Hidden Messages in Culture-Centered Counseling: A Triad Training Model

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Paul B. Pedersen

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  • Epigram

    To the small flying phoenix who migrates so easily back and forth from East to West.

    Copyright

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    Foreword

    There is nothing more fundamental than information and nothing more important to the future of the planet than the role of information gained from the transactions between human beings. This book centers on the essentials of communicating in the counseling relationship.

    For openers, the generally accepted view of a conversation is that it is a “singular” process—a connecting link or channel between two or more individuals. Pedersen adds to this formula (as well as the practice of counseling) by broadening our view and by making the point that these everyday verbal exchanges constitute not one but three or more simultaneous conversations, layered one on top of the other. Furthermore, two of them are unspoken and carried in the interlocutors’ heads. All this becomes increasingly complex when the counselor-client dyad is made up of individuals of different cultures or even different backgrounds in the same culture. This leads us to another point: namely, when the tacit rules of the “languages of encounters” are not followed or understood, are overly complex, or require specialized knowledge, the message becomes either garbled, obscured, or both, and the entire process begins to collapse.

    What makes this book especially relevant to counselors is that it is built around one of the most important aspects of communication. By treating communication as a transaction, the author frees himself to describe the hidden dialogues of both sides during counseling and provides the reader with a coherent, readily understood statement of some of the most important variables inherent in verbal communication. Professional counselors will be reassured not only by how realistically rooted in experience Pedersen's descriptions are but also by their clarity. Particularly relevant is his decoding of the tacit processes based on patterns rooted in daily usage. For the essence of Pedersen's message is the more differences—explicit as well as implicit—between counselor and client, the more hidden messages there are to be attended to. Pedersen stresses the point that, as the number of hidden messages increases, the greater the counselor's need is to know how to read them. This book is designed to reinforce what the counselor has already learned from the client's hidden messages. In that, one of the principal reasons underlying the ambiguity associated with intercultural encounters can be traced to situations in which the words are understood but the tacit meanings on which they are based are not.

    It is in these terms that the counselor must comprehend the need for mastery of the complexities, not just of what has been said but, particularly, of the underlying assumptions of the interlocutors. These heretofore overlooked aspects of counseling apply not only when the two sides of the equation share cultures but, particularly, when two different cultures are involved. Pedersen's book is so basic and so clearly stated that one might easily minimize the fundamental nature of his message. All that follows in this book is built on his dedication to making explicit the important aspects of what can be acquired only after years of experience.

    EdwardT.Hall

    Preface

    When a counselor meets a client, there are three conversations going on at the same time. The first conversation is the verbal exchange between the client and the counselor, which is heard by both persons. The second conversation is going on inside the counselor's mind, analyzing what is and/or is not happening and what that might mean. The counselor also hears the second conversation. The third conversation is going on inside the client's mind, analyzing what is and/or is not happening and what that might mean. The counselor cannot hear that third conversation and is forced to guess or speculate on what the client's internal dialogue might be “saying.” This three-way dialogue is the basis of the Triad Training Model. The more culturally different a client is from the counselor, the more difficult it will be for a counselor to guess accurately about what the client is thinking but not saying.

    The more differences there are between the counselor and the client, the more “hidden messages” there will be in the counseling interview. Competence in counseling begins with the ability to respond appropriately to these hidden messages. That means, first, recognizing that some of the messages the client is sending are hidden from the counselor; second, recognizing that some of those messages will be negative and some positive; third, becoming sensitive to the verbal and nonverbal cultural cues—in both what is said and what is not said—in the counseling interview; and, fourth, training counselors to monitor and mobilize their own internal dialogue as a valuable resource in counseling.

    Psychology as a science began by focusing on the study of consciousness. In recent years, psychology, and particularly the areas of applied psychology such as counseling, have returned to that focus on insidethe individual variables. Gilbert, Fiske, and Lindzey (1998) focus on intrapersonal phenomena in Part III of their Handbook of Social Psychology, examining attitude structure and function, attitude change, mental representation and memory, behavioral decision making, motivation, and emotions. Freud's intrapsychic dynamic between the id, ego, and superego has been translated into a variety of other internalized applications from the behavioral, humanistic, and multicultural perspectives, which will be reviewed in the following chapters. Allport (1961) described the self as a central organizing scheme of our personality, the key to one's inner nature, a “me” as we feel and know it. Allport called this core of the conscious self the proprium, almost as though it were a separate identity within one's identity. As Jung (1965) put it, a person looks for instruction and guidance from “internal conversations” with one's self, derived from cultural background or spontaneous generation of other real and imagined experiences. Jung named his own internal self Philemon, who was his guru or teacher and from whom Jung received guidance.

    Hearing voices does not presume pathology. Liester (1996) points out that individuals who are not mentally ill may also hear voices, following a strong tradition of many respected leaders who reported benefits from hearing internal voices. Lazarus (1997) describes how he dealt with his own personal problems and interpersonal issues through cognitive restructuring and imagery techniques. Sheik and Sheik (1989) point out that Western approaches to counseling and therapy have sometimes pathologized the behavior of non-Western clients by presuming the hearing of voices to be a clear sign of psychological disorder. The hearing of voices, talking to one's self, and carrying on internal dialogues are not atypical in Western cultures as well. Among the more spiritual and religious populations, prayer may provide an example of internal dialogue to or with a personalized presence. This internalized spiritual-religious source has remained an underutilized resource as a formal aspect of counseling and counselor education. It may be that all counseling is mediated by the client's internal dialogues, and successful counseling depends as much on what the client is thinking, but not saying, as it does on the explicit verbal messages of the counselor (Braiker, 1989). Blachowicz (1997) examines the cognitive significance of talking to ourselves, rejecting the “reflection” model and the “social” model in favor of a third view that inner speech is a genuine dialogue between independent interests within the consciousness and not merely a monologue. The focus of this book will be to demonstrate specific ways to mobilize those internal dynamics to better understand the counseling process and to better understand ourselves through our own internal dialogue.

    Robins, Gosling, and Craik (1999) examined trends in the most widely recognized psychological systems of psychoanalysis, behaviorism, cognitive psychology, and neuroscience. Cognitive psychology was the only system that sustained a steady upward trajectory, and it continues to be the most prominent school of scientific psychology. This shift in psychology has been described as part of a new paradigm shift in psychology (Robins et al., 1999), although the paradigm shift may be in a multiparadigmatic stage rather than featuring one school of psychology competing with others in a zero-sum game.

    This book seeks to demonstrate the extensive psychological literature supporting the importance of internal dialogue for conceptualizing counseling theory, for training and educating counselors, for direct service, for research, and for increased self-awareness. Internal dialogue is especially important for counseling across cultures. One approach, the Triad Training Model, for hearing what culturally different clients are thinking but not saying will receive particular emphasis. The Triad Training Model matches a counselor from one culture with a three-person team of client, anticounselor, and procounselor from the same contrasting culture. This model allows the counselor trainee to receive immediate, continuous, and direct feedback from an anticounselor and a procounselor about what negative and positive messages the culturally different client might be thinking but not saying. The Triad Training Model provides a means of incorporating the client's internal dialogue into the process of counselor education and training.

    The following chapters will build on one another to describe the intrapersonal context of counseling through inner dialogue as an underused resource in counseling and counselor training. The eleven chapters will be divided into three parts. The first part will highlight the psychological research foundation of internal dialogue training models. The second part will highlight the Triad Training Model. The third part will present transcript applications of the Triad Training Model and other internal dialogue training models.

    The first chapter is focused on how social psychological research has provided a foundation for counseling at both the interpersonal and the intrapersonal levels. The fact that counseling theory has depended on interpersonal research from social psychology is well documented in the literature. However, the social psychological research on intrapersonal variables has been less widely applied to counseling.

    The second chapter is focused on the “problem,” as a metaphor in the counseling relationship, as the opponent of a counselor-client coalition. Social psychological research on coalition formation is applied to the counseling relationship, focusing on how it is formed and maintained as a temporary coalition between the counselor and client against the problem.

    The third chapter is focused on the “relational self as a network of relationships within the individual that compete and cooperate according to the changing context. By presenting the self as a relational phenomenon, the social psychological research can more easily be applied to the intrapersonal dynamics of counseling. The multiplicity of potential selves demonstrates how each counselor may be both culturally similar and culturally different from each client, although the degree of similarity and difference will vary.

    The fourth chapter is focused on the variety of methods for revealing hidden messages in the client's internal dialogue through direct-service interventions. Techniques and strategies for incorporating internal dialogue into direct service have been well established in the counseling literature. Becoming more familiar with the client's internal dialogue in the simulated training context may increase a counselor's ability to monitor the client's hidden messages later in a direct-service setting.

    The fifth chapter is focused more narrowly on hearing the client's hidden messages in terms of positive or negative emphasis. The notion of anticounselor and procounselor for articulating the client's negative and positive internal dialogue in counseling will be introduced with the Triad Training Model.

    The sixth chapter continues to describe the Triad Training Model and present the implications of the model for counselor education and training. The advantages of the Triad Training Model are described, and suggestions for implementing the model are presented.

    The seventh chapter reviews the research on the Triad Training Model as it relates to the development of multicultural competencies. The three-stage developmental sequence, beginning with increased awareness of a counselor's cultural assumptions, moving to increased knowledge about the cultural context of counseling, and finally to increased skill for demonstrating multicultural competence in counseling, will be discussed.

    The eighth chapter will demonstrate the applications of the Triad Training Model to broadly defined cultural categories of sexual harassment, juvenile delinquency, political affiliation, and lesbian lifestyle. The importance of “salience” will be emphasized in the broad definition of culture to include demographic, status, and affiliation as well as ethnographic variables.

    The ninth chapter will present transcript examples using the Triad Training Model. These transcripts will provide examples of what a procounselor and an anticounselor might actually say or do in the simulated counseling interview as they make explicit the otherwise hidden messages of the client.

    The tenth chapter will present other models that have developed from the Triad Training Model to train counselors to better hear the hidden messages of a client's internal dialogue. These wide-ranging variations demonstrate the range of possibilities for training counselors to monitor their own and their client's internal dialogue.

    The eleventh chapter will synthesize the previous ten chapters in an examination of the intrapersonal context of counseling. A series of questions will be raised that demonstrates the implication of counseling as primarily an intrapersonal process and a multicultural event.

    A self-assessment measure and a workshop assessment measure will be presented as appendixes for those using the Triad Training Model in education and training.

    The ideas presented in this book are based on three assumptions. First, all counseling, and perhaps all communication, is primarily an intrapersonal phenomenon, because we encode messages before sending them and decode messages we receive. Second, the rules for encoding and decoding messages are culturally learned, and different ethnographic, demographic, status, and affiliation groups will encode and/or decode messages differently. Third, the more cultural differences there are between two people or groups, the more their messages will be “hidden” from one another.

    The ideas presented in this book are not yet finished; they demonstrate a “model” or method of counseling and of counselor education or training that is still in process. Although the research supporting the importance of internal dialogue is comprehensive and well documented, the research on how to incorporate internal dialogue into counselor education and training is still very preliminary. This book will suggest education and training strategies that will be important to counselor educators, particularly those training counselors to work in multicultural contexts.

    Epigram

    Everything you can imagine is real.”

    PabloPicasso
  • Appendix A: Self-Assessment in Using the Triad Training Model

    Cross-Cultural Counseling Test of Procounselor and Anticounselor

    The following brief excerpts from three cross-cultural counseling interviews will include statements by counselors and by clients, followed by a space for you to write in what you would say next in the role of the counselor.

    Part 1

    The first set of statements is transcribed from an interview between a white male counselor and a black female client, discussing relationship problems the black female is having at the university.

      • Client: OK, my problem is that I don't seem to be able to trust the white people here on campus. Being black, I seem to have sort of a problem with this sort of thing, and I don't know what to do about it, and somebody recommended you. Said that you were a good counselor so I decided to come and get some help from you.
      • Counselor: Do you have any problems relating to the black students on campus, Terry?
      • Client: No, not really. You know there are people everywhere. Some you don't like, some you do like.
      • Procounselor says: ______________________________________________
      • Anticounselor says:______________________________________________
      • What is the hidden message?______________________________________
      • Why was the message hidden?_____________________________________
      • How would you respond to the hidden message?_____________________
      • Client: One thing about white males, you know, that there is a lot of trouble. Being a black girl myself, a lot of white males get funny ideas about black girls.
      • Procounselor says: ______________________________________________
      • Anticounselor says:______________________________________________
      • What is the hidden message?______________________________________
      • Why was the message hidden?_____________________________________
      • How would you respond to the hidden message?_____________________
      • Client: Well, um … they go through life thinkin’ that we're somewhat lower than white women because, you know, there is this great big thing about black sexuality.
      • Procounselor says: ______________________________________________
      • Anticounselor says:______________________________________________
      • What is the hidden message?______________________________________
      • Why was the message hidden?_____________________________________
      • How would you respond to the hidden message?_____________________
      • Counselor: How do you feel in terms of our relationship now? You came here, and we have been talking for about 2 to 3 minutes. How do you feel about the way we've been talking?
      • Client: Well, you haven't helped me for one thing. I mean you just…
      • Procounselor says: ______________________________________________
      • Anticounselor says:______________________________________________
      • What is the hidden message?______________________________________
      • Why was the message hidden?_____________________________________
      • How would you respond to the hidden message?_____________________
      • Counselor: Do you feel uncomfortable with me?
      • Client: Um, not now, not yet.
      • Counselor: I um … I ah … (pause) I don't feel any discomfort with you at all.
      • Client: Oh, well, ‘cause I'm a friendly person I suppose. (laugh)
      • Procounselor says: ______________________________________________
      • Anticounselor says:______________________________________________
      • What is the hidden message?______________________________________
      • Why was the message hidden?_____________________________________
      • How would you respond to the hidden message?_____________________
      • Client: Well, there's a whole thing about, you know, sometimes like in theater classes and some kid will say something in an “Aunt Jemima” or a “Stepin Fetchit” voice. … And the thing is, they don't expect me to get upset about it, you know, it's all in theater and somehow I end up being the brunt of a joke.
      • Procounselor says: ______________________________________________
      • Anticounselor says:______________________________________________
      • What is the hidden message?______________________________________
      • Why was the message hidden?_____________________________________
      • How would you respond to the hidden message?_____________________
      • Client: Have you?
      • Counselor: Have I what?
      • Client: Ever laughed at a black joke or whatever.
      • Procounselor says: ______________________________________________
      • Anticounselor says:______________________________________________
      • What is the hidden message?______________________________________
      • Why was the message hidden?_____________________________________
      • How would you respond to the hidden message?_____________________
      • Client: I have rarely broken a promise to people, people have broken promises to me. They have told me things. Sure I'll do it, and they end up not doing it. Is it just because they don't think I'm serious because I'm a black person? Maybe I'm just a jive person, you know?
      • Procounselor says: ______________________________________________
      • Anticounselor says:______________________________________________
      • What is the hidden message?______________________________________
      • Why was the message hidden?_____________________________________
      • How would you respond to the hidden message?_____________________
      • Client: Um… (laugh) well, so that… it's not that I can't trust people…. It's, I wonder… Now I forgot what I'm talking about. Um… (pause)
      • Procounselor says: _______________________________________________
      • Anticounselor says:_______________________________________________
      • What is the hidden message? ______________________________________
      • Why was the message hidden?_____________________________________
      • How would you respond to the hidden message?______________________
      • Counselor: Are you getting a little uncomfortable, Terry, … perhaps because I'm white, in sharing some of these things with me?
      • Client: Um … not really, and it's like I said, you know, I try to be pretty open-minded about what I'm talking about. But the thing I want to know is, can you really understand where I'm coming from? What kind of things I'm really dealing with?
      • Procounselor says: _______________________________________________
      • Anticounselor says:_______________________________________________
      • What is the hidden message? ______________________________________
      • Why was the message hidden?_____________________________________
      • How would you respond to the hidden message?______________________
      • Client: OK. Like I said, most of my classes have uh … you get tired of being the only black kid in classes. Well, I can't change that because I can't get more sisters and brothers on campus, right? So the thing is I… they can make jokes at me and not expect me to really feel bad when somebody makes a black joke?
      • Procounselor says: _______________________________________________
      • Anticounselor says:_______________________________________________
      • What is the hidden message? ______________________________________
      • Why was the message hidden?_____________________________________
      • How would you respond to the hidden message?______________________
      • Client: What exactly… what exactly do you think my problem is? (Pause) If you think I don't understand it.
      • Counselor: I think you understand your problem really well. I think your problem is simply ah… again, your problem… I don't think it's your problem at all. I think it's the problem that you're experiencing in relating to whites on campus and ah … I think ah … many blacks experience the same problem.
      • Procounselor says: ______________________________________________
      • Anticounselor says:______________________________________________
      • What is the hidden message?______________________________________
      • Why was the message hidden?_____________________________________
      • How would you respond to the hidden message?_____________________
      • Client: Well, it's like the questions you are asking don't stick in my mind as well as what he [the counselor] is saying to me. It's like he can relate with what I'm, you know, the thing I'm going with and you gave me a lot of stuff about how a lot of black people are approaching the same problem. But the thing is what I want to know is how do I deal with it?
      • Procounselor says: ______________________________________________
      • Anticounselor says:______________________________________________
      • What is the hidden message?______________________________________
      • Why was the message hidden?_____________________________________
      • How would you respond to the hidden message?_____________________
    Part 2

    The second set of statements is transcribed from an interview between a white male counselor and a Latin American female client, discussing relationship problems the Latin American female is having at the university.

      • Client: Well, I'm having some problems, and I'm having some difficulty studying and really understanding what I'm doing in school and so on. And I know I know enough English to be able to handle it, but it just… there are so many things on my mind that are bothering me … and they told me to come here to talk to you.
      • Procounselor says: ______________________________________________
      • Anticounselor says:______________________________________________
      • What is the hidden message?______________________________________
      • Why was the message hidden?_____________________________________
      • How would you respond to the hidden message?_____________________
      • Client: The problem that I was having was that I been, you know, that I like to go out to meet men. I enjoy their company… but it's really scary the way they approach me.
      • Procounselor says: ______________________________________________
      • Anticounselor says:______________________________________________
      • What is the hidden message?______________________________________
      • Why was the message hidden?_____________________________________
      • How would you respond to the hidden message?_____________________
      • Client: Yeah, they treat me like dirt, that's it, you know? And I feel divided inside. Like they don't care for me as a whole person.
      • Counselor: Umm… You said divided, what is the division?
      • Client: The division is that they just want sex. They don't want to see me as a whole person.
      • Procounselor says: ______________________________________________
      • Anticounselor says:______________________________________________
      • What is the hidden message?______________________________________
      • Why was the message hidden?_____________________________________
      • How would you respond to the hidden message?_____________________
      • Counselor: Could you tell me what you would rather have from them? How you would like a man to treat you when you go out with him?
      • Client: Well, it's just that, especially the first time … for sometime,
      • Counselor: Um mmmm…
      • Client: I like to get to know the person in a different way.
      • Procounselor says: ______________________________________________
      • Anticounselor says:______________________________________________
      • What is the hidden message?______________________________________
      • Why was the message hidden?_____________________________________
      • How would you respond to the hidden message?_____________________
      • Counselor: So you're really kind of in a bind. You want to meet guys and be friendly with them, but you feel like they make you pay for it with your body.
      • Client: Yeah, and there's this whole stereotype about the hot Latin American…
      • Counselor: Uh huh…
      • Client: And that makes them go even faster. And, of course, I flirt, I'm coquettish, you know? I know that I'm attractive…
      • Procounselor says: ______________________________________________
      • Anticounselor says:______________________________________________
      • What is the hidden message?______________________________________
      • Why was the message hidden?_____________________________________
      • How would you respond to the hidden message?_____________________
      • Counselor: Before you came to this country, did you feel at peace with yourself when you were with men?
      • Client: Yeah.
      • Procounselor says: ______________________________________________
      • Anticounselor says:______________________________________________
      • What is the hidden message?______________________________________
      • Why was the message hidden?_____________________________________
      • How would you respond to the hidden message?_____________________
      • Counselor: So I need to find out first of all what you have been used to and what pleases you and then I can help you learn how to get men to respond to you in that same way here. It is not necessary, you see, that you do respond as they demand. It is perfectly possible, and I guess you have to take this kind of on faith … this is, I might say, a problem not just foreign girls have, but American girls have this problem too.
      • Client: No, you know, they don't have that problem. They seem to enjoy that type of thing, and they don't seem to have a problem with it.
      • Procounselor says: ______________________________________________
      • Anticounselor says:______________________________________________
      • What is the hidden message?______________________________________
      • Why was the message hidden?_____________________________________
      • How would you respond to the hidden message?_____________________
      • Counselor: OK, I better ask you another question then. How comfortable are you with me? Should … maybe I'm not the right person to work with you … because I'm an American man.
      • Client: So far you're OK … because you are far enough.
      • Procounselor says: ______________________________________________
      • Anticounselor says:______________________________________________
      • What is the hidden message?______________________________________
      • Why was the message hidden?_____________________________________
      • How would you respond to the hidden message?_____________________
      • Counselor: But in this then … you are comfortable. I want to make sure of that because, if you're not comfortable with me, there is no point in us trying to work together.
      • Client: Well, so far I am. I am comfortable.
      • Procounselor says: ______________________________________________
      • Anticounselor says:______________________________________________
      • What is the hidden message?______________________________________
      • Why was the message hidden?_____________________________________
      • How would you respond to the hidden message?_____________________
      • Client: You just give me the feeling that you're exactly like these other men, too, you know? The way you are sitting, you know?
      • Procounselor says: ______________________________________________
      • Anticounselor says:______________________________________________
      • What is the hidden message?______________________________________
      • Why was the message hidden?_____________________________________
      • How would you respond to the hidden message?_____________________
      • Counselor: What should I be doing? To make you feel better.
      • Client: Well, cross your legs.
      • Counselor: Cross my legs? For a man to sit with his legs open is a bad…?
      • Client: Well, that means that they want sex.
      • Procounselor says: ______________________________________________
      • Anticounselor says:______________________________________________
      • What is the hidden message?______________________________________
      • Why was the message hidden?_____________________________________
      • How would you respond to the hidden message?_____________________
      • Client: Yeah, you see this thing, these things for me are very intense for me right now because I just came. I've been here for only about a month.
      • Counselor: Would you feel better if I got back behind the desk, and we sort of had that between us?
      • Client: No, then you remind me of my father.
      • Procounselor says: ______________________________________________
      • Anticounselor says:______________________________________________
      • What is the hidden message?______________________________________
      • Why was the message hidden?_____________________________________
      • How would you respond to the hidden message?_____________________
      • Client: Then you make me feel like you are rejecting me. You are not rejecting me?
      • Procounselor says: ______________________________________________
      • Anticounselor says:______________________________________________
      • What is the hidden message?______________________________________
      • Why was the message hidden?_____________________________________
      • How would you respond to the hidden message?_____________________
      • Counselor: How do you feel now as opposed to when you came in?
      • Client: Well, I'm kind of feeling uncomfortable. It was OK for a while and now I feel like, I don't know … I feel like I want to go.
      • Procounselor says: ______________________________________________
      • Anticounselor says:______________________________________________
      • What is the hidden message?______________________________________
      • Why was the message hidden?_____________________________________
      • How would you respond to the hidden message?_____________________
    Part 3

    The third set of statements is transcribed from an interview between a white male counselor and a Chinese male client, discussing relationship problems the Chinese male is having at the university.

      • Counselor: So it seems to me that what you are saying that, even when you do get together, those infrequent times when you get together, even those times don't seem to be such happy times.
      • Client: Exactly, you see (pause) what happens at first when we get together ah… it is usually on some kind of vacation. We have 10 days or 12 days, and we have exams coming up and we are under all kinds of pressure…
      • Procounselor says: ______________________________________________
      • Anticounselor says:______________________________________________
      • What is the hidden message?______________________________________
      • Why was the message hidden?_____________________________________
      • How would you respond to the hidden message?_____________________
      • Counselor: Tell me about it, would you please, because I'm really… don't know too much about… (pause) What culture are you from, what country are you from?
      • Client: I come from Hong Kong; maybe I'm Chinese.
      • Procounselor says: ______________________________________________
      • Anticounselor says:______________________________________________
      • What is the hidden message?______________________________________
      • Why was the message hidden?_____________________________________
      • How would you respond to the hidden message?_____________________
      • Client: Ah, well, let me see if I can get it across to you. You see, for us,… things like degree and your grades and so on, they are extremely important.
      • Counselor: Um mmm…
      • Client: I mean, the society… Now our family and so on, they regard it as important, extremely so…
      • Procounselor says: ______________________________________________
      • Anticounselor says:______________________________________________
      • What is the hidden message?______________________________________
      • Why was the message hidden?_____________________________________
      • How would you respond to the hidden message?_____________________
      • Counselor: I am wondering right now if you have made a definite commitment toward marrying this woman. (pause)
      • Client: More or less, more or less, yeah. You see, for us, an engagement for us is something very serious. I mean, you won't get engaged with a girl unless…
      • Procounselor says: ______________________________________________
      • Anticounselor says:______________________________________________
      • What is the hidden message?______________________________________
      • Why was the message hidden?_____________________________________
      • How would you respond to the hidden message?_____________________
      • Counselor: Not yet, I could, (pause) Could you tell me, you see, you're right, I really don't know a great deal about your culture at all, and in order to help you, I really have to have more of an appreciation of it.
      • Client: You see, the problem is that engagement is important and my family is important, and your degree is important as well.
      • Counselor: So with so many things coming at the same time that are so important and you feel that you have to make choices between them and leave out some of them?
      • Procounselor says: ______________________________________________
      • Anticounselor says:______________________________________________
      • What is the hidden message?______________________________________
      • Why was the message hidden?_____________________________________
      • How would you respond to the hidden message?_____________________
      • Client: I mean, right now I am not confident that I am going to hack it. (pause) I mean I have one more prelim to go through, and there is this thesis thing… and I haven't any idea of what on earth it is going to be. (pause)
      • Counselor: So that it is really at a point right now where you are saying can I make school. It is a question of breaking, in relation to your fiancee, breaking a strong important value that you have of being… of fidelity to her, and it is also a question right now can I make it in school, can I fulfill my obligations to my family and to everyone else who put me here and to myself?
      • Procounselor says: ______________________________________________
      • Anticounselor says:______________________________________________
      • What is the hidden message?______________________________________
      • Why was the message hidden?_____________________________________
      • How would you respond to the hidden message?_____________________
      • Client: Yeah, I guess I could come to you, and we could talk about it, but what good does that do to me?
      • Procounselor says: ______________________________________________
      • Anticounselor says:______________________________________________
      • What is the hidden message?______________________________________
      • Why was the message hidden?_____________________________________
      • How would you respond to the hidden message?_____________________
      • Counselor: Sung, do you think you can solve some of your problems by working with other people? Sometimes it is more helpful to work with another person to solve a problem.
      • Client: Yeah, sometimes it does… provided, I mean … provided that person has a sympathetic understanding of the problem.
      • Procounselor says: ______________________________________________
      • Anticounselor says:______________________________________________
      • What is the hidden message?______________________________________
      • Why was the message hidden?_____________________________________
      • How would you respond to the hidden message?_____________________
    Scoring Guide for Multicultural Tes of Counselor Responses

    The counselor responses will be scored on a 10-point scale with regard to four skill areas.

    • Cultural accuracy: Perceiving the client's message from the client's cultural point of view. When a counselor's statement about the client's viewpoint includes specific reference to the exact words, concepts, concerns, or implications clearly related to the client's statement or background, it indicates a high level of cultural accuracy. When the counselor's statement is an extension of the counselor's cultural viewpoint, unrelated to the client's statement, a low level of cultural accuracy is presumed.
    • Resistance identification: Identifying resistance from the client in specific rather than general terms as it is presented by the client, demonstrated by clarifying, specifying, or otherwise organizing information from a client's ambiguously negative statement in a more specific counselor response. When the counselor's response to a client's ambiguously negative statement is specific to some source of criticism by the client of the counseling situation, a high level of skill is presumed. When the counselor's response does not clarify, specify, or focus in on a client's ambiguously negative statement, a low level of skill is presumed.
    • Deferred defensìveness: The counselor maintains focus on the client's needs even when receiving criticism and is not distracted by the need to defend his or her credentials. When the counselor maintains continuous focus on the client's needs and purpose for being in counseling even under criticism, a high level of skill is presumed. When the counselor response focuses on the counselor's needs to become more secure in the counseling relationship and ignores the client's needs, a low level of skill is presumed.
    • Recovery skill: After having said or done something that aroused the client's anger or suspicion or otherwise distanced the client, the counselor recovers rapport by saying or doing something that is likely to reestablish a client's confidence in the counselor. When the counselor's response maintains both the counselor statement and the client response in furthering the purpose of the interview, a high level of skill is presumed. When the counselor does not focus on the client's viewpoint and is sidetracked or distracted by the client's response to an earlier statement, a low level of skill is presumed.

    In scoring the responses, you will indicate either the presence or absence of the designated skill and the degree to which that skill was appropriately used by the counselor. Although each item incorporates more than one skill, the item will be scored for only one of the four skill areas.

    Appendix B: Workshop Assessment

    Program Evaluation of Triad Training
    Model Workshops

    You role-played the Counselor (), Client (), Anticounselor (), Procounselor (); you watched but did not role-play ().

    Please respond by circling one of the numbers in each dimension below to indicate your feelings about your experience using the multicultural coalition training design. If the adjective at the extreme left describes your feelings, circle the number 1, and if the adjective at the extreme right describes your feelings, circle the number 7. If your feelings are somewhere in between these two extremes, circle the appropriate number between 1 and 7.

    PLEASANT1234567UNPLEASANT
    FRIENDLY1234567UNFRIENDLY
    ACCEPTING1234567REIECTING
    ENTHUSIASTIC1234567UNENTHUSIASTIC
    LOTS OF FUN1234567SERIOUS
    RELAXED1234567TENSE
    COOPERATIVE1234567UNCOOPERATIVE
    SUPPORTIVE1234567HOSTILE
    INTERESTING1234567BORING
    HARMONIOUS1234567QUARRELSOME
    SELF-ASSURED1234567HESITANT
    EFFICIENT1234567INEFFICIENT
    OPEN1234567GUARDED

    How would you describe the anticounselor role?

    ______________________________________________________________

    How would you describe the procounselor role?

    ______________________________________________________________

    What are the most serious weaknesses in this training model?

    ______________________________________________________________

    ______________________________________________________________

    ______________________________________________________________

    What are the most promising advantages of this training model?

    ______________________________________________________________

    ______________________________________________________________

    ______________________________________________________________

    What new insights have you gained as a result of using this model?

    ______________________________________________________________

    ______________________________________________________________

    Client, Counselor, Anticounselor, Procounselor, Interpreter

    • Which role is the most powerful?___________________________________
    • Which role is the most interesting?__________________________________
    • Which role is the most educational__________________________________
    • Which role is the most threatening? _________________________________

    The clients you saw emphasized cultural differences between persons:

    from different countries()
    from different ethnic groups()
    from different sex roles()
    from different lifestyles()
    from different age groups()

    Did the training help you anticipate resistance from clients of other cultures?________________________________________________________

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    About the Author

    Paul B. Pedersen is Professor in the Department of Human Studies at the University of Alabama-Birmingham. He has been a university faculty member at the University of Minnesota, the University of Hawaii, and Syracuse University and for 6 years in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Taiwan. He is a Fellow in Divisions 9, 17, 45, and 52 of the American Psychological Association and an active member of AMCD and ACES in the American Counseling Association. He has published 34 books, 62 chapters, and 92 articles on various aspects of multicultural counseling and communication.


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