Hispanic Psychology: Critical Issues in Theory and Research

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Edited by: Amado M. Padilla

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  • Part 1: Acculturation and Adaptation

    Part 2: Ethnic Identity and Behavior

    Part 3: Clinical Research and Services

    Part 4: Health and AIDS Research

    Part 5: Gender Studies Research

    Part 6: Education and Academic Achievement

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    Dedication

    To Kathryn, my wife, and my son Diego who endure most weekends alone while I edit the Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences

    Introduction to Hispanic Psychology

    Amado M.Padilla, Editor

    This book brings together under one cover important research in Hispanic psychology. By design, all 20 chapters have appeared previously as articles in the Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences.1 The intent is to provide students, researchers, and practitioners easy access to the major theoretical and empirical issues in the field of Hispanic psychology. The book is divided into six major parts: Acculturation and Adaptation, Ethnic Identity and Behavior, Clinical Research and Services, Health and AIDS Research, Gender Studies Research, and Education and Academic Achievement.

    The chapters within each of these topical areas are representative of the major themes in Hispanic psychology today. Obviously, these are not the only areas that are being researched and discussed, but they do provide the reader with a very good sampling of the “burning issues” in Hispanic psychology and how these are currently being addressed by social scientists. Furthermore, even though the readings are divided into six major topics, many chapters cut across areas. For example, acculturation is not only important because it presents theoretical and measurement challenges, as shown by the authors in Part 1, but is important in almost every facet of research with Hispanics, ranging from how health care services are delivered to how children are instructed in school.

    The objective in compiling this book was to excite readers, regardless of whether they are students or professionals, about the important psychological research and findings being amassed about Hispanics. What we see emerging from these chapters is an important knowledge base about a significant and growing population in the United States. The scholarship is equal to that found in any other specialty area in psychology in its methodological sophistication and contribution to knowledge. More important, though, is the fact that Hispanic psychology shows what is possible when research is framed from an ethnic perspective.

    What is Hispanic Psychology?

    An important concern to the reader is the definition of what constitutes Hispanic psychology. This is an important question because it determines the content of what we call Hispanic psychology and where the work is headed within the broader field of general psychology. Specifically, Hispanic psychology is that branch of ethnic psychology where the population of interest is of Latin American origin, whether such individuals immigrated to the United States or are native-born U.S. citizens who self-identify under any of several national origin designations (e.g., Mexican American, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Guatemalan) or racial/ethnic group (e.g., Chicano, Latino, mestizo, Hispanic).

    Hispanic psychology is also related to cross-cultural psychology but is distinct in that it concentrates less on intercultural group differences and more on intracultural group differences. In other words, cross-cultural psychology is concerned with the systematic study of experience and behavior as it occurs in different cultures (e.g., Japan and the United States), whereas Hispanic psychology seeks first and foremost to understand the influence of culture and language on people of Latin American origin who share some cultural similarities but who also differ in such characteristics as nationality (e.g., Mexican or Cuban), acculturation level, generation in the United States, political orientation, region of country, and so on. An additional feature of Hispanic psychology and of the psychologists working in this framework is that often the focus is on understanding how experiences with oppression and racism influence the behavior of Latinos.

    Another unique feature of Hispanic psychology is the recognition that universalistic principles of behavior do not always apply when societal structures of dominance and oppression exist that influence a person's experiences and interaction with majority group members and institutions. Thus Eurocentric paradigms that are male, middle class, and majority group oriented are frequently inappropriate when applied in the study of Hispanics. In recent years, we have begun to witness a paradigm shift in Hispanic scholarship, which is evident in many of the chapters in this book. This “new scholarship” is marked by conceptual models that make use of Latino cultural and linguistic information, the development of new instruments to assess culture, and interpretations of findings that draw heavily on the social context in which Hispanics live.

    Much of the behavioral research with Hispanics has followed the cross-cultural model. The general approach has been to include Hispanics in a study along with members of other ethnic groups (e.g., African Americans or Whites) to determine whether group differences emerge on some dependent variable (e.g., cooperative behavior). If differences are found, an interpretation is generally put forth that attempts to offer a “cultural” explanation for the group differences. To be sure this cross-cultural approach has produced a great deal of interesting and important information about Hispanics. However, out of this cross-cultural approach has grown a theoretical and methodological interest that specifically moves away from comparisons of Hispanics with non-Hispanics and concentrates on understanding the heterogeneity that underlies the different subgroups of Hispanics. For instance, rather than comparing and contrasting Hispanics with other cultural groups, attention may be given to how third- or fourth-generation Mexican American children differ from Mexican immigrant students on educational achievement measures or on differences between U.S.-born Puerto Ricans and island Puerto Ricans on gender role stereotyping. As a result, theoretical notions that incorporate acculturation and/or ethnic identity as moderator variables have become increasingly important in the research literature over the past two decades.

    Theories concerning acculturation and its possible accompanying stressors have generally been based on the assumption that the acculturative process is unidirectional and dependent on varying degrees of direct exposure to the dominant society. However, in a complex pluralistic society like that which exists in the United States, such an assumption is overly simplistic. Acculturation in a pluralistic society is a process involving both direct and mediated exposure to new values and different lifestyles, and it may also be bidirectional as both immigrants and members of the same ethnic group born in the United States intimately interact. Attention has also been drawn to the stressors involved in families where the generation gap is magnified because parents are immigrants and their children U.S.-born. The issue of acculturation and the psychological stressors that accompany it have not received sufficient attention in these generation and acculturation gap families nor, for that matter, in families in which the spouses differ in ethnicity and culture, resulting in mixed ethnic heritage children who may share the culture of each of their parents. Research on acculturation will necessitate improved theoretical and empirical indexes of acculturative processes. A start in this direction was begun more than a decade ago (Olmedo, 1979; Padilla, 1980b), and refinements continue as we see in the chapter by María Félix-Ortiz de la Garza and her colleagues. Also, Delia Saldaña's chapter points the reader in important new directions of thinking about acculturation stress and psychological functioning.

    What Ethnic Label Should Be Used?

    The ethnic label used in the title of this book was deliberate but does not indicate a preference. I have been asked on numerous occasions to explain the meaning of the various ethnic labels used by Hispanics. The question is generally embedded in a context of non-Hispanics seeking the most politically correct term to use with their students or research populations. I have also engaged in extended discussions with Latinos who profess that there are only one or two “truly” correct ethnic labels. We recognize that the ethnic label a person chooses to use to self-identify is extremely important and bounded by numerous contextual factors. Some of the factors that determine the choice of an ethnic label are a person's age, acculturation level, generation in the United States, political consciousness, country of birth, region of country, and socioeconomic status. Also important is whether the individual is in school, at work, or in the company of same ethnic group friends or strangers.

    In this book, as is true of the Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, authors were free to use whichever ethnic label they felt comfortable using and that best characterized the ethnic identity of the community they were writing about. Thus the reader will likely find all the ethnic labels used by Hispanics to self-identify.

    From the perspective offered here, I believe that the “politics” of the label are less important than whatever psychological implications the label may have on individual behavior. Among younger, U.S.-born, university educated individuals, the term Chicano(a) is preferred over Mexican American or Hispanic. On the other hand, the self-designated ethnic label of Latino(a) is preferred by others of Mexican heritage or other Latin American background. Similarly, Cuban origin persons may much prefer Cuban American over Latino, whereas newcomers from Central America would rather be known by their nationality, such as Guatematecos or Salvadoreños. The really important issue, it seems to me, has to do with acknowledging that the ethnic and social group identity that the person uses is important in understanding the experience and worldview of the person, and this constitutes an important consideration in our study of Latinos. Once we recognize the importance of social identity in a person's life, we are more apt to put the cultural, historical, linguistic, and sociological uniqueness of the informants’ background at the forefront of our research methodology rather than as an afterthought, which has generally characterized much of psychological research to date. This is where the new scholarship with its paradigm shift is leading as we explore the readings in this book. The importance of ethnic identity research is seen in the three chapters found in Part 2, Ethnic Identity and Behavior. In her chapter, Jean Phinney provides the reader with a general overview of ethnic identity and self-esteem. Based on her review of the literature, Phinney concludes that strong ethnic identity when accompanied by a positive mainstream orientation is related to high self-esteem. Conversely, individuals experience problems in self-esteem when they have difficulty in demonstrating at least some adaptation to the mainstream group. Martha Bernal and her colleagues continue the discussion of adaptation but situate it specifically in the school setting. They argue that earlier attempts to explain the poor academic achievement of Mexican Americans by relying only on issues of school adaptation have ignored other significant issues related to identity. As an alternative, Bernal et al. offer a social identity theoretical framework where ethnic identity is just one of numerous social identities. According to these authors, this approach offers a more productive avenue for explaining lower academic achievement of Mexican American students. In a chapter that links ethnic identity to political consciousness, Aida Hurtado and Patricia Gurin discuss how solidarity with an ethnic community (e.g., Chicano culture) leads to attitudes and behaviors that favor a social group position. Using a theoretical model of ethnic identity and political consciousness, these authors show the relationship between these constructs and favorable attitudes toward bilingualism.

    What are the Important Issues in Hispanic Psychology?

    As an observer of the development of Hispanic psychology over more than two decades (Padilla & Ruiz, 1973), it has been fascinating for me to see the expansion of research and issues in the field. Two of these issues have already been mentioned above: acculturation and ethnic identity. Repeatedly, we see the importance of these constructs in psychological research with Latino populations. However, there are other topics that have generated much discussion over the years and which are reflected in this book. Since the establishment of community mental centers in the 1960s, the question of accessible and culturally appropriate mental health services for Latinos has been of primary concern to practitioners (e.g., Padilla, Ruiz, & Alvarez, 1976). The chapters in Part 3, Clinical Research and Services, expand on earlier discussion of mental health services. In a far-ranging examination of Hispanic mental health research, Horacio Fabrega Jr. synthesizes literature from the diverse fields of social medicine, political economy, and social evolution in his quest to broaden the established paradigms and biases in the field of mental health research and service. His goal is to develop a “truly representative cultural psychiatry,” which the reader can expand to “cultural psychology and mental health.” Fabrega shows us the vision that we need when we think about Hispanic mental health research and service. In the next chapter in this section, Richard Cervantes and William Arroyo bring the reader up to date on the implications of the revisions to the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). More important, they do this from the perspective of Hispanic children and adolescents who have regrettably been ignored in most discussions in the literature on diagnostic assessment and services. Generally, diagnostic assessment concerns have been approached exclusively with Latino adults in mind. The really interesting aspect of the Cervantes and Arroyo contribution is that they force the reader to think about potential sources of cultural bias when strict adherence is mandated in the use of the DSM-IV guidelines. By including this reading, I hope to stir up interest among clinicians who specialize in working with Hispanic youths. To ensure that the pot is stirred on the matter of services for youthful Latino populations, the final chapter in this section is devoted to the serious clinical challenges that present themselves when treating Chicano gang members. Authors Jerald Belitz and Diana Valdez deal intelligently with the troublesome issues that surround the question of how to assist with the increasing problem of gangs in Latino communities. Youth violence poses major mental health concerns, especially for Latino youths who live in inner cities. The two case studies found in the Belitz and Valdez chapter are especially interesting because they help to orient our thinking about the multiple problems that many of our youths experience.

    A major development in psychology over the past two decades has been the emergence of the specialty field of health psychology. Because of their precarious status in this country, many Hispanics are at risk of suffering greater health-related problems than is the general population. Health statistics bear out this assertion. Consequently, any serious book on the psychology of Latinos must include the topic of health from both a prevention and a research perspective. Part 4 comprises four chapters on health issues. The first chapter by Rosa Seijo, Henry Gomez and Judith Freidenberg discusses an important but frequently overlooked issue in health care: the role of language concordance between patient and health care provider. Seijo and her colleagues demonstrate that when client and provider are able to communicate in the same language the client is able to ask more questions of the provider, has better recall of the health-related information given, and is more likely to comply with the treatment. This should not surprise us, but it does show how more health-related research is needed to improve health care to linguistically excluded patient populations.

    Smoking continues as one of the major health concerns in the United States. Gerardo Marín and his collaborators show how attitudes and expectancies toward smoking vary between Hispanic and non-Hispanics. They show that the attitudes and expectancies vary across the groups and that acculturation influences the smoking practices of Hispanics.

    Finally, because of the epidemic proportion of AIDS in the Latino community two chapters on AIDS research are presented. The first by Gustavo Yep is a review of how a communication/persuasion model can be extended for use in the prevention of HIV/AIDS among Latino. This chapter serves as a good demonstration of how a general theory of communication can be extended to an ethnic population by bridging culture and safe sex information. Often, women are the hapless victims of HIV infection. The dimensions of the AIDS epidemic are magnified in the chapter by Adeline Nyamathi and Rose Vasquez, who discuss findings from a research project that shows how young poverty-level Hispanic women are disproportionately infected with HIV

    The move toward sensitizing the field of psychology on matters of gender relevance is also clearly a part of Hispanic psychology. Part 5, Gender Studies Research, contains three chapters that point toward a new framework for thinking about gender roles in an evolving Latino culture in the United States. The concept of machismo is a salient part of Hispanic culture that may be undergoing some modification through acculturation and the feminist movement among Latinas. In the first chapter, Manuel Casas and his students explore the concept of Hispanic masculinity and place it within the broader realm of gender schema theory. They then use this framework to offer recommendations for clinical intervention with males who negatively adhere to a rigid traditional male gender role. This is an important work because it points out how gender role relationships between Hispanic men and women must change not only in Latin America but in the United States. It also suggests indirectly that the gender role socialization of children among Latinos needs to change.

    The chapter by Brunilda De León addresses issues of sex role identity among a college population of students, including Puerto Ricans. Using the Bem Sex Role Inventory, De León found that Puerto Rican men and women are moving away from the strong gender-prescribed behavioral orientations of hypermasculinity and “super” mother. In an unusual chapter, Sharon Kantorowski Davis and Virginia Chavez present qualitative information about stay-at-home Hispanic males who, generally because of loss of employment, are forced to care for children and home while the wife works. These authors discuss how men confront and possibly transcend their machismo and adjust to becoming a househusband. Although the adjustments that must be made by the men studied are great, the study shows that role reversals are possible. The importance of this contribution is that gender role reversals are becoming more commonplace as many Hispanic women find employment outside the home. Together these chapters show how Latino culture is changing when examined from the perspective of male-female relationships.

    The final section of the book, Part 6, Education and Academic Achievement, contains three chapters related to educational psychology. In the history of Hispanic psychology, educational research extends back 70 years (Padilla, 1988). The older literature typically involved IQ and/or achievement test performance and its relationship to bilingualism. The Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences has sought to encourage the publication of new perspectives on the education of Hispanic school-aged populations. The three chapters in this section represent a “new look” at the problem of school achievement of Hispanic children. The first, by Kathryn Lindholm, discusses a new instructional program—two-way bilingual immersion—which has as its goal bilingual development of both language minority (Latino) and language majority children. Lindholm presents empirical findings for academic achievement in two languages that support the three critical assumptions that serve as the basis for the bilingual immersion model. Her findings demonstrate the validity of bilingual language instruction and show why such programs are viewed as language enrichment programs for both minority and majority group children. The popularity of these programs is growing in the United States.

    In the next chapter, Sylvia Alatorre Alva reports on a study of educational resilience among a group of 10th-grade Mexican American students. Considerable media coverage has been given to the low school achievement found among Latino students, particularly those in inner-city schools. However, many students do well in school despite coming from environments that place them at great risk for academic failure. Alatorre Alva uncovers important information on the factors that have the potential for enhancing educational resilience among Latino students. Importantly, this chapter demonstrates that academic success in school is just as important a research topic as is school failure if we are to know how to intervene positively on behalf of Hispanic students.

    The final chapter by Pedro Reyes and Richard Valencia is a far-ranging analysis of the educational reform movement and its potential impact on Latino students. As Reyes and Valencia know so well, if schools are going to meet the educational needs of Hispanic students in the 21st century, then the educational reforms currently under way and which are transforming public education must not sacrifice equity for excellence. These authors issue a warning that must be taken seriously by psychologists who do work in the nation's schools and with Latino students in particular. Psychologists must contextualize their educational research within the broader policy fabric of the educational school reform movement and cannot be content to confine themselves to bilingual education or special educational assessment, which have been the traditional topics of study in the area of Hispanic educational research.

    How were Contributions Selected?

    The explicit purpose of the Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences since its inception in 1979 has been to publish relevant articles on Hispanics that could serve as the catalyst for the in-depth behavioral study of people of Latino origin. To this end, the journal has achieved its stated objective and has now concluded nearly two decades of continuous publication. It remains the only journal dedicated exclusively to the publication of behavioral science research on Hispanics.

    To provide some context to the selection process, I reviewed and categorized the 300 articles that have appeared in the journal since its inception. Because the journal is interdisciplinary in scope, only those articles of direct psychological relevance were reviewed for topical relevance and suitability for inclusion here. Articles that had broad thematic generalizability were preferred over empirical studies that were more narrow in scope. However, as the reader will see, some chapters are reports of empirical studies, but their implications are far reaching. Some require that the reader be familiar with statistical techniques, including multivariate analysis and factor analysis. Although the contents may exceed the level of a reader with little research training, overall the chapters are very informative even for the person with little quantitative research background. However, another goal in compiling this volume was that it be a research guide to instruct students in the research methodologies used in Latino psychology.

    Once selected, the articles were arranged into six categories that exemplify current and important work in the area of Hispanic psychology. As the reader will see, some chapters naturally cut across more than a single category. For instance, research questions involving the role of acculturation in such areas as health psychology, education, and gender studies are evident in the Hispanic psychological literature generally and specifically in the chapters throughout this book. Similarly, the importance of education in some way cuts across almost every research agenda in the study of Hispanics. Thus the final selection of articles for inclusion here was arrived at following painstaking deliberation over which combination of materials would best exemplify the current state of psychological research and knowledge.

    What Should Readers Gain from This Volume?

    Several methodological issues touched on in this introductory discussion merit a little more elaboration. As mentioned earlier, the Hispanic culture is both richly heterogeneous and homogeneous. Moreover, as a population description, too many Hispanics hold unskilled and semiskilled jobs, occupy the lower echelons of the socioeconomic scale, and possess limited educational backgrounds. Yet there are also Hispanics who are members of the middle and upper middle social class, who are professionals, and who strongly identify as Hispanic or Latino. Although a large proportion of Hispanics speak primarily (or only) Spanish, there are many third- and later-generation Hispanics who have minimal or no linguistic skills in Spanish. Heterogeneity is extremely important for an investigator to recognize in designing studies involving Hispanics. Too often in the past, researchers were not careful in defining the Hispanic population that they studied. This is changing, and the hope is that the readings in this book reflect the change that is going on.

    Another problem is that investigators often fail to obtain information on the generational status, preference for Spanish, and self-attributed ethnicity of their respondents. Information on these variables provides critical insights into the acculturative level and/or bicultural disposition of subjects. Unless this type of information is collected, it is entirely conceivable that these studies cannot answer the questions they were “designed” to answer because of lack of care in the selection of the Hispanic sample.

    Investigators must often control for such variables as Hispanic subgroup (i.e., Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, El Salvadorian), generation (e.g., immigrant, second, third), employment and occupational status of both spouses (or parents, whichever is applicable), and attained education of both spouses (or parents, whichever is applicable). Only when these and other demographic variables are controlled for, especially in investigations where Hispanics are compared with another ethnic group, can we be certain of our conclusions. The literature is filled with studies where these variables are not taken into account, resulting in possible erroneous conclusions or ambiguous findings.

    Equally important and still lacking are carefully worked out strategies for obtaining sensitive research information from Hispanic participants. This problem and related strategies are discussed by Marín and Marín (1991). Thus, although this book is not intended as a guide to research with Hispanics, it was my intent to select materials that both inform the reader and afford an appreciation of the state of psychological knowledge about Hispanics. It is my hope that this book's contents spark a new wave of thinking and study by psychologists interested in knowing and learning more about Latinos.

    Notes

    1. The first ten volumes of the Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences (HJBS) were published as part of research activities funded by a National Institute of Mental Health Grant titled “The Spanish-National Speaking Mental Health Research Center.” Amado M. Padilla served as Principal Investigator of this grant. Beginning with Volume XI, 1989, Sage Publications, Inc., became the copyright holder for HJSB.Chapters 1, 7, and 10 of this volume appeared in issues of HJBS prior to 1989 and are reprinted by permission of Amada M. Padilla, Publisher. Support for publication of Volumes 1 through 10 of HJSB was provided by the UCLA Spanish-Speaking Mental Health Research Center.

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    About the Editor

    Amado M. Padilla received his Ph.D. in experimental psychology from the University of New Mexico. He is Professor of Psychological Studies in Education and chair of the Language, Literacy and Culture Program in the School of Education at Stanford University. Previously, he directed two national research centers, the Center for Language Education and Research and the Spanish-speaking Mental Health Research Center at the University of California at Los Angeles where he served as Professor of Psychology from 1974 to 1988. His current research interests include the social adaptation of immigrants and their children to American society and the acquisition and teaching of second languages to adolescents and adults. He was founding editor of the Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, which is currently in its 16th year of publication. He has published extensively in numerous areas, including bilingualism and Hispanic mental health. His books include Latino Mental Health (1973), Crossing Cultures in Therapy (1980), Acculturation (1980), Chicano Ethnicity (1987), Introduction to Psychology (1989), Bilingual Education (1991), and Foreign Language Education (1991).

    About the Contributors

    Sylvia Alatorre Alva is a Social Policy Fellow at the Center for Collaboration for Children at California State University at Fullerton. She received her Ph.D. degree in psychology from the University of California at Los Angeles, with a concentration in developmental psychology and social policy analysis and planning. She is Assistant Professor in the Department of Child Development at California State University at Fullerton. Her teaching and research focus on the educational attainment and psychosocial development of Mexican-American and minority group children and adolescents. She is a past Fellow at the Bush Center for Child and Family Policy Studies at the University of California at Los Angeles.

    William Arroyo, M.D., is a Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist and Clinical Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Southern California and Director of the Child-Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic at the Los Angeles County-University of Southern California Hospital. He is a staff member of a private nonprofit organization, the Psychological Trauma Center, which provides psychological assistance to schools during the early aftermath of disasters and community violence. He has been honored by community organizations for his work with psychologically traumatized refugees. His publications are in the areas of psychological trauma and cultural issues related to mental health. He also served as an Advisory Group member to the DSM-IV Task Force.

    Robert Banchero is a Ph.D. candidate in counseling psychology at the University of California at Santa Barbara from which he received a master's degree in education. His research interests focus on the relationship between theory and practice within the counseling process. After completion of his degree, he would like to work at fostering an ongoing dialogue between researchers and the counseling professionals in private practice.

    Jerald Belitz is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Clinical Coordinator of Programs for Children and Adolescents at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine. He received his B.A. from City College of New York and his M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of New Mexico. His areas of interest include ethics, multicultural issues and their relationship to child and adolescent development, affective and behavioral disturbances, and coping with trauma and abuse. For the past several years, he has specialized in working with gang-involved youths and other “high risk” adolescents.

    Martha E. Bernal is Professor of Psychology in the Department of Psychology and Research Professor at the Hispanic Research Center at Arizona State University. She received her Ph.D. in clinical psychology from Indiana University at Bloomington and is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association and a Diplomate in Clinical Psychology of the American Board of Professional Psychology. Her research has focused on the development, socialization, and correlates of ethnic identity in Mexican American children. She has published numerous articles in this as and was coeditor with George Knight of Ethnic Identity: Formation and Transmission Among Hispanics and Other Minorities (1993) and with Phyllis Martinelli of Mexican American Identity (1993). Her parents emigrated from Mexico and she was raised in El Paso, Texas.

    Raymond Buriel is Professor of Psychology and Chicano Studies at Pomona College, where he is also Associate Dean of Faculty. He received his Ph.D. in psychology from the University of California at Riverside. He did postdoctoral work at the Spanish-speaking Mental Health Research Center at UCLA on a Ford Foundation Fellowship and is a Scholar of the Tomas Rivera Center for Policy Studies in Claremont, California. He has served as a consultant to Project Follow Through, the National Center for Bilingual Research, and the California State Department of Education. His research includes the acculturation and adjustment of Mexican immigrant families, with a special focus on the characteristics of immigrants that are conducive to success in the United States. His research has appeared in several book chapters and scholarly journals. He serves on the editorial boards of the Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, Journal of Genetic Psychology, and Harvard Journal of Hispanic Policy.

    J. Manuel Casas is a Professor in the Counseling, Clinical and School Psychology Program at the University of California at Santa Barbara. He received his Ph.D. from Stanford University with a specialization in the areas of counseling and cross-cultural psychology. He has published widely in professional journals in the area of cross-cultural counseling and education. He is coauthor (with Joseph Ponterotto) of the Handbook of Racial/Ethnic Minority Counseling Research. He has served on the editorial board of The Counseling Psychologist, Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, and numerous other publications. He consults on institutional interventions that contribute significantly to the success and/or failure of ethnic minorities in social, educational, and corporate settings.

    Richard C. Cervantes is Assistant Professor of Clinical Psychiatry (Psychology) at the University of Southern California School of Medicine. He is Associate Director of the Clinical Psychology Internship Program and is a supervising psychologist in the Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. He earned his Ph.D. in clinical psychology in 1984 at Oklahoma State University. He is a member of the USC Consortium for the Study of Youth Violence. He is a consultant to the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention and is a member of their Hispanic High Risk Youth Cluster Group. He is author of over two dozen journal articles and recently edited Substance Abuse and Gang Violence (Sage, 1992). His research is in the area of Hispanic children's mental health, with a special interest in psychological testing for youths.

    Virginia Chavez is a student in the University of Utah graduate program in public administration, specializing in health administration. She is currently working at the Hispanic Research Center at Arizona State University, where she conducts interviews with gang members and Latino youths who abuse inhalants. She has presented papers on Latino gangs in Arizona and on alcohol use among Latino youths at the annual meetings of the American Sociological Association.

    Sharon Kantorowski Davis is Professor of Sociology at the University of La Verne in Los Angeles. She received her Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Southern California. Her research specialties are primarily in the sociology of deviance in the areas of crime, delinquency, and family violence. Her lifelong commitment to and involvement with issues of ethnicity and gender have resulted in the development of classes and of publications in Ethnic Relations and Gender, Social Class and Ethnicity in Film. In 1993, she was an invited speaker to an international conference in Sapporo, Japan on “Social Welfare in the 21st Century: An International Approach.” During 1995 she will teach and do cross-cultural research in Athens, Greece.

    Brunilda De León is Assistant Professor in the School and Counseling Psychology Program, School of Education at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst. She received an M.S.W. from the University of Puerto Rico, and an Ed.D. in school psychology from the University of Massachusetts. Her research has focused on the areas of bilingual, cross-cultural, and multicultural assessment, career opportunities for minority students, and cultural adaptation, gender roles, and issues in the mental health of ethnically diverse populations. She consults widely in the areas of school, family, and community mental health.

    Horacio Fabrega Jr., M.D., is Professor of Psychiatry and Anthropology at the University of Pittsburgh. He received his M.D. from Columbia University in New York City and completed his psychiatry residency at Yale University. He has been involved in cultural psychiatry and medical anthropology for approximately 30 years, and has written two books and over 120 articles in peer-reviewed journals. He has done extensive cross-cultural work in Mexico and Peru and has conducted research with ethnic minorities in the United States, primarily with Hispanic Americans and African Americans. His work includes clinical, social psychiatric, and health services studies. His current interests involve theoretical aspects of psychiatry and medicine, and ways of increasing cultural sensitivity in international systems of psychiatric diagnosis. He is actively involved in caring for patients in the brain injury unit at the Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic.

    Judith Freidenberg received her Ph.D. in anthropology from the Graduate Center, City University of New York, where is she now a Senior Research Associate with the Center for Urban Research. Her teaching and research have focused on Latinos in the United States, with a particular interest in translating anthropological findings to policymakers. Her latest work is on elderly Latinos in East Harlem, New York City. This work was the subject of an anthropological exhibition of text and visual imagery at the CUNY Graduate Center, and of a book, Growing Old in Spanish Harlem: 1948–1994. At the time this chapter was written, she was Assistant Professor of Anthropology at Mount Sinai School of Medicine, CUNY.

    María Félix-Ortiz de la Garza is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Southern California. Previously she was a Clinical Psychology Fellow at the University of California at San Francisco and conducted research and provided clinical services at Substance Abuse Services, Department of Psychiatry, at San Francisco General Hospital. Her research interests are in etiology and prevention of drug use and abuse, especially among Latino youths, and in the development of client-led support groups as adjuncts to structured addiction treatment. She was a Ford Predoctoral Fellow (1987–1991) and was awarded the Joseph A. Gengerilli Award for Most Distinguished Dissertation in the UCLA Department of Psychology in 1993. Her recent publications appear in the Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences and Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

    Placida I. Gallegos is Vice President of Southwest Communication Resources, Inc., a consulting firm in San Diego, California, and is a consultant with the Kallel Jamison Consulting Group, the national diversity firm. She holds an M.S. in marriage and family counseling from Loma Linda University and an M. A. and Ph.D. in social psychology from the University of California at Riverside. She has done extensive research, training, and consulting in the area of cross-cultural relations and the influence of ethnic and gender diversity on interpersonal relations. She is on the faculty of the California School of Professional Psychology and teaches courses on gender and cultural diversity in the workplace.

    Raymond T. Garza is Provost and Vice President for Academic Affairs and Professor of Psychology at the University of Texas at San Antonio. His prior academic appointment was with the University of California at Riverside where he also served in several academic administrative positions as Associate Dean of UC Riverside's Graduate Division, Director of the Social/Personality Psychology Program, and Distinguished Scholar of the Tomas Rivera Center. He has an M.A. in psychology from Texas A&M University and a Ph.D. in psychology from Purdue University. His areas of research and teaching expertise include intergroup relations, Hispanic personality development, research methods, and minority mental health. He is author or coauthor of 68 research articles, book chapters, and professional papers and has received major grants from the National Institute of Mental Health, the Office of Naval Research, and the Pew Charitable Trusts.

    Henry Gomez is a Cardiology Fellow at the Long Island Jewish Medical Center in New Hyde Park, NY. He received his M.D. from the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City and completed his internal medicine residency at Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY.

    Patricia Gurin is Professor and Chair of the Department of Psychology at the University of Michigan. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Michigan in 1964. She has published eight books and monographs as well as numerous articles on topics including personal and social identity, the relationship of self to reference groups and society, and political empowerment. The impact of her work has led to roles chairing advisory committees (e.g., the Rockefeller Foundation Committee on Minority Single-Headed Households) and several National Institute of Mental Health research panels on social problem research.

    Aida Hurtado is Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of California at Santa Cruz. She received her M.A. and Ph.D. in social psychology from the University of Michigan. Her research focuses on the effects of subordination on social identity and is especially interested in group memberships, like ethnicity, race, class, and gender, that are used to legitimize unequal distribution of power between groups. Her expertise is in survey methods with bilingual/bicultural populations. She has published extensively on issues of language and social identity for the Mexican-origin population in the United States.

    George P. Knight is Professor of Psychology and Director of the Graduate Program in Developmental Psychology at Arizona State University. He received his Ph.D. in social/developmental psychology from the University of California at Riverside. He is a member of the editorial boards for Child Development and Merrill-Palmer Quarterly. His research interests include the development and socialization of ethnic identity, cross-cultural developmental issues, the development of prosocial and cooperative behavioral styles, and developmental social cognition. He recently coedited, with Martha Bernal, Ethnic Identity: Formation and Transmission Among Hispanics and Other Minorities and edited a special issue of the Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences entitled “Ethnic Identity and Psychological Adaptation.”

    Kathryn J. Lindholm is Associate Professor of Child Development at San Jose State University where she teaches courses on multicultural child development. She received her Ph.D. in developmental psychology from the University of California at Los Angeles. Her research interests include assessing the effectiveness of the two-way bilingual immersion education model to promote bilingualism, academic achievement, and true integration in the school setting among native speakers of other languages, particularly Spanish speakers. She serves as consultant to many school districts, the California Department of Education, and the Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning and has authored or coauthored journal articles and book chapters on child bilingualism, two-way bilingual immersion education, and multicultural themes in child development.

    Barbara VanOss Marín is Associate Adjunct Professor of Epidemiology and Biostatistics at the University of California at San Francisco. She holds undergraduate and graduate degrees in applied social psychology from Loyola University of Chicago and completed a postdoctoral fellowship at UC San Francisco in health psychology. Her primary interests over the past 15 years have been research and intervention to promote healthy behaviors among Hispanics/Latinos in culturally appropriate ways. She is currenting studying cultural issues related to AIDS prevention among Latinos. She has received funding from the National Institute for Mental Health to develop, implement, and evaluate a culturally appropriate sex education program for sixth and seventh graders in predominantly Latino schools. She lived in Bogota, Colombia for four years.

    Gerardo Marín is Professor of Psychology at the University of San Francisco. A native of Colombia, he has been working recently on the development and evaluation of culturally appropriate community interventions for smoking cessation and alcohol abuse prevention among Hispanics. He is serving as Senior Scientific Editor for the 1995 Surgeon General's Report on Smoking and has published over 100 articles, book chapters, and books, one of which is Research With Hispanic Populations (Sage, 1991).

    Juan Mendoza-Romero is working on his master's degree in counseling psychology at the University of California at Santa Barbara. He has extensive experience working as a counselor with Chicano adolescents who are at high risk of abusing drugs and alcohol, dropping out of school, and/or becoming involved in negative gang activities. Upon completion of his degree, he plans to return to his community and continue his work with Chicano adolescents.

    Hector F. Myers is Professor of Psychology and Director of the Minority Mental Health Program at UCLA and Director of the Biobehavioral Research Center at the Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science. He received his Ph.D. in clinical psychology from the University of California at Los Angeles. He has been nationally recognized for his work on stress and physical and psychological adjustment of African American adults and families. His most recent work has focused on psychosocial and biobehavioral factors in mood disorders and on HIV/AIDS disease in this population. He is a Fellow in the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnicity. He received the 1993 Ethnic Minority Mentorship Award from the Society for Community Research and Action and the 1993 Outstanding Contributions to Psychology Award given by the Los Angeles County Psychological Association.

    Michael D. Newcomb is Professor of Counseling Psychology and chairs the Division of Counseling Psychology at the University of Southern California, and is a research psychologist and codirector of the Substance Abuse Research Center in the Department of Psychology at the University of California at Los Angeles. He received his Ph.D. in clinical psychology from UCLA and is a licensed clinical psychologist in California. He is principal investigator on several grants from the National Institute on Drug Abuse and has published over 150 articles and book chapters and written three books. His research interests include etiology and consequences of adolescent drug abuse; structural equation modeling, methodology, and multivariate analysis; human sexuality; health psychology; attitudes and affect related to nuclear war; and cohabitation, marriage, and divorce.

    Adeline Nyamathi is Associate Professor of Nursing at the University of California at Los Angeles. Her research focuses on coping and health outcome of homeless and drug-addicted women of color in Los Angeles. She is currently principal investigator of two studies funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse that assess the effectiveness of culturally competent AIDS education programs delivered by nurses and outreach workers to impoverished women. She is also coprincipal investigator with researchers from RAND Corporation, all of whom study the impact of health programs in the community. She serves on the editorial boards of several journals, is cochair of the UCLA Latino Advisory Board, is a Fellow of the American Academy of Nursing, and is the recipient of UCLA's 1994 Distinguished Lecturer Award.

    Regina Otero-Sabogal is Assistant Research Psychologist in the Division of General Internal Medicine at the University of California at San Francisco. Her research is on smoking and cancer in Hispanic women and adolescents. She is the principal investigator of the American Cancer Society grant to evaluate cancer control interventions for Hispanic women, the National Cancer Institute breast and cervical cancer interventions for Hispanic women, and the State of California UCTRDRP Smoking Prevention for Pregnant and Nonpregnant Hispanic Adolescents. She is coinvestigator on two NCI studies to develop cancer control interventions for Hispanics. She received a distinction award from the California Health Department, Office of Tobacco Control for her contributions to the development of antismoking interventions and educational materials.

    Eliseo J. Pérez-Stable, M.D., is Associate Professor of Medicine at the University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine. He holds an M.D. degree from the University of Miami, trained in primary care internal medicine at UCSF, and completed a Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation fellowship in general internal medicine before joining the faculty at UCSF in 1983. His research has focused on risk factor reduction interventions for Latino populations. He directs the Programa Latino Para Dejar de Fumar, the Latino Project in the Pathways to Cancer Screening in Four Ethnic Groups program project grant, and the San Francisco site of the National Hispanic Leadership Initiative on Cancer. He is codirector of the UCSF Medical Effectiveness Research Center for Diverse Populations, which seeks effective medical interventions in African American and Latino populations, with a special emphasis on cancer and cardiovascular disease.

    Jean S. Phinney is Professor of Psychology at California State University at Los Angeles. She received her Ph.D. from the University of California at Los Angeles. Her research interests focus on the social development of ethnic minority adolescents, with particular emphasis on ethnic identity, and has published numerous articles on the topic. With the support of a grant from the National Institute of Mental Health, she is currently studying ethnocentrism and intergroup relations among adolescents in ethnically diverse high school settings. She is collaborating on an international study of ethnic minority adolescents in six countries and has been an invited speaker at international conferences in New Zealand, Belgium, and Spain. She also serves as Assistant Editor for the Journal of Adolescence.

    Erich J. Rueschenberg received his Ph.D. in applied social psychology from Clarement Graduate School in Pomona, California. He also completed doctoral training in social-clinical psychology at the Wright Institute in Los Angeles. For 14 years he worked as the director of an outpatient mental health program in the Los Angeles area and also served as a consultant for various residential treatment programs for adolescents and young adults. He is currently employed by the State of California Department of Corrections in San Luis Obispo. His main research interests are in the areas of acculturation, social support, help seeking, and comparing different approaches in mental health service delivery.

    Pedro Reyes is Associate Professor of Educational Administration at the University of Texas at Austin. He received his Ph.D. in Educational Policy from Wisconsin University. His research interests include the analysis of teacher work conditions and school-level policymaking. He also studies the effects of state policymaking on student outcomes. In 1992–1993 he held a National Academy of Education fellowship.

    Fabio Sabogal is Assistant Research Psychologist in the Division of General Internal Medicine, the Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, and the Medical Effectiveness Research Center for Diverse Populations at the University of California at San Francisco. He is a Hispanic health psychologist who has conducted various studies in the Hispanic community, including cancer, smoking, tuberculosis, nutrition, and HIV transmission. He has also done extensive cross-cultural research in Colombia, Guatemala, and the United States. Currently, he is coinvestigator of several projects: Pathways to Cancer Screening; Cancer Interventions for Hispanic Women; NCI National Hispanic Leadership Initiative; AIDS Technology and Information Exchange; Increasing Compliance With Tuberculosis Appointments; and Family of AIDS Behavioral Surveys.

    Delia S. Saenz is Assistant Professor of Psychology and an Assistant Research Professor in the Hispanic Research Center at Arizona State University. She received her Ph.D. in social psychology from Princeton University. Her research interests include tokenism, intergroup processes, social identity, and courtesy stigma. The primary focus of her work is on social differentiation, the process in which individuals perceive themselves as distinctive on an important dimension from others in the immediate social environment. She has taken her laboratory-based ideas and expertise into field settings, as in her National Institutes of Health supported work on token minorities in public school classrooms and her work on reduction of intergroup discrimination among college students belonging to rival groups.

    Delia H. Saldaña is Clinical Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio. Her research has focused on stress, coping, and social supports in Mexican Americans. She is currently principal investigator of two studies funded by the South Texas Health Research Center and the National Institute of Mental Health that explore ethnic and urban/rural differences in caregiving among families of the severely mentally ill. She is a coinvestigator on a Hispanic Health Aging Center grant from the National Institute on Aging working on projects to develop culturally sensitive assessments of subclinical disability and depression in elderly Mexican Americans. She also directs the Office of Community Research at San Antonio State Hospital, which coordinates research and program evaluation of outpatient psychiatric services to a 16-county catchment area in South Texas.

    Rosa Seijo is a Developmental Pediatric Fellow at the Rose F. Kennedy Development Center of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. She received her M.D. degree from Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City, and completed her pediatric residency at the Montefiore/Einstein Affiliated Hospitals in the Bronx, NY. Her research focuses on bilingualism and the development of language in developmentally disabled children.

    Diana M. Valdez is Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, and is a staff psychologist at Programs for Children and Adolescents, University of New Mexico Mental Health Center. She received her Ph.D. in social psychology from the University of California at Riverside and completed postdoctoral training in clinical child psychology at the University of New Mexico. Her interests include cross-cultural issues in the assessment and treatment of minority children, forensic psychology, and cross-cultural training and consultation.

    Richard R. Valencia is Associate Professor of Educational Psychology at the University of Texas at Austin. His major field of specialization is ethnic minority education (psychological and social aspects), with emphasis on Mexican American students. He has published extensively on test validity/test bias issues vis-à-vis Chicano students as well as on more recent work on school segregation, high-stakes testing, and Latino demographic trends. His 1991 edited book, Chicano School Failure and Success: Research and Policy Agendas for the 1990s, received CHOICE's 1993 Outstanding Academic Book award. He serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Educational Psychology, Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, and Review of Educational Research.

    Rose M. Vasquez, R.N., F.N.P., is Clincial Coordinator and Director of the Women's HIV Clinic at the AIDS Healthcare Foundation (AHF) in Los Angeles, which serves a large population base of indigent Latin and majority patients. She is a coinvestigator on several clinical trials on HIV with the Southwest Community-Based AIDS Treatment (ComBAT) Group. She has a master's degree in nursing from UCLA and has been certified as a Family Nurse Practitioner by the American Nursing Association. She is a member of the HIV Community Planning Working Group, which is sponsored and funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the California Department of Health Services, Office of AIDS.

    Burl R. Wagenheim is a Ph.D. candidate in counseling psychology at the University of California at Santa Barbara and holds master's degrees in education and communication. He was formerly an officer with the World Health Organization where he was responsible for numerous health promotion projects in South America, the Caribbean, and North America. His dissertation research examines the relationship between health behavior, emotional health, and having a sense of meaning and purpose in life.

    Gustavo A. Yep is Assistant Professor of Communication Studies and Associate Director of the Institute for Asian American and Pacific Asian Studies at California State University at Los Angeles. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Southern California. He is currently a member of the advisory board for the new Asian Pacific AIDS Intervention Team, the executive board of the Southern California chapter of the Society for Public Health Education (SOPHE), the Cultural Issues and Minority Health Committee of SOPHE, and the board of directors of Pacific Clinics. He chairs the AIDS Committee of SOPHE. His work has appeared in book chapters as well as articles in a number of scholarly publications, and he is recipient of several research grants and teaching and service awards.


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