assumptions of social theory into a singular notion like Nigel Thrift's ‘non-representational theory’ because of the irresistable tendency for ‘it’ to be [Page 169]reified along the way – in the manner of ANT. However, in so far as it provides a serviceable ‘flag of convenience’ that fosters conversations and alliances between diverse theoretical projects and impulses that variously challenge ‘I think before I act’ conceptions of social agency and freight more radical means to register the heterogeneity of social life then I am content to sail under it.
8 The net-workings of ANT are reminiscent of the ‘rhizomatics’ of Deleuze and Guattari (1988), a connection on which Latour comments directly in an interview with Crawford (1993: 262).
9 As the term bio-philosophy implies, the contributions of biologists and philosophers are thoroughly mixed in this enterprise. For example, contemporary biologists like Margulis and Fester (1991), Matuarana and Varela (1992), Goodwin (1994) and Rose (1997) have made striking contributions to these debates.
10 The cognitive and linguistic competences that conventionally define the fully-fledged subject and social actor are patriarchal constructs from which various categories of ‘humans’ have been, and are still being, excluded. Moreover, their status as the distinguishing mark of ‘humanity’ is troubled by the comparable skills of other classes of animals (notably, primates and cetaceous mammals) and broader reassessments of animal cognition (see Ingold, 1988b; Noske, 1989).
11 Merleau-Ponty died working on a new philosophy of nature that was elaborating an ‘account of Earth as an intertwining (after Husserl) and enfolding of humans within nature that is an embrace’ (Johnson and Smith (1990: xxxi). Some preliminary sense of this project can be gleaned from the collection of his lectures (1952–60) in which ‘nature’ is one of his themes (Merleau-Ponty, 1970).
12 Some years after graduating from UCL, I returned as a research assistant and so crossed the threshold of the staff common room through a door with the inscrutable nameplate ‘Maconochie Room’. It was here that I first encountered Australia. Overseeing the daily rhythms of coffee, sandwiches and talk was, and still is so far as I'm aware, a short rank of monochrome (male) figures, commemorating the passage of eminent professors. Most celebrated among them was Captain Alexander Maconochie, first Professor of geography at UCL in the 1830s, Secretary of the Royal Geographical Society in 1833 and onetime Governor of the penal colony on Van Dieman's Land (now Tasmania) in the 1840s, but dismissed for his pursuit of a reformist agenda (Clay, 2001). The very same. In that ‘first encounter’ cartographies of empire and discipline collided with my own itinerant childhood spent among various of Britain's faded military outposts, tripping over the unspoken colour-coded cordons of daily life.Section 1: Introduction
1 A series of variously negative responses to Cronon's essay were published in a special issue of Environmental History in 1997. Both the temper and substance of these responses attest to the deeply-rooted place of the wilderness ideal in [Page 170]the institutional fabric and popular culture of North America, particularly the United States, that Cronon sought to expose as dangerous ‘habits of thinking’ (1995: 81).
2 See also the interventions of the Luke's Eco-politics (1997) from a North American (US) perspective, and Ferry's Le nouvel ordre écologique (1992) from a European (French) perspective.
3 The exception is a rather fragile line of interest in domestication that links, in very different ways, the work of Geographers like Ian Simmons (1996) and Robin Donkin (1989) and more recent post-colonial cultural geographies (e.g. Anderson K., 1997; Willems-Braun, 1997) with the cultural geography of Carl Sauer (see, Leighly, 1963) and the bio-geography of the 1950s and 1960s (e.g. George, 1962).
1 Ridley Scott's blockbuster movie Gladiators, released a year or so after an earlier version of this chapter was published, provides a telling reminder of the enduring fascination of the Roman gladiatorial spectacle in western popular culture. The camera works to incorporate the cinema audience into the spectatorial ranks of those in the amphitheatre, seducing them/us into sharing the visceral passions of the event.
2 Modern biology, informed by cellular ultrastructure through electron microscopy and detailed knowledge of gene sequences, is rewriting these longstanding classificatory systems (Sagan, 1992). See, for example, Margulis and Schwartz (1982) and Woese et al. (1990).
3 While species interactions have become the credible subject of Ecology, and the social dynamics of animal groups have attracted some passionate exponents, the funding priorities and professional culture of the biological sciences remain wedded to a Cartesian conception of animal life as enumerable biological units of interest primarily in terms of their aggregate population trends or genetic diversity (Senior, 1997).
4 Interestingly, the taxonomy of such cat-like creatures in the modern zoological science that superseded the vagaries of this Roman nomenclature is itself under assault from genomic classificatory methods (see note 2 above). Recent evidence presented at the American Genetics Association, for example, has suggested that the phenotypic menagerie of 32 sub-species of Puma (including panthers and cougars) compromises only six genetically distinguishable subspecies (Pennisi, 1999: 2081).
5 As Jennison points out, some degree of crowd-pleasing poetic licence seems likely to be associated with the phrase ‘African beasts’, particularly in the Augustan age and later, making it less than reliable evidence of precise geographic origins (1937: 53).
6 Toynbee (1973) makes clear that such ‘realistic’ depictions of animal hunts and venationes have to be seen in the context of a much larger repertoire of animal art, particularly mythological and pastoral renditions but also commemorative depictions of companion animals among the Roman elite, especially horses and dogs.
[Page 171]7 Grove (1995: 20) notes that by the reign of Emperor Claudius (AD 41–54) the river Tiber had silted up to such an extent that most commercial port activities had to be shifted from Ostia to Civitavecchia.
8 There are parallels here with the earnest turn to science in the debate about banning stag hunting in the UK to determine whether or not these animals ‘really’ experience trauma and fear in the chase and at bay by proxy measurements of hormonal and chemical levels in their bodies (Bateson, 1997). This is a classic example of what Ted Porter (1995) calls the ‘pursuit of objectivity’ in science and public life.
9 See Doyle (1997: 28) for an engaging example of this kind of slippage in the excitable language of genetic engineering involving the metonymic substitution of ‘code-script’ for organism in Schrodinger's treatment of the ‘Chromosone’. It is a slippage much in evidence in the hyperbole surrounding the USA/UK science establishment's launch of the ‘draft blueprint of the Human Genome’ (Guardian supplement, 26/6/2000).
1 I accept that this technical tendency, or what Latour calls ‘double-click’ networks (1999b: 20), is a rather hackneyed translation of ANT but, nonetheless, the socio-technical emphasis is real enough in the corpus of work that pays allegiance to this potent acronym.
2 It is not that those working with ‘ANT’ have ignored non-human life forms, one has only to think of Callon's scallops (1986), Latour's microbes (1988) or even elephants themselves (Cussins, 1997), but rather to note the striking contrast in the kinds of non-humans that figure overwhelmingly in ANT accounts as against those in feminist science studies.
3 A sub-species of Loxodonta africana – L. a. cyclotis – has been described in the forests of west Africa, smaller in size than its more numerous savannah relatives (Kingdon, 1997).
4 Whether by accident or design the ISIS acronym mimics the name of the ancient Egyptian goddess of fertility.
5 Thus, for example, the accidental death of a keeper in the elephant enclosure at London Zoo in 2001, led to the re-location of the elephants to a wildlife park and the closure of one of the zoo's most popular visitor attractions.
6 The research at Paignton Zoo which informs this chapter coincided with the filming of a six-part BBC documentary series on the working life of zookeepers which was first broadcast in the spring of 1998.
7 Earthwatch projects span archaeology, palaeontology, geology and anthropology as well as life sciences. But the majority of field projects, about 87 of the 127 projects in the 1997 brochure and some 63 per cent of the total number of volunteers concern animal, plant, bird or marine life, and ecology (Scientific Officer, interview 10/11/97).
8 The appearance of Earthwatch on a special edition of the Holiday travel programme on BBC1 (16/11/99), with television personality Charlie Dimmock, suggests that this ambivalence remains salient even after the relaunch of Earthwatch as an Institute.
9 For a fuller exposition of this medical research, see Berg and Mol (1998).[Page 172]Section 2: Introduction
1 This latest rupture in the legal fabric of property is often traced to a battle in the US courts in the late 1970s between John Moore, asserting rights to property in his person, and the medical centre at UCLA, asserting rights to intellectual property in the ‘Mo cell line’ derived (without his consent) from his spleen. The medics won (see Rabinow, 1992b). The Human Genome Project affords a more recent and concerted example of this ‘vampire’ mode of bio-prospecting (see Cunningham, 1998), stimulating the US Patent and Trademark Office to issue some 1,250 patents on human gene sequences in the last two decades of the twentieth century (Anderson L., 1999: 79).
2 This insistence is shared but differently framed and pursued in liberal (e.g. Reeve, 1986), Marxist (e.g. Tribe, 1978) and post-structuralist (e.g. Kelley 1990) accounts (for a discussion, see Shapiro I., 1991).
1 For example, Paul Carter (1987) cites the journals of Captain James Cook and the botanist Sir Joseph Banks about their encounters with Australia aboard the Endeavour (Banks Sir J., The Endeavour journal 1768–1771, J.C. Beaglehole (ed.), 1962. Sydney; and Cook J., The journals of Captain James Cook on his voyages of discovery, Volume 1: ‘The voyage of the Endeavour, 1768–1771’, J.C. Beaglehole et al. (eds), 1955. Cambridge). Ross Gibson (1992) cites the letters of early colonists like Thomas Watling which first appeared in his native Scotland in 1794, Letters from an exile at Botany Bay to his aunt in Dumfries and is now available in Foss P. (ed.), 1988. Island in the stream. Pluto Press, Sydney). William Lines (1991) cites the journals of Surveyor Generals Charles Sturt and Thomas Mitchell whose explorations of the Murray basin in the 1820s and 1830s recorded daily encounters with Aboriginal people, sometimes upwards of 200 in number, while still claiming to discover an uninhabited country (Sturt C., 1834 (2nd edition). Two expeditons into the interior of southern Australia. 2 volumes. Smith Elder & Co., London); and Mitchell T.L., 1839. Three expeditions into the interior of Eastern Australia. 3 volyumes, vol. 2. T & W. Boone).
2 These shifting renditions of the ‘state of nature’ and its inhabitants ‘natural man’ were by no means uncontested. Secular natural law theories met constant challenges from various currents of dissenting Christian moral discourse, from the Spanish Thomists during the fifteenth and sixteenth century Spanish colonization of Latin America (see Pagden, 1987) through to the philanthropic crusades against slavery and the abuse of Aboriginal peoples in late eighteenth-and nineteenth-century England. These impulses were perfectly compatible with colonialism as the same moral discourses underwrote the promulgation of Christianity as a ‘civilizing’ force, but by the end of the nineteenth century their currency had been decisively overshadowed by that of science in framing the project of empire.
3 See, for example, Brennan (1991); Pearson (1993b); Rowse (1993a); Dodson (1994); Reynolds (1996).
4 See in particular, Jane Jacobs' Edge of empire (1995) and more recent work with Ken Gelder Uncanny Australia (1998).
[Page 173]5 For this reason, and despite several references to Deleuze and Guattari's ‘A thousand plateaus’, it seems to me that Carter's spatial history bears rather more superficial resemblance to their ‘rhizomatics’ than some have claimed (see Rodman, 1993).
6 The British House of Commons Select Committee was established in 1834 following a motion by Mr Thomas Fowell Buxton, the political heir to the slavery abolitionist William Wilberforce and co-founder of the British and Foreign Aborigines Protection Society in the same year, who chaired its proceedings. The Committee reported in 1837 and, while Australia is not its primary focus, the hasty parliamentary passage of the ‘South Australia Colonization Bill’ in the summer of 1834 provided a fresh stimulus to their condemnation of colonial ‘settlement’ practices (Minutes of Parliament (GB), 1834). Among those called to give evidence to the Committee was a preponderance of clergymen, many of whom held out ‘Christian instruction’ as the only realistic recompense for the ill-treatment of Aboriginal peoples in the colonies.
7 Property preoccupied debates in liberal philosophy and political economy in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Liberal currents took their lead from Locke, for whom private property is the cornerstone of civic governance and the liberty of the individual. Critics, from Marx and Engels to Henry George, cast it as the bastion of capitalism and/or class privilege. For useful overviews of these variegated debates, see Honoré (1961); Macpherson (1978); and Ryan (1984).
8 The familiar face of these heroic accounts of private property is the figure C.B. Macpherson identified as the ‘possessive individual’ (1962). Here, rights to occupy, use, alienate and benefit from land are bundled together and vested in a single person/proprietor as freehold or fee simple title (see also Vogel, 1988). But as several early modern historians and political philosophers have noted, this modern figure is not one that would have been recognized by those, like Locke and others writing in the natural law tradition, in whose texts it is now routinely originated (see, for example, Squadrito, 1979; Tully, 1993: chapter 2; Macfarlane, 1998).
9 This understanding of English Common Law was itself considerably more formalized than in earlier configurations of governance. The seventeenth-century jurist Sir John Davies, for example, observed in 1674 that
The common law of England is nothing else but the Common Custom of the Realm. … It can be recorded and registered no-where but in the memory of the people. For a Custom taketh beginning and groweth to perfection … when a reasonable act once done is found to be good and beneficial to the people, and agreeable to their nature and disposition, then do they use it and practise it again and again, and so by often reiteration time out of mind, it obtaineth the force of a Law. (cited in Reynolds, 1996: 75)
10 Common law occupancy was key to the dispossession of customary or common land use in Britain (and Ireland), which had contributed a major component of the diet and fuel of the labouring poor (Goodrich, 1991). It was progressively removed by parliamentary statute – with some 100 Enclosure Acts between 1800 and 1834 (Neeson, 1993). Those dispossessed by these acts and/or who actively opposed them made up a considerable part of those transported as convicts and emigrants to Australia (Thompson, 1991).
[Page 174]11 While Blackstone's Commentaries on the laws of England met with a variable reception at home, they attained a substantial reputation in the colonies. Eight editions were published in his lifetime (1723–80) and another 15 by 1854 (Jones, 1972).
12 While the Mabo judgment's admission of ‘native title’ into common law broke new legal ground by establishing land rights without the jurisdiction of Parliament, it had been preceded by several piecemeal legislative provisions, notably under the Aboriginal Land Rights Act (Northern Territories) 1976 and in association with National Park designations. However, even where native title recognized at common law approaches ‘full ownership’ in the terms set out by the Mabo ruling, it remains subject to important limitations (see Bartlett, 1993: 42):
- it cannot be alienated (or sold) other than by surrender to the Crown;
- beneficial title is communal and held in trust while personal titles, whether of individual, family or band, are transferable by custom;
- it does not constitute permissive occupancy and can be legally and validly extinguished by the Crown under strict conditions.
13 In this, the majority judgment accords with Kant's objection to natural law theorists like Locke or, later, utilitarian theorists like Bentham. He argued that while cultivation can confirm title, in that it signals to others that a piece of land has already been taken in rightful possession, this fact may be conveyed ‘by many other signs that cost less trouble’ (Kant, 1887: 97, cited in Vogel, 1988).
14 Indeed the majority judges' insistence that their ruling on the common law status of native title applied to the whole of Australia was based on a recognition that the circumstances of the Meriam case, characterized by the cultivation of garden plots passed through family lines between generations, did not set it apart in legal terms from those on mainland characterized by more seasonal patterns of land use and more collective proprietorial practices (see Rowse (1993b) for a discussion of the implications of the Mabo ruling for interpreting indigenous ‘traditions’).
15 Western Australia, Northern Territories and Queensland, the States with the largest proportion of their land under pastoral and mining leases and the highest proportion of indigenous Australians within them, were the most vigorous in their opposition to the Native Title Bill. They framed their opposition in terms of resisting efforts by the Commonwealth Government in Canberra to infringe their established regional jurisdiction over land management.
16 Two currents in these political wheeling and dealings are of particular note. In contrast to the sustained opposition of the corporate mining lobby, the Labour Government won the support of the National Farmers' Federation for their Native Title legislation, against the grain of many of their regional constituencies and their traditional allegiance to the National Party. As the Government was building these alliances, Opposition politicians led by the Premier of Western Australia, Richard Court, were engaging in political manoeuvres to undermine the Commonwealth legislative process by passing State legislation that extinguished common law native title and replaced it with an impoverished form of statutory provision.
[Page 175]17 There are occasional Opposition voices, notably that of Dr Wooldridge, Deputy Leader of the Liberal Party, whose speeches (Hansard (HoR), 24/11/93: 3599–603) are clearly sympathetic to native title and regretful of the lack of a bi-partisan approach to the legislation. But even these speakers follow their party whip to vote against the Bill.
18 Pauline Hanson lost her parliamentary seat in the 1998 elections and, at the time of writing, her One Nation party was being investigated by the Australian Police for fraud.
19 There are currently some 145,000 pastoralists, in comparison with 260,000 indigenous Australians, a number that has been in decline since the end of the First World War and is now falling at an accelerated rate. While a minority of pastoralists are among the wealthiest landholders in the country, corporate business forms are much less widespread in the pastoral industry than in the mining industry and the majority of them make moderate and uncertain livings (see Lawrence, 1990).
20 The Commonwealth Constitution makes only two passing references to Aboriginal people. One excludes them from the law-making powers of the Commonwealth (section 51 subsection xxvi) and the other excludes them from the census enumeration of the Commonwealth and the States (section 127), both of which were conceived in terms of governing Australia's immigrant population. For a discussion of the political context of the 1967 referendum see Attwood and Markus (1999).
21 In establishing their credentials for talking about/for Aboriginal people, MPs referred variously to the size of the Aboriginal population in their constituency; recollections of visits and interactions with Aboriginal communities; and, somewhat bizarrely, their appreciation of ‘Aboriginal culture’. Tim Fischer (Leader of the National Party), for example, countered charges of racism against a party conference address he made by referring to ‘my praise of Aboriginal culture as manifested through their rock art, crafts, music, dance and their tribal customs and practices’ (Hansard (HoR), 23/11/93: 3425).
22 In addition to establishing a quasi-judicial regime for dealing with native title claims, past and future, the Native Title Act 1993 also set up a national fund for the acquisition of land by indigenous Australians who did not benefit directly from native title and foreshadowed a wider-ranging ‘social justice package’ (Peterson and Sanders, 1998: 21). These procedures and bureaucracies built on those already established under the 1967 Land Acts.
23 Senator Panzinni described himself as a ‘first generation Australian’ and noted that his own grandchildren would likely inherit only a ‘fraction of his Italian blood’. The same notion of race as a biologically derived category was used by Michael Cobb MP (NSW, National Party) to question the credentials of Eddie Mabo as a plaintiff for the Meriam people whose case made history in the High Court, on the grounds that he was ‘only’ the adoptive son of a community family.
24 The association between moral order and settled social forms goes back to ancient Greece (see Greenblatt, 1991: 68–70). Its reconfiguration through the assemblage of private property was woven through a discourse of ‘improvement’ in which both the person and the land were honed through the discipline of labour. For Locke, for example, the justification of private property could not be exceeded by the size of a person's landholding except by ‘the perishing [Page 176]of anything uselessly in it’ (1988 (1690), para. 46: 300). In similar vein, J.S. Mill declared two centuries later that
Whenever, in any country, the proprietor, generally speaking, ceases to be the improver, political economy has nothing to say in defence of private property. … In no sound theory of private property was it ever contemplated that the proprietor of land should be merely a sinecurist quartered on it. (1961/1870:231)
25 The Deputy Leader of the Opposition in the Senate, Senator Richard Alston (Victoria, Liberal Party), for example, declared the High Court ruling ‘the greatest obiter dicta in history’ (Hansard (Senate), 16/12/93: 5024). More explicitly, the Pastoralists and Graziers' Association of Western Australia, in their evidence to the Legal and Constitutional Affairs Committee on the Native Title Bill, argued that it was ‘conferring a title proved for a settled agrarian and fishing community on a nomadic people of a completely different race and lifestyle’ (quoted by Senator Chris Evans (Senate Leader of the Labour Party), Hansard (Senate) 14/12/93: 4583).
26 Reynolds (see particularly, 1988, 1992) interprets the Committee's conclusions, and the subsequent efforts by colonial administrators to govern the acquisition of land and treatment of Aboriginal peoples by settlers in Australia from Britain, as evidence of an overriding concern with protecting native rights and welfare. While this was unquestionably a priority in their considerations, the frequent contradiction between these efforts, the terms of the statutory Acts establishing colonies and what was happening on the ground, suggests that any such concerns were compromised in practice by commercial and fiscal considerations. Moreover the Christian morality which pervades the report, as noted above, was also a mainstay of the civilizing pretensions of colonialism.
27 Opposition leaders in the Commonwealth and some State Parliaments (notably those in Western Australia and Northern Territories) launched a concerted media campaign against Native Title, insinuating their territorial anxieties into the ‘suburban backyard’. For example, John Howard, in his infamous ‘One Australia’ speech (17/11/93), warned that ‘other Australians want to be sure that they do indeed own their own home or farm and that they won't have to go to court to defend them’ (cited by Hon. Gary Johns (Queensland, Labour Party) (Hansard (HoR), 24/11/93: 3596). Similar scare tactics were mobilized in campaigns run by the corporate mining lobby, the Australian Mining Industry Council, and its spokespeople like Hugh Morgan (1992). Here cartographic propaganda, exaggerating the extent of Native Title on maps like that in figure 4.3, was a favourite weapon (see Gelder and Jacobs, 1998: 139–41).
28 These ‘amendments’ to native title have attracted an ‘early warning’ decision from the UN's Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, the first ever issued to a developed nation (Mercer, 1997).
1 The Convention on Biological Diversity has a much larger remit than domesticated plants and animals and takes its impetus from the conservation and [Page 177]utilization of all living resources (see Takacs, 1996), relegating the question of Plant Genetic Resources (PGR) for agriculture to chapter 14 (CBD, 1992).
2 RiceTec Inc. of Texas applied to register Basmati as a company trademark in 1998. It later withdrew this blanket patent application in the face of concerted opposition from the Governments of India and Pakistan and other agri-technology companies in the USA. The decision of the US Patent and Trademark Office in August 2001 permitted the patent registration of three specific hybrid varieties – Texmati, Jasmati and Kasmati – developed by the company over a ten year period of cross-breeding with American long grain rice varieties. The decision was greeted by both the company and its opponents as a ‘victory’ (The Guardian, 23/08/01).
3 Following the request of Conference resolution (9/83), the Commission for Plant Genetic Resources (CPGR) was formally established within the terms of Article VI paragraph I of the FAO constitution by a resolution of the FAO Council (1/85) at its meeting of 24 November 1983.
4 The Group of 77 was an influential alignment of lately independent nations pursuing a New International Economic Order against the hegemony of industrialized countries, particularly the USA in the 1970s and early 1980s (Larschan and Brennan, 1983; Fowler and Mooney, 1990: 187–200). In 1975 it comprised 103 out of a total 138 member states of the United Nations. Its influence has dissipated since the late 1980s, replaced by the Cairns group alliance associated with World Trade Organization/GATT negotiations, and the strengthening of regional trading blocs like NAFTA (North American Free Trade Area), the European Union and ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations).
5 While the United States delegation was the most vociferous opponent of the International Undertaking, other industrialized countries, including the UK, Canada, France, Germany, Switzerland and Japan, shared some of its objections. By 1993 the USA, Canada and Japan remain notable for their absence from the list of adherents to the Undertaking.
6 The Deleuzian terminology of the ‘event’ (see Deleuze, 1990/1969) that affects this analytical modality of immanence can be found elsewhere in bio-philosophy, for example, Whitehead's notion of ‘concresences’ (1929), and de Landa's notion of ‘temporary coagulations’ (1997: 104) which is directly derivative of Deleuze.
7 These documentary archives are made up of written records from three main procedural bodies conducting the business of the FAO in relation to PGR. First, the official reports of the bi-annual Conference of the FAO, at which delegates from all member countries debate and vote on the business of the meeting. These reports minute the items of business, wording of resolutions and voting procedures and are identified by the documentary prefix – C (year/rep). Secondly, the verbatim records of Conference debates that are conducted through two Commissions charged with reporting back to the plenary sessions for voting. These records are identified by the documentary prefix – C (year/commission no./PV [proceedings verbatim]). And thirdly, the reports of the biannual meetings of the CPGR itself which record the agenda, discussion papers and minutes in which representatives of any FAO member country can participate. These are identified by the documentary prefix – CPGR (year/rep). Occasional reference is made to documentary reports and verbatim records of meetings of the FAO Council that is made up of about 50 representatives [Page 178]elected by member countries and meets two or three times between Conferences. These are identified by the documentary prefix – CL (year/rep).
8 These slippery distinctions are elaborated for discussion as an agenda item at the 2nd session of the CPGR. Wild relatives are identified as ‘the products of nature’; weedy relatives as the ‘botanical bridge between wild relatives and modern plant varieties’; primitive cultivars as ‘plants that have evolved as a result of both natural and human selection’; and ‘modern varieties’ as being ‘the result of plant breeding’ (CPGR, 1987a: 2).
9 It is worth noting that Weismann's theory of ‘germplasm’ (1892), which held that the development of hereditary traits was a function of the reproductive or germ-cells sequestered from the rest of the body (and its living environment), derived from his experimental work with insect embryos and roundworms. As developmental biologists like Bonner (1974) pointed out some time ago, this ‘principle’ does not hold good for plants (the cells of which are totipotent). More recently, the cloning of Dolly the sheep using cells obtained from the udder of an adult sheep, further undermined this principle in relation to mammals (Wilmut et al., 1997). For a useful discussion, see Webster and Goodwin (1996).
10 For example, in the archaeology of domestication (Clutton-Brock, 1989), histories of colonial exploration (Grove, 1995) and botanical science (Drayton, 2000), and, more recently, the accounts of ethnobotany (Balick and Cox, 1996).
11 As Harlan (1971) points out, the Vavilovian cartography of centres of agricultural origin and diversity that has become such a landmark almost invariably incorporates significant amendments made by his collaborator Zhukovsky, as in the case of the FAO version reproduced here. His expansion of the number and extent of these centres, some defining a whole continent, exhausted the meaningfulness of the ‘centres’ concept.
12 According to an FAO survey of these ex-situ germplasm collections in 1994, just over half of all accessions were held in genebanks in industrialized countries, about one-third in developing countries and the remainder in the international network of IARCs administered by CGIAR (Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research) (CPGR, 1994b). CGIAR was established in 1971 with funding from the Rockerfeller and Ford Foundations, the FAO, the World Bank and the UN Development Programme (CPGR, 1987a: 10–15).
13 The global commons are taken to describe those environmental phenomena and spaces that do not fall under national jurisdiction or private property rights, notably oceans, Antarctica, the earth's biosphere and outer space, all of which are the subject of more less established international treaties or protocols (Buck, 1998). They are constituted in international law as a ‘common heritage of [hu]mankind (CHM), a legal concept first established in the UN Law of the Sea in 1967 (Kotz, 1976) that has four main principles (see Larschan and Brennan, 1983). The designated commons should:
- not be subject to appropriation;
- involve all nations in its management;
- actively share in any benefits;
- be dedicated to exclusively peaceful purposes.
[Page 179]14 The ‘tragic’ rendition of the commons can be traced to the eighteenth/nineteenth century enclosure of the English commons when ‘improvement’ and the ‘national interest’ cast local commons as a hindrance to commercial and state interests (Xenos, 1989). First articulated by propagandists for parliamentary enclosure, like Thomas Malthus (Thompson, 1991: 107), the ‘tragedy of the commons’ has been deployed more recently in the project of ‘third world development’ (Roberts and Emel, 1992). The most influential exponent of this twentieth-century variant is Garrett Hardin, for whom ‘freedom in a commons brings ruin to all’ (1968: 124).
15 The ‘virtuous’ currency of the commons can be traced back to the natural law tradition of seventeenth-century political debate, where the ‘state of nature’ signified a gift from God invested in ‘man’ as an earthly commonwealth (see Squadrito, 1979; Shapiro I., 1991). The dilemma for the theological cast of this early modern political commentary centred on reconciling the nascent figure of the autonomous individual with the moral economy of commonwealth (see, for example, Chalk, 1991). The most influential exposition of this fraught reconciliation is found in the work of John Locke, particularly his Two treatises on government (1988/1690), which is still a touchstone of liberal democratic political theory (see Tully, 1980).
16 The ‘Agreed Interpretation’ (Resolution C 4/89) was formally incorporated as an annex (annex I) to the International Undertaking (Resolution C8/83), securing it as an integral part of its legal provisions.
17 The shift in definitional emphasis from the ‘vegetative and propogating’ materials of plants to the ‘biological diversity of plant genes, etc.’ was significant but largely unnoticed in the collective ontology of PGR.
18 The report found that the legal status of materials held in ex situ collections is determined primarily on the principles of law and the legislation of the state where the collection is located and, hence, was inevitably varied. The situation for the CGIAR-administered network of International collections was even more complicated with, for example, IARCs exhibiting a wide range of constitutional arrangements. These findings were based on information restricted to those public genebanks that responded to FAO enquiries and excluded private collections (CPGR, 1987a).
19 The grand design of an ‘international genebank’ envisaged by the FAO's Committee on Agriculture (COAG) as part of an International Convention for PGR back in 1983, complete with floor plans and budget estimates (FAO, 1983c), bore little relation to the arrangements secured by the Undertaking some ten years later. The only significant gesture towards this global jurisdiction was the transfer of the administration of the IARC network of genebanks from CGIAR to the International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR) in 1994; itself an FAO satellite organization set up in 1974 (see Kloppenburg, 1988: 161–7).
20 Unsurprisingly the research literature is no less confused than the FAO Conference records on the applicability of the ‘common heritage of humankind’ principle to the International Undertaking (e.g. Juma, 1989; Ramakrishna, 1992; Flitner, 1998).
21 This distinction between physical (or tangible) and intangible property in western jurisprudence is indebted to that made in Roman law between corporeal and incorporeal things (Drahos, 1996).
[Page 180]22 The criteria of ‘invention’ exercised in patent law, for example, require that the knowledge-object is useful (i.e. it must have an industrial or commercial application); novel (i.e. it must be original and not already known in the public domain); and non-obvious (i.e. it must be more inventive than ‘mere discovery’ of something that already exists) (Cornish, 1999). The US Supreme Court ruling in Diamond v. Chakrabarty (1980) is now taken as the landmark decision effecting the ontological shift that admitted microbiological knowledge practices and knowledge-objects as patentable ‘inventions’.
23 At the time of the International Undertaking on PGR no developing countries had implemented legislation along UPOV lines and none was a member of the Union. This remained the case until Latin American countries party to establishing the North American Free Trade Area were obliged to join UPOV as a condition of NAFTA membership. Under the original terms of the UPOV Convention, farmers re-using seeds from their own harvest and plant breeders' using protected varieties to produce further improvements were exempt from the prohibition on third-party use of protected varieties. These exemptions were revoked in the 1991 revisions to bring UPOV into line with Trade Related aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) provisions being constituted by the World Trade Organization (see Correa, 1995) (see note 24 below).
24 This shift was extended to plant varieties by the European Patent Office in 1983 in its reinterpretation of Article 53 of the European Patent Convention (1973) which had specifically excluded ‘plant or animal varieties or essentially biological processes for the production of plants or animals’ from the scope of permissable patent claims. In a ruling on a case brought to the appeal board by Ciba-Geigy, varieties produced by genetic engineering were deemed to be ‘novel plants’ rather than ‘new varieties’ and hence patentable. This principle has since been incorporated into revisions to the UPOV Convention (1991). For overviews of these developments in IPR in relation to living things contemporaneous with the event under discussion see Sedjo, 1992 (for a US perspective) and Bergmans, 1991 (for a European perspective).
25 Under the Farmers' rights provisions of the Undertaking, entitlements to compensation were vested in the FAO as a ‘trustee of the international community’ to fund community seedbanks and traditional land management and conservation practices. In practice, its trusteeship suffered from under-funding, as financial contributions to the International Fund failed to materialize, and was contested by some member countries who wanted it to be vested in nation states (e.g. Turkey; see FAO, 1989b). It is also worth reiterating that the purchase of Farmers' rights as ‘rights’ was compromised by the non-binding or ‘soft-law’ status of the Undertaking (Correa, 1995).
26 The itch of the primitive that consigned indigenous peoples to ‘the state of nature’, expelling them from the compass of the social in imperial mappings of terra nullius, persists today in their incorporation into the genomic mappings of the life sciences as subjects of bio-prospecting (Cunningham, 1998). The extension of IPR to the patenting of such genomic ‘inventions’ is itself intensely contested within scientific and legal communities (see Gannon et al., 1995; Black, 1998)
27 Lipietz describes the Rio Summit as ‘a diplomatic Vietnam’ for the Bush (senior) administration (1995: 9). The Clinton administration signed the [Page 181]Convention on Biological Diversity in summer 1993, but Congress refused to ratify it in summer 1994. It remains unsigned by the USA.Section 3: Introduction
1 A similar point is made by Derrida in a conversation with J.L. Nancy where he explains his rare treatment of ‘the subject’ as a product of the fact that ‘the discourse of the subject, even if it locates difference … continues to link subjectivity with man’ (1991: 105). Moreover, Appadurai himself makes the limits of his project in The social life of things (1986) clear in an interview in which he describes it as an effort ‘to milk the conceit that we need to forget people for a moment and think of things themselves, as in some kind of way having a life’ (Bell, 2000: 27, original emphasis).
1 This is not to suggest that food-born toxicities and diseases are peculiar to the industrial era. Adulterated and rotten foodstuffs were historically commonplace, and industrial preservation and transport technologies have extended their compass and durability (see Kiple and Ornelas, 2000).
2 It is worth noting how frequently scientific authorities evoke the term ‘rogue’ to explain food scares to the wider public through the media. For example, in the case of BSE-vCJD, the prions implicated in transmissable spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) were characterized as ‘rogue proteins’, and in the food poisoning outbreak in Lanarkshire in 1997, the bacterial strain E. coli 0157 was identified as the ‘rogue bacteria’ responsible. It seems that such potent agents only emerge into the glare of public acclaim at moments of rupture in the disciplinary practices and accounts of science.
3 Michel Serres makes much of the hyphen's replacement of the inverted capitalized omega as the conventional sign of union or connection between two words. He argues that it imprints diacritically the meaning of the ‘middle ground’ or ‘excluded third’, thus acting as a shorthand for his various metaphorical figures of absent presence – the parasite; the tiers instruit; the blank figure of the joker (see Assad, 1999: 132–4). Deleuze takes a similar tack when he insists on the significance of the conjunction ‘and’ in his mode of thinking, which he argues ‘has enough force to shake and uproot the verb “to be”’ emphasizing between-ness as ‘another way of travelling, … coming and going rather than starting and finishing’ (Deleuze and Guattari, 1988: 25).
4 Exceptions which stretch across economic/cultural, production/consumption divides are growing in number in response to the practical imperatives of addressing the crises in farm livelihoods and consumer confidence engendered by industrialization. See, for example, Whatmore and Thorne (1997) on Fairtrade networks; Cook and Crang (1998a, 1998b) on consumer understandings of the origins of foods; Fitzsimmons and Goodman (1998) on alternative food networks; and Murdoch et al. (2000) on the construction of ‘quality’ foods.
5 Exceptions to this exclusive focus on the meaningfulness of foods in (human) cultural practices include ‘popular’ bio-graphies of staple foodstuffs and their [Page 182]active role in human history, e.g. Zuckerman (1998) on the potato; and Hobhouse (1999) on tea and sugar.
6 An exception to this is Adams's gestures towards a ‘feminist-vegetarian agenda’ (1990).
7 As Deleuze and Guattari note (1988: 519, footnote 13), this contrast between arborescent and rhizomatic forms of thinking is also taken up by Michel Serres (1975) to rather different effect in his examination of the networking assemblage of the tree itself and its use in a variety of scientific domains.
8 The Soya Bean Information Centre (whose publicity does not acknowledge that it is funded by Monsanto) claims in an information sheet that ‘experts estimate that up to 30,000 food products contain soya derivatives as ingredients’ (Monsanto, 1996). As well as a host of human and non-human foodstuffs, Hapgood illustrates the soybean's versatility in his National Geographic article (1987) with a painting by the artist James Gurney which includes more than 60 soy products – from glues and petrol, fire hydrant foam and plastic, to the paint used in the painting itself.
9 For parallels with Merleau-Ponty's visible/invisible and his concerns with the presentation of absence, see Carey (2000: 31–2).
10 The Monsanto Corporation is not unfamiliar with controversy in relation to its products. These include the defoliant Agent Orange, used extensively in the Vietnam War, and the bovine growth hormone rBST (recombinant bovine somatotropin) designed to boost milk yields and banned by the European Union (Palast, 1999).
11 The high protein and fatty acid components of soya make it a valuable component of vegetarian alternatives to meat and dairy products in today's industrial diet. However, health claims made for these products have been called into question by scientists breaking ranks with the US Food and Drug Administration's position. They point to the toxicity of the oestrogen-like properties of isoflavones in the bio-chemistry of soya (Fallon and Enig, 2000; Institute of Food Research, 2000).
12 The modern soybean taxon Glycine max is located as a sub-species of the tribe (Phaseolae) within the largest of the three Leguminosae sub-families (Papilionoideae) (ILDIS, 2000).
13 North-east China was recognized by the early twentieth-century Soviet botanist Vavilov as one of the eight ‘centres of origin’ for the world's most important crop plants, which have since become closely allied to the identification of ‘centres of plant genetic diversity’ (see chapter 5).
14 These nitrogen-fixing root nodules are general in two of the three sub-families of Leguminosae (Mimosoideae and Papilionoideae) but rare in the third (Caesalpinioideae) (ILDIS, 2000).
15 To this extent the soybean, and leguminous plants more generally, are excellent illustrations of new arguments in evolutionary theory which cast the genealogical emphasis of Darwinian ideas in a much more relational light, either in terms of the ‘co-evolution’ of different species (see Eldridge, 1995) or, more radically, of evolutionary symbiosis at the cellular level (see Margulis and Fester, 1991).
16 The soybean's earlier presence in Europe was recorded in 1737 by the Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus in an inventory of plants growing in a garden in Holland (see Hapgood, 1987: 79). Another US Naval officer, Matthew Perry, is [Page 183]credited with its introduction to the west in 1825 (Kiple and Ornelas, 2000: 1855).
17 Until the advent of GM varieties, nearly all of today's US soybean crop can be traced as descendants of just six plants from this period of concerted acquisition (Fowler and Mooney, 1990: 84).
18 Kloppenberg gives the example of seed-corn firms employing some 125,000 labourers over a 2–4 week period to de-tassle their breeding crop (1988: 112).
19 Unlike animals, the cellular potential of plants is highly plastic with a large numbers of cells that are totipotent, that is that have the potential to generate an entire plant with all its various tissues (Tudge, 1993: 186–7).
20 The United States, China, Brazil and Argentina account for over 90 per cent of the global soybean crop today.
21 Glyphosate is the active ingredient of Monsanto's Roundup® herbicide, typically comprising 41 per cent. Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl glycine) is a post-emergence broad spectrum herbicide that kills all green plants not engineered to tolerate it. It works by inhibiting aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in the leaf chloroplasts, specifically the enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimicacid 3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase, thereby disabling the conversion of light into chemical energy and so preventing plant growth (Schulz et al., 1990: 7–8). The other 59 per cent of Roundup® is made up of a range of ‘inert’ ingredients, including Polyethyloxylated tallow amine surfactant (POEA) to de-clog applicators and facilitate even spray coverage, which harbour toxicities of their own (Lappé and Bailey, 1999: 54). Monsanto's monopoly on commercial glyphosate herbicide through its Roundup® brand patent ran out in 2000. The corporation is already involved in legal suits in the United States to prevent its Swiss competitor AstraZeneca from testing their rival glyphosate herbicide brand Touchdown® on its Roundup Ready™ soybeans (Daily Telegraph, 22/1/99).
22 It is worth noting that Comai's research team was employed by Calgene Inc., one of the US pioneers in biotechnology (acquired by Monsanto in 1997). The prevalence of corporate scientists among the authors of research articles in key journals like Bio/Technology, Trends in Biotechnology, Science and Nature is remarkable (at least to this outsider), but is rarely the subject of reflection, let alone concern, within these pages. This commercialization of biotechnological science has effectively obscured the distinction between ‘pure’ and ‘applied’ research and compromised the self-proclaimed ‘objectivity’ of scientists as their practices and results ‘disappear’ behind the cordon of commercial confidentiality (Rothman et al., 1996).
23 In addition to Roundup Ready™ soybeans, Monsanto have also patented GM tobacco, cotton, sugar beet, corn (maize), and canola (oilseed rape) seed. Ironically, Agracetus Inc. was awarded a patent granting rights to all forms of genetically engineered soybeans by the European Patent Office in March 1994, a patent that has been hotly challenged by Monsanto among other agri-biotechnology corporations (Stone, 1995).
24 Monsanto is actively (and successfully) prosecuting farmers, mainly in the US mid-west and Canadian prairies, whom it suspects of acquiring its herbicide or GMHT seed outside the terms of this contract. Pinkertons private investigation agency has been employed to secure evidence on its behalf (Washington Post,[Page 184]3/2/99 and 2/5/99; Independent on Sunday, 14/3/99). The logical trajectory of this monopoly impulse is harboured in the infamous ‘terminator technology’ owned by Monsanto which could be used to ‘switch off’ the germinal properties of Roundup Ready® seeds and effectively sterilize them to prevent ‘unauthorized’ use.
25 The anti-GM scientist Mae-Wan Ho (1999: 61) summarizes the theories of biological complexity which counter the reductivist logic of genetic determinism, and their practical consequence for genetic engineering, in terms of three counter-propositions. A gene does not determine a function, rather genes perform in a complex network in which their relationship to characteristics is non-linear and multidimensional. Genes and genomes are not stable and unchanging, rather they are dynamic and fluid, generating ‘adaptive’ mutations in particular environmental contexts. Genes do not stay where they are put, rather they ‘move’ within and between species, recombining in unintended ways. These propositions are now finding their way from the critical ‘fringes’ of the scientific community to the emerging orthodoxies of post-genomic research (see Sarkar, 1998).
26 Like other organophosphate pesticides, glyphosate's rate of environmental decomposition varies dramatically from the experimental in vitro conditions of the laboratory and the field test site, to the variable in vivo conditions of particular soils, hydrological environments and farming practices. Moreover, they have proved to be toxic to the nervous and immune systems of mammals (Raganarsdottir, 2000). Monsanto's successful applications in the USA, UK and Australia to triple the permissible level of glyphosate residues in its Roundup Ready™ soybeans from six to 20 parts per million (Nature Biotechnology (1997), 15: 1233) suggests that claimed reductions in volume of application will be tempered by increased intensity of application. The UK's Pesticide Safety Directorate report (1999) on GMHT crops concluded that ‘there is currently a lack of independent research to allow an accurate prediction of the potential impacts’ of GMHT technologies on pesticide use and its environmental consequences (executive summary, point 5).
27 Prior approval for the commercial or large-scale release of GMOs was first required in 1997. At this time, the Advisory Committee on Releases to the Environment (ACRE) was responsible for licensing experimental planting in the UK, while the Advisory Committee on Pesticides (ACP) was responsible for advising on the safety of pesticide products, usage and residues. English Nature, the statutory body responsible for nature conservation in England led the science/policy opposition to the failure of these advisory committees to address wildlife or biodiversity concerns within their remits. This opposition arose, at least in part, in response to Monsanto's efforts to secure a licence for field trials in Roundup Ready™ oil-seed rape (English Nature, 1998).
28 The main UK precedent for the licensing of a derivative transgenic food product at the time was the treatment of a tomato paste made from the GM Flavrsavr™ variety. This product was licensed by the Advisory Committee on Novel Foods and Processes (ACNFP) in 1997 and labelling was required by the Food Advisory Committee (FAC). It entered the UK marketplace clearly labelled as a GM product and caused little public outcry or consumer backlash as a result. Since then, the patent rights on Flavrsavr™ tomatoes have passed to Monsanto with its takeover of rival biotech company Calgene in 1997.
[Page 185]29 These advertisements were produced by the London-based agency Bartle, Bogle and Hegarty. They were subsequently condemned by the British Advertising Standards Agency for representing Monsanto's environmental claims about its GMHT products in ‘confusing’, ‘misleading’, ‘unproven’ and ‘wrong’ ways, and expressing the corporation's own opinion of transgenic engineering as an extension of traditional plant breeding methods as ‘accepted fact’, when it is a matter of dispute within the scientific community (Guardian, 1/3/99; Living Earth, 1999, 202: 8).
30 The Advisory Committee on Novel Foods and Processes relied on animal trials of Roundup Ready® soybeans lasting no more than a matter of months to satisfy their ‘test’ requirements for impacts on human health (Derek Burke, Chair of ACNFP, interviewed on BBC television's Panorama programme, 18/5/1999). The adequacy of animal analogues for ‘testing’ the toxicological effects of human foods is an acknowledged problem among OECD government scientists (New Scientist, 1999).
31 It is noteworthy that a subsequent study by the Advisory Committee on Animal Feeding Stuffs, which reports to the Food Standards Agency, found that ‘DNA fragments large enough to contain potentially functional genes survived processing in many of the samples [of animal feedstuffs] studied’ (Observer, 15/10/2000). Animal feeds are the primary destination of soya meal and UK retailers are currently extending their GM soya ban to their meat supply networks while the Food Standards Agency is pressing for the compulsory labelling of food derivatives from animals raised on GM feed.
32 It is a marketing strategy that Monsanto had used before with its rBHT (Bovine Growth Hormone), patented under the brand name Posilac®, where it fought against European (and US) efforts to separate rBHT milk and conventional milk and label products derived from hormone-treated milk. The corporation's rationale for its dogged and politically damaging resistance to the segregation and labelling of GMHT soybeans was economic. Labelling would ‘stigmatize’ the product and its derivatives, associating it with ‘risk’ in the public mind and segregation would permit this perception to find expression through market choice.
33 These included a Mori Poll in 1996 (on behalf of Greenpeace) and a widely leaked report by Stanley Greenberg for Monsanto that showed public opposition to GM crops rising from 38–50 per cent between 1997 and 1998 in the UK, and from 47–57 per cent among AB social classes (Ford, 2000: 77).
34 Unlike quality assurance systems, ‘product traceability’ is more closely allied to the certification practices of alternative food networks like organics or Fair-trade.
35 Major fast-food chains and local education authorities responsible for school meals joined food retailers and processors in banning GM ingredients. For a telling exposition of the US industry's position on labelling, see Miller H. (1999).
36 These include genetic ‘fingerprinting’ techniques that can detect modifications in soya products to a fraction of 1 per cent and the extension of current segregation practices (e.g. for beans of different protein or oil content) to non-GM soya with a minimal price premium (see Buckwell and Brookes, 1999).
37 It is important not to exaggerate this political gesture in view of the fact that 11 of the 13 members of ACRE were not eligible to renew their committee membership anyway.
[Page 186]38 One is reminded here of Rachel Carson's careful, passionate science and the way in which her opposition to the programmatic use of the pesticide DDT earned her personal and professional vilification by corporate and government scientists who questioned her scientific credentials as an ‘unmarried woman’ and ‘probable communist’ (Lear, 1997: 428–35).
1 Notable reworkings of the natural law tradition include those of Aquinas and Grotius, but Locke's work best epitomizes early modern tensions between notions of ‘common good’ and ‘individual good’ (see Tuck, 1979; Tully, 1993).
2 Contemporary writers in this Kantian tradition have modified their reliance on the impartiality of justice by recognizing that competent moral agents are contracted on unequal terms; a theme pursued most influentially by John Rawls (1971) in his ‘difference principle’, and by Will Kymlicka (1991) in his notion of the ‘pluralist contract’.
3 Persons in law can be non-individuals, for example states, corporations, unions etc. McHugh has argued that if the concept of the ‘security of the individual’ (central to human rights law) were extended from persons to human beings, this would contribute towards the realization of substantive equality (i.e. in terms of the material prerequisites for participating as equal members of a polity) (1992: 460).
4 It is no coincidence that the language of early women's struggles for political rights, notably in the writings of Mary Wollstonecraft, should borrow from those for the abolition of slavery in likening the status of wives to that of slaves (see Ferguson, 1992).
5 This is not to suggest that these are the only responses (for example, Habermasian critical theory is also notable) but rather that they have been the most influential in the sense of being translated into discourses beyond the academy.
6 Interestingly, Mouffe points to similar problems to those raised here with what she calls ‘a certain type of extreme postmodern fragmentation of the social’ (1995: 262) – but without identifying any alleged ‘extremists’.
7 See also Diprose's notion of ‘corporeal schema’ which takes up Merleau-Ponty's idea of the body's directional activity or ‘intentional arc’ (1994: 106) and the special issue of Hypatia on ‘feminism and the body’ (fall, 1991).
8 See also, Leder (1990a, 1990b) and Levin (1990).
9 The ethical standing of animals has been a matter of longstanding dispute in moral philosophy, well in advance of contemporary environmentalism. Particularly influential contributions include the Thomist legacy of Thomas Aquinas in the natural law tradition and the utilitarian legacy of Jeremy Bentham in the social contract tradition (see Midgley, 1983). For an excellent fictional rendition of these philosophical arguments see Coetzee's The lives of animals (1999).
10 A good example is the global network DAWN (Development with Women working for a New Era) which since 1984 has sought to articulate material connectivities between environmental, livelihood and health issues and the centrality of ‘third world’ women in this nexus (Braidotti et al., 1994).
[Page 187]11 Ansell-Pearson (1997) provides a useful account of Deleuze and Guattari's acknowledged debt to Bergson's philosophical account of creative evolution (1983/1907) and the biologist von Uexküll's contrapuntal conception of biological processes and forms (1992/1934) (see also Ingold, 1995a).
12 Obviously this is not to suggest that Latour is not passionate about his work. One has only to think of the title and style of his book about the unrealized blueprint for a rapid transport system in Paris – Aramis or the love of technology (1996), or his zealous efforts to ally science and science studies (1999a) against their caricatured enmity in the so-called ‘science wars’. But rather that his work is not passionate in the sense taken in this book from Game and Metcalf's Passionate sociology, namely that he ‘masterfully refuse[s] to place [himself] within the social life [he] studies’ (1996: 5). In so far as he positions himself beyond the academy at all it is by dissociation. For example, his aversion to ‘a conception of left-wing radicalism that has not yet been renewed as forcefully as science has been’ (1997b: xvii); or his repudiation of the misguided terms on which ‘green’ parties and movements have sought to put ‘nature’ on the political agenda (1999c).
13 Ingold's ‘weaving’/‘making’ variant of the Heideggerian distinction between ‘dwelling’ and ‘building’ purposefully rejects its insistence that human rationality and subjectivity mark an absolute break from the animal world (see also Glendinning, 1998: 73–4).
14 These transpecies infectivities were not limited to cattle and humans but have been recorded in increasing numbers in companion animals (notably cats) and zoo animals (notably deer), giving rise to the generic term TSEs (transpecies spongiform encephalopathies) (Ridley and Baker, 1998).
15 The most exhaustive account of the shifting sands of Government policy and scientific advice towards BSE-vCJD in the 1980s-1990s and assessment of the distribution of responsibility for its devastating failings is provided by the voluminous report of the Lord Phillips' enquiry into BSE (see BSE Inquiry, 1999 and associated website).
16 ‘Couplings’, like ‘cyborgs’, betoken a version of hybridity in which difference is prefigured in the alterity of already constituted kinds. By contrast, the emphasis in my account on the indeterminacy of difference draws on Bergson's bio-philosophy, particularly his notion of differentiation as an explosive ‘internal’ life force (1983/1907), subsequently taken up and reworked by Deleuze (1994/1968) (and with Guattari (1988/1980)). This distinction is important in understanding the contrast between, say, the approaches of Latour and Haraway to hybridity. For valuable discussion on these points, see Ansell-Pearson (1999: 33–69) and Hansen (2000b).
References[Page 188]Aboriginal Law Bulletin,1993. Speech of the Honourable Prime Minister, Paul Keating MP. Australian Launch of the International Year for the World's Indigenous People.Aboriginal Law Bulletin,3/61: 4–5.1988. Merleau-Ponty and the voice of the earth. Environmental Ethics,fall: 110–25.,1997. The spell of the sensuous.Pantheon Books, New York.,1977. Private property and the constitution.Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.,1990. The sexual politics of meat.Polity Press, Oxford.,AllaireG. and R.Boyer (eds), 1995. La grand transformation.INRA, Paris.(ALR) Australian Law Reports,1992. Mabo v. Queensland.Australian Law Journal,66: 408–99.American Soybean Association,1996. European response to GM soybeans. www.oilseeds.org/asa/news.htm1992. Cryptonormativism and double gestures: the politics of post-structuralism. Cultural Critique,Spring: 63–95.,1998. Property as a way of knowing on Evenki land in Arctic Siberia. In HannC. (ed.), Property relations: 64–84. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.,1997. A walk on the wildside: a critical geography of domestication.Progress in Human Geography,21/4: 463–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/030913297673999021,1999. Science and the savage: the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 1874–1900.Ecumene,6: 125–43.,2000. ‘The beast within’: race, humanity, and animality.Society and Space,18/3: 01–320.,1999. Genetic engineering, food and our environment.Green Books, Totnes.,1997. Viroid life. Perspectives on Nietzsche and the transhuman condition.Routledge, London.,1999. Germinal life. The difference and repetition of Deleuze.Routledge, London.,AppaduraiA. (ed.), 1986. The social life of things. Commodities in cultural perspective.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.1996. Modernity at large. Cultural dimensions of globalization.Minnesota University Press, Minneapolis, MN., [Page 189]1996. Regarding animals.Temple University Press, Philadelphia, PA.and ,1996. John Locke and America. The defence of English colonialism.Clarendon Press, Oxford. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198279679.001.0001,1999. Reading with Michel Serres. An encounter with time.SUNY Press, Albany, NY.,1999. Representation matters: the 1967 referendum and citizenship. In PetersonN. and W.Sanders (eds), Citizenship and indigenous Australians: 118–40. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.and ,1998. Les enjeux de la biodiversité.Economica, Paris.and ,1972. Cruelty and civilization. The Roman games.Routledge, London.,1999. (Member of Advisory Commission on Novel Foods and Processes) speaking on Panorama documentary on the GM food controversy, 18/5/99.BBC, London.,1996. Plants, people and culture. The science of ethnobotany.Scientific American Library, New York.and ,1993. Glycine max and wild soybean relatives. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter94: 1–3. FAO/IBPGR, Rome.et al.,1998. Getting real: performativity, materiality and technoscientific practices. Differences,10/2.,1999. Agential realism. Feminist interventions in understanding scientific practices. In BiagioliM. (ed.), The Science Studies Reader: 1–11. Routledge, London.,Barnes, T. and J.Duncan (eds), 1992. Writing worlds. Discourse, text and metaphor in the representation of landscape.Routledge, London.BarrèreM. (ed.), 1992. Terre patrimoine commun.La Décoverte/Association Descartes, Paris.1993. The source, content and proof of Native Title at common law. In BartlettR. (ed.), Resource development and aboriginal land rights in Australia: 35–60. The Centre for Commercial and Resources Law, The University of Western Australia and Murdoch University, Perth, WA.,2000 (,1st edition 1972). Steps to an ecology of mind.Chicago University Press, Chicago, IL.1997. The behavioural and physiological effects of culling red deer.National Trust, London.,1994. Retaining reality: some practical problems with objects as property. Man, 29/4: 631–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2804346,1992. Mortality, immortality and other life strategies.Polity Press, Cambridge.,1996. Life in fragments.Polity Press, Cambridge.,1989. The risk society.Sage, London.,1997. Consuming geographies.Routledge, London.and ,2000. Historical memory, global movements and violence: Paul Gilroy and Arjun Appadurai in conversation. In BellV. (ed.), Performativity and belonging: 21–40. Sage, London.,1987. General and concrete others. In BenhabibS. and D.Cornell (eds), Feminism as critique: 77–96. Polity Press, Cambridge.,1993. Natural relations. Ecology, animal rights and social justice.Verso, London., [Page 190]BentonT. (ed.), 1996. The greening of Marxism.Guilford Press, New York.1998. Differences in medicine: Unravelling practices, techniques and bodies.Duke University Press, Durham, NC.and ,1991. La protection des innnovations biologiques. Une étude de droit comparé.Larcier, Brussels.,1983 (1907 in French). Creative evolution (English trans. A.Mitchell). University Press of America, Lanham, MD.,1986. Breeders rights and patenting life forms. Nature,322/August: 785–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/322785a0and ,1998. The idea of indigenous people. Current Anthropology,39: 187–91.,1994. The location of culture.Routledge, London.,1997. The world and the home. In McClintockA., A.Mufti and E.Shohat (eds), Dangerous liaisons. Gender, nation and postcolonial perspectives: 445–55. Minnesota University Press, Minneapolis, MN.,1993. Earth Muse: feminism, nature and art.Temple University Press, Philadelphia, PA.,1996. Object-ions: from technological determinism towards geographies of relations.Society and Space,14: 635–57.,2001. In the belly of the monster: Frankenstein, food, factishes, and fiction. In KitchenR. and J.Kneale (eds), The spaces of science-fiction.Routledge, London.,2000. Some new instructions for travellers: the geography of Bruno Latour and Michel Serres. In CrangM. and N.Thrift (eds), Thinking space: 281–301. Routledge, London.and ,1990. The incarceration of wildness: wilderness areas as prisons.Environmental Ethics,12: 3–26.,1987. The social construction of nature: theoretical approaches to the history of environmental problems.Environmental Review,11: 255–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3984134,1998. Regulation as facilitation: negotiating the genetic revolution.Modern Law Review,61/5: 49–88.,1803 (1st published 1765). Commentaries on the laws of England (2 volumes). Strachan, London.,1994. Law, space and the geographies of power.The Guilford Press, New York.,BlomleyN., D.Delaney and R.Ford (eds), 2001. The legal geographies reader.Basil Blackwell, Oxford.1974. On development: the biology of form.Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.,1999. Discourse formations and constellations of conflict: participation in the German debate on genetically altered plants. In O'MahonyP. (ed.), Nature, risk and responsibility. Discourses of biotechnology: 130–46. Macmillan, Basingstoke.,1997. Scientific and public perception of plant genetic manipulation – a critical review.Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences,16/3: 231–51.,1999. Sorting things out. Classification and its consequences.MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.and ,(BPP) British Parliamentary Papers,1836–37. Report and minutes of evidence of the House of Commons Select Committee on Aborigines (British Settlements).[Page 191]1994. Women, the environment and sustainable development. Towards a theoretical synthesis. ZedBooks, London., et al.,BraunB. and N.Castree (eds), 1998. Remaking reality. Nature at the millennium.Routledge, London.1991. Sharing the country.Penguin Australia, Ringwood, Victoria.,BromleyD. (ed.), 1993. Making the commons work.Institute of Contemporary Studies, San Francisco, CA.1999. Perpetuum mobile: substance, force and the sociology of translation. In LawJ. and J.Hassard (eds), ANT and after: 26–50. Basil Blackwell, Oxford.and ,BSE Inquiry,1999. The BSE Inquiry (16 volumes). HM Stationary Office, London. See also www.bse.org.uk1997. The question of the body in Deleuze and Guattari: or, what can a body do?Body & Society,3/3: 73–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1357034X97003003004,1998. The global commons. An introduction.Earthscan, London.,1991. Natural law. In SingerP. (ed.), A companion to ethics: 161–74. Basil Blackwell, Oxford.,1999. The cost of segregation of GM and non-GM crops.Wye College, University of London.and ,1995. The environmental imagination.Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.,1998. The ‘yuk’ factor. In GriffithsS. and J.Wallace (eds), Consuming passions: 48–57. Mandolin, Manchester.,1991. Plants, power and profit. Social, economic and ethical consequences of the new biotechnologies.Basil Blackwell, Oxford., , and ,1979. Elements of an environmental ethic: moral considerablity and the biotic community.Environmental Ethics,1: 71–81.,1989. In defence of the land ethic: essays on environmental philosophy.State University of New York Press, Albany, NY.,1986. Some elements of a sociology of translation: domestication of the scallops and fishermen of St Brieuc Bay. In J.Law (ed.), Power, action, belief: a new sociology of knowledge?RKP, London.,1992. Techno-economic networks and irreversibility. In LawJ. (ed.), A sociology of monsters: 196–229. Routledge, London.,CallonM. (ed.), 1998. Introduction to The laws of markets: 1–57. Basil Blackwell, Oxford.1981. Unscrewing the big leviathan. In Knorr-CetinaK. and A.Cicourel (eds), Advances in social theory and methodology: 83–103. RKP, London.and ,1995. Agency and the hybrid collectif.South Atlantic Quarterly,94/2: 481–507.and ,1996. Machine and organism. In KwinterJ. and P.Crary (eds), Incorporations: 45–68. Zone Books, New York.,1991. The cunning of history: empire, identity and feminist theory in the flesh.Women and Politics,12/2: 1–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J014v12n02_01,2000. Cultivating ethos through the body.Human Studies,23: 23–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005551410889,1987. The road to Botany Bay.Faber and Faber, London.,1998. The fate of place. A philosophical history.University of California Press, Berkeley, CA., [Page 192]1996. Birds, mice and geography: Marxisms and dialectics.Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers,21/2: 342–62.,CavalieriP. and P.Singer (eds), 1993. The great ape project: equality beyond humanity.The Fourth Estate, London.(CBD), Convention on Biological Diversity,1992. United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi.1988 (1984). The practice of everyday life (trans. S.Rendall). University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.,1985. Montaigne's ‘Of Cannibals’: the savage ‘I’. In Heterologies: discourse on the other (trans. B.Massumi). University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN.,1998. The practice of everyday life. Volume 2: Living and Cooking (trans. T.Tomasik). University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN., and ,1991 (1911). Natural Law and the rise of economic individualism in England. Reprinted In BlaugM. (ed.), Pre-classical economists,Vol. 1. Edward Egar, Aldershot.,1993. The great wild hope. In BennettJ. and W.Chaloupka (eds), In the nature of things. Language, politics and the environment: 3–24. Minnesota University Press, Minneapolis, MN.and ,1924. Trade routes and commerce in the Roman empire.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.,1987. The songlines.Jonathan Cape, London.,1989. Postmodern environmental ethics: ethics as bioregional narrative.Environmental Ethics,11/2: 117–34.,(CITES) Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, 1997a. Document 10.22, Cooperation/synergy with other conservation conventions and agencies. 10th meeting of the Parties, 9–20 June, Harare.(CITES) Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, 1997b. Summary report 2nd session Committee Meeting, 11 June; section XIV, 31. 10th meeting of the Parties, 9–20 June, Harare.1997. Panic ecology. Nature in the age of superconductivity.Theory, Culture and Society,14/1: 77–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026327697014001005,2001. Maconochie's experiment.John Murray Publishers, Edinburgh.,(CLR) Commonwealth Law Reports,1996. Wik v. Queensland. Commonwealth Law Reports,187.Clutton-BrockJ. (ed.), 1989. The walking larder, patterns of domestication, pastoralism and predation.Unwin & Hyman, London.1999. The lives of animals.Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.,1997. Do androids pulverise tiger bones to use as aphrodisiacs? In TaylorP, S.Halfron and P.Edwards (eds), Changing life. Genomes, ecologies, bodies, commodities: 175–95. Minnesota University Press, Minneapolis, MN.,1993. Eco-tones and environmental ethics. In BennettJ. and W.Chaloupka (eds), In the nature of things: 226–49. Minnesota University Press, Minneapolis, MN.,1985a. Expression in plants of a mutant aroA gene from Salmonella typhimurium confers tolerance to glyphosate. Nature,317: 741–4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/317741a0, , , , and ,1985b. Expression in plants of a bacterial gene coding for glyphosate resistance. In ZaitlinM., P.Day and A.Hollaender (eds), Biotechnology in plant science. Relevance to agriculture in the eighties: 329–37. Academic Press, Orlando, FL., , , , and , [Page 193]Competition Commission,2000. Report of enquiry into UK supermarkets. Department of Trade and Industry. http://www.competition-commission.gov.uk/446.htm1997. Corporeal flows. The immune system, global economies of food and implications for health.The Ecologist,27/3: 107–11.and ,1997. Ecopolitics. The environment in post-structuralist thought.Routledge, London.,Consumers Association,1999. Written evidence to the House of Lords European Select Committee on European Communities. Second report on the regulation of genetic modification in agriculture.http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld199899/ldselect/ldeucom/11/11we131998a. The world on a plate. Journal of Material Culture,1/2: 131–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/135918359600100201and ,1998b. Biography and geography. Consumer understandings of the origins of foods. British Food Journal,100/3: 162–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00070709810207522and ,1991. Genes for sustainable development. In World Rainforest Movement, Biodiversity: social and ecological perspectives: 105–23. Zed Books, London.,1993. The international undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources.Review of European Community and International Environmental Law,2/2: 158–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9388.1993.tb00107.x,1985. Towards a post-modern reconstruction of ethics.University of Pennsylvania Law Review,133: 291–380. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3312057,1999. Intellectual property: patents, copyright, trademarks and allied rights.Sweet and Maxwell, London.,1995. Sovereign and property rights over plant genetic resources. Agriculture and Human Values, 12/4: 58–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02218567,1990. Environmental thought and action: pre-modern and postmodern.Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers,15/3: 344–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/622676,1995. Systematics, biological knowledge and environmental conservation.Biodiversity and Conservation,4: 183–205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00137784,1985. No tragedy of the commons.Environmental Ethics,7: 49–61.,(CPGR) Commission on Plant Genetic Resources,1987a. Legal status of base and active collections of PGR. Item 5, Provisional agenda, 2nd session (16–20 March). CPGR/87/5: 4–9. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.(CPGR) Commission on Plant Genetic Resources,1987b. Study on legal arrangements with a view to the possible establishment of an international network of base collections in genebanks under the auspices or jurisdiction of FAO. Item 6, Provisional agenda, 2nd session (16–20 March). CPGR/87/6. FAO, Rome.(CPGR) Commission on Plant Genetic Resources,1993. Progress report on the global system for the conservation and utilisation of plant genetic resources. 5th session of the CPGR (19–23) April. CPGR/93/5. FAO, Rome.(CPGR) Commission on Plant Genetic Resources,1994a. The international network of ex situ germplasm collections: progress report. 9th session of Working Group of the CPGR (11–12 May). CPGR/94/WG9/6. FAO, Rome.(CPGR) Commission on Plant Genetic Resources,1994b. Survey of existing data on ex situ collections of PGR for food and agriculture. 1st extraordinary session of the CPGR (7–11 November). CPGR-Ex1/94/5/Annex. FAO, Rome.[Page 194](CPGR) Commission on Plant Genetic Resources,1994c. Revision of the International Undertaking. Stage 1: integration of the annexes and harmonization with the Convention on Biological Diversity. 1st extraordinary session of the CPGR (7–11 November). CPGR-Ex1/94/4/Alt. FAO, Rome.1995. The urgency of building global capacity for biodiversity science.Biodiversity and Conservation,4: 463–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00056337,CrangM. and N.Thrift (eds), 2000. Thinking space.Routledge, London.1993. An interview with Bruno Latour.Configurations,1/2: 247–268. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/con.1993.0012,Crocodile Specialist Group,1997a. The story of the crocodile specialist group.http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/natsci/herpetology/crocs/crocsb.htmCrocodile Specialist Group,1997b. Crocodile action plan 08.http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/natsci/herpetology/crocs/crocsb.htm1983. Changes in the land: Indians, colonists and the ecology of New England.Hill and Wang, New York.,1995. The trouble with wilderness, or getting back to the wrong nature. In Uncommon ground: 69–90. W.W. Norton & Co., New York.,CrononW. (ed.), 1995. Uncommon ground. Toward reinventing nature.W.W. Norton & Co., New York.Crucible Group (The),1994. People, plants and patents.International Development Research Center, Ottawa, Canada.1998. Colonial encounters in post-colonial contexts: patenting indigenous DNA and the Human Genome project.Critique of Anthropology,18: 205–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0308275X9801800205,1991. Towards an ecological ethic of care.Hypatia,6/1: 60–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1527-2001.1991.tb00209.x,1997. Elephants, biodiversity and complexity: Amboseli National Park, Kenya. Unpublished manuscript presented at Actor Network Theory conference, University of Lancaster, September.,1999. Exploiting the archive: and the animals came in two by two, 16mm, CD-ROM and BetaSp.Area,31/1: 49–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4762.1999.tb00170.x,2001. Making nature/marking humans: law as a site of (cultural) production.Annals of the Association of American Geographers,91/3: 487–503. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/0004-5608.00255,1991. Yield evaluation of a glyphosate resistant soybean line after treatment with glyphosate.Crop Science,35: 1461–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1995.0011183X003500050033xet al. (32 co-authors),1990 (1969 in French). The logic of sense (trans. M.Lester and C.Stivale). Athlone Press, London.,1993. Rhizome versus trees. In BoundasC. (ed.), The Deleuze reader,Columbia University Press, New York.,1994 (1968 in French). Difference and repetition (trans. P.Patton). Athlone Press, London.,1995 (1990 in French). Negotiations (trans. M.Joughin). Columbia University Press, New York.,1988 (1980 in French). A thousand plateaus. Capitalism and schizophrenia (trans. B.Massumi). Athlone Press, London.and ,1998. Science, social constructivism and nature. In CastreeN. and B.Willems-Braun (eds), Remaking reality. Nature at the millennium: 173–93. Routledge, London.,der DerianJ. and M.Shapiro (eds), 1989. International/intertextual relations. Postmodern readings of world politics.Lexington Books, Lexington, MA.[Page 195]1991. ‘Eating well’, or the calculation of the subject. An interview with Jacques Derrida. In CadavaE., P.Connor, and J.-L.Nancy (eds), Who comes after the subject: 96–119. Routledge, London.,DescolaP. and G.Palsson (eds), 1996. Nature and society: anthropological perspectives.Routledge, London. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/97802034510691996. Reconstructing nature.Routledge, London.,1994. The bodies of women. Ethics, embodiment and sexual difference.Routledge, London.,DobsonA. and D.Lucardie (eds), 1995. The politics of nature.Routledge, London.1994. Towards the exercise of indigenous rights: policy, power and self-determination.Race and Class,35/4: 65–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030639689403500408,DolinsF. (ed.), 1999. Attitudes to animals. Views on animal welfare.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.1989. The Muscovy duck.A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam.,1993. Animal rights and feminist theory. In GaardG. (ed.), Ecofeminism. Women, animals, nature: 167–94. Temple University Press, Philadelphia, PA.,1966. Purity and danger.Routledge & Kegan Paul, London. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203361832,1997. On beyond living. Rhetorical transformations of the life sciences.Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.,1996. A philosophy of intellectual property.Dartmouth Press, Alder-shot.,2000. Nature's government. Science, imperial Britain, and the ‘improvement’ of the world.Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.,1985. Power, space and the body: a critical assessment of Foucault'sDiscipline and punish. Society and Space,10: 23–40.,1992. Geography's empire: histories of geographical knowledge.Society and Space:10: 23–40.,1990. Green reason: communicative ethics for the biosphere.Environmental Ethics,12: 195–210.,1998. Written evidence to the House of Lords Select Committee on European Communities. Second report on the regulation of genetic modification in agriculture.www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld199899/ldselect/ldeucom/11/8121501.htm,(EAC) Environmental Audit Committee,1999. Genetically Modified Organisms and the environment: co-ordination of Government policy. Vol. 1: Report and proceedings, May 1999; Vol. 2: Evidence, May 1999. House of Commons, HC 384 – I and II.1995. ISIS database: an evaluation of records essential for captive management.Zoo Biology,14: 493–508. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/zoo.1430140602, and ,Earthwatch,1997. Expeditions Brochure.Earthwatch, Boston, MA.Earthwatch Institute,1998. http://www.earthwatch.org1991. The (body) politics of feminist theory.Phoebe,3/2: 56–65.,1994. Tenure, allodialism and indigenous rights at common law: English, United States and Australian land law compared after Mabo v. Queensland. The Anglo-American Law Review,23 (Oct/Dec): 397–434.,1999. Living dangerously with Bruno Latour in a hybrid world.Theory, Culture and Society,16/4: 1–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/02632769922050692, [Page 196]1998. Race, place and the bounds of humanity.Society and Animals,6/2: 183–202. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853098X00140, and ,1995. Reinventing Darwin.John Wiley, New York.,(ENDS) Environmental Data Services,1999. Sainsburys and M&S in ‘GM-free’ retailer consortium. ENDS report, 290: 33.English Nature,1998. Written evidence to the House of Lords Select Committee on European Communities. Second report on the regulation of genetic modification in agriculture.http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld199899/ldselect/ldeucom/11/11we13Environmental History,1997. Commentaries on Cronon's essay ‘The trouble with wilderness’, and author's response.Environmental History,1/1: 29–55.1979. Possession as the root of title.Georgia Law Review,13: 1197–243.,1995. Encountering development. The making and unmaking of the Third World.Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.,(ESRC) Economic and Social Research Council,1999. The politics of GM food. Risk science and public trust. ESRC Global Environmental Change Programme Special Briefing no. 5.European Community,1998. Council regulation 1139/98 concerning the compulsory indication on the labelling of certain foodstuffs produced from genetically modified organisms. Official Journal of the European Communities,L159, 3 June: 4.1998. Feeding the ten billion: plants and population growth.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.2000. Tragedy and hype: the third Soy symposium. www.nexusmagazine.comand ,(FAO) Food and Agriculture Organization,1979. Verbatim proceedings of the 8th meeting of Commission II. 20th session of FAO conference (10–28 November). C/79/II/PV/8: 177). FAO, Rome.(FAO) Food and Agriculture Organization,1983a. Report of 22nd session of FAO Conference (5–23 November). C/83/rep. Annex to resolution 8/83. FAO, Rome.(FAO) Food and Agriculture Organization,1983b. Verbatim proceedings of the 15th meeting of Commission II. 22nd session of FAO conference (5–23 November). C/83/II/PV/15. FAO, Rome.(FAO) Food and Agriculture Organization,1983c. Proposal for the establishment of an international genebank and preparation of a draft international treaty for PGR. 7th session of Committee on Agriculture (21–30 March). CAOG/83/10. FAO, Rome.(FAO) Food and Agriculture Organization,1985a. Verbatim proceedings of the 11th meeting of Commission II. 23rd session of FAO conference (9–28 November). C/85/II/PV/11. FAO, Rome.(FAO) Food and Agriculture Organization,1985b. Verbatim proceedings of the 12th meeting of Commission II. 23rd session of FAO conference (9–28 November). C/85/II/PV/11. FAO, Rome.(FAO) Food and Agriculture Organization,1988. Report of the 88th session of the FAO Council (4–7 November). CL/88/rep/1. FAO, Rome.(FAO) Food and Agriculture Organization,1989a. Report of the 25th session of the FAO Conference (11–30 November). C/89/rep. FAO, Rome.(FAO) Food and Agriculture Organization,1989b. Verbatim proceedings of the 8th meeting of Commission I. 25th session of FAO Conference (11–29 November). C/89/I/PV/8. FAO, Rome.[Page 197](FAO) Food and Agriculture Organization,1991a. Report of the 26th session of FAO conference (9–27 November). C/91/rep. FAO, Rome.(FAO) Food and Agriculture Organization,1991b. Verbatim proceedings of the 8th meeting of Commission I. 26th session of FAO Conference (9–27 November). C/91/I/PV/8. FAO, Rome.(FAO) Food and Agriculture Organization,1993. Harvesting nature's diversity. Information Division, FAO, Rome.FAO/WHO (World Health Organization),1996. Joint expert consultation on Biotechnology and food safety.FAO, Rome.1992. Mary Wollstonecraft and the problematic of slavery.Feminist Review,82: 102–24.,1992. Le nouvel ordre écologique.Grasset, Paris.,1997. Genetically modified or not? The answer is the consumers. www.europa.int/en/comm/dg06/com/htmfiles/welcome.htm,1991. Meat. A natural symbol.Routledge, London.,1996. Consumption in the age of affluence: the world of food.Routledge, London. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203011461, and ,2001 (1986 in French)In the name of humanity.Pimlico, London.,1992. The mythology of modern law.Routledge, London.,1989. The matter of nature.Antipode,21/2: 106–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8330.1989.tb00183.x,1998. Incorporating nature: environmental narratives and the reproduction of food. In CastreeN. and B.Willems-Braun (eds), Remaking reality. Nature at the millennium: 194–220. Routledge, London.and ,1998. Biodiversity: local commons or global commodities. In GoldmanM. (ed.), Privatizing nature: 144–66. Pluto Press, London.,Food and Drink Federation,1998. Supplementary memorandum submitted in evidence to the House of Lords Select Committee on European Communities Second report on Genetic Modification.http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld199899/ldselect/ldeucom/11/11we57.htm2000. The future of food.Thames and Hudson, London.,1981. Earth First! The Progressive,45: 40–42. Reprinted In ListP. (ed.), 1993. Radical environmentalism: 187–92. Wadsworth, Belmont, CA.,1973. The order of things.Vintage, New York.,1986. Of other spaces.Diacritics,16/1: 22–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/464648,1990. Shattering. Food politics, and the loss of genetic diversity.The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.and ,1990. Towards a transpersonal ecology.Shambhala Publications, London.,FrankelO. and E.Bennett (eds), 1970. Genetic resources in plants.International Biological Programme, London.1972. Classification of the animal kingdom: an illustrated introduction.Hodder and Stoughton, Sevenoaks, Kent.,1981. Manufacturing green gold: capital, labour and technology in the lettuce industry.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge., and , [Page 198]1989. Feminism and modern friendship: dislocating the community.Ethics,99: 275–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/293066,1994. Conceptualising in situ conservation of landraces. In KrattigerA (ed.), Widening perspectives on biodiversity:263–276. IUCN, Switzerland.,2001. The politics of stolen time. In MayJ. and N.Thrift (eds), Timespace. Geographies of Temporality: 38–56. Routledge, London.,1989. Essentially Speaking: Feminism, nature and difference.Routledge, London.,1997. Blood in the arena: the spectacle of Roman power.University of Texas Press, Austin, TX.,1996. Passionate sociology.Sage, London.and ,1995. Patents, morality and DNA: should there be intellectual property protection of the human genome project?Medical Law International,1: 321–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/096853329500100401, and ,1995. Uncanny Australia.Ecumene,2: 171–83.and ,1998. Uncanny Australia. Sacredness and identity in a postcolonial nation.University of Melbourne Press, Melbourne.and ,1962. Animal Geography.Heinemann, London.,1992. South of the west. Post colonialism and the narrative construction of Australia.Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN.,1996. The end of capitalism (as we knew it).Basil Blackwell, Oxford.,1991. Modernity and self-identity.Polity Press, Oxford.,1982. In a different voice.Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.,1967. Traces on the Rhodian Shore. Nature and culture in western thought from ancient times to the end of the eighteenth century.University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.,1998. On being with others.Routledge, London.,1992. Private and public. Individuals, households and body politic in Locke and Hutcheson.Routledge, London.,GoldmanM. (ed.), 1998. Privatizing nature: political struggles for the global commons.Pluto Press, London.1999. Agro-food studies in the ‘age of ecology’: nature, corporeality, bio-politics.Sociologia Ruralis,39/1: 17–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9523.00091,1987. From farming to biotechnology: a theory of agro-industrial development.Basil Blackwell, Oxford., and ,1991. Eating law: commons, common land, common law.Journal of Legal History,12: 246–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01440369108531041,1994. Politics, ethics and the legality of the contingent. In DouzinasC., P.Goodrich and Y.Hachamovitch (eds), Politics, postmodernism and critical legal studies: 1–34. Routledge, London., and ,1994. How the leopard changed its spots.Phoenix, London.,1992. Earth in balance: ecology and the human spirit.Houghton Miffin, Boston, MA.,GottliebR. (ed.), 1997. The ecological community.Routledge, London.1998. Governing molecules. The discursive politics of genetic engineering in Europe and the United States.The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA., [Page 199]Graves-BrownP. (ed.), 2000. Matter, materiality and modern culture.Routledge, London.1991. Marvellous possessions. The wonder of the new world.University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.,1986. The archaeology of the Roman economy.Batsford, London.,1994. Geographical imaginations.Basil Blackwell, Oxford.,1992. Animal minds.Chicago University Press, Chicago, IL.,GriffithsS. and J.Wallace (eds), 1998. Consuming passions: food in the age of anxiety.Mandolin, Manchester.1986. Philosophy, subjectivity and the body. Kristeva and Irigaray. In PatemanC. and E.Gross (eds), Feminist Challenges: 125–43. Allen and Unwin, Sydney.,1994. Higher superstition: the academic left and its quarrels with science.Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.and ,1989. Sexual subversions.Allen and Unwin, Sydney.,1994. Volatile bodies: toward a corporeal feminism.Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN.,1995. Green imperialism. Colonial expansion, tropical island edens and the origins of environmentalism 1600–1860.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.,1997. Uncertain world: Genetically Modified organisms, food and public attitudes in Britain.Centre for the Study of Environmental Change, Lancaster University, Lancaster., , and ,1998. Reproducing Yosemite: Olmsted, environmentalism, and the nature of aesthetic agency.Cultural Studies,12/3: 332–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/095023898335456,1997. ‘Wilderness’ and the multiple layers of environmental thought.Environment and History,3/2: 129–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.3197/096734097779555935,HalberstamJ. and I.Livingston (eds), 1995. Posthuman bodies.Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN.1997. Taming the beast: animality in Wedekind and Nietzsche. In HamJ. and M.Senior (eds), Animal acts: 145–64. Routledge, London.,HamJ. and M.Senior (eds), 1997. Animal acts. Configuring the human in western history.Routledge, London.1993. Who owns dinner? Evolving legal mechanisms for ownership of plant genetic resources.Tulsa Law Journal,28: 587–657.,HampsonF. and J.Reppy (eds), 1996. Earthly goods. Environmental change and social justice.Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.1992. Plant evolution and the origin of crop species.Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.,HannC. (ed.), 1998. Property relations. Renewing the anthropological tradition.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.1995. Environmental sociology.Routledge, London.,Hansard,1993a. Native Title Bill. Commonwealth of Australia Parliamentary debates. Weekly Hansard, House of Representatives. (16–18 & 22–25 November). Commonwealth Government Printer, Canberra, Australia.Hansard,1993b. Native Title Bill. Commonwealth of Australia Parliamentary debates. Weekly Hansard, Senate. (6–9 November). Commonwealth Government Printer, Canberra, Australia.[Page 200]Hansard,1993c. Native Title Bill. Commonwealth of Australia Parliamentary debates. Daily Hansards, Senate. (14–17 & 20 December). Commonwealth Government Printer, Canberra, Australia.2000a. Embodying technesis. Technology beyond writing.University of Michigan Press, Michigan, MI.,2000b. Becoming as creative involution? Contextualizing Deleuze and Guattari's biophilosophy. Postmodern Culture,11/1: 1–42.,1987. Soybean.National Geographic,172: 67–91.,1985. Manifesto for cyborgs: science, technology and socialist feminism in the 1980s.Socialist review,80: 65–108.,1989. Primate visions. Gender, race and nature in the world of modern science.Routledge Chapman and Hall, London.,1991a. Situated knowledges: the science question in feminism and the privilege of partial perspective. In Simians, cyborgs and women. The reinvention of Nature: 183–202. Free Association Books, San Francisco, CA.,1991b. Simians, cyborgs, and women. The reinvention of nature.Free Association Books, London.,1992. Otherworldly conversations; terran topics; local terms.Science as Culture,3/1: 64–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09505439209526336,1993. The promises of Monsters: a regenerative politics for Inappropriate/d Others. In GrossbergL., C.Nelson and P.Treichler (eds), Cultural Studies: 295–337. Routledge, London.,1995. Nature, politics and possibilities: a debate and discussion with David Harvey and Donna Haraway.Society and Space,13: 507–27.,1997. Modest witness@ second millennium. FemaleMan meets Onco-Mouse.Routledge, London.,2000. How like a leaf. An interview with T. Goodeve.Routledge, London.,1968. The tragedy of the commons.Science,162: 1243–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.162.3859.1243,2000. Who's misunderstanding whom: science, society and the media?ESRC, Swindon. http://www.esrc.ac.uk,1994. Identifying genetic resources and their origin: the capabilities of modern biochemical and legal systems. CPGR, Background study paper no. 4. FAO, Rome., and ,1993. An apprenticeship in philosophy. Gilles Deleuze.University College London Press, London.,1971. Agricultural origins: centers and noncenters. Science, 174: 468–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.174.4008.468,1975. Our vanishing genetic resources.Science,188: 618–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.188.4188.617,1996. Justice, nature and the geography of difference.Basil Blackwell, Oxford.,1995. Searching for common ground. In SouléM. and G.Lease (eds), Reinventing nature?: 47–64. Island Press, Washington, DC.,1999. How we became post-human.University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.,1997. Contested commodities: the moral landscape of modernist regimes.Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute,3: 451–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3034762and ,1993. Materialist feminism and the politics of discourse.Routledge, London., [Page 201]1997a. The badlands of modernity: heterotopias and social ordering.Routledge, London. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203428870,1997b. Museum topology, the will to connect. Journal of Material Culture,2/2: 199–218. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/135918359700200203,1997c. In place of geometry: the materiality of place. In HetheringtonK. and R.Munro (eds), Ideas of difference: social spaces and the labour of division: 183–99. Basil Blackwell, Oxford.,2000. Social order and the blank figure.Society and Space,18: 169–84.and ,1988. Production of Transgenic soybean plants using Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer. Bio/Technology,6: 915–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nbt0888-915, , , , , , , , and ,1999. Entangled humans. In PhiloC., P.Routledge and J.Sharp (eds), Entanglements of power: 219–7. Routledge, London.,2001. Indeterminacy indecisions – science, policy and politics in the BSE crisis.Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers,26/2: 182–204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tran.2001.26.issue-2,1997. Is the legume nodule a modified root or stem or an organsui generis? Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences,16/4: 361–92.and ,1999 (,2nd edition). Genetic engineering. Dream or nightmare?Gateway, Dublin.1998. Fatal flaws in food safety assessment. Critique of the Joint FAO-WHO Biotechnology and Food Safety Report.Environmental and Nutritional Interactions,2: 51–84.and ,1985 (1st published 1651). Leviathan.Penguin, Harmondsworth. HobhouseH., 1999 (,2nd edition). Seeds of change. Six seeds that transformed mankind.Macmillan, London.1996. The woman and the ape.Picador, London.,1961. Ownership. In GuestA.G. (ed.), Oxford essays in jurisprudence: first series.Oxford University Press, Oxford.,1990. Third world diva girls. In Yearning: race, gender and cultural politics: 89–102. Turnaround, London.,House of Lords Select Committee on European Communities,1999. Second report on the regulation of genetic modification in agriculture.http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld199899/ldselect/ldeucom1994. Pan's travail. Environmental problems of the ancient Greeks and Romans.Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.,1990. The spontaneous hand of nature. In HulmeP. and L.Jordanova (eds), The enlightenment and its shadows: 18–32. Routledge, London.,1983. Introduction of soybean to North America by Samuel Bowen in 1765. Economic Botany, 37/4: 373. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02904196and ,1984. The needs of strangers.Chatto and Windus, London.,ILDIS,2000. International Legume Database and Information Service websitehttp://www/ildis.org/1986. The appropriation of nature. Essays on human ecology and social relations.Manchester University Press, Manchester.,1988a. Introduction to What is an animal?Routledge, London.(ed.),1988b. The animal in the study of humanity. In T.Ingold (ed.), What is an animal?: 84–99. Routledge, London.,1989. An anthropologist looks at biology. Man (N.S.), 25: 208–29., [Page 202]1993. Globes and spheres: the topology of environmentalism. In MiltonK. (ed.), Environmentalism. The view from anthropology:31–42. Routledge, London. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203449653,1995a. Building, dwelling, living: how animals and people make themselves at home in the world. In StrathernM. (ed.), Shifting contexts. Transformations in anthropological knowledge: 57–80. Routledge, London. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203450901,1995b. ‘People like us’: the concept of the anatomically modern human. Cultural Dynamics,7/2: 187–214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/092137409500700202,2000a. The perception of the environment. Essays in livelihood, dwelling and skill.Routledge, London. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203466025,2000b. Making culture and weaving the world. In Graves-BrownP. (ed.), Matter, materiality and modern culture: 50–71. Routledge, London.,Institute of Food Research,2000. Information sheet on soya.http://www.ifrn.bbsrc.ac.uk/public.FoodInfoSheets/soya.html1999. The forgetting of air (in Martin Heidegger) (trans. M.Mader). Athlone Press, London.,ISAAA,1998. Global review of commercialised transgenic crops. ISAAA Briefing no. 8 (author C. James). Ithaca, NY.1999. Commodity cultures: the traffic in things.Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers,24/1: 95–108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0020-2754.1999.00095.x,1995. Edge of empire.Routledge, London.,JardineN., J.Secord and E.Spary (eds), 1996. Cultures of natural history.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.1997. Biodiversity and conservation.Routledge, London.,1994. International trade in reptile skins: a review and analysis of the main consumer markets, 1983–91. Traffic International, Cambridge.and ,1937. Animals for show and pleasure in ancient Rome.Manchester University Press, Manchester.,JohnsonG. and M.Smith (eds), 1990. Ontology and alterity in Merleau-Ponty.Northwestern University Press, Evanston, IL.JonesG. (ed.), 1972. Introduction to The sovereignity of the law. Selections from Blackstone's commentaries on the laws of England.Macmillan, London.1989. The gene hunters. Biotechnology and the scramble for seeds. ZedBooks, London.,1988 (1905). Metamorphosis.Penguin, Harmondsworth.,KaufmanL. and K.Mallory (eds), 1993 (2nd edition). The last extinction.The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.1983. A feeling for the organism: the life and work of Barbara McClintock.W.H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco, CA.,1990. The human measure.Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.,1999. Using Foucault's methods.Sage, London.and ,1986. Biotechnology: the university–industrial complex.Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.,1993. Some problems of proof: the admissability of traditional evidence. In StephensonM. and S.Ratnapala (eds), Mabo: a judicial revolution:185–205. University of Queensland Press, St Lucia, Queensland.,KerridgeR. and N.Samuells (eds), 1998. Writing the environment. ZedBooks, London.[Page 203]1991. Caring about nature: feminist ethics and the environment.Hypatia,6/1: 75–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1527-2001.1991.tb00210.x,1997. The Kingdon fieldguide to African Mammals: 504–8. Academic Press, London.,KipleK. and K.Ornelas (eds), 2000. The Cambridge world history of food.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.1997. Telling flesh. The substance of the corporeal.Routledge, London.,1988. First the seed. The political economy of plant biotechnology 1492–2000.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.,1995. Wither farmers’ rights?A consultancy report for the Commission for Plant Genetic Resources. Mimeo.,1987a. Seed wars: common heritage, private property and political strategy. Socialist Review,95: 7–41.and ,1987b. The plant germplasm controversy: analysing empirically the distribution of the world's plant genetic resources. BioScience,37: 190–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1310518and ,1996. Carl Linnaeus in his time and place. In JardineN., J.Secord and E.Spary (eds), Cultures of natural history: 145–62. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.,1976. The common heritage of mankind. Resource management of the international seabed.Ecology Law Review,6: 65–108.,1997. Risk: a scientific view. In Science, risk and precaution:31–44. Royal Society, London.and ,1995. Identity politics and dialectical reason: beyond an epistemology of provenance.Hypatia,10/2: 1–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1527-2001.1995.tb01366.x,1988. The invention of primitive society. Transformations of an illusion.Routledge, London.,1991. The social contract tradition. In SingerP. (ed.), A companion to ethics: 186–96.Basil Blackwell, Oxford.,1985. Hegemony and socialist strategy. Towards a radical democratic politics.Verso, London.and ,1997. A thousand years of nonlinear history.Zone Books, New York.,1999. Deleuze, diagrams and open-ended becoming. In GroszE. (ed.), Becomings: 29–41. Routledge, London.,1990. Merleau-Ponty and deep ecology. In JohnsonG. and M.Smith (eds), Ontology and alterity in Merleau-Ponty: 115–29. Northwestern University Press, Evanston, IL.,1999. Against the grain. The genetic transformation of global agriculture.Earthscan, London.and ,1983. The common heritage of mankind principle in international law.Columbia Journal of Transnational Law,21: 305–37.and ,1988. The pasteurization of France.Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.,1993. We have never been modern (trans. C.Porter). Harvester Wheatsheaf, Hemel Hempstead.,LatourB., 1994a. Pragmatologies. American Behavioural Scientist,37/6: 791–808. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002764294037006006[Page 204]LatourB., 1994b. On technical mediation – philosophy, sociology, genealogy. Common Knowledge,3/2: 29–64.1996. Aramis or the love of technology (trans. C.Porter). Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.,LatourB., 1997a. Trains of thought: Piaget, formalism and the fifth dimension. Common Knowledge,6/3: 170–91.LatourB., 1997b. Foreword to Power and Invention (I. Stengers): vii-xx. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN.LatourB., 1999a. Pandora's hope. Essays on the reality of science studies.Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.LatourB., 1999b. On recalling ANT. In Law. J. and J.Hassard (eds), Actor network theory and after: 15–25. Basil Blackwell, Oxford.1999c. Politiques de la nature. Comment faire entrer les sciences en démocratie.Armillaire, Paris.,2000. When things strike back.British Journal of Sociology,51/1: 107–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/000713100358453,1986. On methods of long-distance control: vessels, navigation and the Portuguese route to India.Sociological Review Monograph32: 234–63.,LawJ. (ed.), 1991. A sociology of monsters: essays on power, technology and domination.Routledge, London.1994. Organizing modernity.Basil Blackwell, Oxford.,LawJ. and J.Hassard (eds), 1999. Actor network theory and after.Basil Blackwell, Oxford.1995. Notes on materiality and sociality.Sociological Review,42/3: 274–94.and ,1990. Agricultural restructuring and rural change in Australia. In MarsdenT., P.Lowe and S.Whatmore (eds), Restructuring rurality: 101–29. John Wiley, Chichester.,1997. Rachel Carson. The life of the author of Silent Spring. Allen Lane, The Penguin Press, London.,1990a. Flesh and blood: a proposed supplement to Merleau-Ponty. Human Studies,13: 209–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00142754,1990b. The absent body.University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.,LeighlyJ. (ed.), 1963. Land and life: selections from the writings of Carl Ortwin Sauer.University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.1999. Britain's biotechology controversy: elusive science, contested expertise.New Genetics and Society,18/1: 47–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14636779908656889,1996. UK biotechnology regulation: disputing regulatory boundaries.Science and Public Policy,23/3: 164–70.and ,1990. Justice in the flesh. In JohnsonG. and M.Smith (eds), Ontology and alterity in Merleau-Ponty: 35–44. Northwestern University Press, Evanston, IL.,1998. The triple helix: gene, organism and environment.Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.,1991. Taming the great south land. A history of the conquest of nature in Australia.University of California Press, Berkeley CA.,1995. Enclosing the global commons: global environmental negotiations in a North-South conflictual approach. In BhaskarR. and A.Glynn (eds) The North, The South and the Environment.Earthscan, London., [Page 205]1998. The nature of sovereignty and the sovereignty of nature: problematizing the boundaries of self, society, state and system. In LitfinK. (ed.), The greening of sovereignty in world politics: 109–40. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.,LitfinK. (ed.), 1998. The greening of sovereignty in world politics.The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.1992. The geographical tradition.Basil Blackwell, Oxford.,1998. Reproduction, representation and authenticity: a re-reading.Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers,23: 13–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tran.2001.26.issue-2,1988 (1st published 1690). Two treatises on government.Cambridge University Press (,student edition), Cambridge.1999. Irigaray and Deleuze: experiments in visceral philosophy.Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.,1994.Maternalist ethics: a feminist reassessment. The South Atlantic Quarterly,93/4: 779–802.,1997. Solidarity across diversity. A pluralistic rapprochement of environmentalism and animal liberation. In GottliebR. (ed.), The ecological community: 33–358. Routledge, London.,1996. Liberal society and cyborg subjectivity: the politics of environments, bodies, and nature.Alternatives,21: 1–30.,1997. Eco-critique. Contesting the politics of nature, economy, and culture.University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN.,1996. Food, the body and the self.Sage, London.,1985. International wildlife law: an analysis of international treaties concerned with the conservation of wildlife.Grotius Publications, Llandysul, Wales.,MacauleyD. (ed.), 1996. Minding nature: the philosophers of ecology.Guilford Press, New York.1997. Be-wildering order: on finding a home for domestication and the domesticated other. In GottliebR. (ed.), The ecological community: 105–31. Routledge, London.,1998. The mystery of property: inheritance and industrialization in England and Japan. In Hann (ed.), Property relations: 104–23. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.,1993. A doomed race: a scientific axiom of the late nineteenth century.Australian Journal of Politics and History,39/1: 14–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8497.1993.tb00047.x,1999. Contested natures.Sage, London.and ,MacnaghtenP. and J.Urry (eds), 2000. Bodies of nature. Special issue of Body and Society, 6/3.1962. The political theory of possessive individualism. Hobbes to Locke.Oxford University Press, Oxford.,1978. Property. Mainstream and critical positions.University of Toronto Press, Toronto.(MAFF) Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food,1990. Guidelines for the labelling of foods produced using genetic modification.MAFF, London.1992. The court gives an inch and takes a mile.Aboriginal Law Bulletin,2/57: 4–6.,1988. Roman North Africa.Seaby, London.,MargulisL. and R.Fester (eds), 1991. Symbiosis as a source of evolutionary innovation.The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.[Page 206]1982. Five kingdoms.Freeman, San Francisco, CA.and ,1994. Australian race relations 1788–1933.Allen and Unwin, Sydney.,1999. Consuming interests: the social provision of foods.University College London Press, London., and ,1999a. Spaces of politics. In MasseyD., J.Allen and P.Sarre (eds), Human geography today: 277–94. Polity Press, Oxford.,1999b. Space-time, ‘science’ and the relationship between physical geography and human geography. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers,24/3: 261–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0020-2754.1999.00261.x,1991. The ecological self.Routledge, London.,1992. The tree of knowledge, the biological roots of human understanding.Shambhala, Boston, MA.and ,1996. Uncertainty, precaution and decision making: the release of genetically modified organisms in the environment.Global Environmental Change Briefing No. 8. ESRC, Swindon., , and ,1995. Commercializing the products of plant biotechnology.Trends in Biotechnology,13: 319–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-7799%2800%2988975-1,1998. Selling nature to save it: biodiversity and the rise of green developmentalism.Society and Space,17: 133–54.,1988. Stable transformation of soybean (Glycine max) by particle acceleration. Bio/Technology,6: 923–6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nbt0888-923, , and ,1994. Imperial leather. Race, gender and sexuality in the colonial context.Routledge, London.,1992. What is the difference between a ‘person’ and a ‘human being’ within the law?The Review of Politics,54/3: 445–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0034670500018258,1989. The end of nature.Anchor Books, New York.,1990. Conserving the world's biodiversity.IUCN, Switzerland., , , and ,1997. Aboriginal self-determination and indigenous land title post-Mabo.Political Geography,16/3: 189–212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0962-6298%2895%2900122-0,1962. The phenomenology of perception (trans. C.Smith). Humanities Press, New York.,1968. The visible and the invisible (trans. A.Lingis). Northwestern University Press, Evanston, IL.,1970. Themes from lectures at the College de France 1952–60 (trans. J.O'Neill). Northwestern University Press, Evanston, IL.,1994. Subjection and subjectivity. Pyschoanalytic feminism and moral philosophy.Routledge, London.,2000. Reconnecting culture, technology and nature.Routledge, London.,1983. Animals and why they matter.University of Georgia Press, Athens GA.,1961 (1870). Principles of political economy.Augustus M. Kelley, New York.1999. Risk, science and policy: definitional struggles, information management, the media and BSE.Social Science and Medicine,49: 1239–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536%2899%2900163-X,1999. A rational approach to labelling biotech-derived foods.Science,284: 1471–2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.284.5419.1471,Minutes of Parliament (GB),1834. House of Commons debates on the South Australia Colonisation Bill.Volumes 3:2404–12 and 4: 2766–3190.[Page 207]1999. A word and some questions. In LawJ. and J.Hassard (eds), Actor network theory and after: 74–89. Basil Blackwell, Oxford.,1994. Regions, networks and fluids: anaemia and social topology.Social Studies of Science,24: 641–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631279402400402and ,Monsanto,1996. The Soya Bean Information Centre. press1.doc/1oct96Monsanto,2000. http://www.monsanto.com1991. Walking with the great apes: Jane Goodall, Dian Fossey, Biruté Galdikas.Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA.,1981. This bridge called my back.Persephone, Watertown.and ,1992. Exploration access and political power. Mining Review,1 June: 26–33.,1988. Tooth and claw: tales of survival, and Crocodile Dundee. In The pirate's fiancé: 241–69. Verso, London.,1995. Post-Marxism: democracy and identity. Society and Space, 13/3: 259–65,1999. Report on the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture 8th session.http://www.fao/cgrfa8/htm,1997. Ideas of difference: stability, social spaces and the labour of division. In HetheringtonK. and N.Munro (eds), Ideas of difference: 3–24. Basil Blackwell, Oxford.,1997a. Towards a geography of heterogenous associations. Progress in Human Geography,21/3: 321–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/030913297668007261,1997b. Inhuman/nonhuman/human: actor-network theory and the potential for a non-dualistic and symmetrical perspective on nature and society. Society and Space,15: 731–56.,1998. The spaces of actor-network theory.Geoforum,29/4: 357–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7185%2898%2900011-6,2000. Quality, nature and embeddedness.Economic Geography,76/2: 107–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/144549, and ,1977. Nature, bureaucracy and the rules of property.North-Holland, New York.,1994. As if: camera juridica. In GoodrichP. et al. (eds), Politics, postmodernity and critical legal studies: 69–106. Routledge, London.,2000. Donna Haraway and GM foods. Postmodern encounters. Icon Books, Cambridge.,1989. Ecology, community and lifestyle.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511525599,Nature,1999. Science Policy Research Unit (SPRU) report on substantial equivalence, October.1993. Customs in common. Common right, enclosure and social change in England 1700–1830.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511522741,New Scientist,1999 (17 April). Unpalatable truths.http://www.newscientist.com/nsplus/insight/gmworld/gmfood.html1989. Humans and other animals: beyond the boundaries of anthropology.Pluto Press, London.,1998. Eat your genes. How genetically modified food is entering our diet. ZedBooks, London.,One Nation,1999. http://www.onenation.com.au (established 1997).1985. Five Bodies.Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY., [Page 208]1997. Time, narrative and environmental politics. In GottliebR. (ed.), The ecological community: 22–38. Routledge, London.,1999. Dealing with scientific uncertainties. Paper presented at the Ditchley Foundation conference on ‘Understanding, managing and presenting risk in public policy’. Mimeo.,(OST) Office of Science and Technology,1999. The advisory and regulatory framework for biotechnology: report from the Government's review. May 1999. Cabinet Office and OST, London.1999. Revisiting the commons: local lessons, global challenges.Science,284: 278–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.284.5412.278, , , and ,1987. Dispossessing the barbarian: the language of Spanish Thomism and the debate over the property rights of the American Indians. In PagdenA. (ed.), The languages of political theory in early modern Europe: 79–119. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511521447.005,1999. Dreaming in Monsanto.Index on Censorship,3: 62–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03064229908536587,(The) Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia,1993a. Native Title Bill.Commonwealth Government Printer, Canberra, Australia.(The) Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia,1993b. Native Title Act.Commonwealth Government Printer, Canberra, Australia.(The) Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia,1998. Native Title Amendment Act.Commonwealth Government Printer, Canberra, Australia.1989. The disorder of women.Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.,1996. Sovereignty, law and difference in Australia: after the Mabo case.Alternatives,21: 149–70.,2000. Deleuze and the political.Routledge, London. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203424483,1993a. A troubling inheritance. Address to the Canberra Press Club, 10 November1993. (Reprinted in Race and Class, 1994, 35/4: 1–9.),1993b. Reconciliation – to be or not to be. Aboriginal Law Bulletin,3/61: 14–17.,1993c. 204 years of invisible title. In StephensonM. and S.Ratnapala (eds), Mabo: a judicial revolution: 75–95. University of Queensland Press, St Lucia, Queensland.,1998. The spirit of matter. On fetish, rarity, fact and fancy. In SpyerP. (ed.), Border fetishisms: 91–121. Routledge, London.,1999. Genomes reveal kin connections for whales and pumas. Science,284:2081. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.284.5423.2081,Pesticides Safety Directorate,1999. Scientific review of the impact of Herbicide use on genetically modified crops.PSD, Norwich.1995. The body as property: a feminist re-vision. In GinsbergF. and R.Rapp (eds), Conceiving the new world order: the global politics of reproduction: 387–406. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.,PetersonN. and W.Sanders (eds), 1998. Citzenship and indigenous Australians. Changing concepts and possibilities.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO97805115522431995. Animals, geography and the city.Society and Space,13/4: 655–81.,PhiloC., P.Routledge and J.Sharp (eds), 1999. Entanglements of power.Routledge, London.PhiloC. and C.Wilbert (eds), 2000. Animal spaces: beastly places.Routledge, London.[Page 209]1992. Body of glass. Penguin books, Harmondsworth. (First published in the USA under the title She, He and It, 1991, Random House, New York.),PileS. and N.Thrift (eds), 1995. Mapping the subject. Geographies of cultural transformation (Introductory and concluding chapters by the editors). Routledge, London.1995. The game of death in Ancient Rome. Arena sport and political suicide.University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI.,Pliny. Natural History (Penguin Classics edition published in 1991, trans. J.Healy). Penguin, Harmondsworth.1993. Feminism and the mastery of nature.Routledge, London.,1981. Advances in legume systematics.Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.and ,1991. Morality and modernity.Routledge, London. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203168936,2000. Justice or appropriation. Indigenous claims and liberal theory.Radical Philosophy,101: 5–17.,1991. Women and moral identity.Allen and Unwin, Sydney.,1995. Trust in numbers. The pursuit of objectivity in science and public life.Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.,1996. Beyond intellectual property: toward traditional resource rights for indigenous peoples and local communities.International Development Research Centre, Ottawa.and ,1993. Technologizing the self. In GrossbergL. et al. (eds), Cultural studies: 501–11. Routledge, London.,1996. Outside belongings.Routledge, London.,1998. Mc-identities. Food and the familial citizen.Theory, Culture and Society,15/1: 155–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026327698015002007,1999. Beyond food/sex. Eating and the ethics of existence.Theory, Culture and Society,16/2: 215–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/02632769922050485,1995. Coordinating conservation: global networking for species survival.Biodiversity and Conservation,4: 536–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00222512and ,1992a. Artificiality and enlightenment: from sociobiology to bio-sociality. In KwinterJ. and P.Crary (eds), Incorporations: 234–53. Zone Books, San Francisco, CA.,1992b. Severing the ties: fragmentation and dignity in late modernity. Knowledge and Society,9: 160–87.,1996. Making PCR. A story of biotechnology.University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.,1996. Bright paradise: Victorian scientific travellers.Pimlico, London.,1995. The elusory body and social constructionist theory.Body and Society,1/2: 3–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1357034X95001002001,2000. Environmental fate and toxicology of organophosphate pesticides. Geochemistry and Health,July.,2000. The Deleuze connections.The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.,1992. North-South issues, the common heritage of mankind and global environmental change. In RowlandsI. and M.Greene (eds), Global environmental change and international relations: 145–68. Macmillan, London.,1998. The mad cow crisis: health and the public good.University College London Press, London.,1971. A theory of justice.Oxford University Press, Oxford., [Page 210]1987. Inventing Aborigines: assimilation of aborigines as a category into a national historiography. Aboriginal History,11/1–2: 14–23.,1986. Property. Issues in political theory.Macmillan, London.,ReganT. and P.Singer (eds), 1989 (2nd edition). Animal rights and human obligations.Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Deaths in Custody,1991. Commonwealth Printing Office, Canberra, Australia.1995. Crocodile farming and conservation, the example of Zimbabwe.Biodiversity and Conservation,4: 299–305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00055975,1982 (,2nd edition). The other side of the frontier.Penguin Australia, Ringwood, Victoria.1988. Aboriginal land rights in colonial Australia.National Library of Australia, Occasional Lecture series no. 1, Canberra.,1992 (,2nd edition). The law of the land.Penguin Books Australia, Ringwood, Victoria.1996. Aboriginal sovereignty. Three nations one Australia.Allen and Unwin, Sydney.,1998. Sovereignty. In PetersonN. and W.Sanders (eds), Citizenship and indigenous Australians. Changing conceptions and possibilities: 208–15. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511552243.013,1997. Towards a history of epistemic things: synthesizing proteins in the test tube.Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.,1998. Fatal protein: the story of CJD, BSE and other prion diseases.Oxford University Press, Oxford.and ,1993. What can molecular and morphological markers tell us about plant hybridization.Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences,12/3: 213–41.and ,1995. Border trouble: shifting lines of demarcation between animals and humans. Special issue ‘In the company of animals’.Social Research,62: 481–500.,1997. Flesh made word. In The Platypus and the mermaid and other figments of the classifying imagination: 51–84. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.,1992. Uneven development and the tragedy of the commons: competing images for nature-society relations.Economic Geography,68: 249–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/144185and ,RobertsonG., M.Mash, L.Tickner, J.Bird, B.Curtis and T.Putnam (eds), 1996. FutureNatural: nature/science/culture.Routledge, London.1993. Making a better mystery out of history. Meanjin,2winter: 295–312.,2000. Mapping. In terra infirma: geography's visual culture: 73–111. Routledge, London.,1986. The comedy of the commons. Culture, commerce and inherently public rights.University of Chicago Law Review,53/3: 711–811. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1599583,1984. The saga of Captain Cook: morality in Aboriginal and European law.Australian Aboriginal Studies,2: 24–39.,1997. Lifelines. Biology, freedom, determinism.Penguin, Harmondsworth.,1998. Plant biology.Wadsworth, Belmont, CA., , and , [Page 211]1996. Proteins, plants and currents: rediscovering science in Britain. In IrwinA. and B.Wynne (eds), Misunderstanding science? The public reconstruction of science and technology: 191–212. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511563737.010, and ,1993a. Giving ground. Arena Magazine,Oct.-Dec.: 6–19.,1993b. After Mabo. Interpreting indigenous traditions.Melbourne University Press, Melbourne.,1993c. Mabo and moral anxiety. Meanjin,52/2: 229–52.,(The) Royal Academy of Arts,1999. Joseph Beuys: the secret block for a secret person in Ireland.Royal Academy Publications, London.1989. Maternal thinking: towards a politics of peace.Ballantine Books, New York.,1991. After national democracy: radical democratic politics at the edge of modernity.Alternatives,16: 161–200.,1984. Property and political theory.Basil Blackwell, Oxford.,1993. One-world. The development dictionary: 102–15. Zed Books, London.,1994. Global ecology. ZedBooks, London.,1992. Metametazoa: biology and multiplicity. In KwinterJ. and P.Crary (eds), Incorporations: 362–85. Zone Books, San Francisco, CA.,1982. Liberalism and the limits of justice.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.,1998. Genetics and reductionism.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.,1995. The Penguin atlas of Ancient Rome.Penguin, London.,SchatzkiT., K.Knorr-Cetina and E.von Saviny (eds), 2000. The practice turn in contemporary theory.Routledge, London.1995. Whatever happened to the gene revolution?New Scientist, 7January: 21–5.,1997. What is ‘human’? Metaphysics and zoontology in Flaubert and Kafka. In HamJ. and M.Senior (eds), Animal acts: 127–44. Routledge, London.,1990. Genetic engineering of herbicide resistance in higher plants.Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences,9/1: 1–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07352689009382280, and ,1940. Taking possession of Australia – the doctrine ofTerra nullius. Royal Australian Historical Society Journal and Proceedings,26/1: 5–12.,1992. Property rights, genetic resources and biotechnological change.Journal of Law and Economics,35: 199–213. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/jle.1992.35.issue-1,1997. ‘When the beasts spoke’. Animal speech and classical reason in Descartes and La Fontaine. In HamJ. and M.Senior (eds), Animal acts: 61–84. Routledge, London.,1975. Feux et signaux de brume.Grasset, Paris.,1985. Les cinq sens.Grasset, Paris.,1991. Rome. The book of foundations (trans. F.McCarren). Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.,1993. Angels: a modern myth (trans. F.Cowper). Flammarion, Paris.,1995. The natural contract (trans. E.MacArthur and W.Paulson). Michigan University Press, Ann Arbor, MI., [Page 212]1995. Conversations on science, culture and time (trans. R.Lapidus). University of Michagan Press, Ann Arbor, MI.and ,1991. Resources, capacities and ownership. The workmanship ideal and distributive justice.Political Theory,19/1: 47–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0090591791019001004,1991. Sovereignty and exchange in the orders of modernity.Alternatives,16/4: 447–77.,1991. The boundaries of humanity. Humans, animals, machines.University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.and ,1992. Corporeal archetypes and power: preliminary clarifications and considerations of sex.Hypatia,7/3: 39–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1527-2001.1992.tb00904.x,1988. Cathedrals of science. The development of colonial natural history museums during the late 19th century.McGill-Queens University Press, Montreal.,1997. The others: how animals made us human.Island Press, Washington, DC.,1992. A truant proximity: presence and absence in the space of modernity.Society and Space,10: 181–98.,1997. Flow.Space and Culture,1: 1–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/120633129700100101,1993. Monocultures of the mind. Perspectives of biodiversity and biotechnology.Third World Network Publishers, Penang, Malaysia.,1993. Cultural politics of everyday life: social constructionism, rhetoric and knowing of the third kind.Open University Press, Buckingham.,2000. Performing live: Aesthetic alternatives as for the ends of art.Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.,1979. Principles of crop improvement.Longman, New York.,1996 (,2nd edition). Changing the face of the earth: culture, environment, history.Basil Blackwell, Oxford.1986 (,2nd edition). A history of land law.Hambledon, London. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198255376.001.00011987. Legal theory and legal history: essays on the common law.Hambledon, London.,1993. Mabo, international law, terra nullius and the stories of settlement: an unresolved jurisprudence.Melbourne University Law Review,19: 195–210.,1986 (1st published in 1776). An inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations.Penguin, London.,1990. (,1st edition 1984). Uneven development.Basil Blackwell, Oxford.Soil Association,1999. The state of organics in the UK.Soil Association, Bristol.1996. Thirdspaces.Basil Blackwell, Oxford.,1995. What is nature?Basil Blackwell, Oxford.,SouléM. and G.Lease (eds), 1995. Reinventing nature? Responses to postmodern deconstruction.Island Press, Washington, DC.Southwood Report.1989. Report of the Working Party on Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy. http://www.bse.org.uk/files/ib/ibd1/tab2.pdf1979. Locke's view of dominium.Environmental Ethics,1: 255–62.,SquiresJ. (ed.), 1993. Principled positions: postmodernism and the rediscovery of value.Routledge, London.2000. Utopia's garden. French natural history from old regime to revolution.University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.,1991a. Power, technology and the phenomenology of conventions: on being allergic to onions. In LawJ. (ed.), A sociology of monsters: 26–56.Basil Blackwell, Oxford., [Page 213]1991b. The sociology of an invisible: the primacy of work in the writings of Anselm Strauss. In MainesD. (ed.), Social organisation and social processes: essays in honour of Anselm L. Strauss: 98–126. Aldine de Gruyter, Hawthorne, NY.,1996. Cosmopolitiques (2 volumes). La Decouverte, Paris.,1997. Power and invention. Situating science (trans. P.Bains). University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN.,StephensonM. and S.Ratnapala (eds), 1993. Mabo: a judicial revolution. The aboriginal land rights decision and its impact on Australian law.University of Queensland Press, St Lucia, Queensland.1988. The cow (trans. M.Hofmann). Faber and Faber, London.,1995. Sweeping patents put biotchnology companies on the warpath.Science,268: 656–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.268.5211.656,Strabo,1916. The geography of Strabo (T. Bohn's Classical Library edition, trans. H.Hamilton and W.Falconer). G. Bell & Sons, London.1996. Cutting the network. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Society (N.S.), 2: 517–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3034901,1998. Divisions of interest and languages of ownership. In HaanC. (ed.), Property relations: 214–32. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.,1999a. What is intellectual property after? In LawJ. and J.Hassard (eds), Actor-network theory and after: 156–80. Blackwell, Oxford.,1999b. Property, substance and effect. Anthropological essays on persons and things.Athlone Press, London.,Systematic Zoology,1959. Symposium on Linnaeus and nomenclatorial codes.Systematic Zoology,8: 1–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/24116011996. The idea of biodiversity. Philosophies of paradise.Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.,1993. Mimesis and alterity.Routledge, London.,1996. The European EEP list for the African Elephant, Loxodonta africana. Unpublished manuscript, Zoological Center, Tel Aviv-Ramat Gan.,1991. Customs in common.Penguin, London.,1999. Crocodile tears and skins: international trade, economic constraints, and limits to the sustainable use of crocodilians.Conservation Biology,13/3: 465–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1999.00011.x,1998. Kangaroos: the non-issue.Society and Animals,6/2: 167–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853098X00131,1991. Over wordy worlds? Thoughts and worries. In PhiloC. (ed.), New words, new worlds: reconceptualising social and cultural geography: 144–8. Social and Cultural Geography Study Group, Institute of British Geographers, Lampeter.,1996. Spatial Formations.Sage, London.,1999. Steps to an ecology of place. In MasseyD., J.Allen and P.Sarre (eds), Human geography today: 295–322. Polity Press, Cambridge.,2000a. Still life in nearly present time: the object of nature. Body and Society,6/3–4: 34–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1357034X00006003003,2000b. Afterwords. Society and Space,18/2: 213–56.,1996. Refiguring the economic in economic geography.Progress in Human Geography,20: 311–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030913259602000302and , [Page 214]Time Magazine,1996. The battle of the bean genes. Time Magazine,28 October: 48–9.1973. Animals in Roman life and art.Thames and Hudson, London.,1978. Land, labour and economic discourse.RKP, London.,1979. Natural right theories.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.,1993. The engineer in the garden. Genetics: from the idea of heredity to the creation of life.Pimlico, London.,1980. Discourse on property. John Locke and his adversaries.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511558641,1993. An approach to political philosophy: Locke in contexts.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511607882,1995. Strange multiplicity. Constitutionalism in an age of diversity.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.,1998. Frankenstein's footsteps. Science, genetics and popular culture.Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.,(UPOV) Union pour la Protection des Obtentions Végétales,1972. Convention Internationale pour la protection des obtentions végétales.Union pour la Protection des Obtentions Végétales, Geneva.1998. L'étiquetage obligatoire des aliments est-il la meilleure solution pour les consommateurs? Paper for conference on ‘Environnement et alimentation’, INRA. Mimeo.,1992. The re-enchantment of the concrete. In CraryJ. and S.Kwinter (eds), Incorporations: 320–38. Zone Books, San Francisco, CA.,1999. Ethical know-how.Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.,1991. The embodied mind: cognitive science and human experience.The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA., and ,1916 (1st published in English in 1760). The law of nations or the principles of natural law (3 volumes). Carnegie Institute, Washington, DC.,1981. La gladiature en occident des origines a la mort de Domitien.Ecole Française de Rome, Rome.,1991. Mrs Brundtland's disenchanted world.Alternatives,16: 377–84.,1988. When the earth belonged to all: the land question in eighteenth-century justifications of private property.Political Studies,36: 102–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9248.1988.tb00219.x,1992 (1st published in 1934). A stroll through the worlds of animals and men: a picture book of invisible worlds. Semiotica,89/4: 319–91.,1993. Competing notions of biodiversity. In SachsW. (ed.), Global ecology: 117–31. Zed Books, London.,1994. Earth politics. ZedBooks, London.,1872. The mental characteristics of primitive man as exemplified by the Australian Aborigines.Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland,1: 72–85.,1995. Gene-transfer and plant-regeneration techniques.Trends in Biotechnology,13: 324–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-7799%2800%2988976-3and ,1991. On the spatio-temporal conditions of democratic practice.Alternatives,16: 243–62.,1992 (, , and , [Page 215]2nd edition). Recombinant DNA.Scientific American Books, New York.(WCED) World Commission on Environment and Development,1987. Our common future.Oxford University Press, Oxford.1996. Form and transformation. Generative and relational principles of biology.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.and ,1892. Essays upon heredity and kindred biological problems (2 volumes edited by PoultonE. and A.Shipley). Clarendon Press, Oxford.,1999. Body images. Embodiment as inter corporeality.Routledge, London.,1931 (, and ,1st edition). The science of life.Cassell, London.WeltonD. (ed.), 1999. The body.Basil Blackwell, Oxford.1997. Nourishing networks: alternative geographies of food. In GoodmanD., and M.Watts (eds), Globalising food: agrarian questions and global restructuring: 287–304. Routledge, London.and ,1978. The forms of wildness: archaeology of an idea. In Tropics of discourse: essays in cultural criticism: 150–82. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.,1929. Process and reality. An essay in cosmology.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.,1994. Communities, environments and cultural studies. Cultural Studies,8/1: 5–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09502389400490021and ,1992. Emperors and gladiators.Routledge, London. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203204696,1934. Natural communism: air, water, oil, sea, and seashore.Harvard Law Review,47: 425–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1331877,1997. Buried epistemologies: the politics of nature in (post) colonial British Columbia.Annals of the Association of American Geographers,87/1: 3–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/0004-5608.00039,1983. Current status of crop germplasm.Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences,1/2: 133–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07352688309382175,1989. Resources of hope.Verso, London.,1997. Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells.Nature,385: 810–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/385810a0, , , and ,1997. Gut symmetries.Alfred Knopf, New York.,2000. Rattling the cage. Towards legal rights for animals.Profile Books, London.,1990. Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,87: 4576–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.87.12.4576, and ,1995. Bringing the animals back in. Guest editorial to special issue ofSociety and Space,13/6: 632–6.and ,WolchJ. and J.Emel (eds), 1998. Animal geographies.Verso, London.1995. Transpecies urban theory.Society and Space,13/4: 735–60., and ,1998. Critical environments. Postmodern theory and the pragmatics of the ‘outside’.Minnesota University Press, Minneapolis, MN.,1984. The genius and the copyright: economic and social conditions of the emergence of the ‘Author’.Eighteenth-Century Studies,17/4: 425–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2738129,1989. Scarcity and possession.Routledge, London., [Page 216]1993. What are improved seeds? An epistemology of the Green Revolution. Economic Geography, 69/3: 254–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/143450,1989. Polity and group difference: a critique of the ideal of universal citizenship.Ethics,99: 250–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/293065,1998. The potato. How the humble spud rescued the western world.Faber and Faber, Boston, MA.,
Index of Names