Human Resources Administration for Educational Leaders

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M. Scott Norton

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  • Back Matter
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  • Dedication

    This text is dedicated to the graduates of College View High School in Lincoln, Nebraska. These special people were instrumental in helping set the personal foundations of motivation, inspiration, and purpose for the author of this text.

    Copyright

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    Preface

    Few today argue against the contention that people are an organization's most important asset. It is a fact that organizations will progress as people grow and develop. People are an organization's most important asset, but they are the most costly as well. In most school systems, an average of 80% of the budget is expended on the salary and benefits for its personnel. Because the human resources of the school system are so important to the achievement of school purposes, the human resources processes of planning, recruiting, selecting, inducting, assigning, developing, evaluating, negotiating, protecting, stabilizing, compensating, and climate improvement have become increasingly vital to the strategic planning and programming of the school district's goals and objectives.

    This text emphasizes the concept that every leader in a school system is a human resources administrator. Although the human resources process has always been a shared responsibility among and between the central offices and local units of the school system, the increasing demands placed on the human resources function have resulted in new strategic roles for central office administrators and increasing human resources responsibilities for administrators at the local school level. These developments make it essential that all school administrators be knowledgeable and skilled in the required processes of an effective human resources program. In short, an educational leader who is not competent in the area of human resources administration cannot be effective in his or her role as an administrator.

    The Organization of the Text

    The text is presented in 12 chapters that address each of the 13 primary processes of the human resources function. All of the traditional processes of the human resources function such as recruitment, selection, and compensation are discussed. Also, the human resources processes of staff development, induction, assignment, protection, and stabilizing are discussed in terms of the most recent research and practices in the field. In addition, the text includes a chapter on the classified or support staff of the school system, as well as new trends in such areas as personnel accountability, staff retention, personnel compensation, and collective bargaining.

    Each chapter begins with objectives that direct the primary student learning activities. Significant terms are set in bold type throughout each chapter and also are defined in the glossary at the end of the book. Each chapter closes with a summary of the chapter's contents and a section on questions for use in class discussions or as extended learning exercises for students. Simulations in the form of case studies and in-basket exercises provide opportunities for practical applications of chapter concepts. The references included at the close of each chapter provide opportunities for extended reading by the student learner.

    A special feature of the text is the inclusion of figures and illustrations that demonstrate and extend learning opportunities for students. Many examples of human resources forms provide students with samples of the tools practicing HR administrators use for planning, recruiting, interviewing, selection, evaluating, compensating, and developing staff personnel.

    The text emphasizes five major foundations for the study of the human resources function: (1) the historical development of the function; (2) the current issues, challenges, and trends encountered in the HR function; (3) the nature and strategic significance of the HR function in the organization; (4) the 13 primary processes of the HR function; and (5) supportive research studies and best practices that support the administration of the human resources function.

    A note of appreciation is hereby given to Pearson Education, which gave its permission to use material under their copyright in several chapters of the text. Specifically, material in the chapters centering on the planning process, organizational climate, policies and regulations, and collective bargaining added additional quality to the text.

    The Special Perspectives of This Text

    This text addresses the major responsibilities of school administrators in the area of human resources administration by

    • Emphasizing the increasing demands for accountability in the human resources function and ways in which the school administrator can deal with this new challenge.
    • Considering the nature of human resources as a strategic rather than a maintenance function and the resulting need for improved knowledge and competency in human resources administration.
    • Giving attention to the concept of human resources administration as an increasing responsibility of all school administrators and addressing the need for new HR knowledge and skills on the part of all school leaders.
    • Addressing the issues, challenges, and trends related to the human resources function in education and the work of school leaders at all levels.
    • Placing emphasis on effective human resources strategic planning and the importance of the internal and external environments in which the school and school system are embedded.
    • Examining the historical evolution of the human resources function and the major contributions of many individuals who developed the foundation for contemporary HR practices.
    • Describing the significant role of the central human resources unit in the school system and emphasizing its new responsibilities as a strategic unit in school district planning and program implementation.
    • Addressing each of the major processes of the human resources function in detail and presenting relevant research and best practices as related to each process.
    • Presenting specific examples of practice applications for meeting the personnel needs of enrollment forecasting, compensation scheduling, teacher workload calculations, accountability measurements, and support personnel classification procedures.
    • Giving due attention to the nature and importance of the support personnel processes within the school district and underscoring the fact that classified personnel constitute a staff of approximately 50%–100% of the number of certificated personnel.
    • Setting guidelines in the form of operational models for use in the planning and implementing of the recruitment and selection processes of the human resources function.
    • Underscoring the nature of the human resources function as a people consideration and addressing the importance of human motivation skills in working with employees as individuals with varying personalities and need dispositions.
    • Discussing new approaches to staff development in school systems and giving special attention to mentoring, coaching, and the new emphasis on talent management in organizations.
    • Supporting the increasing importance of the work of human resources administrators in facilitating a healthy climate for students, employees, and stakeholders of the school.
    • Providing a comprehensive discussion on the matter of human resources policy and regulation development and its importance to the support and implementation of effective HR practices.
    • Emphasizing the legal world in which the human resources administrator must operate. Employee rights, statutory rights, and contractual rights of employees, including ethical treatment, privacy, freedom of speech, and employee dismissal are discussed in depth.
    • Providing examples of compensation approaches and drafting models of salary schedules that delve into the conceptual aspects of employee compensation and provide a foundation for better understanding of the compensation process.

    Supplemental Materials

    Instructor's resources further support and enhance the learning goals of Human Resources Administration for Educational Leaders. The Instructor's Resources CD offers instructors a variety of material that supplements the textbook, including PowerPoint presentations created by educational consultant Larry K. Kelly, sample syllabi for semester and quarter courses, and a test bank consisting of 20 multiple choice and 10 true-false questions for each chapter. All of the materials available for download on the Instructor's Resources CD are also available for you to upload into your course management system.

    Acknowledgments

    I wish to express appreciation to many people who contributed to the publication of this text. A special note of thanks is extended to educational consultant Larry K. Kelly for conceptualizing and creating the PowerPoint slides to accompany the book. The help and suggestions of the following reviewers are also greatly appreciated: Ronald E. Barnes, Indiana University; Ann Hassenpflug, University of Akron; Joyce P. Logan, University of Kentucky; Angus J. MacNeil, University of Houston; Zach Kelehear, University of South Carolina; James E. Lyons, University of North Carolina at Charlotte; Patrick W. Carlton, University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Stella C. Batagiannis, Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne; John C. Drewes, Nova Southeastern University; Marla Susman Israel, Loyola University Chicago; and Linda R. Vogel, University of Northern Colorado.

    Once again, appreciation is expressed to Pearson Education for their permission to use certain copyrighted materials in several chapters of the book. Finally, I wish to acknowledge the editors, Steve Wainwright, Julie McNall, and other personnel of Sage Publications for their support and assistance in the completion of this publication.

    M. ScottNortonTempe, Arizona
  • Glossary

    • Ability to pay principle A tax principle based on the notion that persons with higher status are presumed more able to pay and should be made to contribute more than persons of lesser status.
    • Absenteeism Failure on the part of the employee to be at work as scheduled regardless of the reason for such absence.
    • Accountability The act of showing proof of results in relation to a specific intervention or program activity.
    • Administrative regulation A precise statement that answers the question of how a policy is to be implemented.
    • Advanced development classes Training classes geared for credit toward the reclassification of personnel.
    • Advanced preparation A form of preparation whose goals and objectives are related to anticipated future needs of the school system or needs brought about by changes in workplace assignments.
    • Andragogy The art and science of helping adults learn.
    • Application screening The procedure used to qualify applicants for admission to the formal candidacy process.
    • Authoritarian leadership An autocratic, controlling type of leadership.
    • Bargaining agent The employee organization designated as the official representative of all employees in the bargaining unit.
    • Bargaining contract or master agreement Ratified document that specifies the terms of the negotiated agreement.
    • Bargaining unit The group of employees certified as the appropriate unit for collective negotiations. The unit is the one to which the negotiated contract agreement applies.
    • Basic development classes Training classes commonly required of all classified employees of a specific job family.
    • Behavior costing A term used for attaching economic estimates to the consequences of employee behaviors.
    • Behavior interview An interview method whereby the candidate is assessed on specific criteria related to his or her subject-matter area or grade level of instruction.
    • Behavior modification A concept that suggests that providing positive feedback of job results will reinforce that behavior. Undesirable behavior is dealt with by merely ignoring it, whereby the behavior is made extinct.
    • Boomerang hiring The rehiring of former teachers in an effort to help resolve a teacher shortage.
    • Bulwarism A term used to describe the placement of a proposal on the bargaining table accompanied by a statement to the effect that it is this or nothing.
    • Bylaws Procedures by which the school board governs itself. They apply to the internal operations of the school board.
    • Capacity of equilibrium A term credited to Chester Barnard for satisfying both the system productivity and the need dispositions of personnel in the system.
    • Career ladder An alternate compensation method that centers on the promotion of professional development of employees.
    • Casual employee An employee hired to meet a specific operation need in the school district for a limited number of hours during a 9- to 12-month period.
    • Challenge A task or summons that is surrounded with difficulties, but one that is often provocative and stimulating.
    • Choice As used in relation to student attendance in school, choice contends that students have the right to attend any school in the school district of their choice and should not be restricted to attending a school only within a designed boundary. The choice argument extends to attending private schools with state support as well.
    • Classification value system A rating system used for classified personnel that places a value on various jobs according to such factors as knowledge and skills required, responsibility levels, and related requirements of the job.
    • Classified personnel or support staff Employees who commonly do not perform responsibilities directly related to the instructional program, but do perform support services of paramount importance to the accomplishment of educational goals. The term “noncertificated staff” is also used to identify classified personnel.
    • Clinical supervision cycle The several steps involved in clinical supervision involving the teacher or employee and an immediate supervisor. Step one is the development of a cooperative relationship between the teacher and the supervisor.
    • Closed climate A school climate characterized by low staff morale, limited and inadequate communication, and limited socialization.
    • Closed shop A requirement that an employee must be a member of the employees’ representative union in order to be hired in the organization.
    • Closed system A system that does not have appropriate relations with its environment. The system is focused exclusively on its internal environment.
    • Coaching The art of counseling professionals or clients within a full range of backgrounds.
    • Coactive power In Mary Parker Follett's conception, coactive power is power with instead of power over; it includes such activities as coordination, cooperation, and integrative decision-making methods.
    • Coercive control In Mary Parker Follett's conception, coercive control is autocratic management methods, which she called the curse of the universe.
    • Cohort survival method A method for forecasting future population or student enrollment figures based on certain assumptions about longitudinal statistics relative to birth rates, death rates, student migration, grade retention, and other population data.
    • Collaborating Using all possible resources in order to achieve the best results relative to a plan, activity, or decision.
    • Collateral or fringe benefits Benefits provided to employees that do not require additional time or effort; nonmonetary compensation.
    • Collective bargaining The process whereby matters of employee relations are determined mutually by representatives of employee groups and their employer, within the limits of law or mutual agreement.
    • Competencies Abilities needed to accomplish a task at a satisfactory level of performance.
    • Conflict An antagonistic state or action as exemplified by divergent ideas and interests of individuals or groups.
    • Contract and noncontract employees Classified contract employees generally are for one year only and have no reasonable expectation of continued employment beyond the term of the written contract. That is, the employee's contract must be approved on an annual basis. Noncontract employees are employed on the basis of a school system's need and may be terminated at any time by the decision of the school district for any reason not contrary to law.
    • Community of interest Employees who share common employment interests and concerns, who desire to be in the same bargaining unit, and who have similar working conditions.
    • Compensation policy A statement adopted by the board of education that sets forth the goals and objectives that direct the compensation process for the school district. It provides the guidelines for what the compensation process is to accomplish.
    • Competency-based compensation plan A compensation plan based on the accomplishment of goals that are agreed on mutually by the administrator and the immediate supervisor.
    • Contract agreement A ratified document that specifies the terms of the negotiated agreement between the school board and the employees’ association.
    • Contractual rights Employee rights that are based on the law of contracts.
    • Cooperating The positive and mutual involvement of individuals relative to a plan, activity, or decision.
    • Cost of benefits (COB) School district expenses related to the provisions for employee collateral or fringe benefits
    • Cost of living adjustment (COLA) An increment in salary related to changes in the existing economic conditions of the community.
    • Critical theory An era of thought that challenges traditional assumptions about the administration of organizations and leadership behaviors. It questions the values on which many of the prevailing assumptions about gender, power relations, and other relationships that influence follower behavior are based.
    • Culture The set of important assumptions, beliefs, values, and attitudes that members of the school or school system share.
    • Democratic leadership A cooperative, empowering type of leadership viewed as the humanistic approach to people management.
    • Designing The creation of plans of action directed toward specific goals.
    • Disengaged climate A climate in which relationship behaviors among personnel are negative. Teachers are not engaged in the tasks, and teacher behaviors are exemplified by divisiveness, intolerance, and noncommitment.
    • Disengagement A teacher's tendency not to be “with it.” Disengaged teachers are going through the motions but are not in gear with respect to the tasks at hand.
    • Distributive bargaining Modeled after the bargaining process used mainly in the private sector. It is designed to realize maximum gain through use of authority, power, sanctions, or withdrawal of services.
    • Diversity Characteristics that make people different from one another. Includes such characteristics as race, gender, age, ethnicity, education, and physical attributes.
    • Due process A procedure that includes the notification of charges, a hearing on such charges, and the right to respond to the charges.
    • Effectiveness Characteristics relative to the structural dimension of an organization. It is the extent to which the observed behavior of the worker is congruent with the expectations of the organization.
    • Efficiency The extent to which the worker's behavior is congruent with the employee's need dispositions.
    • Efficiency dimension A term coined by Chester Barnard to describe the behaviors of a social system that foster group maintenance, mutual trust, respect, positive relationships, and personal friendships.
    • Elective development classes Training classes taken to fulfill specific job requirements.
    • Employee right The ability to engage in conduct that is protected by law or social sanction, free from interference by another party.
    • Engaged climate A climate in which attention to tasks is high and the faculty is professionally responsive despite the principal's restrictive behaviors.
    • Environmental scan An examination of the school's internal and external environments that identifies the system's strengths and weaknesses and its opportunities and threats. Scanning information supports the development of a rationale for operating assumptions.
    • Exclusive representation The certification of one particular employee organization to represent all employees in the bargaining unit.
    • Exit interview An interview administered to an employee who has decided to leave the school system voluntarily.
    • Fact-finding The process of selecting a neutral third party who serves as an investigator in studying all the facts and circumstances that surround an impasse and submits a recommendation that both parties take in advisement.
    • Feedback Measures relative to performance and attitudinal changes.
    • Forecasting An activity that centers on looking to the future and assessing probabilities.
    • Formal classroom observation A classroom observation conducted by a qualified observer for the purpose of assessing a teacher's performance level on the basis of the criteria approved by the school and school district. It can be either a formative or a summative evaluation.
    • Formal organization The units, departments, and staff members that make up the official organizational structure of the system.
    • Formative evaluation An evaluation that has goals that center on professional development as opposed to employment continuation or dismissal.
    • Fractional bargaining Exists when clusters of employees within the same organization decide to bargain separately rather than being a part of the system as a whole.
    • Full-time regular classified staff (FTR) Employees who are typically hired for 9 to 12 months and are expected to work a minimum number of hours during the time period.
    • Gain sharing Bonus payments given to a teaching staff based on the collective performance on such measures as gains in student achievement or other standards.
    • Goals Statements that set forth the purposes of the school system.
    • Good-faith bargaining Requirement that both parties enter the bargaining process with the intent to reach an agreement. Good-faith bargaining requires the school board team to respond to each of the employee team's proposals by indicating that it agrees, it will consider the proposal, it cannot agree, or the item is not negotiable.
    • Governing board policies The comprehensive statements of decisions, principles, or courses of action that serve toward the achievement of stated goals. Policies answer the question of “what the school system is to do.”
    • Grievance A problem or complaint related to the master agreement. It represents a violation, or purported violation, of the bargaining contract.
    • Ground rules The statements and agreements that govern the bargaining activities.
    • Group interview An interview method that involves the entire search committee and others. It uses question and answer activities, demonstrations of teaching, simulation exercises, and other strategies to assess the candidate's qualifications.
    • Hard data measurements Quantitative measurements used to assess the outcome of an activity or program. Results are based on statistical differences rather than personal emotions and opinions.
    • Hostile environment A work situation in which individuals are harassed by intimidating conditions in the workplace. An employee might be subject to unwelcome touching or placed in situations where he or she must listen to stories of sexual exploitations of other employees.
    • Human capital The human resources in the system viewed from the perspective of assets and investments.
    • Human resources The people in the system and their knowledge, skills, and individual assets.
    • Human resources administration The processes that are planned and implemented in the school system to establish an effective system of human resources and to foster an organizational climate that enhances the accomplishment of the system's educational mission, fosters the personal and professional objectives of the employees, and engages the support of the school community in which the school system is embedded.
    • Hygienes Factors such as bad company policy and administration, poor methods of employee supervision, and poor employee-supervisor relations that Herzberg associated with job dissatisfaction.
    • Idiographic dimension The human or people dimension of a social system, comprising individuals, their personalities, and their individual need dispositions.
    • Impasse Situation in which two bargaining parties become steadfast in their positions on one or more agenda items and a stalemate takes place.
    • Incentive pay A pay system that links closely to merit pay in that it is compensation allocated in addition to base salary for special work accomplishments or for meeting performance objectives.
    • Index salary schedule A salary schedule that uses percent increments for experience and preparation. Simple index and compound index schedules exemplify such salary schedules.
    • Indicators of competency Overt behaviors or products that illustrate one's capacity to perform competently.
    • Informal classroom observation A classroom observation that often takes the form of a “walk-through” assessment. Although the informal observation generally is not related to job continuation or compensation decisions, feedback on the teacher's strengths and needs is provided.
    • Informal organization Groups or individual staff members in the system who influence policy, procedures, and decisions in the system but who are not in official line positions.
    • Inputs Environmental resources in the form of human, physical, financial, and knowledge bases; these are transformed by means of available tools and technology to produce outputs that represent products, services, and behaviors.
    • In-service training A planned program provided for improving the skills and knowledge of employees on the job.
    • Integrative bargaining A win-win approach to collective bargaining. Interest-based, problem-solving, consensus-based, and collaborative bargaining are integrative bargaining approaches.
    • Intimacy The teachers’ enjoyment of friendly relationships with one another.
    • Issue A matter that is in dispute between two or more parties.
    • Job embedded training and development Training and development programs and experiences that center on the knowledge and skills that can be implemented by the employee to improve job performance.
    • Job-person-job fit A state of congruence between job demands and resources on the one hand and individual abilities and proclivities on the other.
    • Judgmental techniques Executive judgments, succession techniques, and vacancy analysis procedures used in the forecasting of employee demand.
    • Knowledge- and skill-based pay systems Compensation plans that compensate employees according to the knowledge and skill levels demonstrated on the job.
    • Knowledge management The processing of information readily from one unit to another.
    • Laissez-faire leadership A leadership style in which the leader assumes more of a functionary role and carries out the will of the governing board or the populace.
    • Last-best-offer arbitration A form of arbitration in which a neutral third party is called on to study the last best offers made by each of the two parties in the table negotiations. The arbitrator studies the facts related to both offers and selects one of the two best offers, which is binding on both parties.
    • Law A rule recognized by the nation or state as binding on its members.
    • Line administrators School personnel in the hierarchical line of authority in the system.
    • Long interview technique An interview method that uses a variety of strategies to determine the candidate's strengths and weaknesses. Candidates interact with committee members and appropriate others during the interview time period.
    • Markovian analysis A quantitative technique for forecasting employee transition within the system.
    • Mediation A system in which a jointly appointed neutral third party serves as advisor for both parties in an attempt to conciliate, counsel, persuade, dissuade, and assist the negotiation parties so that they are able to reach an agreement.
    • Mentor An experienced professional who guides the personal development of a less experienced individual through coaching and advising.
    • Merit pay A one-time compensation for meritorious performance based on predetermined work standards.
    • Micromanagement The practice of school boards spending too much time on matters of administrative procedure rather than on school policy.
    • Motivators Factors such as job recognition, achievement, and doing meaningful work that Herzberg associated with job satisfaction.
    • Nomothetic dimension The structural or normative dimension of a social system, comprising its institutions, related roles, and role expectations.
    • Open climate A school climate in which staff members enjoy high morale, work well together, and have friendly relationships, but do not engage in high levels of socialization.
    • Open system Any organization that is open to the environments in which it is a part. It views the system in terms of its interrelated parts and their relationship to one another and to the system as a whole.
    • Organizational analysis The process of determining the congruence between the overall personality, goals, values, and interpersonal skills of the candidate and the climate or culture of the organization.
    • Organizational climate The collective personality of a school or school system; the atmosphere that prevails in the system as characterized by the social and professional interactions of the people.
    • Outputs Products, services, and human behaviors produced as a result of system inputs that are transformed through the use of available tools and system technology.
    • Participating Cooperating with those affected by a plan for the best implementation of the results.
    • Partnership bargaining A type of bargaining based on cooperative win-win bargaining approaches. One of the integrative bargaining strategies.
    • Part-time regular classified staff (PTR) Employees in positions created to last fewer than the minimum hours required of FTR employees over a 12-month period. Such an employee usually is not eligible for benefits.
    • Pedagogy The art and science of teaching children.
    • Performance-based pay An alternative compensation program in which the employee receives bonus payments for meeting certain production or achievement goals agreed on by the employee and the administrative supervisor.
    • Performance interview An interview method that uses participative or simulation activities to assess the candidate's qualifications. The candidate might be asked to demonstrate a teaching method for a particular grade or subject-matter area.
    • Performance management A process that includes the implementation of performance objectives, determining methods for assessing performance results, developing employee growth plans, reviewing progress, coaching, and rewarding employees for positive contributions.
    • Person-job fit A measure of how well an applicant is qualified for a position opening, used to narrow the applicant pool to those who are best qualified.
    • Person-organization fit A measure of how well an applicant meets the requirements of the job and how well he or she fits the organization, used to further narrow the applicant pool.
    • Personnel The human component of the system; persons who hold the various certificated and classified positions in the system.
    • Personnel recruitment The human resources process that informs personnel of positions available and assesses their interest and qualifications.
    • Plan A product of the planning process; it is a fixed entity that is time and place specific.
    • Planning The comprehensive, continuous process characterized by flexibility and responsiveness to change.
    • Policy A comprehensive statement of decisions, principles, or courses of action that serve toward the accomplishment of stated goals.
    • Position analysis The process of examining the contents of a position and breaking it down into its primary tasks. It is a scientific, in-depth analysis of a position, its constituent parts, and surrounding conditions.
    • Position assessment An activity that ascribes monetary values to each position.
    • Position description It evolves from a position analysis and commonly includes the position title, major duties, evaluation responsibilities, coordination activities, position qualifications, and the supervision given and received.
    • Position/job grading An activity that centers on the analysis of a position or family of positions and determining the range level for each specific position.
    • Potential analysis An attempt to determine the extent to which an individual's present or future competencies will develop or could develop.
    • Power-based bargaining A collective bargaining method that is based on an “all or nothing” concept.
    • Power rewards Employee rewards that avoid excessive dependence on monetary factors.
    • Principle of definition One of the principles of effective production set forth by Fayol and other contributors to the scientific management era. Every worker performs a single function.
    • Principle of organization Another principle that evolved from the scientific management era. All duties and responsibilities should be clearly and completely defined in writing; this is the initial concept of personnel job descriptions.
    • Problem A condition or situation needing a solution. A question raised for inquiry or consideration.
    • Program, process, and material determinants Factors that serve to determine the route to school climate improvement such as individualized performance expectations, procedures and methods utilized relative to learner needs, and instructional resources available.
    • Quantitative techniques Statistical procedures used for forecasting personnel supply and demand.
    • Quasi-distributive bargaining A bargaining process based on a quid pro quo, give-and-take approach in which the utilization of power and bargaining strategy plays a major role.
    • Quasi-integrative bargaining A bargaining process that involves a quid pro quo, give-and-take process of compromise and is similar to quasi-distributive approaches. It places emphasis on problem-solving solutions.
    • Quid pro quo harassment Harassment that occurs when an employee or applicant is asked to provide sexual favors in order to obtain or to retain employment.
    • Rationality A term related to Weber's concept of a bureaucracy and the belief that human judgment is unreliable because of biases and emotionalism. Thus, depersonalization within an organization is of primary importance for rationality.
    • Recorder The bargaining member who maintains written information concerning strategy and positions of each bargaining team including facts, decisions, and events surrounding each bargaining session.
    • Recruitment The human resources process that informs personnel of positions available and assesses their interest and qualifications.
    • Re-recruitment Efforts extended by school leaders to retain key personnel in the school or school system.
    • Return on investment (ROI) The gain or positive change realized from an investment of human and monetary expenditures.
    • Scientific management era A historical time period in America that featured a structured management process. The manager was responsible for planning and supervising the work, and the employee was to carry out the plan under controlled procedures.
    • Selection The human resources process of making decisions about the hiring of personnel.
    • Selectmen The title given to the influential persons asked to supervise the operations of America's early schools. Selectmen were the forerunners of school board members in the United States.
    • Sexual harassment Unwelcome sexual advances, requests or demands, and other verbal conduct of a sexual nature that explicitly or implicitly are suggested as a term or condition of an individual's employment.
    • Short interview technique A method that is often conducted as a telephone interview. The applicant's professional qualifications serve as an opener for the interview.
    • Single salary schedule The salary schedule that is based on a base salary, years of experience, and the level of preparation of the employee.
    • Skill The ability needed to accomplish a task at a satisfactory level of performance.
    • Social system Composed of a multitude of subsystems and characterized by a number of sociopsychological factors often referred to as the system's culture.
    • Soft measures Personal or group attitudes and opinions regarding the usefulness of certain program change or employee development experience. Assessments are based on attitudes and perceptions of outcomes rather than statistical results.
    • Spillover The influence of bargaining district results on nonbargaining school districts.
    • Spokesperson The chief negotiator for the bargaining team, who serves as the team captain.
    • Staff administrator An administrator who is not in the direct hierarchical line of authority; a support or advisory position.
    • Strategic human resources planning A planning activity that focuses on the effective utilization of human resources and their contributions toward the accomplishment of educational goals.
    • Strategic plan A long-term plan outlining actions needed to achieve planned results.
    • Strategic staffing Another term for the re-recruitment of personnel that centers on the retention of quality employees.
    • Strategizing The defining of activities to meet stated system goals.
    • Strategy The process that serves to determine what decisions, programs, activities, and resources are necessary to achieve the desired results.
    • Staff administrator An administrator who is not in the direct line of authority in the system and whose responsibilities are created primarily to serve and support the major line administrators.
    • Staff development The HR process of providing opportunities for employees to improve their knowledge, skills, and performance in line with the goals and values of the organization and in relation to the interests and needs of the employee.
    • Statutory rights Employee rights protected by specific laws enacted by government bodies.
    • Strike An action that results in stoppage of work and services rendered by the employee group.
    • Structured interview An interview that uses pre-prepared questions and specific “look-fors” to assess the candidate's personal qualities relative to such factors as empathy, focus, innovation, mission, and others.
    • Subject specialty interview An interview that centers on the candidate's knowledge of the subject matter and experience for the teaching of a specific subject.
    • Summative evaluation Performance evaluation goals are associated with making decisions about job continuation, tenure, placement on specific tracks of the school system's evaluation plan, and defining teacher compensation levels.
    • Superordinate goals Goals that supersede the personal self-interests of the individual and of the company. A goal that expresses the best interests of all concerned.
    • Surface bargaining A bargaining technique in which one party simply goes through the motions of bargaining without any real intention of reaching an agreement.
    • SWOT The strengths and weaknesses of the internal environment and the opportunities and threats of the external environment as perceived through the administration of environmental scans.
    • Syntality The collective behavior of a school; the school's personality.
    • Talent management An effort to measure an employee's individual work performance against the specific objectives determined by the organization and the individual. Talent management also includes efforts to retain quality personnel and develop succession planning.
    • Task The specific responsibilities, obligations, or requirements of a given role or administrative position.
    • Task management A process that centers on the concept of efficiency by finding the best way to do a task at the lowest possible cost.
    • Teacher center An enriched environment of resources, personal involvement, and peer communication. Conceptually constitutes a teaching resource bank.
    • Team observer The bargaining member who listens and watches for clues and behaviors communicated by members of the other bargaining party.
    • Temporary classified employee An employee in a job created to last for a short time, generally less than nine months regardless of the hours worked per week.
    • Tenure The protection given to teachers from arbitrary action by school officials in the dismissal process.
    • Theory Y A theory of human motivation and behavior set forth by Douglas McGregor that views humans as being intelligent, self-directed, committed, responsible, and creative.
    • Township institutes Teacher training programs that taught lessons on the basics, globes, and “school keeping” prior to the establishment of the normal school in America.
    • Toxic climate A climate in which workers have excessive workloads, tight deadlines, unreasonable supervisors, unrealistic targets for productivity, and unattainable goals.
    • Transformational process The available tools and technology used to transform and produce system outputs in the form of products, services, and changed human behaviors.
    • Trend A general movement of detectable change in thinking or practice. An emerging practice in the field that later may become a prevailing tendency.
    • Vacancy analysis The technique of making judgments about the likely movements of employees in the short- and long-range future.
    • Virtual teams Employee teams that use various technologies to work cooperatively when separated from one another.
    • Voluntary binding and compulsory binding arbitration Procedures for resolving disagreements through the use of a neutral third party, whose decision is mandated for both parties.
    • Workplace flexibility The implementation of flexible work arrangements, variations in hours, use of virtual means of communications, outsourcing, and other strategies for the purpose of establishing a better balance between work and the employee's personal life.

    About the Author

    M. Scott Norton, a former public school teacher, coordinator of curriculum, assistant superintendent, and superintendent of schools, served as Professor in and Vice-Chair of the Department of Educational Administration and Supervision at the University of Nebraska, Lincoln, later becoming Professor and Chair of the Department of Educational Administration and Supervision at Arizona State University, where he is currently Professor Emeritus. He teaches graduate classes in human resources administration, school superintendency, school principalship, educational leadership, and competency-based administration.

    Dr. Norton is coauthor of college textbooks in the areas of human resources administration, the school superintendency, and administrative management and author of a textbook in the area of effective leadership for effective administration. He has published widely in national journals in such areas as teacher retention, organizational climate, teacher workload, the role of the department chair in educational administration, employee assistance programs, selection and recruitment practices, the school principalship, distance education, and others.

    He has received several state and national awards honoring his service and contributions to the field of educational administration from such organizations as the American Association of School Administrators, the University Council for Educational Administration, the Arizona School Administrators Association, the Arizona Educational Research Organization, Arizona State University College of Education Dean's Award for excellence in service to the field, and the distinguished service award from the Arizona Educational Information Service.

    Dr. Norton's state and national leadership positions have included service as Executive Director of the Nebraska Association of School Administrators, a member of the Board of Directors for the Nebraska Congress of Parents and Teachers, President of the Arizona School Administrators Higher Education Division, Arizona School Administrators Board of Directors, Staff Associate for the University Council of School Administrators, Treasurer for the University Council for Educational Administration, and Nebraska State Representative for the National Association of Secondary School Principals. Presently he serves on the editorial board for the Journal of School Public Relations.


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