Homosexuality: Research Implications for Public Policy
“Does present important and relevant data on homosexuality that will help sensible professionals and lay people alike refute the specious arguments of … radical right politicians and religious leaders.” –Book Reviews “John C. Gonsiorek and James D. Weinrich are skillful in their application of research to public policy…. This book is exceptionally readable…. [they] are to be particularly commended for their editorial expertise.” –Contemporary Psychology “Gonsiorek and Weinrich's book is a gem! It provides the most up-to-date discussions of all the crucial issues that anyone who deals with gay and lesbian issues must understand–the myths, prejudices, and the knotty issues of policy and the scientific research relevant to them. Whether one needs to know about ‘child molestation,’ ‘choice,’ ‘role models,’ or any other ‘old chestnut,’ ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: The Definition and Scope of Sexual Orientation
- Chapter 2: Homosexuality, Nature, and Biology: Is Homosexuality Natural? Does It Matter?
- Chapter 3: Masculinity and Femininity in Homosexuality: “Inversion” Revisited
- Chapter 4: Strange Customs, Familiar Lives: Homosexualities in Other Cultures
- Chapter 5: Stigma, Prejudice, and Violence Against Lesbians and Gay Men
- Chapter 6: Sexual Orientation and the Law
- Chapter 7: Psychological and Medical Treatments of Homosexuality
- Chapter 8: The Empirical Basis for the Demise of the Illness Model of Homosexuality
- Chapter 9: Constructionism and Morality in Therapy for Homosexuality
- Chapter 10: Sexual Orientation Conversion Therapy for Gay Men and Lesbians: A Scientific Examination
- Chapter 11: Homosexual Identity: Coming Out and Other Developmental Events
- Chapter 12: Lesbian and Gay Relationships
- Chapter 13: Lesbian Mothers and Gay Fathers
- Chapter 14: Partner Notification as an Instrument for HIV Control
- Chapter 15: AIDS Prevention and Public Policy: The Experience of Gay Males
Copyright © 1991 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
For information address:
SAGE Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Newbury Park, California 91320
SAGE Publications Ltd.
6 Bonhill Street
London EC2A 4PU
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd.
Greater Kailash I
New Delhi 110 048 India
Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Homosexuality: research implications for public policy / edited by John C. Gonsiorek and James D. Weinrich.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-8039-4244-3. — ISBN 0-8039-3764-4 (pbk.)
1. Homosexuality—United States. 2. Homosexuality—Government policy—United States. 3. Gays—United States—Psychology. I. Gonsiorek, John C. II. Weinrich, James D.
95 96 97 98 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3
Sage Production Editor: Michelle R. Starika
This volume began when two graduate students, dissatisfied with their disciplines' response to the public policy debates on homosexuality, decided to tackle the issue better than their more senior colleagues. They somehow succeeded. William Paul and James Weinrich, graduate students at Harvard in the mid-1970s, envisioned a pamphlet of one hundred pages or so, summarizing what science knew about homosexuality. As the project developed they involved me, then a graduate student in clinical psychology at the University of Minnesota, and Mary Hotvedt, in the process of completing her doctoral work in medical anthropology. As the four of us worked together, the scope enlarged and we became the Task Force on Sexual Orientation. It was clear that the project had become more than a pamphlet, and we began seeking sponsorship. The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI), Division 9 of the American Psychological Association, was the logical choice. SPSSI had developed and prospered since the 1930s as organized psychology's interface with social issues and public policy. Throughout SPSSI's history of careful objective analysis of social issues and courageous stands on their public policy implications, it has earned respect beyond the confines of academic psychology.
SPSSI's response was most generous. Under the leadership of two of the society's presidents, Lawrence Wrightsman and June Tapp, we were provided programming time at the American Psychological Association from 1978 to 1981 with which to hone our ideas, financial support, encouragement, critical feedback, and perhaps most important, mentorship. John Gagnon, Evelyn Hooker, and John De Cecco served as able advisers to the Task Force.
In 1982 the Task Force published its final report: Homosexuality: Social, Psychological, and Biological Issues (Sage Publications). Simultaneously, the mental health section of the Task Force report was published as a special issue of the journal American Behavioral Scientist in March 1982. The response to that first volume was positive. The Task Force disbanded, its mission successfully completed.[Page viii]
The decade of the 1980s, however, saw an intensification and polarization, not a resolution, of the public policy debates about homosexuality. The emergence of the religious right wing in the United States and its use of homosexuality as a scare tactic produced levels of distortion about what science knew concerning homosexuality that surpassed anything in the 1970s. The fear and panic that accompanied the AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) epidemic further impaired reasonable debate about the public policy aspects of homosexuality. On a positive note, the first waves of new information about homosexuality in the 1960s and 1970s attracted the interest of scientists and scholars from all disciplines. The 1980s witnessed an unprecedented development of knowledge and theory concerning sexual orientation. The four editors of the original 1982 volume had hoped the information would remain current for some decades, but that the need for it would lessen after the public policy debates had been resolved. The opposite occurred. There was more new information about homosexuality than anyone anticipated, rendering the volume dated, and the public policy debates became more acrimonious, making the need for an updated and more focused volume acute.
In 1987 William Paul and I began discussions with SPSSI to revise the volume for a paperback edition. William Paul's illness and eventual death from the complications of AIDS rendered him unable to participate in this revision. Jim Weinrich then took his place as coeditor. SPSSI, as before, provided the same catalytic environment of encouragement, critical feedback, and financial and technical support. This revision has also benefited from support and feedback from the Society for the Scientific Study of Lesbian and Gay Issues (Division 44 of the American Psychological Association), as well as from the Committee on Lesbian and Gay Concerns of the Board of Social and Ethical Responsibility of the American Psychological Association.
A multiauthored coedited volume results from the efforts of many more people than appear on the authors' list. Some individuals' contributions were especially noteworthy. Leonard Bickman, the chair of SPSSI's Publication Committee, was generous with his time and feedback. Terry Hendricks of Sage Publications is any editor's dream of managing editor and publisher. All of our authors were selfless in donating their time, energy, and labor, but three of them, Greg Herek, Letitia Anne Peplau, and Charles Silverstein, took a particular interest in the volume as a whole and provided meticulous and considered feedback. Clinton Anderson, Linda Garnets, Terry Gock, and Doug Kimmel also provided crucial assistance by reviewing the entire manuscript.[Page ix]
We dedicate this volume to our departed colleague, William Paul. We will long remember his ardent leadership of the Task Force on Sexual Orientation. We can think of no better memorial than to complete the project he twice spearheaded and attempt once again to provide a scientific base in understanding the public policy debates concerning homosexuality.[Page x]
This volume attempts to summarize what science knows about homosexuality and its relevance for public policy. Those for whom a survey is adequate will find the most relevant literature covered. Those who require greater depth can utilize the volume as a guide to more extensive sources.
The scholars who have contributed to this volume come from a variety of disciplines: social, clinical, and counseling psychology; law; psychiatry; social work; biology; nursing; and anthropology. This book does not attempt to address the complex range of concerns surrounding homosexuality as a social issue. Rather, it focuses on those issues that have been most central to current public policy debates about homosexuality. These include the nature and causes of sexual orientations; the reasons homosexuality is not a mental illness; the ethics of various mental health approaches to homosexuality; the effects of social and legal discrimination; newer biological and psychological understandings of homosexuality; homosexual people as couples and as parents; and the implications of the AIDS epidemic. The authors share a belief that scholarly explication of what science knows about these issues can clarify this controversial area in which discourse has typically been characterized by ignorance, distortion, and prejudice. The volume also shares a methodological perspective across many chapters, as a way to assist the reader to think critically about the material presented. In this manner, we hope to encourage readers to become discerning consumers of the scientific discourses on homosexuality, past, present, and future. The chapters are presented in a format accessible to the serious lay reader as well as professionals from various disciplines.
The past 25 years have seen intense, generally unresolved, and at times acrimonious debate about the meaning of homosexuality and the place of homosexual individuals in our society. Scientific information is often cited by proponents of all viewpoints to justify their positions. [Page xii]Often, scientists and scholars have not spoken for themselves in these debates. Scientific and scholarly information abut homosexuality has been distorted and misused for political ends. Despite heterosexist bias having been thoroughly examined and critiqued (McDonald, 1981; Morin, 1977; Morin & Charles, 1981), it clearly persists.
The authors in this volume are unusual in their willingness to enter this debate. Their task has been a challenging one: To sift through the most important aspects of scientific knowledge on their topic and apply this to public policy debates in a manner that is objective, yet clear and uncompromising, when science does have something to say about homosexuality. To most Americans, homosexual activities and people have been mysterious. Since the mid-1950s when Evelyn Hooker did her pioneering work on psychological adjustment in homosexuals, there has been a steady accumulation of scientific information about homosexuality. To serious scientists and scholars, homosexuality and homosexual individuals are no longer mysterious.
Public policy debates about homosexuality include areas other than the biological and social sciences, such as moral values and religious concerns. This volume does not speak directly to those. We note, however, that proponents of all viewpoints have attempted to cloak themselves in the respectability of science. Not all religious and moral traditions are impervious to scientific understandings of human nature. For some traditions, science is important as a source of understanding, and we believe that this volume has much to offer those traditions that are receptive. We do not think it is too brash to say that those who call upon the biological, behavioral, or social sciences to support their points of view must seriously weigh the information contained in this volume if they are to retain credibility and integrity.
Selection of topics for this volume presented a challenge. We have often had to remind ourselves that issues that are settled for scientists and scholars (e.g., whether homosexuality is a biological aberration or an illness) are not settled for the public. Our perception of which topics are most crucial for the knowledge base of a general audience guided selection. We have also had to make some difficult decisions abut which areas have sufficient literature to warrant a summary of research findings relevant to public policy. Space constraints have been a consideration, as one of the purposes of this volume is to be accessible and affordable. Not everyone will agree with our choices, but we believe we have covered most, though certainly not all, topics germane to public policy debates. If limitations of space (and therefore, cost of this book) were not a factor, our next most logical choices would have been racial, ethnic, and cross-cultural diversity in depth; historical understandings; expanded legal coverage; the status of gay and lesbian youth; sexual [Page xiii]orientation over the life span; and exploration of the relationships between homophobia, sexism, racism, and economic exploitation.
Like most scientific discourse, research on homosexuality has been filtered through societal biases. Among its other effects, this has meant that white, middle-class and above, adult, English-speaking males have been studied more than their numbers warrant. This situation showed some signs of improvement regarding women, who were more intensively studied in the 1970s and early 1980s than ever before. Ironically, the AIDS epidemic is again pushing research funding heavily in the direction of gay males to the exclusion of lesbians because of the vastly different HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) risk profiles of these two groups. (As a group, lesbians are probably at least risk based upon sexual orientation, while gay men are at greatest risk, based upon this variable.) The old sexist prejudices, though, have away of adapting themselves to new conditions, and much of the “new” male-oriented bias in research is simply that. Researchers have been considerably less sensitive to inclusion of nonadult and racial/ethnic minority populations in research, although a good deal of exciting work on identity development of this latter group is emerging. We have attempted to include information on women, non-middle-class samples, racial/ethnic minorities, and cultural diversity where it exists. We have been pleased to find this situation improved since we prepared the 1982 version of this book; we have been disappointed that so much distortion from equitable and representative sampling remains.
This volume begins with an exploration of the difficulties in defining and measuring sexual orientation and contains a brief introduction to the current debates about the “nature” of sexual orientation. Biological understandings of sexual orientation are then pursued from a variety of perspectives, including evolutionary and hormonal. Not only do these chapters by Pillard and by Kirsch and Weinrich provide a grounding; the ideas they elucidate are among the most misused in public policy debates. Weinrich and Williams introduce cross-cultural information, which develops another level of understanding sexual orientation.
Herek provides a thorough basis for understanding the social context of homosexuality as it affects both homosexual and nonhomosexual people. Rivera offers a similarly detailed review of the legal status of lesbian and gay citizens.
Silverstein initiates a series of chapters on traditional mental health concerns: diagnosis and treatment. He offers a historical perspective, critiques the intrusion of political agendas into mental health practice, and then reviews biologically based treatment modalities. The review by Gonsiorek follows, outlining the empirical reasons why the illness model of homosexuality was discarded. Davison then analyzes the [Page xiv]ethical reasons why attempts to change sexual orientation are problematic, while Haldeman reviews the empirical literature on attempts to change sexual orientation, with special emphasis on the newer religiously oriented “conversion” treatments. In a sense, much of this section is “old hat” to those knowledgeable about mental health and sexual orientation. It is covered in such depth because the public policy debates about homosexuality continue to be cluttered with the discredited and obsolete belief that homosexuality is an illness, almost a decade and a half after it was depathologized. Further, in recent years, there has been an increase in religiously oriented conversion therapies. We judged this area to be one of the most persistently confusing for a lay readership, and so gave it considerable emphasis. For the professional reader, we believe our extensive coverage will provide a sound methodological understanding of these issues.
The next section samples what the newer lesbian and gay affirmative perspectives in psychology have to offer. Gonsiorek and Rudolph review identity development among lesbians and gay men, perhaps one of the issues most elaborated by this new perspective. The relationship of these ideas to racial/ethnic minority perspectives on identity development is briefly explored, and a proposed integration with self-psychology approaches is outlined. Peplau describes research on same-sex couples and places it in the context of understanding couples in general. Lesbians and gay men as parents may be one of the most common legal struggles pertaining to homosexuality today. Green and Bozett review what is known about homosexual people as parents.
No book written in the 1990s about homosexuality would be complete without discussion of the AIDS epidemic. Yet, in this area, it was hardest to decide which topics were most relevant. Where does scientific research have something to say abut public policy and AIDS, specific to homosexuality? Topics we considered had a tendency to mushroom, encompassing broad public policy dilemmas relating to health care resources, delivery systems, and other areas not specific to homosexuality. After some deliberation, we concluded that HIV infection prevention raised the greatest number of public policy issues specific to homosexuality. Dejowski and colleagues examine the empirical basis for the most commonly used prevention tool in public health, partner notification. Gonsiorek and Shernoff discuss what is known about HIV infection prevention strategies in gay men in the context of what is generally known about health behavior change.
A brief summary of the volume then follows. A master bibliography covers the entire volume, with one exception. The chapter on legal issues by Rivera retains its separate bibliography. A thorough bibliography is a useful tool for research and scholarship. The differences [Page xv]between legal and psychological citation systems are extensive. We decided it would be most useful for scholars in both areas to leave them separate.
This book has a narrow, almost unidimensional focus: What does science know about homosexuality and what does this mean for public policy? This focus is both an asset and a liability. We believe we have provided a sound introductory text, and a guide to further exploration of the literature to the serious student, both lay and professional. We are also aware of our own frustration in resisting opportunities to expand into related areas. We have opted, for better or worse, to do a limited task, hopefully well. The deciding factor was the lack of a focused comprehensive treatment of this area, except for our earlier 1982 version, which is outdated in part, and less focused than this volume. We hope others will use this volume to push the limits of scientific understanding of sexual orientation beyond the parameters in which this volume is contained.
References[Page 249]1961). Homosexuality and some MMPI measures of masculinity-femininity. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 17, 245–247. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679%28196107%2917:3%3C245::AID-JCLP2270170310%3E3.0.CO;2-A, & (1978). The survival of domination: Inferiorization and everyday life. New York: Elsevier.(1987). The rise of a gay and lesbian movement. Boston: Twayne.(1977). A comparison of professionally employed lesbians and heterosexual women on the MMPI. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 6, 193–201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01541127(1950). The authoritarian personality. New York: Harper & Row., , , & (1979). Female homosexual behavior in Macaca mulatta. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 8, 63–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01541214, & (1984). Beloved women: The lesbian in American Indian culture. In T.Darty & S.Potter (Eds.), Women-identified women (pp. 83–96). Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield.(1954). The nature of prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.(1988). Enemies of freedom: Understanding right-wing authoritarianism. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.(1982). The homosexualization of America, the Americanization of the homosexual. New York: St. Martin's.(1986). AIDS in the mind of America. New York: Anchor/Doubleday.(1989). Considerations for prevention of HIV infection among Hispanic women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 12, 429–444. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1988.tb00976.x(American Medical Association, Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs. (1987). Ethical issues involved in the growing AIDS crisis. Chicago: American Medical Association.American Psychiatric Association. (1942). Statistical manual for the use of hospitals for mental diseases (10th ed.). Committee on Statistics, American Psychiatric Association, in collaboration with the National Committee for Mental Hygiene. Utica: State Hospitals Press.American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.) (rev. ed., 1987) Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.American Psychological Association. (1975). Minutes of the Council of Representatives. American Psychologist, 30, 633.American Psychological Association. (1986). Amicus curiae brief filed in U.S. Supreme Court case Bowers v. Hardwick, 478 U.S. 186.American Psychological Association. (1990, July). Sullivan is criticized by APA over report. APA Monitor, p. 40.American Public Health Association Special Initiative on AIDS. (1988). Report number 2: Contact tracing and partner notification. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.1969). Contact hypothesis in ethnic relations. Psychological Bulletin, 71 (5), 319–342. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0027352(1981). The effect of a workshop on attitudes of female nursing students toward homosexuality. Journal of Homosexuality, 7 (1), 57–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v07n01_06(1982). Males as sexual assault victims: Multiple levels of trauma. Journal of Homosexuality, 7, 145–162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v07n02_15([Page 250]1985). Prevalence of antibodies to AIDS-associated retrovirus in single men in San Francisco. Lancet, 1, 217., & (1985). Working with lesbian alcoholics. Social Work, 31, 518–525., & (1989). AIDS prevention models in Asian-American communities. In V.M.Mays, G.W.Albee, & S.F.Schneider (Eds.), Primary prevention of AIDS: Psychological Approaches (pp. 290–308). Newbury Park, CA: Sage., , , & (1981). Conceptual approaches to stereotypes and stereotyping. In D.L.Hamilton (Ed.), Cognitive processes in stereotyping and intergroup behavior (pp. 1–35). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., & (Association of Medical Superintendents of American Institutions for the Insane. (1871). Statistical Tables. Harrisburg: T. F. Scheffer, printer.Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, National Association of County Health Officials, and U.S. Conference of Local Health Officers. (1988). Guide to public health practice: HIV partner notification strategies. Washington, DC: Public Health Foundation.1979). Counseling American minorities. Dubuque, IA: Brown., , & (1985). Women's social support: A comparison of lesbians and heterosexuals. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.(1987). The incidence of AIDS among blacks and Hispanics. Journal of the National Medical Association, 79, 921–928., , , , & (Baker v. Wade, 106 Federal Rules Decisions 526 (N.D. Texas, 1985).1974). Prenatal androgen, intelligence, and cognitive sex differences. In R.C.Friedman, R.M.Richart, & R.L.Vande Weile (Eds.), Sex differences in behavior (Chap. 4). New York: John Wiley & Sons., & (1968). Deviant gender-role behavior in children: Relation to homosexuality. Pediatrics, 41, 620–629.(1969). Principles of behavior modification. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.(1979). The crime victim's book. New YorkBasic Books., & (1975). Sexual surgery in nineteenth century America. International Journal of Health Sciences, 2, 279–298.(1969). Experimental control of sexual deviations through manipulation of the noxious scene in covert sensitization. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 74, 596–601. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0028087, , & (1974). Psychiatry opinion and homosexuality: A short report. Journal of Homosexuality, 1, 213–215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v01n02_05, & (1990, April 6). Study: One in five gay men sometimes “slip” into unsafe sex. Washington Blade, 22 (14), p. 6.(1985). Neuroendocrine response to estrogen and sexual orientation. Science, 230, 960–961. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.2997925, , , & (1981). Homosexuality and American psychiatry. New York: Basic Books.(1987). Homosexuality and American psychiatry: The politics of diagnosis ((2nd ed.). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.1986). HIV antibody screening: An ethical framework for evaluating proposed programs. Journal of the American Medical Association, 256, 1768–1774. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1986.03380130096035, , & (1988). AIDS and behavioral change to reduce risk: A review. American Journal of Public Health, 78, 394–409. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.78.4.394, & (1975). Ethical and legal issues of behavior modification. In M.Hersen, R.Eisler, & P.M.Miller (Eds.), Progress in behavior modification. New York: Academic Press.([Page 251]1977). Homosexuality and the ethics of behavioral intervention. Journal of Homosexuality, 2 (3), 213–219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v02n03_03(1972). Human sexuality—A response. International Journal of Psychiatry, 10, 99–102.(1978). Homosexualities: A study of diversity among men and women. New York: Simon & Schuster., & (1981). Sexual preference: Its development in men and women. Bloomington: Indiana University Press., , & (1974). The measurement of psychological androgyny. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42, 155–162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0036215(1978). Beyond androgyny: Some presumptuous prescriptions for a liberated sexual identity. In J.A.Sherman & F.L.Denmark (Eds.), The psychology of women: Future directions in research. New York: Psychological Dimensions.(1979). Theory and measurement of androgyny: A reply to the Pedhazur-Tetenbaum and Locksley-Colten critiques. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1047–1054. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2067(1981). The Bern sex role inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.(1959). A femininity adjective check list. Journal of Applied Psychology, 43, 327–333. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0046747(1988). Lesbians, family process and individuation. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 3, 97–112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J035v03n01_09(1956). Homosexuality: Disease or way of life?New York: Collier.(1990). The multidimensional scale of sexuality. Journal of Homosexuality, 19, 67–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v19n04_05, , & (1978a). Sex role conformity in homosexual and heterosexual males. Journal of Personality Assessment, 42, 505–511. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa4205_11, & (1978b). Androgyny scores of matched homosexual and heterosexual males. Journal of Homosexuality, 4, 169–178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v04n02_03, & (1989). Anti-gay violence, victimization, and defamation in 1988. Washington, DC: National Gay and Lesbian Task Force. [Available from NGLTF, 1517 U Street NW, Washington, DC 20009](1990). Anti-gay violence and victimization in the United States: An overview. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 5 (3), 274–294. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626090005003003(1990). Primary and secondary victimization in anti-gay hate crimes: Official response and public policy. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 5 (3), 401–413. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626090005003012, & (1990). Coming out under fire: The history of gay men and women in World War II. New York: Free Press.(1988). Permanent partners: Building gay and lesbian relationships that last. New York: Dutton.(1962). Homosexuality: A psychoanalytic study. New York: Basic Books. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11179-000, , , , , , , , , & (1985). Prejudice toward contemporary outgroups as a generalized attitude. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 15 (2), 189–199. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1985.tb02344.x(1989a). Parenting behaviors of homosexual and heterosexual fathers. Journal of Homosexuality, 18 (1, 2), 173–186. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v18n01_09, & (1989b). The value of children to gay and straight fathers. Journal of Homosexuality, 18 (1, 2), 163–172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v18n01_08, & (1980). The myth of classical homosexuality: Views of a behavioral psychotherapist. In J.Marmor (Ed.), Homosexual behavior: A modern reappraisal. New York: Basic Books.([Page 252]1987). Relative deprivation theory and responses to discrimination in a gay male and lesbian sample. British Journal of Social Psychology, 26, 139–145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1987.tb00774.x, & (1982). Ex-Gay. New York: Homosexual Counseling Center.(1983). Measuring masculine gender identity in females. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 205–214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.51.2.205, & (1985). Sexual exclusivity versus openness in gay male couples. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 14 (5), 395–412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01542001, & (1988). Discrimination against people with AIDS: The public's perspective. New England Journal of Medicine, 319 (15), 1022–1026. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM198810133191522, & (1983). American couples: Money, work, sex. New York: Morrow., & (1904–1909). The Chukchee. Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History, 11, 1–732.(Boston Lesbian Psychologies Collective (Eds.). (1987). Lesbian psychologies: Explorations and challenges. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.1980). Christianity, social tolerance, and homosexuality: Cay people in Western Europe from the beginning of the Christian era to the fourteenth century. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1982). Revolutions, universals, and sexual categories. Salmagundi, 58–59, 89–113.(1988). Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the black community: Focusing on education and the black male. New York State Journal of Medicine, 88, 638–641., & (Bowers v. Hardwick, 106 S. Ct. 2841 (1986).1979). Gay fathers: The convergence of a dichotemized identity through integrative sanctioning. Dissertation Abstracts International, 40, 2608–2609B. (University Microfilms No. 79–26,643).(1980). Gay fathers: How and why they disclose their homosexuality to their children. Family Relations, 29 (2), 173–179. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/584068(1981a). Gay fathers: Evolution of the gay-father identity. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 52 (3), 552–559.(1981b). Gay fathers: Identity conflict resolution through integrative sanctioning. Alternative Lifestyles, 4 (1), 90–107.(1985). Gay men as fathers. In S.M. H.Hanson & F.W.Bozett (Eds.), Dimensions of fatherhood (pp. 327–352). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(1987). Gay fathers. In F.W.Bozett (Ed.), Gay and lesbian parents (pp. 3–22). New York: Praeger.(1988). Gay fatherhood. In P.Bronstein & C.P.Cowan (Eds.), Fatherhood today: Men's changing role in the family (pp. 214–235). New York: John Wiley.(1989). Fathers who are gay. In R.Kus (Ed.), Helping your gay and lesbian client: A psychosocial approach from gay and lesbian perspectives. Boston: Alyson.(1965). Overt and covert homosexual problems among male college students. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 71, 269–270., & (1985). No magic bullet: A social history of venereal disease in the United States since 1880. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.(1987). No magic bullet: A social history of venereal disease in the United States since 1980 ((rev. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.1988). AIDS in historical perspective: Four lessons from the history of sexually transmitted diseases. American Journal of Public Health, 78, 367–371. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.78.4.367(1985). The psychology of intergroup attitudes and behavior. Annual Review of Psychology, 36, 219–243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.36.020185.001251, & (1976). Familiar faces, hidden lives. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.(1985). Letter to the editor. Nebraska Medical Journal, 70, 410–414., & ([Page 253]1970). Syphilis and other venereal disease. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press., , , , , & (1987). Therapeutic issues and intervention strategies with young adult lesbian clients: A developmental approach. Journal of Homosexuality, 14 (1, 2), 45–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v14n01_04(1947). Value and need as organizing factors in perception. Journal of Personality, 16, 69–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1947.tb01076.x, & (1977). The Anita Bryant story: The survival of our nation's families and the threat of militant homosexuality. Old Tappan, NJ: Fleming H. Revell.(1988). Homosexuals in Eastern Europe: Mental health and psychotherapy issues. Journal of Homosexuality, 15 (1, 2), 153–162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v15n01_11, & (1988). Homosexuality, suicide and parasuicide in Australia. Journal of Homosexuality, 15 (1, 2), 113–129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v15n01_09, & (1979). Tests of gender feelings and behavior in homosexuality, transvestism and transsexualism. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 35, 187–191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679%28197901%2935:1%3C187::AID-JCLP2270350130%3E3.0.CO;2-G, & (1990, March). “Heterosexual ethic” mentality is decried. APA Monitor, p. 20.(1974). Homosexuality and the medical modelJournal of Homosexuality, 1, 99–110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v01n01_08(1976). Sexual variance in society and history. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1986). Psychotherapy and the dynamics of merger in lesbian couples. In T.Stein & C.Cohen (Eds.), Contemporary perspectives on psychotherapy with lesbians and gay men (pp. 57–73). New York: Plenum.(1974). Differences between “show” and “no-show” volunteers in a homosexual population. Journal of Social Psychology, 92, 159–160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1974.9923090, & (Burgess, R.L., & Huston, T.L. (Eds.). (1979). Social exchange in developing relationships. New York: Academic Press.1947). The use of the masculinity femininity scale of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory as an aid in the diagnosis of sexual inversion. Journal of Psychology, 24, 161–164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00223980.1947.9917346(1984). The balance of power in lesbian relationships. Sex Roles, 10, 587–600. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00287267, & (1983). The North American berdache. Current Anthropology, 24, 443–456. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/203030, & (1981). Social psychological aspects of the Judeo-Christian stance toward homosexuality. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 9, 40–57.(1985). Homosexual molestation of children / sexual interaction of teacher and pupil. Psychological Reports, 57, 1227–1236. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1985.57.3f.1227(1986). AIDS in haemophiliacs and homosexuals. Lancet, 1, 36.(1988). Kinsey sex surveys. Science, 240, 867.(1985). Sexual orientation and sexually transmitted disease. Nebraska Medical Journal, 70, 292–299., , , & (1986). Child molestation and homosexuality. Psychological Reports, 58, 327–337. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.19220.127.116.117, , , , , & (Canadian AIDS Society. (1988, December). Safer sex guidelines: A resource document for educators and counselors. (Available from Canadian AIDS Society, Box 55, Station F, Toronto, Canada, M4Y 2L4.)1954). Female homosexuality: A modern study of lesbianism. New York: Grove.(1989). Hispanic culture, gay male culture, and AIDS: Counseling implications. Journal of Counseling and Development, 68, 26–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1989.tb02487.x(1981). Sex-role identity, sex-role behavior, and satisfaction in heterosexual, lesbian, and gay male couples. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 5 (3), 488–494. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1981.tb00588.x, , & ([Page 254]1986). Acquired immune deficiency syndrome: A preliminary examination of the effects on gay couples and coupling, Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 12 (3), 241–247. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.1986.tb00650.x(1984). Androgyny, depression and self-esteem in Irish homosexual and heterosexual males and females. Sex Roles, 10, 457–467. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00287562, & (1985). Age, sex-role categorization and psychological health in American homosexual and heterosexual men and women, Journal of Social Psychology, 125, 203–211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1985.9922873, & (1983). Out of the shadows: Understanding sexual addiction. Minneapolis: Comp-Care Publications.(1976). Cultural factors affecting urban Mexican male homosexual behavior. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 5, 103–124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01541868(1980). Homosexual behavior in cross-cultural perspective. In J.Marmor (Ed.), Homosexual behavior: A modern reappraisal (pp. 100–122). New York: Basic Books.(1986). Childhood cross-gender bahavior and adult homosexuality. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 15, 89–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01542307(1989). Gay liberation and coming out in Mexico, Journal of Homosexuality, 17 (3, 4), 225–252. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v17n03_02(1957). Cornflake crusade. American Heritage, 8, 65–85.(1979). Homosexual identity formation: A theoretical model. Journal of Homosexuality, 4, 219–236. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v04n03_01(1983–1984). Homosexual identity: A concept in need of a definition. Journal of Homosexuality, 9, 105–126.(1984). Homosexual identity formation: Testing a theoretical modelJournal of Sex Research, 20, 143–167. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224498409551214(1985). Social consequences of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Annals of Internal Medicine, 103, 768–771. http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-103-5-768(1989). Implications of the AIDS risk reduction model for the gay community: The importance of perceived sexual enjoyment and help seeking behaviors. In V.M.Mays, G.W.Albee, & S.F.Schneider (Eds.), Primary prevention of AIDS: Psychological approaches (pp. 242–261). Newbury Park, CA: Sage., , , , , & (1962). The use of the 16PF in distinguishing homosexuals, normals, and general criminals. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 26, 531–540. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0045239, & (1967). Covert sensitization. Psychological Reports, 20, 459–468. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1918.104.22.1689(Centers for Disease Control, (n.d.). Announcement number 002, fiscal year 1990 HIV cooperative agreements. Atlanta: Author.Centers for Disease Control (1988). Definition and model for partner notification, 1988. Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Report, 37, 393–396.Centers for Disease Control. (1989). Guidelines for prophylaxis against pneumocystis carinii pneumonia for persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Report, 38, 1–9.Centers for Disease Control. (1990). Publicly funded HIV counseling and testing—United States, 1985–1989. Journal of the American Medical Association, 263 (14), 1901.1984). Changing homonegative attitudes. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 2 (4), 366–371. http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/jscp.1922.214.171.1246, & (1989). Issues of identity development among Asian-American lesbians and gay men. Journal of Counseling and Development, 68, 16–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1989.tb02485.x(1960). A study of identification in male homosexuals. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 24, 307–310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0046046, & (1987). A proposed model of lesbian identity development: An empirical investigation. Journal of Homosexuality, 34 (3, 4), 69–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v14n03_05, & ([Page 255]1969). Illusory correlation as an obstacle to the use of valid psychodiagnostic signs. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 74, 271–280. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0027592, & (1974). Male-female, female-female, and male-male sexual behavior in the stumptaü monkey, with special attention to female orgasm. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 3, 95–116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01540994(1976). Homosexual behavior in a laboratory group of stumptail monkeys (Macaca arctiodes): Forms, contexts, and possible social functions. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 5, 511–527. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01541216(1986). Psychological issues for AIDS patients. Psychiatric Annals, 16, 173–179., , & (1986). Self-concept of lesbian and heterosexual women. Psychological Reports, 59, 1279–1282. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.19126.96.36.1999, & (1967). Homosexual behavior among males: A cross-cultural and cross-species investigation. New York: Hawthorn.(1975). Homosexuality and psychopathology in non-patient males. American Journal of Psychoanalysis, 35, 163–168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01358188(1958, April). Standing room ONLY. Harper's, pp. 54–57.(1965). The Slater Selective Vocabulary Test and male homosexuality. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 38, 339–340. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8341.1965.tb01316.x(1976). Gender roles and human sexuality. Journal of Personality Assessment, 40, 276–284. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa4003_7, & (1988). Lesbian couples. Seattle, WA: Seal Press., & (1978, April). Romantic relationships: For better or for worse. Paper presented at the Western Psychological Association meeting, San Francisco.(1989). Women and HIV infection: Issues in prevention and behavior change. In V.M.Mays, G.W.Albee, & S.F.Schneider (Eds.), Primary prevention of AIDS: Psychological approaches (pp. 309–327). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1988), Epidemiologic and sociocultural factors in the transmission of HIV infection in black gay and bisexual men. In M.Shernoff & W.Scott (Eds.), The sourcebook on gay and lesbian health care (, & (2nd ed.) (pp. 202–211). Washington, DC: National Lesbian and Gay Health Foundation.1989, October 31). Hate crimes bill stalled by Helms’ opposition. San Francisco Chronicle, p. A10.(1987, June). Sexual and other practices and risk of HIV infection in a cohort of 450 sexually active women in San Francisco. Paper presented at the Third International Conference on AIDS, Washington, DC., , , & (1989, October 25). Gay rights support has grown since 1982, Gallup poll finds. San Francisco Chronicle, p. A21.(1978). Toward a new model of treatment of homosexuality: A review. Journal of Homosexuality, 3, 345–359. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v03n04_03(1982). Developmental stages of the coming-out process. In J.Gonsiorek (Ed.), Homosexuality and psychotherapy: A practitioner's handbook of affirmative models (pp. 31–44). New York: Haworth.(1987). Psychotherapy with homosexual men and women: Integrated identity approaches for clinical practice. New York: Haworth.(Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. (1986). Letter to the bishops of the Catholic Church on the pastoral care of homosexual persons. Vatican City: Author.1979). Female-female pairs and other unusual reproductive associations in ring-billed and California gulls. The Auk, 96, 6–9., , & (1976). Orgasmic reconditioning: A controlled study of its effects upon the sexual arousal and behavior of male homosexuals. Behavior Therapy, 7, 155–166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894%2876%2980271-7, & ([Page 256]1959). Body-build of male homosexuals. British Medical Journal, 2, 1443–1445. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.5164.1443(1951). The homosexual in America. New York: Greenberg.(1975). Social and sexual relationships of lesbians. Journal of Sex Research, 11, 148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224497509550887(1987). MMPI-derived prevalence estimates of homosexuality among drug-dependent patients. International Journal of the Addictions, 22, 1139–1145.(1986). Gay parents and their children: A review of research and practical implications. Journal of Counseling and Development, 64, 504–507. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1986.tb01182.x(1988). Coming out to mom and dad: A study of gay males and their relationships with their parents. Journal of Homosexuality, 15 (3, 4), 79–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v15n03_04, & (1987, April). AIDS update: Condoms are not enough. American Association of Sex Educators, Counselors and Therapists Newsletter, pp. 20–22.(1955). Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological Bulletin, 51, 281–302. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0040957, & (1980). Recent unobtrusive studies of black and white discrimination and prejudice: A literature review. Psychological Bulletin, 87546–563. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.87.3.546, , & (1988, August). Contact notification and alternative policy options—practical, ethical and cost/benefit considerations. In (Chair), AIDS, contact notification and public policy: A multi-disciplinary symposium. Symposium conducted at the annual convention of the American Psychological Association, Atlanta.(1990). Aids contact notification: Initial program results in New Jersey. Journal of AIDS Education and Prevention, 2, 284–295., , , & (1972). Assessing the diagnostic utility of MMPI and 16 PF indexes of homosexuality in a prison sample. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 39, 342. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0033418, & (1957). Homosexuality: An analysis of 100 male cases. British Medical Journal, 1, 797–801. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.5022.797, & (1981). The loss and search for the puer: A consideration of inferiority feelings in certain male adolescents. Adolescence, 16, 145–158.(1973). MMPI handbook: Vol. 1 (, , & (rev. ed.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.1979). Adjustment of heterosexual and homosexual couples in pairing relationships: An exploratory study. Journal of Sex Research, 15 (2), 143–157. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224497909551032(1979). Intelligence and prenatal progesterone: A reappraisal. Royal Society of Medicine, 72, 397–399.(1971). Coming out in the gay world. Psychiatry, 34, 180–197.(1948). Homosexual activity: Relation of degree and role to the Goodenough Test and to the Cornell Selectee Index. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 108, 217–240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005053-194810830-00005, & (1987). Risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus infection in homosexual men. American Journal of Public Health, 77, 479–483. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.77.4.479, , , , , , & (1975). Charles Darwin's natural selection (R.C.Stauffer, Ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.(1987). Social support patterns of lesbian women in a rural helping network. Journal of Rural Community Psychology, 8 (1), 12–21.(1987). Gay women, men, and families in rural settings: Toward the development of helping communities. American Journal of Community Psychology, 15 (1), 79–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00919759, & (1968). Elimination of a sadistic fantasy by a client-controlled counterconditioning technique: A case study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 73, 84–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0025440(1974). Homosexuality: The ethical challenge. Presidential address to the annual convention of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Chicago.([Page 257]1976). Homosexuality: The ethical challenge. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 44, 157–162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.44.2.157(1978). Not “can” but “ought:” The treatment of homosexuality. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46 (1), 170–172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.46.1.170(1982). Politics, ethics, and therapy for homosexuality. American Behavioral Scientist, 25 (4), 423–434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000276482025004007(1981). Sexual orientation stereotypy in the distortion of clinical judgment. Journal of Homosexuality, 6, 37–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v06n03_03, & (1990). Abnormal psychology (, & (5th ed.). New York: John Wiley.1976). The selfish gene. New York: Oxford University Press.(1981). Definition and meaning of sexual orientation. Journal of Homosexuality, 6 (4), 51–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v06n04_04(1987). Homosexuality's brief recovery: From sickness to health and back again. Journal of Sex Research, 23, 106–114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224498709551346(1983/1984). From sexual identity to sexual relationships: A contextual shift. Journal of Homosexuality, 9 (2, 3), 1–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v09n02_01, & (1964). Analysis of MMPI profiles of forty college-educated overt male homosexuals. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 28, 483–486. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0042252, & (1966). On MMPI high-point codes of homosexual versus heterosexual males. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 30, 558–560. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0024005, & (1984). Structure of gender stereotypes: Interrelationships among components and gender label. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 991–1004. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.521, & (1986). Homoseksuele identiteit in ontwikkeling [The developing homosexual identity]. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Catholic University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands.(1988). Een onderzoek naar enkele aspecten van de homoseksuele identiteitsontwikkeling [An investigation into some aspects of the development of homosexual identity]. Tijdschrift voor Seksuologie, 12, 105–116., & . (1989). Federal restrictions on AIDS prevention efforts for gay men. St. Louis University Public Law Review, 8, 275–298.(1988, August). AIDS, contact notification, and public policy. In , (Chair), AIDS, contact notification, and public policy: A multi-disciplinary symposium. Symposium conducted at the annual convention of the American Psychological Association, Atlanta.(1983). Sexual politics, sexual communities: The making of a homosexual minority in the United States, 1940–1970. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1978). Coming out: Similarities and differences for lesbians and gay men. Journal of Social Issues, 34, 59–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1978.tb02614.x, & (1980). Ambisexuality in animals. In J.Marmor (Ed.), Homosexual behavior: A modern reappraisal. New York: Basic Books.(1937). Institutionalized homosexuality of the Mohave Indians. Human Biology, 9, 498–527. Reprinted in H. M. Ruitenbeek (Ed.), The problem of homosexuality in modern society (1963, pp. 183–226). New York: Dutton.(1985). Homophobia, perceived fathering, and male intimate relationships. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 467–473. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa4905_2, & (1989). Face to face: A guide to AIDS counseling. San Francisco: University of California AIDS Health Project., , & (1986). Responses to perceived discrimination and relative deprivation. In J.M.Olson, C.P.Herman, & M.P.Zanna (Eds.), Relative deprivation and social comparison: The Ontario Symposium, Vol. 4 (pp. 159–179). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.(1985). Dogs are better than cats. New York: Dolphin/Doubleday., & ([Page 258]1960). Implications of homosexuality among Air Force trainees, Journal of Consulting Psychology, 24, 9–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0045538, & (1976). Hormones and brain differentiation. Amsterdam: Elsevier.(1980). Sexual differentiation of the brain. Vitamins and Hormones, 38, 325–381.(1983). Letter to the editor. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 12, 577–582.(1980). Prenatal stress as possible aetiogenic factor of homosexuality in human males. Endokrinologie, 75, 365–368., , , , , , & (1987). Sexual differentiation of gonadotrophin secretion, sexual orientation, and gender role behavior. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry, 27, 1081–1087., , , , & (1975). A neuroendocrine predisposition for homosexuality in men. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 4, 1–8., , , , & (1983). Stressful events in prenatal life of bi- and homosexual men. Experimental Clinical Endocrinology, 81, 83–87., , , & (1982). Behavioral, psychophysiological, and hormonal correlates in lesbian and heterosexual women. In Abstracts, International Academy of Sex Research, Eighth annual meeting, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 21–26, p. 9., , , , , & (1986). Satisfaction and commitment in homosexual and heterosexual relationships. Journal of Homosexuality, 12 (2), 1–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v12n02_01, & (1988). Confidentiality: An integral component of AIDS public policy. St. Louis University Public Law Review, 7, 25–34., and (1987). Homosexuality: A research guide. New York: Garland.(1985). Sexual orientation after prenatal exposure to exogenous estrogen. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 14, 57–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01541353, , , , , , & (1972). Female homosexuality. Nature, 238, 106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/238106a0(1922). Studies in the psychology of sex: Vol. 2 ((3rd ed.). Philadelphia: F. A. Davis.1987). Gay politics, ethnic identity: The limits of social constructionism. Socialist Review, 17, 9–54.(1963). Childhood and society ((2nd ed.). New York: Norton.1980). Identity and the life cycle. New York: Norton.(1987). Issues of identity in the psychology of Latina lesbians. In Boston Lesbian Psychologies Collective (Eds.), Lesbian psychologies: Explorations and challenges (pp. 35–51). Urbana: University of Illinois Press.(1980). Lesbians, women, and society. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.(1969). Childhood parental relationships of homosexual men. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 33, 128–135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0027186(1970). Sixteen personality factor questionnaire scores of homosexual men. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 34, 212–215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0029029(1971). Adjective check list scores of homosexual men. Journal of Personality Assessment, 35, 344–349. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00223891.1971.10119680(1972). Physical and biochemical characteristics of homosexual men. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 39, 140–147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0033203(1980). Power strategies in intimate relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38 (4), 618–628. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2068, & (1989). Lesbian mothers: Psychosocial assumptions in family law. American Psychologist, 44, 941–947. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.44.6.941(1980, February). The tests and the “brightest.”Atlantic, pp. 37–48.(Family Research (1988, October-December). Newsletter of the Family Research Institute Inc.Washington, DC, 8 pp.[Page 259]1974). Social interaction and stereotypic responses to homosexuals. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 3, 425–442. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01541163, & (1976). Aversive control of maladaptive sexual behavior Past developments and future trends. Psychology, 13 (4), 53–60.(1989). Prevalence and patterns of same-gender sexual contact among men. Science, 243, 338–348. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.2911744, , , & (1988). Trial of anonymous versus confidential human immunodeficiency virus testing. Lancet, 2, 379–381. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736%2888%2992846-2, , , , , , & (1966). Aversion therapy for sexual deviation: A critical review. Psychological Bulletin, 65, 65–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0022913(1965). The application of anticipatory avoidance learning to the treatment of homosexuality: Theory, technique, and preliminary, results. Behavior Research and Therapy, 2, 165–183. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967%2864%2990013-0, & (1971). Homosexual behavior: Therapy and assessment. New York: Pergamon., & (1977). Helping homosexuals with problems: A commentary and a personal view. Journal of Homosexuality, 2, 241–250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v02n03_07(1985, September 23). The evil that men do. New York Native, pp. 23–24.(Field Institute, The. (1988, August 16). The California poll Release Number 1459. San Francisco: Author.1982). Patterns of intellectual functioning and spatial ability in boys with gender identity disorders. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 27, 135–139., , , & , (1986). A sourcebook on child sexual abuse. Newbury Park, CA: Sage., (1987). Evaluation of heterosexual partners, children, and household contacts of adults with AIDS. Journal of the American Medical Association, 257, 640–644. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1987.03390050066020, , , , , & (1951). Patterns of sexual behavior. New York: Harper & Row., & (1966). Behavior methods for chronic pain and illness. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby.(1968). An application of behavior modification technique to a problem of chronic pain. Behavior Research and Therapy, 6, 105–107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967%2868%2990048-X, , & (1988). Homophobia: An overview. Psychiatric Annals, 18, 33–36.(1971). Homosexuality and psychological functioning. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.(1975). Homosexuals may be healthier than straights. Psychology Today, 8 (10), 28–32.(1922). Some neurotic mechanisms in jealousy, paranoia and homosexuality. Standard Edition, 18, 223–232.(1923). The ego and the id. S.E., 19, 3–66.(1974). Male homosexuality: An analysis of the pattern. In J.A.Loraine (Ed.), Understanding homosexuality: Its biological and psychological bases (pp. 25–81). New York: Elsevier. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-6141-1_2(1977). Should homosexuality arouse therapeutic concern?Journal of Homosexuality, 2, 235–240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v02n03_06(1974). The phobic theory of male homosexuality. Archives of General Psychiatry, 31, 495–499. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1974.01760160045010, , , , (1977). Extension of the Gender Identity Scale for males. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 6, 507–519. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01541155, , , & (1974). Measuring feminine gender identity in homosexual males. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 3, 249–260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01541488, , , , & ([Page 260]1982). Two types of cross-gender identity. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 11, 49–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01541365, , & (1967). Measures of homosexuality: Cross-validation of 2 MMPI scales and implications for usage. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 31, 88–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0020984(1988). Male homosexuality: A contemporary psychoanalytic perspective. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.(1980). Juvenile aggressivity and sissiness in homosexual and heterosexual males. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 8, 427–440., & (1984). Describing the victims of crimes and violence. In A.Kahn (Ed.), Victims of crime and violence: Final report of the APA Task Force on the Victims of Crime and Violence (pp. 19–78). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association., , & (1971). Characteristics of male homosexual college students. Journal of the American College Health Association, 19, 247–252.(1983). “Homophobia” or homosexual bias reconsidered. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 12, 549–554. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01542216(1972). Research into the physiology of maleness and femaleness: Its contributions to the etiology and psychodynamics of homosexuality. Archives of General Psychiatry, 26, 193–206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1972.01750210001001(1987). Science and the politics of pathology. Journal of Sex Research, 23, 120–122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224498709551348(1973). A conformity greater than deviance: The lesbian. In J.H.Gagnon & W.Simon (Eds.), Sexual conduct: The social sources of human sexuality. Chicago: Aldine., & (1990). Violence and victimization of lesbians and gay men: Mental health consequences. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 5 (3), 366–383. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626090005003010, , & (Gay Law Students Association v. Pacific Telephone and Telegraph Company, Sup., 156 Cal. Rptr. 14 (1979).1972). Incidence of overt homosexuality in the United States and Western Europe. In J.J.Livingood (Ed.), NIMH Task Force on Homosexuality: Final report and background papers PHEW publication No. (HSM) 72–9116). Rockville, MD: National Institute of Mental Health.(1979). The Kinsey data: Marginal tabulations of the 1938–1963 interviews conducted by the Institute for Sex Research. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders., & (1975). Mountain sheep and man in the northern wilds. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.(1987). Social distance regarding male and female homosexuals. Journal of Social Psychology, 127, 199–208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1987.9713680(1981). Social psychology. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovlch., & (1988). Psychosocial development of children raised by lesbian mothers: A review of research. Women and Therapy, 8 (1, 2), 65–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J015v08n01_06(1986, June). Gay and lesbian youth suicide. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association, Oakland, CA.(1985). Difference and pathology: Stereotypes of sexuality, race, and madness. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.(1990). Sexual orientation and spatial ability in men and women. Psychobiology, 18, 101–108., , , & (1984). Neuroendocrine response to estrogen and sexual orientation. Science, 225, 1496–1499. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.6089349, , & (1989). Exiles from Eden: Psychotherapy from an evolutionary perspective. New York: Norton., & ([Page 261]1988). Risk or abstinence: Sexual decision making in the AIDS era. Social Work, 33, 254–256.(1985, August). Psychotherapy with Asian/Pacific gay men: Psychological issues, treatment approach and therapeutic guidelines. Paper presented at Asian American Psychological Association, Los Angeles, CA.(1917). Mental tests and the immigrant. Journal of Delinquency, 2, 243–277.(1963). Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.(1982). Attitude change among college students toward homosexuality. Journal of American College Health, 30 (6), 260–268. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.1982.9938905(1990, August). Our politics and our choices: The feminist movement and sexual orientation. Paper presented at the American Psychological Association, Boston.(1980). Behavioral and physiological evidence of sexual climax in the female stump-tailed macaque (Macaca arctoides). Science, 208, 1477–1479. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.7384791, , , & (1976). Clinical behavior therapy. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston., & (1971). Rorschach handbook of clinical and research applications. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall., , & (1983). Children in lesbian and single-parent households: Psychosexual and psychiatric appraisalJournal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 24, 551., , & (1977). Psychological adjustment and homosexuality. Social and Behavioral Sciences Documents, MS 1478. San Raphael, CA: Select Press.(1981). [Review of Homosexuality in Perspective]. Journal of Homosexuality, 6 (3), 81–88.(1982b). Results of psychological testing on homosexual populations. In W.Paul, J.D.Weinrich, J.C.Gonsiorek, & M.E.Hotvedt (Eds.), Homosexuality: Social, psychological, and biological issues ((1st ed.). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.1982c). The use of diagnostic concepts in working with gay and lesbian populations. In J.C.Gonsiorek (Ed.), Homosexuality and psychotherapy: A practitioner's handbook of affirmative models (pp. 9–20). New York: Haworth.(1986). Psychotherapeutic issues in working with clients having AIDS related illnesses. In P.A.Keller & L.G.Ritt (Eds.), Innovations in clinical practice: A source book (Vol. 5, pp. 221–230). Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange.(1988). Mental health issues of gay and lesbian adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health Care, 9, 114–122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0197-0070%2888%2990057-5(1981). Comments on the homosexual role. Journal of Sex Research, 17, 54–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224498109551097(1952). Identifying psychological femininity. Educational Psychology Measurement, 12, 427–439. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001316445201200309(1966). A cross-cultural analysis of the CPI Femininity Scale. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 30, 136–141. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0023164(1977, November). Gay despair and the loss of adolescence. Paper presented at the fifth biennial professional symposium of the National Association of Social Workers, San Diego, CA.(1979, November). Coming out alive. Paper presented at the sixth biennial professional symposium of the National Association of Social Workers, San Antonio, TX.([Page 262]1984). Developing a lesbian identity. In T.Darty & S.Potter (Eds.), Women identified women (pp. 31–44). Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield.(1989, November). Children raised by homosexual parents: Sexual orientation, mental and sexual health. Paper presented at the meeting of the Society for the Scientific Study of Sex, Toronto., , , , & (1976). One-hundred ten feminine and masculine boys; Behavioral contrasts and demographic similarities. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 5, 425–446. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01541335(1978). Sexual identity of 37 children raised by homosexual or transsexual parents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 135, 692–697.(1979). Childhood cross-gender behavior and subsequent sexual preference. American Journal of Psychiatry, 136, 106–108.(1982). The best interests of the child with a lesbian mother. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 10, 7–15.(1985). Gender identity in childhood and later sexual orientation: Followup of 78 males. American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 339–341.(1987). The “sissy boy syndrome” and the development of homosexuality. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.(1988). The immutability of (homo)sexual orientation: Behavioral science implications for a constitutional (legal) analysis. Journal of Psychiatry & Law, 16, 537.(1986). Lesbian mothers and their children: A comparison with solo parent heterosexual mothers and their children. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 15, 167–184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01542224, , , , & (Green, R., & Money, J. (Eds.). (1969). Transsexualism and sex reassignment. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.1987). Specific cross-gender behavior in boyhood and later homosexual orientation. British Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 84–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.151.1.84, , , , & (1984). The self psychology of Heinz Kohut: A synopsis and critiqueBulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 48 (11), 37–53.(1986). When the therapist is white and the patient is black: Considerations for psychotherapy in the feminist heterosexual and lesbian communities. Women and Therapy, 5, 41–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J015V05N02_05(1982). Childhood play activities of male and female homosexuals and heterosexuals. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 11, 451–478. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01542472, , & (1976). The question of animal awareness. New York: Rockefeller University Press.(1974). Homosexual women: An endocrine and psychological study. Journal of Endocrinology, 63, 549–556. http://dx.doi.org/10.1677/joe.0.0630549, , , , , , , , & (1980). Disclosure of sexual orientation and impressions of male and female homosexuals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 6, 307–314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/014616728062020, , , & (1988). Violence and discrimination against lesbian and gay people in Philadelphia and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: Philadelphia Lesbian and Gay Task Force. [Available from the Task Force, 1501 Cherry Street, Philadelphia, PA 19102], , & (1978). Adult sexual orientation and attraction to underage persons. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 7 (3), 175–181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01542377, & (1985). Coming out: Issues for the therapist working with women in the process of lesbian identity formation. Women and Therapy, 4, 17–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J015V04N02_04([Page 263]1978). The Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey: Directions for administering, scoring, and interpreting. Orange, NJ: Sheridan Psychological Services., , & (1967, July). Research project report: Descriptive data about lesbian and non-lesbian respondents. The Ladder: A Lesbian Review, 2–9.(1978). Effects of anticipated interaction, sex, and homosexual stereotypes on first impressions. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 8, 47–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1978.tb00764.x, & (1971). Homosexuals: Deviant or minority group? In E.Sagarin (Ed.), The other minorities (pp. 65–92). Waltham, MA: Ginn.(1966). Treatment of male homosexuals in groups. International Journal of Croup Psychotherapy, 16, 13–22.(1987). Sex therapy with lesbian couples: A four stage approach. In E.Coleman (Ed.), Psychotherapy with homosexual men and women: Integrated identity approaches for clinical practice (pp. 137–156). New York: Haworth.(1971). The politics of therapy. New York: Science House.(1972). Altruism and related phenomena, mainly in social insects. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 3, 193–232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.es.03.110172.001205(1973). Homosexual identity: Commitment, adjustment and significant others. Sociometry, 36, 56–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2786282, & (1982). Epidemiology of penicillinase-producing neisseria gonorrhoeae infections: Analysisby auxotyping and serogrouping. New England Journal of Medicine, 306, 950–954. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM198204223061602, , , , , , & (1985–1986). Gay and lesbian parents. Journal of Homosexuality, 12 (2), 101–113., & (1982). Decision making and age differences among gay male couples. Journal of Homosexuality, 8 (2), 9–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v08n02_03(1983a). Defeminization and adult psychological well-being among male homosexuals. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 12, 1–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01542112(1983b). Parasuidde, gender and gender deviance. Journal of Health & Social Behavior, 24, 350–361. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2136401(1983c). Gay male and lesbian relationships. In E.Macklin & R.Rubin (Eds.), Contemporary families and alternative lifestyles: Handbook on research and theory (pp. 216–234). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(1984). Gay couples. New York: Praeger.(1978). The Social Organization of Cay Males. New York: Praeger., & , (1979). Gay marriages and communities of sexual orientation. Alternative Lifestyles, 2 (2), 177–200., & (1978). Psychological adjustment of nonpatient homosexuals: Critical review of the research literature. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 39, 604–608., , , , , & (1967). Comparison of selected experimental MMPI profiles of sexual deviates and sociopaths without sexual deviation. Psychological Reports, 20, 234. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.19220.127.116.11(1975). Female homosexuals’ concepts of self, men and women. Journal of Personality Assessment, 39, 154–159. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa3902_12, & (1989, June 5). Method of polling. San Francisco Examiner, p. A20.(1970). Changing homosexuality in the male. New York: McGraw-Hill.(1980, July 5). Towards the new frontiers of fairy vision … subject-subject consciousness. Unpublished manuscript, Los Angeles, 11 pp.([Page 264]1976). Measurement of masculine and feminine sex role identities as independent dimensions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 44, 183–190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.44.2.183(1982). Homosexuality and psychoanalysis: Toward a mutual understanding. In W.Paul, J.D.Weinrich, J.C.Gonsiorek, & M.E.Hotvedt (Eds.), Homosexuality: Social, psychological and biological issues. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(1977). Coming out as an aspect of identity formation. Gay Academic Union Journal: Gai Saber, 1, 18–22., & (1984). Homosexuality in college years: Developmental differences between men and women. Journal of American College Health, 32, 216–219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.1984.10392810(1978). Interrelationships of sexist, racist, and antihomosexual attitudes. Psychological Reports, 42, 83–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1918.104.22.168, & (1948). Sex variants: A study of homosexual patterns. New York: Paul B. Hoeber.(1981). Guardians of the flutes: Idioms of masculinity. New York: McGraw-Hill.(1984a). Beyond “homophobia”: A social psychological perspective on attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Journal of Homosexuality, 10, (1/2) 1–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v10n01_01(1984b). Attitudes toward lesbians and gay men: A factor analytic study. Journal of Homosexuality, 10, (1/2) 2–17.(1986a). The instrumentality of attitudes: Toward a neofunctional theory. Journal of Social Issues, 42 (2), 99–114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1986.tb00227.x(1986b). On heterosexual masculinity: Some psychical consequences of the social construction of gender and sexuality. American Behavioral Scientist, 29 (5), 563–577. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000276486029005005(1986c). The social psychology of homophobia: Toward a practical theory. NYU Review of Law & Social Change, 14 (4), 923–934.(1987a). Religion and prejudice: A comparison of racial and sexual attitudes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 13 (1), 56–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167287131003(1987b). Can functions be measured? A new perspective on the functional approach to attitudes. Social Psychology Quarterly, 50 (4), 285–303. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2786814(1988). Heterosexuals’ attitudes toward lesbians and gay men: Correlates and gender differences. Journal of Sex Research, 25 (4), 451–477. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224498809551476(1989). Hate crimes against lesbians and gay men: Issues for research and policy. American Psychologist, 44 (6), 948–955. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.44.6.948(1990a). The context of antigay violence: Notes on cultural and psychological heterosexism. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 5 (3), 316–333. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626090005003006(1990b). Illness, stigma, and AIDS. In P.Costa, Jr., & G.R.VandenBos (Eds.), Psychological aspects of serious illness: Chronic conditions, fatal diseases, and clinical care (pp. 103–150). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.(1990c). Gay people and government security clearances: A social perspective. American Psychologist, 45, 1035–1042. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.45.9.1035(Herek, G.M., & Berrill, K.T. (Eds.). (1990). Violence against lesbians and gay men: Issues for research, practice, and policy [Special issue]. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 5 (3).1988). An epidemic of stigma: Public reactions to AIDS. American Psychologist, 43 (11), 886–891. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.43.11.886, & (1990). Public reactions to AIDS in the United States. In preparation., & (1987a). Developmental issues and their resolution for gay and lesbian adolescents. In E.Coleman (Ed.), Psychotherapy with homosexual men and women: Integrated identity approaches for clinical practice, (pp. 25–44). New York: Haworth., & (1987b). Developmental issues and their resolution for gay and lesbian adolescents. Journal of Homosexuality, 14 (1, 2), 25–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v14n01_03, & ([Page 265]Hetrick, E., & Stein, T. (Eds.). (1984). Innovations in psychotherapy with homosexuals. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association Press.1984). The Puerto Rican lesbian in the United States. In T.Darty & S.Potter (Eds.), Women-identified women (pp. 105–115). Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield.(1976–1977). The Puerto Rican lesbian and the Puerto Rican community. Journal of Homosexuality, 2, 109–121., & (1989). Matlovich: The good soldier. Boston: Alyson.(1936). The homosexual as an intersex. In V.Robinson (Ed.), Encyclopaedia Sexualis. New York: Dingwall-Rock.(1987). Sexual orientation and boyhood gender conformity: Development of the Boyhood Gender Conformity Scale (BGCS). Archives of Sexual Behavior, 16, 475–492. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01541712, & (1981). Children's acquisition of sex-role behavior in lesbian-mother families. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 51, 536–544. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1981.tb01402.x(1965). Effeminate homosexuality: A disease of childhood. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 35, 48–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1965.tb02267.x, & (1979). Psychological androgyny, feminine gender identity and self-esteem in homosexual and heterosexual males. Journal of Sex Research, 15, 306–315. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224497909551054(1973). Dogmatism and opinions about mental illness. Psychological Reports, 32, 1283–1290. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1973.32.3c.1283(1957). The adjustment of the male overt homosexual. Journal of Projective Techniques, 21, 17–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08853126.1957.10380742(1969). The lesbian personality. British Journal of Psychiatry, 115, 1433–1436. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.115.529.1433(1972). Homosexuality and psychopathology: A study of the MMPI responses of homosexual and heterosexual male college students. Dissertation Abstracts International, 33, 2347B.(1975). MMPI responses of homosexual and heterosexual male college students. Homosexual Counseling Journal, 2, 68–76.(1982). Children of lesbian mothers. In W.Paul, J.D.Weinrich, J.C.Gonsiorek, & M.E.Hotredt, (Eds.), Homosexuality: Social, psychological and biological issues (pp. 275–285). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., & (1986). Sex, power, and influence tactics in intimate relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51 (1), 102–109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.124, , & (1987). Social or evolutionary theories? Some observances on preferences in human mate selection. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53 (1), 194–200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.199, , & (1975). Male and female strategies of reproduction among the langurs of Abu. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.(1980). A strategy for the measurement of homophobia. Journal of Homosexuality, 5 (4), 357–372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v05n04_02, & (1989). A comparative study of self-esteem of adolescent children of divorced lesbian mothers and divorced heterosexual mothers. Journal of Homosexuality, 15 (1, 2), 123–136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v18n01_06(1972). Out of the closets: The sociology of homosexual liberation. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.(1977). Female-female pairing in western gulls (Larus occidentalis) in southern California. Science, 196, 1466–1467. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.196.4297.1466, & (1974). Sexual behavior in the 1970s. Chicago: Playboy Press.(1976). Custody rights of lesbian mothers: Legal theory and litigation strategy. Buffalo Law Review, 25, 691–733., & (1959). A speculative consideration of certain possible forms of sexual selection in man. American Naturalist, 93, 81–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/282059([Page 266]1985–1986). Black gay men and conflicting social identities: Sexual orientation versus racial identity. Journal of Social Work and Human Sexuality, 4 (1–2), 83–93.(1986). Black gay men and conflicting social identities: Sexual orientation versus racial identity. In J.Gripton & M.Valentich (Eds.), Social work practice in sexual problems (pp. 83–93) [Special issue of the Journal of Social Work & Human Sexuality, 4 (1–2)]. New York, London: Haworth. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J291v04n01_10(1987). Black gay alcoholic men: Their character and treatment. Social Casework The Journal of Contemporary Social Work, 68, 267–272., & (1976). Behavior modification in rehabilitation medicine. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.(Institute of Medicine. (1988). The future of public health. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.1985). On the analytic therapy of homosexual men. In A.J.Solnit, R.S.Eissler, & P.B.Neubauer (Eds.), The psychoanalytic study of the child (Vol. 40, pp. 235–254). New Haven: Yale University Press.(1987). Fathers and their homosexually inclined sons in childhood. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 42, 275–294.(1989). Being homosexual: Cay men and their development. New York: Farrar, Straus, & Giroux.(1989). Male homosexuality in Thailand: An interpretation of contemporary Thai sources. Elmhurst, NY: Global Academic Publishers.(1980). Factors affecting self-esteem of the homosexual individual. Journal of Homosexuality, 5, 373–382. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v05n04_03, & (1983). Comments. Current Anthropology, 24, 459–460.(1985). The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in a cohort of homosexual men. Annals of Internal Medicine, 103, 210–214. http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-103-2-210, , , , , , , , , , & (1977). Decision making. New York: Free Press., & (1979). Characterological versus behavioral self-blame: Inquiries into depression and rape. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1798–1809. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.528(Janoff-Bulman, R., & Frieze, I.H. (Eds.). (1983). Reactions to victimization [Special issue]. Journal of Social Issues, 39 (2).1977). The gay report: Lesbians and gay men speak out about sexual experiences and lifestyles. New York: Summit Books., & (1987). Past sexual victimization by females of male patients in an adolescent medicine clinic population. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 650–652., & (1988, June). The impact of mandatory reporting of HIV seropositive persons in North Carolina. Paper presented to the Fourth International Conference on AIDS, Stockholm, Sweden., , & (1984). Social stigma: The psychology of marked relationships. New York: W. H. Freeman., , , , , & (1978). Satisfaction in male homosexual couples. Journal of Homosexuality, 3 (3), 217–224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v03n03_03, & (1989). Homosexuality: The behavioral sciences and the church. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 17, 213–225., & (1988). The impact of AIDS on state and local health departments: Issues and a few answers. American Journal of Public Health, 78, 387–393. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.78.4.387, & (Kahneman, D., Slovic, P., & Tversky, A. (Eds.). (1982). Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.1971). Homosexuals as a minority group. In E.Sagarin (Ed.), The other minorities (pp. 50–65). Waltham, MA: Ginn.([Page 267]1978). Homosexual labeling and the male role. Journal of Social Issues, 34 (3), 73–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1978.tb02615.x(1956). Ego-defense and attitude change. Human Relations, 9, 27–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872675600900102, , & (1983). Gay/lesbian almanac: A new documentary. New York: Harper & Row.(1983). Close relationships. New York: W. H. Freeman., , , , , , , , & (1978). Interpersonal relations: A theory of interdependence. New York: Wiley-Interscience., & (1978, May). Playboy interview: Anita Bryant. Playboy, 25 (5), 73–250.(1989). Behavioral intervention to reduce AIDS risk activities. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 60–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.57.1.60, , , & (1980/1981). The “third sex” theory of Karl Heinrich Ulrichs. Journal of Homosexuality, 6, 103–111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v06n01_10(1968). Physique and physical health of female homosexuals. Journal of Neurology and Neurosurgical Psychiatry, 31, 487–489. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.31.5.487(1968). Studies in female homosexuality: Psychological test results. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 32, 510–513. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0026409(1884). Insanity: Lecture XXVI—Sexual perversion. Detroit Lancet, 7, 481–484.(1978). Adult development and aging: A gay perspective. Journal of Social Issues, 34, 113–130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1978.tb02618.x(1948). Sexual behavior in the human male. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders., , & (1953). Sexual behavior in the human female. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders., , , & (1987a). Clinical implications of lesbian mother studies. In E.Coleman (Ed.), Psychotherapy with homosexual men and women: Integrated identity approaches for clinical practice (pp. 201–212). New York: Haworth.(1987b). Clinical implications of lesbian mother studies. Journal of Homosexuality, 14 (1, 2), 201–212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v14n01_15(1981). Lesbian mothers and their children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 51, 545–551. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1981.tb01403.x, , & (1977). The natural history of homosexuality. Yale Scientific, 51, (3), 7–13., & (1984). Sex differences in attitudes toward homosexuals: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Homosexuality, 10 (1/2), 69–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v10n01_05(1986). Attitudes toward homosexuality. Assessment and behavioral consequences. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 7 (2), 137–162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15324834basp0702_4, & (1987). Gender belief systems: Homosexuality and the implicit inversion theory. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 11 (1), 83–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1987.tb00776.x, & (1987). The social construction of lesbianism. London: Sage.(1989). Sex and morality in the U.S. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press., , & (1985). Sexual orientation: A multi-variable dynamic process. Journal of Homosexuality, 12, 35–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v11n01_04, , & (1983). Female homosexuality and the custody of children. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 12 (1), 23–27.(Knutson, D.C. (Ed.) (1980). Homosexuality and the law. New York: Haworth.1971). The analysis of the self. New York: International Universities Press.(1977). The restoration of the self. New York: International Universities Press.([Page 268]1984). How does analysis cure?Chicago: University of Chicago Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226006147.001.0001(1985). Sex and power in interaction: Conversational privileges and duties. American Sociological Review, 50, 34–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095338, , & (1987). Suicide among homosexual adolescents. Journal of Homosexuality, 13 (4), 111–117. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v13n04_07(1901). Psychopathia sexualis ((3rd ed., translation of 10th German ed.). Chicago: W. T. Keener.1984). Masters and Johnsons’ article “seriously flawed.”American Journal of Psychiatry, 141 (9), 1131.(1964). The identification of male homosexuality with the MMPI. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 20, 159–161. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679%28196401%2920:1%3C159::AID-JCLP2270200131%3E3.0.CO;2-D(1962). The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1988). Perceived social support in gays and lesbians in cohabiting relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54 (3), 504–509. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2064(1986a). Relationship quality of partners in heterosexual married, heterosexual cohabiting, and gay and lesbian relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 711–720. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.111, & (1986b). Relationship quality of gay men in closed or open relationships. Journal of Homosexuality, 12 (2), 85–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v12n02_06, & (1986c). Early development of relationship quality in heterosexual married, heterosexual cohabiting, gay, and lesbian couples. Developmental Psychology, 22, 305–309. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1618.104.22.1685, & (1987a). Partner homogamy in married, heterosexual cohabiting, gay, and lesbian couples. Journal of Sex Research, 23, 212–232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224498709551358, & (1987b). Perceived emotional support from family and friends in gay, lesbian, and heterosexual cohabiting couples. Journal of Homosexuality, 14, 57–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v14n03_04, & (1988). Alcoholism and non-acceptance of gay self: The critical link. Journal of Homosexuality, 15 (1, 2), 25–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v15n01_04(1982). Heterosexual and homosexual mothers’ self-described sex-role behavior and ideal sex-role behavior in children. Sex Roles, 8, 967–975. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00290021, & (1978). What everyone should know about homosexuality. Wheaton, IL: Tyndale.(1989). Applying Tarasoff to AIDS-related psychotherapy issues. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 20, 37–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.20.1.37, , , , & (1972). Lame Deer: Seeker of visions. New York: Simon & Schuster., & (1987). The effects of interaction with gay persons on attitudes toward homosexuality. Human Relations, 40 (6), 329–336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872678704000601(1979). Personal style or sexual preference: Why gay men are disliked. International Review of Modern Sociology, 9, 215–228., & (1978). Personality characteristics and sexual anomalies in males. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 10, 222–238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0081551, , , et al. (1977). The clinical profile of male transsexuals living as females vs. those living as males. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 6, 143–154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01541706, , & (1980). Attitudes of heterosexuals toward homosexuality: A Likert-type scale and construct validity. Journal of Sex Research, 16 (3), 245–257. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224498009551081, , & (1982). Gay male relationships. In W.Paul, J.D.WeinrichJ.C.Gonsiorek, & M.E.Hotvedt (Eds.), Homosexuality: Social, psychological, and biological issues (pp. 219–232). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.([Page 269]1983). Psychological characteristics of bisexual heterosexual and homosexual women. Journal of Homosexuality, 9 (1), 87–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v09n01_07, & (1987). Scandal in the Adventist-funded program to “heal” homosexuals: Failure, sexual exploitation, official silence, and attempts to rehabilitate the exploiter and his methods. Paper given at the American Sociological Association, Chicago.(1989). To be 20 and homosexual in France today. Journal of Homosexuality, 17 (3, 4), 291–297. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v17n03_05(1972). Feminine behavior in boys; Aspects of its outcome. American Journal of Psychiatry, 128, 1283–1289.(1977). Going public: A study into the sociology of homosexual liberation. Journal of Homosexuality, 3 (1), 49–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v03n01_05(1988). Enmeshed in pain: Counseling the lesbian battering couple. Women and Therapy, 7 (1), 81–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J015V07N01_07(1976). Homophobia among men. In D.S.David & R.Brannon (Eds.), The forty-nine percent majority: The male sex role (pp. 66–88). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.(1970). The desire for justice and reactions to victims. In J.Macaulay & L.Berkowitz (Eds.), Altruism and helping behavior (pp. 205–229). New York: Academic Press.(1985). Preventive health behavior across the life span. In J.C.Rosen & L.J.Solomon (Eds.), Prevention in health psychology, Hanover, NH: University Press of New England., , & (1971). A comparative study of the CPI Femininity Scale; Validation in Israel. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2, 387–391. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002202217100200408, & (1979a). Employment discrimination against gay men. International Review of Modern Sociology, 9 (5–7), 151–163.(1979b). Gay ghetto. In M.P.Levine (Ed.), Cay men: The sociology of male homosexuality (pp. 182–204). New York: Harper & Row.(1984). Discrimination against lesbians in the work force. Signs, 9 (4), 700–710. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/494094, & (1988). The myth of sexual compulsivity. The Journal of Sex Research25, 347–364. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224498809551467, & (1979). A social psychological perspective on marital dissolution. In G.Levinger & O.C.Moles (Eds.), Divorce and separation (pp. 37–63). New York: Basic Books.(1983). Development and change. In et al., Close relationships (pp. 315–359). New York: W. H. Freeman.(1974). Public attitudes toward homosexuality: Part of the 1970 national survey by the Institute for Sex Research. Journal of Homosexuality, 1 (1), 29–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v01n01_03, & (1988). The psychoanalytic theory of male homosexuality. New York: Simon & Schuster.(1981). Lesbianism and motherhood: Implications for child custody. Human Organization, 40 (1), 6–14.(1982). Everything in its place: The coexistence of lesbianism and motherhood. In W.Paul, J.D.Weinrich, J.C.Gonsiorek, & M.E.Hotvedt (Eds.), Homosexuality: Social, psychological, and biological issues (pp. 249–274). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., & (1980). Children of lesbians: Their point of view. Social Work, 25 (3), 198–203.(1984). The coming out process for lesbians: Integrating a stable identity. Social Work, 29 (5), 464–469.(1971). Reflections on the fall of comparative psychology: Is there a message for us all?American Psychologist, 16, 168–179. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0030816([Page 270]1989). Gay identity issues among black Americans: Racism, homophobia, and the need for validation. Journal of Counseling and Development, 68, 21–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1989.tb02486.x(1964). The modes and morals of psychotherapy. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.(1969). Behavior control. New York: Harper & Row.(1986). The modes and morals of psychotherapy ((2nd ed.). New York: Hemisphere.1989). Patient variable biases in clinical judgment: Conceptual overview and methodological considerations. Psychological Bulletin, 106, 184–203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.106.2.184(1986). How culture is considered in evaluations of psychopathology. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 176, 598–606., & (1987). Cultural factors considered in selected diagnostic criteria and interview schedules. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 96, 270–272. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.96.3.270, & (1986). Psychotherapy with lesbian mothers. In T.Stein & C.Cohen (Eds.), Contemporary perspectives on psychotherapy with lesbians and gay men (pp. 181–208). New York: Plenum.(1986). Role relationships: Lesbian perspectives. Journal of Homosexuality, 12 (2), 53–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v12n02_04, & (1979). Gender identity and sex-role adoption. In H.A.Katchadourian (Ed.), Human sexuality: A comparative and developmental perspective. Berkeley: University of California Press.(1983). A little bit of lavender goes a long way: A critique of research on sexual orientation. Journal of Sex Research, 19, 94–100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224498309551171(1974). Some characteristics of those who hold positive and negative attitudes towards homosexuals. Journal of Homosexuality, 1 (1), 9–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v01n01_02, & (1982). Individual differences in the coming-out process for gay men: Implications for theoretical models. Journal of Homosexuality, 8 (1), 47–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v08n01_05(Macro Systems Inc. (1988). Assessment of the development and implementation of state AIDS/HIV partner notification programs: Five case studies. Author.1981). The homosexual adolescent: Developmental issues and social bias. Child Welfare, 60, 321–330.(1982a). Biphasic aspects of homosexual identity formation. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice, 19, 335–340. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0088444(1982b). Psychotherapeutic implications of internalized homophobia in gay men. In J.C.Gonsiorek (Ed.), Homosexuality and psychotherapy: A practitioner's handbook of affirmative models (pp. 59–69). New York: Haworth.(1982c). Psychotherapeutic implications of internalized homophobia in gay men. Journal of Homosexuality, 7 (2, 3), 59–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v07n02_08(1976). Female homosexuality: A comprehensive review of theory and research. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. (Catalogue of Selected Documents, 6:44).(1970a). Early sexual behavior in adult homosexual and heterosexual males. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 76, 396–402. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0020131(1970b). Item analyses of the MM PI Mf scale using homosexual and heterosexual males. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 35, 395–399. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0030265(1971). Education and MMPI Mf scores in homosexual and heterosexual males. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 36, 395–399. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0031124(1988). The male couple's guide to living together. New York: Harper & Row.(1982). Gender roles in the relationships of lesbians and gay men. Journal of Homosexuality, 8 (2), 45–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v08n02_06, , & (1984). Attitudes of fundamentalists toward homosexuality. Psychological Reports, 55, 205–206. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1922.214.171.124([Page 271]1984). The emperor's new clothes: Modern attempts to change sexual orientation. In E.S.Hetrick & T.S.Stein (Eds.), Innovations in psychotherapy with homosexuals. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.(1989). Lesbian parenting: A personal odyssey. In , Gender in transition (pp. 249–262). New York: Plenum. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-5631-8_21(1988). The stigmatization of the gay and lesbian adolescent. In M.W.Ross (Ed.), Psychopathology and psychotherapy in homosexuality (pp. 163–184). New York: Haworth., & (1988). The risk of suicide in persons with AIDS. Journal of the American Medical Association, 260 (1), 29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1988.03410010037017, , , , , , & (1979). Homosexuality in perspective. Boston: Little, Brown., & (1989). Mexican-American intravenous drug users’ needle-sharing practices: Implications for AIDS prevention. In V.M.Mays, G.W.Albee, & S.F.Schneider (Eds.), Primary prevention of AIDS: Psychological approaches (pp. 329–344). Newbury Park, CA: Sage., & (1985). Group treatment of sexually compulsive gay and bisexual men. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Eastern Region of the Society for the Scientific Study of Sex, Philadelphia.(1986). Association of human T-lymphotropic virus type III antibodies with sexual and other behaviors in a cohort of homosexual men from Boston with and without generalized lymphohadenopathy. Journal of the American Medical Association, 80, 357–363., , , , , & (1965). Psychotherapy of homosexuals: A follow-up study of nineteen cases. In J.Marmor (Ed.), Sexual inversion. New York: Basic Books., & (1989). AIDS prevention in black populations: Methods of a safer kind. In V.M.Mays, G.W.Albee, & S.F.Schneider (Eds.), Primary prevention of AIDS: Psychological approaches (pp. 264–279). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1988). Interpretation of AIDS risk and risk reduction activities by black and Hispanic women. American Psychologist, 43, 949–957. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.43.11.949, & (1977). Role expectations and definitions: A comparison of female transsexuals and lesbians. Journal of Homosexuality, 3, 137–147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v03n02_03, & (1958). Personality syndromes and attitude change. Journal of Personality, 26, 479–492. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1958.tb02346.x(1983). Dimensions of tolerance: What Americans believe about civil liberties. New York: Russell Sage., & (1976). Is a homosexual orientation irreversible?British Journal of Psychiatry, 129, 556–563. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.129.6.556(1981). Controlled comparison of aversive therapy and covert sensitization in compulsive homosexuality. Behavior Research and Therapy, 19 (5), 425–434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967%2881%2990132-7(1972). Subjective and penile plethysmography responses to aversive therapy for homosexuality: A partial replication. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 2, 65–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01542019, , & (1988). Behavioral risk factors for HIV infection among homosexual men at a Boston community health center. American Journal of Public Health, 78, 68–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.78.1.68, , , , & (1989). Preservice adjustment of homosexual and heterosexual military accessions: Implications for security clearance suitability (PERS-TR-89-004). Monterey, CA: Defense Personnel Security Research and Education Center.(1981). Misrepresentation, liberalism, and heterosexual bias in introductory psychology textbooks. Journal of Homosexuality, 6, 45–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v06n03_04([Page 272]1982). Individual differences in the coming out process for gay men: Implications for theoretical models. Journal of Homosexuality, 8, 47–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v08n01_05(1985). Attitudes and attitude change. In G.Lindzey & E.Aronson (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology, Vol. 2 (pp. 233–346). New York: Random House.(1968). The homosexual role. Social Problems, 16, 182–192. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/800003(1976). The church and the homosexual. Kansas City: Sheed Andrews & McMeel.(1976). Plagues and Peoples. Garden City, NY: Anchor.(1984). The male couple. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall., & (1961). Cultural determinants of sexual behavior. In W.C.Young (Ed.), Sex and internal secretions ((3rd ed., pp. 1433–1479). Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins.1984). Seroepidemiology of HTLV-III antibody in Danish homosexual men: Prevalence, transmission, and disease outcome. British Medical Journal, 289, 573–575. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.289.6445.573, , , , , , & (1988). Ethical and legal issues in AIDS-related practice. American Psychologist, 43, 941–947. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.43.11.941(1989). Public policy and private prejudice: Psychology and law on gay rights. American Psychologist, 44, 933–940. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.44.6.933(1988). Ethical dilemmas in AIDS research. American Psychologist, 43, 60–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.43.1.60, & (1980). Psychotherapy responsibility and homosexuality: Clinical examination of socially deviant behavior. Professional Psychology, 11, 174–193. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.11.2.174, & (1985). Ego-dystonic homosexuality. In H.Kaplan & B.Sadock (Eds.), Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry IV (pp. 1056–1065). Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins.(1977). Sex hormones and male homosexuality in comparative perspective. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 6, 297–325. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01541203(1979). Sex hormones and female homosexuality: A critical examination. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 8, 101–119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01541231(1980). Hormones and homosexuality. Psychiatrica Clinica North America, 3, 349–364.(1982), Hormones and psychosexual differentiation: Implications for the management of intersexuality, homosexuality, and transsexuality. Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 11, 681–701. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0300-595X%2882%2980007-8(1984). Psychoendocrine research on sexual orientation: Current status and future options. Progress in Brain Research, 61, 375–398. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6123%2808%2964448-9(1988). Perinatal factors in the development of gender-related play behavior. Sex hormones versus pregnancy complications. Psychiatry, 51, 260–271., , , & (1978). Adult sexual resocialization. Alternative Lifestyles, 1 (2), 207–234.(1979a). Gay fathers and their children. The Family Coordinator, 28 (4), 544–552. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/583517(1979b). Unpromised paternity: The life-styles of gay fathers. In M.P.Levine (Ed.), Gay men: The sociology of male homosexuality (pp. 239–252). New York: Harper & Row.(1983). Identity conflict and resolution: A social psychological model of gay family men's adaptations. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Alberta, Edmonton.(1986). Identity resocialization in moral careers of gay husbands and fathers. In A.Davis (Ed.), Papers in honor of Gordon Hirabavashi (pp. 197–216). Edmonton, Canada: University of Alberta Press.(1981). The child's home environment for lesbian v. heterosexual mothers: A neglected area of research. Journal of Homosexuality, 7 (1), 49–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v07n01_05, , & ([Page 273]1963). Characteristics of homosexually-involved incarcerated females. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 27, 277. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0049169(1966). Overt male homosexuals in combined group and individual treatment. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 20, 193–198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0023381(1972a). Editorial comment: Strategy, ethics, behavior modification, and homosexuality. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 2, 79–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01542020(1972b). Pubertal hormones and homosexuality, bisexuality, and heterosexuality. In J.M.Livingood (Ed.), NIMH task force on homosexuality: Final report and background papers. DHEW Publication No. (HSM)72–9116. Rockville, MD: National Institute of Mental Health.(1980). Love and love sickness: The science of sex, gender difference, and pair-bonding. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.(1988). Gay, straight and in-between: The sexology of erotic orientation. New York: Oxford University Press.(1972). Man and woman, boy and girl: The differentiation and dimorphism of gender identity from conception to maturity. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press., (1979). Homosexual outcome of discordant gender identity / role in childhood: Longitudinal followup. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 4, 29–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/4.1.29, & (1984). Adult erotosexual status and fetal hormonal masculinization and demasculization: 46, XX congenital virilizing adrenal hyperplasia and 46, XX androgen-insensitivity syndrome compared. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 9, 405–414. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0306-4530%2884%2990048-9, , & (1966). Human figure drawing. I: Sex of first choice in gender-identity anomalies, Klinefelter's syndrome and precocious puberty. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 143, 157–162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005053-196608000-00006, & (1983, August). Third World gays and lesbians: A process of multiple identities. Paper presented at the American Psychological Association, Anaheim, CA.(1974). Educational programs as a means of changing attitudes toward gay people. Homosexual Counseling Journal, 1, 160–165.(1977). Heterosexual bias in psychological research on lesbianism and male homosexuality. American Psychologist, 32, 629–637. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.32.8.629(1981). Heterosexual bias in psychotherapy. In J.Murray & P.R.Abramson (Eds.), The handbook of bias in psychotherapy. Los Angeles: University of California Press., & (1984). The psychological impact of AIDS on gay men. American Psychologist, 39, 1288–1293. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.39.11.1288, , & (1978). Male homophobia. Journal of Social Issues, 34 (1), 29–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1978.tb02539.x, & (1988). Lesbian alcohol and substance abuse. Psychiatric Annals, 18 (1), 47–50.(1982). Counseling lesbian women and gay men. St. Louis: C. V. Mosby., & (1989). The threat to sexual freedom: Moralistic intolerance instills a spiral of fear. Journal of Sex Research, 26, 492–509. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224498909551530(1991). Scared straight: Homosexual threat in heterosexual therapists. In C.Silverstein (Ed.), Gays, lesbians and their therapists: Studies in psychotherapy. New York: Norton.(1979). Homosexual threat, negative attitudes toward masturbation, sex guilt, and males’ sexual and affective reactions to explicit sexual films. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, 860–873. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.47.5.860, & (1979). Lesbian and traditional mothers’ responses to adult response to child behavior and self-concept. Psychological Reports, 44, 880–882. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.19126.96.36.1990, & ([Page 274]1982). Counseling the parents of young homosexual mate patients. In J.C.Gonsiorek (Ed.), Homosexuality and psychotherapy: A practitioner's handbook of affirmative models (pp. 131–144). New York: Haworth.(1984). The hijras of India: A preliminary report. Medicine and Law, 3, 59–75.(1990). Neither man nor woman: The hijras of India. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.(1976). Cognition and reality. San Francisco: Freeman.(1983). Exposure to homoeroüc stimuli’ Effects on attitudes and affects of heterosexual viewers. Journal of Social Psychology, 119, 249–255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1983.9922828(Newswatch briefs. (1990, February 22). Gay Chicago Magazine, 8, p. 43.1978). Homosexual behavior and child molestation: A review of the evidence. Adolescence, 13, 29–43.(1986). Psychotherapy and AIDS. In T.Stein & C.Cohen (Eds.), Contemporary perspectives on psychotherapy with lesbians and gay men (pp. 209–240). New York: Plenum.(1975). Validation of the CPI Femininity Scale in Japan. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 6, 482–489. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002202217564010(1983). Homosexual acts, actors, and identities. New York: Praeger.(1983). Mental health implications of sexual orientation. Journal of Sex Research19, 119–136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224498309551174(1984). The roots of anti-semitism in the age of Renaissance and Reformation (J.I.Porter, Trans.). Philadelphia: Fortress. (Original work published 1981)(1974). A preliminary investigation into the self-disclosing ability of male homosexuals. Psychology, 11 (2), 21–25.(1974). Differentiating female homosexuals from female heterosexuals by use of the MMPI. Journal of Sex Research, 10, 308–315. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224497409550864, & (1982). Sex-role identity of female homosexuals. Journal of Homosexuality, 8, 41–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v08n01_04, , & (1968). Psychopathology and guilt in heterosexual and subgroups of homosexual reformatory inmates. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 73, 323–329. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0026115, & (1978). A comment on the homosexual role. Journal of Sex Research, 14, 273–274. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224497809551014(1977). Cay and straight parents: What about thechildren? Unpublished bachelor's thesis, Hampshire College, Amherst, MA.(1980). Pseudohomosexuality and homosexuality in men: Psychodynamics as a guide to treatment. In J.Marmor (Ed.), Homosexual behavior: A modern reappraisal. New York: Basic Books., & (1987). Male to female transmission of HIV. Journal of the American Medical Association, 258, 788–790. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1987.03400060064030, , , , , , & (1980). Heterosexual and lesbian single mothers: A comparison of problems, coping, and solutions. Journal of Homosexuality, 5, 189–204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v05n03_03(1986). An experimental study of attitudes toward homosexuals. Deviant Behavior, 7, 121–135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01639625.1986.9967701, & (1986). Facilitator's guide to eroticizing safer sex. New York: Gay Men's Health Crisis., & (1960). A new MMPI scale for the identification of homosexuality. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 16, 17–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679%28196001%2916:1%3C17::AID-JCLP2270160108%3E3.0.CO;2-0(1989). Youth identity, and homosexuality: The changing shape of sexual life in contemporary Brazil. Journal of Homosexuality, 17 (3, 4), 269–289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v17n03_04(1916). The Zuñi la'mana. American Anthropologist, 18, 521–528. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/aa.1916.18.4.02a00060(1980). Ex-gays: Religiously-mediated change in homosexuals. American Journal of Psychiatry, 137 (12), 1553–1562., & ([Page 275]1982). Minority status for gay people: Majority reactions and social context. In W.Paul, J.D.Weinrich, J.C.Gonsiorek, & M.E.Hotvedt (Eds.), Homosexuality: Social, psychological, and biological issues (pp. 351–369). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(Paul, W., Weinrich, J.D., Gonsiorek, J.C., & Hotvedt, M.E. (Eds.). (1982). Homosexuality: Social, psychological, and biological issues. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.1982). Understanding lesbian relationships. In W.Paul, J.D.Weinrich, J.C.Gonsiorek, & M.E.Hotvedt (Eds.), Homosexuality: Social, psychological, and biological issues (pp. 233–248). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., & (1980, September). Sex differences in values concerning love relationships. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Montreal, Canada., & (1981). Value orientations in the intimate relationships of gay men. Journal of Homosexuality, 6 (3), 1–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v06n03_01, & (1990). A relationship perspective on homosexuality. In D.P.McWhirter, S.A.Sanders, & J.M.Reinisch (Eds.), Homosexuality/heterosexuality: The Kinsey scale and current research. New York: Oxford University Press., & (1986, August). Satisfaction in the intimate relationships of black lesbians. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC., , & (1978). Women in love: Attachment and autonomy in lesbian relationships. Journal of Social Issues, 34 (3), 7–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1978.tb02611.x, , , & (1983). The intimate relationships of lesbians and gay men. In E.R.Allgeier & N.B.McCormick (Eds.), The changing boundaries: Gender roles and sexual behavior (pp. 226–244). Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield., & (1982). Satisfaction in lesbian relationships. Journal of Homosexuality, 8, 23–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v08n02_04, , & (1981). Female homosexuality and body build. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 10, 337–345. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01565537(1988). Issues in the prevention of AIDS among black and Hispanic men. American Psychologist, 43, 871–877. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.43.11.871, & (1984, April 30). Coming to terms with gay parents. USA Today, p. 30.(1973). Test and non-test correlates of active and situational homosexuality. Psychology, 10 (4), 23–26.(1988). Sexual orientation and mental disorder. Psychiatric Annals, 18 (1), 51–56.(1987). The periodic table model of the gender transpositions: Part I. A theory based on masculinization and defeminization of the brain. Journal of Sex Research, 23, 425–454. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224498709551384, & (Plato. (1956). The symposium. In E.H.Warmington & P.G.Rouse (Eds.) (W.H. D.Rouse, Trans.), Great dialogs of Plato (pp. 69–117). New York: New American Library.1981). The myth of masculinity. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(1988). AIDS-phobia, contact with AIDS, and AIDS-related job stress in hospital workers. Journal of Homosexuality, 15 (3, 4), 41–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v15n03_02, , , & (1975). Sexual stigma: An interactionist account. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.(1989). Lesbian and gay youth in England. Journal of Homosexuality, 17 (3, 4), 195–223. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v17n03_01(1980). Finding self in the lesbian community. In M.Kirkpatrick (Ed.), Women's sexual development (pp. 181–200). New York: Plenum. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-3656-3_10(1972). The etiology of gender identity and the lesbian. Journal of Social Psychology, 87, 51–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1972.9918647([Page 276]1989). Partner notification in the control of human immunodeficiency virus infection. American Journal of Public Health, 79 (7), 874–876. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.79.7.874, , , & (1989). Partner notification in the control of human immunodeficiency virus infection. American Journal of Public Health, 79, 874–876. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.79.7.874, , , & (1989, April). Gay men: Reasons for continued practice of unsafe sex. Paper presented at the Eleventh National Lesbian/Gay Health Conference, San Francisco.(1989). The instrumental and symbolic functions of attitudes toward persons with AIDS. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 19, 377–404. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1989.tb00062.x, , & (1979). Body self-image and homosexuality. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 35, 567–572. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679%28197907%2935:3%3C567::AID-JCLP2270350317%3E3.0.CO;2-6, , & (pseudo-Lucian. (1967). Affairs of the heart. In (Trans.), Lucian (pp. 205–207), 8, 150–235. Cambridge, MA: Loeb Classics.1985). Compulsive sexual behavior: Definition of a problem and an approach to treatment. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 11, 121–132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00926238508406078(1940). A critical examination of the concept of bisexuality. Psychosomatic Medicine, 2, 459–467.(1949). An adaptational view of sexual behavior. In P.H.Hoch & J.Zubin (Eds.), Psychosexual development in health and disease. New York: Grune & Stratton.(1982). Psychological health and factors the court seeks to control in lesbian mother custody trials. Journal of Homosexuality, 8 (1), 27–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v08n01_03, , & (1982). Difficulties in arousing and increasing heterosexual responsiveness in a homosexual: A case report. Indian Journal of Clinical Psychology, 9 (2), 147–151.(1980). The older lesbian: Love relationships and friendship patterns. Alternative Lifestyles, 3 (2), 207–230., & (1977). Community psychology: Values, research and action. New York: Holt, Reinhardt & Winston.(1988). Public opinion and gay rights. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 25, 649–660. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-618X.1988.tb00124.x, & (1987). Causes and treatment of sexual desire discrepancies in male couples. In E.Coleman (Ed.), Psychotherapy with homosexual men and women: Integrated identity approaches for clinical practice (pp. 157–172). New York: Haworth.(1990). The anatomy of judgment. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.(1989). Sex research around the AIDS crisis. In B.Voller, J.M.Reinisch, & M.Gottlieb (Eds.), AIDS and sex: An integrated biomedical approach. New York: Oxford University Press., , & (1980). Psychological tests in homosexuality. In J.Marmor (Ed.), Homosexual behavior: A modern reappraisal (pp. 296–311). New York: Basic Books.(1974). Psychological test data on female homosexuality. Journal of Homosexuality, 1, 71–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v01n01_06, , & (1988). Violence in lesbian relationships. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 3 (4), 381–399. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626088003004003(Report of the Presidential Commission on the Human Immonudeficiency Virus Epidemic (1988). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Research and Decisions Corporation. (1985). A report on designing an effective AIDS prevention campaign strategy for San Francisco: Results from the second probability sample of an urban gay male community. Report prepared for the San Francisco AIDS Foundation.Results of poll. (1989, June 6). San Francisco Examiner, p. A19.1986). The San Diego suicide study: Comparison of gay to straight males. Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior, 16, 448–457., , , & ([Page 277]1987). The adoptive and foster gay and lesbian parent. In F.W.Bozett (Ed.), Gay and lesbian parents (pp. 89–111). New York: Praeger., & (1979). Guest editorial: Psychosurgery on sex offenders and sexual “deviants” in West Germany. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 8, 523–527. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01541419, & (1988). Sociological research on male and female homosexuality. Annual Review of Sociology, 14, 125–147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.so.14.080188.001013, & (1987). Legal issues in gay and lesbian parenting. In F.W.Bozett (Ed.), Gay and lesbian parents (pp. 199–227). New York: Praeger.(1969). Modifying persistent undesirable behavior in a medical setting. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 50, 147–153., , , & (1972). Youthful male homosexuality: Homosexual experience and the process of developing homosexual identity in males ages 16 to 22 years. Journal of the American Medical Association, 219, 1018–1023. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1972.03190340030006, & (1969). Madness in society: Chapters in the historical sociology of mental illness. New York: Harper & Row.(1988). Patterns of sexual arousal: Psychophysiological processes and clinical applications. New York: Guilford., & (1987). The cholera years ((2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.1983). The married homosexual man: A psychological study. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.(1983). Femininity, masculinity, and sexual orientation: Some cross-cultural comparisons. Journal of Homosexuality, 9 (1), 27–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v09n01_03(1985). Psychosocial factors in admitting to homosexuality in sexually transmitted disease clinics. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 12, 83–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00007435-198504000-00006(1989). Gay youth in four cultures: A comparative study. Journal of Homosexuality, 17 (3, 4), 299–314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v17n03_06(1989). Homosexuality and mental health: A cross-cultural review. Journal of Homosexuality, 15, 131–152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v15n01_10, , & (1985). Psychotherapy issues with lesbian couples. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 11, 273–286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.1985.tb00620.x(1983). The geography of gonorrhea: Empirical demonstration of core group transmission. American Journal of Epidemiology, 117, 688–694.(1982). The homosexual network Private lives and public policy. Old Greenwich, CT: Devin Adair.(1988). Commitment in close relationships: The investment model. In L.A.Peplau, D.O.Sears, S.E.Taylor, & J.L.Freedman (Eds.), Readings in Social Psychology,(2nd ed.(pp. 147–157). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.1984). Nature/nurture: Reflections on approaches to the study of homosexuality. Journal of Homosexuality, 10, 141–151.(1988). Contact tracing and the control of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Journal of the American Medical Association, 256 (24), 3609–3610. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1988.03720240071038, & (1979). Female-female pairing in ring-billed gulls. The Auk, 96, 1–5., & (1973). Male and female homosexuality: A comprehensive investigation. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins., & (1973). Male and female homosexuality: A comprehensive investigation. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins., & ([Page 278]1970a). Homosexuality III: Psychiatric disorders and disability in the male homosexual. American Journal of Psychiatry, 126, 1079–1086., , , & (1970b). Homosexuality IV: Psychiatric disorders and disability in the female homosexual. American Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 147–154., , , & (1986). Sexual orientation and visuo-spatial ability. Journal of Brain and Cognition, 5, 280–290. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0278-2626%2886%2990032-1, & (1987). Neuropsychological development of cognitive abilities: A new research strategy and some preliminary evidence for a sexual orientation model. International Journal of Neuroscience, 36, 1–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00207458709002134, & (1985) Lesbian relationships: A struggle toward partner equality. In T.Darty & S.Potter (Eds.), Women-identified women (pp. 51–66). Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield.(1983). Assessing social support: The Social Support Questionnaire. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 127–139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.52, , , & (1988). Nonconforming sexual orientation and military suitability (PERS-TR-89-002). Monterey, CA: Defense Personnel Security Research and Education Center., & (1987). Suicide risk among gay men and lesbians: A review. Death Studies, 11 (1), 1–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07481188708252171, & (1982). Male rape. New York: AMS Press.(1981). An investigation of paternal attitudes and behaviors in homosexual and heterosexual fathers (Doctoral dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology, Los Angeles). Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (9), 3809–3813.(1977). Sociosexual behavior in male and female homosexuals: A study in sex differences. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 6, 355–364. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01541180(1986). The Vancouver lymphodenopathy-AIDS study: 6 HIV seroconversion in a cohort of homosexual men. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 135, 1355–1360., , , , , , , & (1989). Voorkeur voor mannen: Theorie en praktijk van de hulpverlening aan homoseksuele mannen [A preference for men: Theory and practice of psychosocial help for gay men]. The Hague: S.D.U./Schorer.(1990, August). Gay affirmative counseling and psychotherapy in the Netherlands. Paper presented at meeting of the American Psychological Association, Boston, MA.(1984). Allies and persecutors: Science and medicine in the homosexual issue. Journal of Homosexuality, 10 (3, 4), 127–140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v10n03_16(1981). Psychosurgery of sexually deviant patients: Review and analysis of new empirical findings. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 10, 301–323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01543081, (1987). Personality correlates of positive identity and relationship involvement in gay men. Journal of Homosexuality, 13 (4), 101–109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v13n04_06, & (1986). Coming out at work: Bridging the private/public gap. Work and Occupations, 13 (4), 463–487. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0730888486013004002(1984, February / March). The straight story on homosexuality and gay rights. Public Opinion, 7, 16–20, 59–60., & (1985). Gay parenting. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books.(1984). The Masters and Johnson treatment program for dissatisfied homosexual men. American Journal of Psychiatry, 141 (2), 173–181., & (1989). The impact of gender and race on growing up lesbian and gay in the South. National Women's Studies Association Journal, 1, 422–457.([Page 279]1981). Intergroup relations. In M.Rosenberg & R.H.Turner (Eds.), Social psychology: Sociological perspectives (pp. 378–410). New York: Basic Books.(1970). On the generality of the laws of learning. Psychological Review, 77, 406–418. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0029790(1990, June). Homosexual and bisexual behavior in the United States, the United Kingdom and France. Paper presented at the Sixth International Conference on AIDS, San Francisco, CA., , , , , & (1987). Knowledge about and high risk behavior among intravenous drug users in New York City. AIDS, 1, 247–254., , , , & (1969). Homosexualiteit als Klacht Ein psychiatrische studie [Homosexuality as a complaint: A psychiatric study]. Hilversum, The Netherlands: Brand.(1984). Changing homophobic attitudes through college sexuality education. Journal of Homosexuality, 10 (1, 2), 109–116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v10n01_08, & (Sexual survey #4: Current thinking on homosexuality. (1977). Medical Aspects of Human Sexuality, 11, 110–111.1990). Why every social worker should be challenged by AIDS. Social Work, 35, 5–8.(Designing effective AIDS prevention workshops for gay and bisexual men. AIDS Education and Prevention., & (in press).1988). AIDS: Prevention is the only vaccine available: An AIDS prevention educational program. Journal of Social Workand Human Sexuality, 6, 135–150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J291v06n02_10, & (1982). The mayor of Castro Street: The life and times of Harvey Milk. New York: St. Martin's.(1977). Components of sexual identity. Journal of Homosexuality, 3, 41–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v03n01_04, & (1975). The making of the modern family. New York: Basic Books.(1972a). Adjustment of homosexual and heterosexual women, British Journal of Psychiatry, 120, 477–481. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.120.558.477(1972b). Adjustment of male homosexuals and heterosexuals. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 2, 9–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01542016(1982). Guest editorial: Official statement by the German Society for Sex Research (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sexualforschung e. V.) on the research of Prof. Dr. Guner Doerner on the subject of homosexuality. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 11, 445–449. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01541576, , , & (1972, October). Behavior modification and the gay community. Paper presented at the annual convention of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, New York City.(1977a). A family matter: A parents’ guide to homosexuality. New York: McGraw-Hill.(1977b). Homosexuality and the ethics of behavioral intervention: Paper 2. Journal of Homosexuality, 2, 205–211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v02n03_02(1980). [Review of W. H. Masters & V. E. Johnson Homosexuality in Perspective]. Contemporary Psychology, 25, 357–358.(1981). Man to man: Gay couples in America. New York: William Morrow.(1988). The borderline personality disorder and gay people. Journal of Homosexuality, 15, 185–212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v15n01_13(1967a). Femininity in the lesbian community. Social Problems, 15, 212–221. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/799514, & (1967b). Homosexuality: The formulation of a sociological perspective. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 8, 177–185. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2948372, & ([Page 280]1970). Comparison of indicators of homosexuality on the MMPI. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 34, 15–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0028801(1987). Dependency issues in lesbian relationships. Journal of Homosexuality, 24, 125–135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v14n01_10(1988). Psychopathology, homosexuality, and homophobia. In M.W.Ross (Ed.), Psychopathology and psychotherapy in homosexuality (pp. 59–74). New York: Haworth.(1971). Homophobia: A tentative personality profile. Psychological Reports, 19, 1091–1094. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1971.29.3f.1091(1956). Opinions and personality. New York: John Wiley., , & (1981). On the self-perpetuating nature of social stereotypes. In D.Hamilton (Ed.), Cognitive processes in stereotyping and intergroup behavior (pp. 183–212). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.(1978). Reconstructing the past: Some cognitive consequences of person perception. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 941–950. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2061, & (1983). Intelligence tests and the immigration act of 1924. American Psychologist, 38 (9), 986–995. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.38.9.986, & (1976). Adolescent attitudes toward homosexuality in relation to self concept and body satisfaction. Adolescence, 11 (43), 443–453.(1968). The overt homosexual. New York: Grune & Stratton.(1970). Homosexuality and medicine. Journal of the American Medical Association, 212, 1199–1202. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1970.03170200063009(1975). Beyond sexual freedom. New York: Quadrangle.(1978). Homosexuality. New York: Jason Aronson.(1980). The sexual unreason. Book Forum, 1, 172–185.(Sociology group criticizes work of Paul Cameron. (1985, September 10). Lincoln (NE) Star.1966). Homosexuality as a subject of anthropological inquiry. Anthropological Quarterly, 39, 73–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3316779(1968). The ethnography of male homosexual relationships. Journal of Sex Research, 4, 69–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224496809550559(1985). A critical examination of stage theories of lesbian identity development. Journal of Homosexuality, 12 (2), 39–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v12n02_03(1987). Internalized homophobia and lesbian identity. Journal of Homosexuality, 24 (1, 2), 53–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v14n01_05(1979). The Spada report. New York: New American Library.(1978). Masculinity and femininity: Their psychological dimensions, correlations and antecedents. Austin: University of Texas Press., & (1989). Results and benefit-cost analysis of provider-assisted HIV partner notification and referral. Paper presented at the Fifth International Conference on AIDS, Montreal, Canada., , & (Homosexual mounting in free-ranging female Hanuman Iangurs (Presbytus entellus). Archives of Sexual Behavior., , & (in press).1988). Behavioral risk education for HIV infection among gay and bisexual men: A review of results from the United States. American Psychologist, 43, 878–885. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.43.11.878, , & (1989). Implications of relapse from safe sex. Focus: A Guide to AIDS Research, 4 (3), 3., & (1985). Separation-individuation in children of lesbian and heterosexual couples. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Wright Institute, Berkeley, CA.(1987). Psychosocial development of children of lesbian mothers. In F.W.Bozett (Ed.), Gay and lesbian parents (pp. 75–85). New York: Praeger.([Page 281]Stein, T.S., & Cohen, C.J. (Eds.). (1986). Contemporary perspectives on psychotherapy with lesbians and gay men. New York: Plenum.1933). Bi-sexual love. Brooklyn: Physicians and Surgeons Book Co.(1985). Intergroup relations. In G.Lindzey & E.Aronson (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology: Vol. 2 (pp. 599–658). New York: Random House.(1988). Promoting tolerance for homosexuality: An evaluation of intervention strategies. Journal of Sex Research, 25 (4), 500–511. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224498809551478(1989). Determinants of public opinion about AIDS. Public Opinion Quarterly, 53, 98–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/269143, & (1983). Sexual orientation and sex role conformity. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 12, 427–433. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01542886, , & (1967). “It's only a phase”: Femininity in boys. Journal of the American Medical Association, 201, 314–315. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1967.03130050048014(1968). Sex and gender: Volume 1. The development of masculinity and femininity. New York: Jason Aronson.(1978). Attitudes toward homosexuality and femininity in men. Journal of Homosexuality, 3 (3), 257–263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v03n03_08(1981). Sexual scripts for women. Sex Roles, 7, 699–707. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00290038, , , & (1976). Male homosexuality, psychiatric patient status, and psychological masculinity and femininity. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 5, 15–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01542237, & (1978). The right to treatment: Issues in the treatment of homosexuality. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 165–169. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.46.1.165, & (1979). Freud, biologist of the mind. New York: Basic Books.(1974). Human reproduction: Biology and social change. New York: Oxford University Press.(1989, June). A behavioral approach to HIV prevention among seronegative or untested gay/bisexual men with a history of unsafe behavior. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on AIDS, Montreal, Canada, p. 784., , , & (1990, February 17). Contact tracing won't stop AIDS [Letter to the editor]. Washington Post, p. A28.(1979) The evolution of human sexuality. New York: Oxford University Press.(Symposium on homosexuality and the ethics of behavioral intervention. (1977). Journal of Homosexuality, 2, 195–259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v02n03_011961). The myth of mental illness. New York: Dell.(1970). The manufacture of madness: A comparative study of the inquisition and the mental health movement. New York: Harper & Row.(1977). The myth of mental illness. New York: Harper & Row.(1989). Pulling coyote's tale: Native American sexuality and AIDS. In V.M.Mays, G.W.Albee, & S.F.Schneider (Eds.), Primary prevention of AIDS: Psychological approaches (pp. 280–289). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1981). Human groups and social categories: Studies in social psychology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.(1936). Sex and personality: Studies in masculinity and femininity. New York: McGraw-Hill. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/13514-000, & (1989). Gay relationships. Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher.(1987). Journal of Sex Research, 23, 163–172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224498709551355, , & (1971). Personal adjustment of male and female homosexuals and heterosexuals. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 78, 237–240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0031990, , & ([Page 282]1973). Parent-child relationships and sexual identity in male and female homosexuals and heterosexuals. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 41, 120–127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0035612, , , & (1989). Partner notification for HIV prevention: Current state programs and policies in the United States. Paper presented at the Fifth International Conference on AIDS, Montreal, Canada.(1989). Growing up gay or lesbian in a multicultural context. Journal of Homosexuality, 17 (3, 4), 253–267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v17n03_03, , & (1975). The homosexual matrix. New York; Signet(1971). The evolution of reciprocal altruism. Quarterly Review of Biology, 46 (4), 35–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/406755(1974). Parent-offspring conflict. American Zoologist, 14, 249–264.(1976). Sexual selection and resource-accruing abilities in Anolis garmani. Evolution, 30, 253–269. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2407700(1985). Social evolution. Menlo Park, CA: Benjamin/Cummings.(1979). Becoming homosexual: A model of gay identity acquisition. Psychiatry, 42, 362–373.(1988a), Homosexual identity development. Journal of Adolescent Health Care, 9, 105–113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0197-0070%2888%2990056-3(1988b). Gay and lesbian identity: A sociological analysis. Dix Hills, NY: General Hall, Inc.(1980). Variables related to the acquisition of a gay identity. Journal of Homosexuality, 5 (4), 383–392. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v05n04_04, & (1985, March). Parenting in gay and lesbian families. Paper presented at the First Future of Parenting Symposium, Chicago., , & (1974). Personality characteristics of male homosexuals referred for aversion therapy: A comparative study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 125, 447–449. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.125.5.447, , , & (1965). Case studies in behavior modification. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston., & (United States General Accounting Office. (1989, February). AIDS education: Issues affecting counseling and testing programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.United States Public Health Service Task Force on AIDS. (1986). Coolfont report A PHS plan for prevention and control of AIDS and the AIDS virus. Public Health Reports, 101, 341–348.United States Public Health Service. (1987). Sexually transmitted disease statistics—1987. Atlanta, GA: Author.1989). Preventing AIDS: The design of effective programs. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.(1984). Pleasure and danger: Exploring female security. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.(1988). Contact tracing to control the spread of HIV [Letter to the editor]. Journal of the American Medical Association, 260 (22), 3274. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1988.03410220058014, & (1977). The castrated family. Kansas City: Sheed, Andrews, & McMeel.(1985, October 29). Paul Cameron. The Advocate, pp. 28–33.(1974). Sexual behavior differentiation: Parental hormonal and environmental control. In R.C.Friedman, R.M.Richart, & R.L. VandeWiele (Eds.), Sex Differences in Behavior. New York: John Wiley.(1980). Homosexuality and stigma. In J.Marmor (Ed.), Homosexual behavior: A modern reappraisal (pp. 123–141). New York: Basic Books.([Page 283]1984). Factors influencing erotic orientation development in females and males. Women and Therapy, 3 (2), 51–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J015V03N02_06, & (1989). Sexual coercion in gay male and lesbian relationships: Predictors and implications (or support services. Journal of Sex Research, 26 (1), 118–124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224498909551495, , & (1984). The sexual compulsive movement. Christopher Street, 8, 48–53.(1985). Sexuality and its discontents. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203407462(1975). Two cases of children of homosexuals. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 6, 26–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01434429, , & (1972). Society and the healthy homosexual. New York: St. Martin's.(1974). Male homosexuals: Their problems and adaptations. New York: Oxford University Press., & (1983). Gay men, gay selves; The social construction of homosexual identities. New York: Irvington.(1984). Biology, ideology, and reification of developmental stages in the study of homosexual identities. Journal of Homosexuality, 10, 77–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v10n03_11(1986). Love relationships and drinking among gay men. Journal of Drug Issues, 16 (4), 637–648.(1977). Human reproductive strategy. Dissertation Abstracts International, 37 (10), 5339-B. (University Microfilms No. 77–8348.)(1978). Nonreproduction, homosexuality, transsexualism, and intelligence: I. A systematic literature search. Journal of Homosexuality, 3, 275–289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v03n03_10(1980a). Homosexual behavior in animals: A new review of observations from the wild, and their relationship to human homosexuality. In R.Forleo & W.Pasini (Eds.), Medical sexology: The Third International Congress (pp. 288–295). Littleton, MA: PSG Publishing.(1980b). On a relationship between homosexuality and I.Q. test scores: A review and some hypotheses. In R.Forleo & W.Pasini (Eds.), Medical Sexology: The Third International Congress (pp. 312–317). Littleton, MA: PSG Publishing.(1987a). A new sociobiological theory of homosexuality applicable to societies with universal marriage. Ethology and Sociobiology, 8, 37–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0162-3095%2887%2990056-2(1987b). Sexual landscapes: Why we are what we are, why we love whom we love. New York: Scribners.(1988a). Sex survey. Science, 242, 16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.3175628(1988b). The periodic-table model of the gender transpositions: Part II. Limerent and lusty sexual attractions and the nature of bisexuality. Journal of Sex Research, 24, 113–129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224498809551402(1989, August). AIDS, sexual politics, and the sexual landscape. Paper presented at the American Psychological Association Convention, New Orleans.(1990, January 26). Statement of Homosexuality. [Available from American Psychological Association, 1200 17th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036.](1987). Self-disclosure of homosexual orientation. Journal of Social Psychology, 127 (2), 191–197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1987.9713679, & (1949). An analysis of Rorschach indices of male homosexuality. Journal of Projective Techniques, 13, 97–126.(1961). The use of an extended Draw-A-Person Test to identify homosexual and effeminate men. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 25, 482–485. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0043390(1977a). The homosexual role: A reconsideration. Journal of Sex Research, 13, 1–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224497709550955(1977b). Childhood indicators of male homosexuality. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 6, 89–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01541701([Page 284]1980). The prehomosexual male child in three societies: The United States, Guatemala, Brazil. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 9, 87–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01542261(1983). Culturally invariable properties of male homosexuality: Tentative conclusions from cross-cultural research. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 11, 207–226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01542072(1984). A cross-cultural assessment of early cross-gender behavior and familial factors in male homosexuality. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 13, 427–439. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01541428, & (1982). Behind the veil in Arabia: Women in Oman. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.(1981). Male homosexual responses to MMPI combined subscales Mf1 and Mf2. Psychological Reports, 49, 606. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.19220.127.116.116(1986). The spirit and the flesh: Sexual diversity in American Indian culture. Boston: Beacon.(What we can learn from homosexual patterns in the third world: A review essay on gay theory, community building, and homophobia. Journal of Homosexuality.(in press).1975a). Sociobiology: The new synthesis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1975b, October 12). Human decency is animal. New York Times Magazine, pp. 38–50.(1978). On human nature. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1971). Personality characteristics of female homosexuals. Psychological Reports, 28, 407–412. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1918.104.22.1687, & (1989). Sexual practices and risk of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus. Journal of the American Medical Association, 257, 321–325., , , , , , , , , & (1979). The lesbian community. Berkeley: University of California Press.(1986). Magnus Hirschfield: A portrait of a pioneer in sexology. New York: Quartet Books.(1990, January 24). Myers tells critics: Just give me time. Newsday, City Edition, p. 6.(1983). Lifestyles and identity maintenance among gay Japanese-American males. Alternative Lifestyles, 5, 236–243., , & (1982). Counseling with gay men and women. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass., & (World Health Organization. (1989). Consensus statement form consultation on partner notification for preventing HIV transmission. Geneva: Author.1987). Homosexuality in the family: Lesbian and gay spouses. Social Work, 32 (2), 143–148.(1988). Contact tracing to identify human immunodeficiency virus in a rural community. Journal of the American Medical Association, 259 (24), 3563–3566. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1988.03720240025029, , , , , , , and (1990, April). The transformation of the Kalahari !Kung. Scientific American, pp. 96–105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0490-96(1985). Cross-gender identified children. In B.W.Steiner (Ed.). Gender dysphoria: Development, research, management (pp. 75–147). New York: Plenum. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-4784-2_4(1966). MMPI patterns of overt male homosexuals: Reinterpretation and comment on Dean and Richardson's study. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 30, 555–557. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0024006, & ([Page 285]1966). Effeminate behavior present in boys from early childhood: I. The clinical syndrome and follow-up studies. Journal of Pediatrics, 69, 1098–1107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3476%2866%2980301-3(1978a). A neglected source-book on homosexuality. British Journal of Psychiatry, 133, 87–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.133.1.87(1978b). Effeminate behavior present in boys from childhood: Ten additional years of followup. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 19, 363–369. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0010-440X%2878%2990019-6(1984). Early effeminate behavior in boys: Outcome and significance for homosexuality. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 172, 90–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005053-198402000-00005(1988). Is early effeminate behavior in boys early homosexuality?Comprehensive Psychiatry, 29, 509–519. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0010-440X%2888%2990067-3(
About the Authors[Page 291]
Pearl Beck, Ph.D., is a research associate at the Rutgers University Institute for Health, Health Care Policy, and Aging Research. She is currently codirecting an evaluation of New Jersey's Respite Care Program. Previously, she directed an AIDS prevention intervention and research program and the evaluation of New Jersey's HIV Contact Notification Program. She received her doctorate in social psychology from the Graduate Center of the City University of New York. For the past 15 years, she has conducted research on a broad spectrum of public policy issues including AIDS, long-term care, and homelessness. Her major publications are in the area of aging and long-term care.
Frederick W. Bozett, RN, DNS, was a professor in the graduate program, College of Nursing, University of Oklahoma. He was editor of Gay and Lesbian Parents (1987), coeditor of Dimensions of Fatherhood (Sage, 1985), and editor of Homosexuality and the Family (1989). He published extensively in the area of fatherhood and gay fathers and was undertaking a longitudinal study of custodial gay father families, as well as studies of gay father-child relationships and gay grandfathers, at the time of his death in the fall of 1991.
Stephen Crystal is Associate Professor of Social Work and Sociology, and Chair of the Division on Aging at the Institute for Health, Health Care Policy, and Aging Research at Rutgers University. He is the principal investigator of several studies relating to health services utilization and health status of persons with HIV infection. He has recently received an award from the National Center for Health Services Research to conduct a three-year survey of psychosocial, health care, and behavioral aspects of the illness. Previously, he served as chief of the Division of Health Care Sciences and was an assistant professor of community and family medicine at the University of California in San Diego. He also served as director of the Bureau of Management Systems, Planning, Research, and Evaluation for the City of New York Human Resources Administration. He received a Ph.D. in sociology from Harvard University in 1981.
Gerald C. Davison is Professor of Psychology at the University of Southern California. He joined USC's psychology faculty in 1979 as [Page 292]director of Clinical Training and from 1984 to 1990 served as department chair. He is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association and of the American Psychological Society, and from 1973 to 1974 served as President of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy. In 1988 he earned an award from the Committee on Lesbian and Gay Concerns of APA's Board of Social and Ethical Responsibility. His books include Abnormal Psychology, 5th ed. (1990), Case Studies in Abnormal Psychology, 3rd ed. (1991), Clinical Behavior Therapy (1976), and Readings in Abnormal Psychology (1989).
Edmund F. Dejowski, J.D., Ph.D., is a senior research associate with the Institute for Health, Health Care Policy, and Aging Research at Rutgers University. In that capacity he serves as co-investigator and director of a study of respite care, and is an investigator in several AIDS studies. Previously, he served at the Institute as a postdoctoral trainee through the Rutgers-Princeton Program in Mental Health Research. Before coming to the Institute, he was a research scientist for the City of New York Human Resources Administration. In that capacity, he directed and was co-investigator for a four-year multistate investigation of adult protective services. He has also served as a clinical and community psychologist in New Jersey and in Maine.
Lidia Dengelegi has an M.A. in psychology from New York University and a Ph.D. in social psychology from Temple University. She has worked at Beth Israel Medical Center in New York overseeing AIDS clinical trials and has conducted an assessment of the AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of intravenous drug users in New York City. Presently she is a research associate at the Institute for Health, Health Care Policy, and Aging at Rutgers University, where she was the project director for the evaluation of New Jersey's HIV Notification Assistance Program.
John C. Gonsiorek received his Ph.D. in clinical psychology in 1978 from the University of Minnesota. He is a Diplomate in Clinical Psychology of the American Board of Professional Psychology. He is currently Associate Director of Training at the Minnesota School of Professional Psychology and also has a private practice in Minneapolis. He has published extensively in the areas of psychotherapy with gay and lesbian individuals, professional ethics and boundaries, quality assurance in mental health, and other areas.
G. Dorsey Green, Ph.D., is a psychologist in private practice in Seattle, Washington. She is the coauthor of Lesbian Couples (1988) and has written [Page 293]about and worked with lesbian and gay couples and parents over the last ten years. She also teaches and consults about gay and lesbian issues. She and four other Seattle psychologists are working on a research project that looks at social support systems of single, coupled, and parenting lesbians. She is currently involved in developing a community of 20 households to live on shared land near Seattle. The group is following the model of similar communities in Denmark and hopes to move to the new homes in early 1992.
Douglas C. Haldeman, Ph.D., is a counseling psychologist in private practice in Seattle, Washington. He is active in educating other mental health professionals and the general public on issues relevant to sexual minorities, and serves on the assistant clinical faculty of the University of Washington. His special area of interest and expertise is the ethical and psychological implications of conversion therapy for gay men and lesbians.
Gregory M. Herek, Ph.D., is an associate research psychologist at the University of California at Davis. A noted authority on the social psychology of prejudice and violence against lesbians and gay men, he has published numerous scholarly articles on these and related topics. He is past chairperson of the Committee on Lesbian and Gay Concerns of the American Psychological Association (APA), and a member of the APA Task Force on AIDS. His advocacy work has included testifying on behalf of the APA for congressional hearings on antigay violence, public speaking about prejudice against lesbians and gay men, and numerous appearances on national and local media.
John A.W. Kirsch, Ph.D., is Professor of Zoology and Director of the University of Wisconsin Zoological Museum in Madison, where he teaches a gay studies course in addition to introductory biology, taxonomy, and several graduate seminars. His chief interest is in the phylogeny of marsupials, another group of misunderstood mammals, using biochemical techniques to establish relationships—work that involves him in frequent trips to the southern hemisphere. He has published nearly 100 papers, book chapters, and reviews, including several on the biology of homosexuality.
Letitia Anne Peplau is Professor of Social Psychology and Acting Co-Director of the Center for the Study of Women at the University of California, Los Angeles. She received her doctorate in social psychology from Harvard University in 1973. Her research interests include gender, close relationships (both homosexual and heterosexual), and loneliness. [Page 294]She has published, with others, numerous journal articles and several books including Social Psychology, 7th Ed., Close Relationships, and Loneliness: A Sourcebook of Current Theory, Research, and Therapy. She is currently a member of the Task Force on Bias in Psychotherapy with Lesbians and Gay Men of the Committee on Lesbian and Gay Concerns of the American Psychological Association.
Richard C. Pillard, M.D., is Professor of Psychiatry at Boston University School of Medicine, Medical Director of the Solomon Carter Fuller Mental Health Center, and cofounder of Boston's Homophile Community Health Service. He has done research into the psychopharmacology of psychoactive drugs, and on whether homosexuality runs in families. He was the first publicly identified gay psychiatrist in the United States.
Rhonda R. Rivera is Professor of Law, The Ohio State University College of Law. She received an M.P.A. in 1960 from Syracuse University and a J.D. from Wayne State University College of Law. She wrote the germinal work on sexual orientation law in 1979, Our straight-laced judges: The legal position of homosexual persons in the United States, (30 Hastings Law Journal 799). In the ten years following, she has updated that work with three more major law review articles. She is the cofounder of the Gay/Lesbian Legal Issues Section of the American Association of Law Schools and a practicing attorney.
James R. Rudolph received his Ph.D. in counseling psychology from Lehigh University in 1988. He is currently Clinical Director at Carver County Mental Health Center, Waconia, Minnesota. He is also an adjunct assistant professor of psychology at St. Mary's College Graduate Center in Minneapolis, where he teaches coursework on psychological assessment. He has written on counselors' attitudes toward homosexuality and is planning future writing projects integrating self-psychology and affirmative gay/lesbian psychotherapy.
Michael Shernoff, CSW, ACSW, is founder and codirector of Chelsea Psychotherapy Associates in Manhattan. He also serves as adjunct faculty to the Department of Education at Gay Men's Health Crisis. He is former cochairperson of the AIDS Task Force of the Society for the Scientific Study of Sex.
Charles Silverstein is a psychologist in private practice in New York City. He was the founding editor of the Journal of Homosexuality and the founding director of both Identity House and the Institute for Human Identity. He is editor of Gays, Lesbians and Their Therapists: Studies in[Page 295]
Psychotherapy. His previous published works include A Family Matter: A Parents' Guide to Homosexuality, Man to Man: Gay Couples in America, and, with Edmund White, The Joy of Gay Sex. He is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association and a consultant to the New York University AIDS project.
James D. Weinrich, Ph.D., is Assistant Research Psychobiologist in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of California, San Diego, where he is Center Manager of the HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center. Author of Sexual Landscapes: Why We Are What We Are, Why We Love Whom We Love, he has written and lectured extensively on matters of sex, gender, and evolutionary biology. In 1987 he and Richard C. Pillard shared an award from the Society for the Scientific Study of Sex for the best paper published that year in the Journal of Sex Research.
Walter L. Williams, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Anthropology and the Study of Women and Men in Society at the University of Southern California. He has published books about interethnic relations, most notably The Spirit and the Flesh: Sexual Diversity in American Indian Culture (1986). In 1987–1988, he was a Fulbright Scholar in Indonesia, which resulted in his most recent book, Javanese Lives: Women and Men in Modern Indonesian Society (1991). He is Director of Postgraduate Studies at the Institute for the Study of Human Resources in Los Angeles.