Health Promotion Practice: Power and Empowerment
Publication Year: 2004
'This book written from an international perspective and thus eminently readable by a wider audience, draws on the author's considerable experience and is amply supplied with a good range of illustrations from real-life practice…The logical structure and accessible style makes this a useful addition to the personal library of anyone who has an interest in "bottom-up" empowerment-based approaches to health promotion' - RCN Research Headlines 'The author draws on a wealth of personal experiences in the field, giving the book both readability and credibility. Good examples from different international contexts, illustrated in relevant case studies, let the reader relate theory to practice and bring the concepts to life. The author takes the central thrust of health promotion for the past few decades and unravels it ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Health Promotion in Context
- Health Professional as Political Activist
- Lessons from the Past
- What is Health Promotion?
- Health Promotion: Two Variations on a Theme
- Health Promotion and New Social Movement Theory
- Health Promotion and Health Education
- What is Community Empowerment?
- Health Promotion Programming: It's All about Power Transformation
- Chapter 2: Promoting Health: It All Depends on What We Mean by ‘Health’
- Our Experiences of Health
- Health, Health Promotion and Social Capital
- The World Health Organisation's Definition of Health
- Contemporary Health Approaches in Health Promotion
- The Overlap between Health Promotion Approaches
- What Determines Health? An Analytical Framework of Health Determinants
- Risk Conditions
- Psychosocial Risk Factors
- Behavioural Risk Factors
- Implications to an Empowering Health Promotion Practice
- Chapter 3: Power Transformation and Health Promotion Practice
- What is Power?
- Zero-Sum and Non-Zero-Sum Forms of Power
- Three Faces of Power
- Chapter 4: Community Empowerment and Health Promotion Practice
- The Concept of Community
- Three Levels of Empowerment
- Community Empowerment as a Five-Point Continuum
- Chapter 5: Addressing the Tensions in Health Promotion Programming
- Health Promotion in a Programme Context
- Top-Down Health Promotion Programmes
- Bottom-Up Health Promotion Programmes
- Addressing Top-Down and Bottom-Up Tensions in Health Promotion
- Chapter 6: ‘Parallel-Tracking’ Community Empowerment into Health Promotion Programming
- Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approaches are not Wholly Separate Practices
- ‘Parallel-Tracking’ Community Empowerment into Top-Down Health Promotion Programmes
- Chapter 7: The Domains of Community Empowerment
- Organizational Structures
- Problem Assessment
- Resource Mobilization
- Asking Why
- Links with other People and Organizations
- The Role of outside Agents
- Programme Management
- Chapter 8: Building Community Empowerment Approaches in Health Promotion
- Case Study Example: Empowering Heart Health
- Case Study Example: Empowering the Victims of Domestic Violence
- A New Methodology for Building and Evaluating Community Empowerment
- Case Study Example: Experiences of Empowering Rural Fijian Communities
- Common Themes for Successful Implementation
- A Free Flow of Information: Sharing Ideas and Visions
- The Need for Follow-Up: Fostering Encouragement and Support
- Chapter 9: Evaluating Community Empowerment Approaches
- Empowerment Evaluation
- Measures of an Empowering Health Promotion Practice
- Evaluation That Empowers
- Measuring Community Empowerment
- Methods for Measurement
- Determining the Rank
- Assigning the Rank
- Validating the Rank
- Work-Shopping the Ranking Scheme
- Using Visual Representations of the Rank
- Chapter 10: Implications for an Empowering Health Promotion Practice
- The Influence of the Political Context
- The Influence of the Economic Context
- The Influence of the Socio-Cultural Context
- The Influence of the Organizational Context
- Power Through Health Promotion
© Glen Laverack 2004
First published 200
Reprinted 2004, 2005, 206, 2007, 2009
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of the research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced. stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London ECIY ISP
SAGE Publications Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B 1/I 1, Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
33 Perkin Street #02-01
Far East Square
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-0-7619-4180-4 (pbk)
Library of Congress catalog card number 97-066577
Typeset by Mayhew Typesetting, Rhayader, Powys
List of Figures, Tables and Boxes[Page viii]Figures
- 2.1 An analytical framework for the determinants of health 26
- 4.1 Community empowerment as a continuum 48
- 6.1 A planning framework for the accommodation of community empowerment into top-down health promotion programmes 76
- 8.1 A new methodology for building and evaluating community empowerment 107
- 9.1 The ‘spider web’ configuration 124
- 10.1 The influence of the political context on community empowerment 129
- 2.1 Three different health explanatory systems 24
- 5.1 The different characteristics of top-down and bottom-up health promotion approaches 59
- 6.1 The operational domains 83
- 8.1 Matrix configuration to improve leadership in Bemana Tikina Health Committee 111
- 9.1 Matrix configuration for the Naloto Tikina Health Committee 123
- 10.1 Basic rights and the political context 130
- 1.1 Three faces of health promotion 5
- 1.2 Key international health promotion declarations 10
- 2.1 Experiences of health 17
- 2.2 Health promotion and social justice: equality of opportunity or equality of outcome? 23
- 2.3 Surplus powerlessness and women living in inner-city housing 29
- 3.1 Power-from-within in Maori people 37
- 3.2 Power transformation through health promotion practice 41
- 4.1 The key characteristics of ‘community’ 46
- 4.2 Organizing East African women on the issue of female genital mutilation 49
- 4.3 The Seniors' Mobilization Project 51
- 4.4 Community empowerment by the residents of Werribee 56
- 5.1 The North Karelia Project: 20 years of success 62
- 5.2 The Dalby-Wambo Health 2000 Project 65
- 5.3 Organizational structures in a Guatemalan village 67
- 5.4 Empowering women living in low-income housing 70
- 6.1 Smoking behaviour in Latin American men 80
- 7.1 The characteristics of participation in empowering programmes 88
- 7.2 Community organization to reduce suicide in fanning communities 90
- 7.3 The Bournville Community Development Project 92
- 7.4 Empowerment education in a women's health programme 94
- 7.5 The Asian women's swimming project 96
- 7.6 The role of the outside agent in a health project 97
- 7.7 Outside agents as ‘enablers’ 98
- 7.8 The empowering characteristics of programme management 99
Most of us know that our health is more than good medical care when we are sick, or healthy living to stave off disease. Our daily lives teach us that our health is enwrapped in our experiences of community – a word that means ‘the quality of sharing and caring’ – and in our powers of choice, what Nobel economist Amartya Sen1 calls our ‘capacity to live a life one has reason to value’. Research increasingly affirms that social justice (‘sharing’), social capital (‘caring’) and empowerment (‘the capacity of choice’) are key determinants of our health: as individuals, as communities, as societies. Power and the means to its attainment – empowerment – are what lies at the heart of this book.
For almost 30 years, a small practice within many countries' health sector has been acting upon this knowledge. Health promotion – a return to the public health activism of earlier centuries – describes the efforts of educators, social workers, nurses, physicians and other trained professionals (some of them even trained as ‘health promoters’) to give weight to that metric-adjusted truism of a gram of prevention being worth a kilogram of cure. For almost 30 years, its practice also has had to grapple with the seeming opposites it straddles. Is health promotion about changing unhealthy lifestyles or unhealthy living conditions? Does it target individuals or attempt collective mobilization? Should it preach self-regulation ‘do this, don't do that’ or espouse empowerment (autonomy of choice)? Perhaps most importantly, does its practice strike the right balance between valued professional expertise and invaluable community wisdom? No-one working in the field is blind to these tensions. But rarely are these the foci of an introductory text.
Not so with this book. Glenn Laverack, drawing upon his own experiences and a masterful summary of some of the important footsteps he encourages readers to follow, makes ‘power’ and its transformation the central theme of health promotion practice. Each of its transformative junctures is illustrated with case studies from practice. But there are two things that make this book a unique contribution. First is his synthesis of empowerment's major ‘domains’. Second is his elucidation of a framework for how health promoters can make empowerment goals a ‘parallel track’ that can begin to link health promotion's befuddling ‘top down’/‘bottom up’ opposites. The question is no longer whether health promoters should spend their time urging people to exercise more (unhealthy lifestyles), or [Page xi]organizing people around anti-poverty campaigns (unhealthy living conditions); depending on the context, either or both can be important health promoting priorities. The question, instead, is how can health promoters, regardless of the content of their programme work, plan it to facilitate desired changes in community empowerment's domains?
Readers may not close this book's last page with a recipe for a social marketing campaign, group educational session, community mobilization strategy or any of the other techniques that fill up health promotion's toolbox. Texts on those there are aplenty. But what they will take away is the foundational idea that health promotion is not only an ‘evidence-based’ technical practice, but an activist commitment to social change; and a few beguilingly simple yet fundamentally transformative tools to help them translate that idea into action.
1Sen, A.(1999) Development as Freedom. New York: Knopf.
I call this book Health Promotion Practice: Power and Empowerment. What I mean by this title is that power, the ability to create or resist change, is an important foundation for individual and community health. It provides people with the capacities to change their lives and their living conditions. People experience power in many different ways and health promotion is one potential means by which this experience might be enhanced. This book is written, with an international context in mind, for persons who are, or are considering becoming, health promoters and who have the potential to enhance the power of others.
Empowerment, the process by which people gain more power, is at the heart of the ‘new’ health promotion that has arisen since publication of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion in 1986. The Charter has helped to define this ‘new’ practice and states that ‘health promotion is a process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health’ (World Health Organisation, 1986). I call this ‘enabling’ practice ‘empowerment’ and its outcome ‘community empowerment’. At the same time individuals accrue more power; in fact, this is essential to the process but it is as a community, or group, phenomenon that I am most interested in empowerment in this book.
For over a century, many governments, religious and non-governmental organizations have attempted to improve the power of relatively poor or marginalized groups. They called this ‘community development’ and although it was rarely undertaken for health purposes, it often had an indirect effect of making people healthier.
Community empowerment as a concept rose in the 1980s and began to supplant the term ‘community development’. Its popularity fell in the 1990s, tarnished by overuse, misuse and poor definition, although it is the term I prefer to use in this book precisely because of the emphasis it places on ‘power’. Many practitioners and researchers now use the term ‘community capacity building’ to describe the same goals and practices of community development and community empowerment. All three terms (community development, empowerment and capacity) convey that there is something very important in the nature and quality of our day-to-day relationships ‘in community’: in our neighbourhoods, our workplaces, our leisure activities and through our friendships. These relationships, and the social conditions in which they exist, define who we are as people [Page xiii]and play an important role in determining individual and community health. A community's success in making these conditions healthier is affected by its ability to mobilize resources, organize actions and participate in decision-making that shape the social and physical world in which it exists. An empowering approach to health promotion helps to improve these abilities. Detailing how health promotion might do this is the main theme of this book.
This book comes from personal experiences as much as from an analysis of the literature. My intent is to share some of this experience, supported by the wider literature and my discussions over the past several years with many other health promoters.
I would like to acknowledge the many people with whom I have had the privilege of working and exchanging ideas in relation to this book. In particular I would like to thank Dr Ronald Labonte for his insightful contributions to the early draft. I would also like to thank Professor John Catford; Dr John Hubley; Professor La wry St Ledger; Dr Nina Wallerstein; Dr Kevin Brown; Dr Susan Rifkin and Dr Pat Pridmore. And to my family, Elizabeth, Ben, Holly and Rebecca for their continued support and patience during the course of writing this book.
An Overview of the Book[Page xv]
This book has three main purposes:
Chapter 2 Promoting Health: It All Depends on What We Mean by ‘Health’
- To introduce the readers to health promotion practice as a political activity, one that attempts to get at the underlying social determinants of disease.
- To help the readers understand the importance of power relations, and their transformation in health promotion practice.
- To introduce the readers to a new methodology for planning, implementing and evaluating empowering health promotion programmes.
Health promotion is about improving people's lives and health. But what do e mean by ‘health’ and how do our interpretations influence the way we approach different health promotion strategies? Chapter 2 discusses three main discourses of health, provides a simple framework of health determinants and explains their implication for an empowering health promotion practice.Chapter 3 Power Transformation and Health Promotion Practice
Chapter 3 moves the reader into the territory of power, a concept that is central to the ‘new’ health promotion. But what does power look like and [Page xvi]how can health promoters act to transform unhealthy into healthy personal and social power relationships? Chapter 3 addresses these questions and this allows conclusions to be reached about power and empowerment within health promotion practice in a programme context.Chapter 5 Addressing the Tensions in Health Promotion Programming
Chapter 5 extends the discussion of power and empowerment into the territory of health promotion programming. One of the basic tensions in an empowering health promotion practice is between ‘top-down’ approaches (in which experts decide what is best for communities) and ‘bottom-up’ approaches (in which communities work with experts on issues they both believe are important). I argue that these two approaches, and the power ‘tensions’ that they create, are not, or at least do not have to be, mutually exclusive.Chapter 6 ‘Parallel-Tracking’ Community Empowerment into Health Promotion Programming
All health promotion work involves ‘programmes’, but not all ways of planning, implementing and evaluating programmes are empowering. Chapter 6 identifies the key differences and presents a framework for the systematic accommodation of community empowerment (‘bottom-up’ approaches) into ‘top-down’ health promotion programming.Chapter 7 The Domains of Community Empowerment
Chapter 7 defines and describes the nine operational domains of community empowerment: participation; leadership; organizational structures; [Page xvii]problem assessment; resource mobilization; asking why; links with others; the role of outside agents; and programme management. These domains represent those aspects of the process of community empowerment that allow individuals and groups to organize and mobilize themselves toward social and political change, and they can be used to promote and evaluate this concept; discussed further in Chapters 8 and 9.Chapter 8 Building Community Empowerment Approaches in Health Promotion
Chapter 8 provides two case study examples of empowering health promotion approaches that use the empowerment domains discussed in Chapter 7. A new methodology for building community empowerment is discussed and a case study of its successful implementation in Fiji is examined.Chapter 9 Evaluating Community Empowerment Approaches
Chapter 9 addresses how we plan our health promotion programmes so that they will succeed in the evaluation of empowerment. These are important aspects of our work, not only for our employers (who need results to keep us employed), but also for our communities (is our work helpful to them?) and ourselves (how can we improve our efforts?). I discuss what to look for, and what evaluation methods to choose that are both rigorous and that fit with contemporary health promotion practice.Chapter 10 Implications for an Empowering Health Promotion Practice
In the final chapter I discuss the broader implications and limitations for an empowering professional practice and examine the influence that the external context can place on practice, in particular the political, economic and socio-cultural contexts. I draw hope from the optimism that exists in health promotion practice, and examine how the organizational context in which health promotion practitioners work can provide more scope and opportunity to embrace empowerment.
Bibliography[Page 139][Page 154]1995) ‘Community participation and its relationship to Community Development’, Community Development journal, 30 (2): 158–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cdj/30.2.158(Adams, L., Amos, M and Munro, J. (eds) (2002) Promoting health: Politics and practice. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/97814462202691977) ‘Power in human societies: a synthesis’, in R.D.Fogelson and R.N.Adams (eds), The anthropology of power: ethnographic studies from Asia, Oceania, and the New World. New York: Academic Press, pp. 387–410.(1991) Health. London: Routledge.(1994) ‘Mobilization of rural women through voluntary efforts — a case study’, Studies in Third World Societies, 51 (March): 1–10.(1994) ‘Health Promotion and the Discourse on Culture: Implications for Empowerment’, Health Education Quarterly, 21 (3): 345–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819402100306(1992) ‘If we don't do it, it won't get done: a case study from Nicaragua’, International Social Work, 35 (2): 229–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002087289203500211(1969) Reveille for Radicals. New York: Vintage Books.(1972) Rules For Radicals: A practical primer for realistic radicals. New York: Vintage Books.(1969) ‘A Ladder of Citizen Participation’, Journal of the American Institute of Planners, July: 216–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01944366908977225(1994) ‘Community participation in health and development’ in D.Phillips and Y.Verhasselt (eds), Health and Development. London: Routledge. pp. 182–96.(1988) ‘Social Networks and the Functional Health Status of the Poor: A Secondary Analysis of Data from the National Survey of Personal Health Practices and Consequences’, Journal of Community Health, 13 (4). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01324232(1995) ‘Liberation and regulation? Some paradoxes of empowerment’, Critical Social Policy, (42): 34–46.(1988) ‘Building on Traditional Patterns for Women Empowerment at Grassroots Level’, Development, (4): 55–60.(1995) ‘Empowering communities — beyond fashionable rhetoric? Some reflections on Scottish experience’, Community Development Journal, 30 (2): 121–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cdj/30.2.121(1990) ‘Women and Development in Peru: Old Models, New Actors’, Community Development Journal, 25 (4): 377–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cdj/25.4.377(1990) ‘The new public health: force for change or reaction?’, Health Promotion International, 5 (2): 145–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/5.2.145(1995) ‘Researching Public Health: Behind the Qualitative-Quantitative Methodological Debate’, Social Science Medicine, 40 (4): 459–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2894%29E0103-Y(1978) Community Studies. London: George Allen and Unwin.and ([Page 140]2002) ‘The development of a community active living initiative: Saskatoon in motion’, Community Alliances for Health Research (CAHR) in motion. University of Saskatoon, Saskatoon, Canada.(1977) To empower people: The role of mediating structures in public policy. Studies in political and social processes. Washington: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research.and (1995) ‘Involving the community in plan preparation’, Community Development Journal, 30 (2): 189–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cdj/30.2.189, , and (1986) ‘Social networks, support and health: taking the next step forward’, American journal of Epidemiology, 123 (4): 559–61.(1994) ‘Empowerment forum: a dialogue between guest editorial board members’, Health Education Quarterly, 21 (3): 281–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819402100302, , , , and (1991) ‘A new approach to community participation assessment’, Health Promotion International, 6 (3): 199–206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/6.3.199, and (1990) Health and Lifestyles. New York: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203393000(1990) ‘Surveillance and concealment’, in S.Cunningham-Burley and N.P.McKeganey (eds), Readings in Medical Sociology. New York: Tavistock/Routledge.and (1999) Assessing Community Capacity for Change. Calgary: Four Worlds Development., , , and (1993) ‘The Effectiveness of Community Action in Health Promotion: A Research Perspective’. Toronto: University of Toronto. ParticiACTION. 3.(1990) ‘Principles and strategies of effective community participation’, Health Promotion International, 5 (3): 199–208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/5.3.199and (1992) ‘PATCH: An Example of Community Empowerment for Health’, Journal of Health Education, 23 (3): 179–82., , and (1994) ‘Ethnographic Approach to Community Organisation and Health Empowerment’, Health Empowerment, 21 (3): 407–16., and (1995) ‘Qualitative interviews in medical research’, British Medical Journal, 311 (July): 251–3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.311.6999.251(1991) ‘Methodological considerations in the evaluation of social development programmes — an alternative approach’, Community Development Journal, 26 (4): 259–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cdj/26.4.259(1992) Quantity and Quality in Social Research. London: Routledge.(1982) Field Research: A source book and field manual. London: Allen and Unwin. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203379998(1984) In the Field: An introduction to field research. London: George Allen and Unwin. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203418161(1996) ‘Community Coalitions for Prevention and Health Promotion: Factors Predicting Satisfaction, Participation and Planning’, Health Education Quarterly, 23 (1): 65–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819602300105, and (Canadian Public Health Association (1996) ‘Action Statement for Health Promotion in Canada’, available at http://www.cpha.ca.29.05.98.2000) ‘Community health and empowerment’, in J.Kerr (ed.), Community Health Promotion: Challenges for practice. London: Bailliere Tindall.(1993) ‘Community: An Indian perspective’, Together (July-September): 6–7.([Page 141]CIDA (1996) A Project Level Handbook: The why and how of Gender Sensitive Indicators. Hull, Quebec: CIDA.1991) Democratizing Development: The role of voluntary organizations. West Hartford: Kumarian Press.(1993) ‘Sustaining collaborative problem solving: strategies from a study in six Asian countries’, Health Education Research. Theory and Practice, 8 (3): 385–402., , and (1991) Health, Prevention and Economics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.and (1985) ‘Strategy or identity: new theoretical paradigms and contemporary social movements’, Social research, 52 (4): 663–716.(Cohen, S. and Syme, L. (eds) (1985) Social Support and Health. Toronto: Academic Press.1988) ‘The Empowerment Process: Integrating Theory and Practice’, Academy of Management Review, 13 (3): 471–82.and (1995) ‘Community Organising in the Philippines: The Experience of Development NGOs’, in G.Craig and M.Mayo (eds), A Reader in Participation and Development. London: Zed Books, pp. 154–67.(Cooke, B. and Kothari, U. (eds) (2001) The Case for Participation as Tyranny. London: Zed Books.1996) ‘Evaluating Development Aid’, Evaluation, 2 (1): 23–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/135638909600200103(Craig, G. and Mayo, M. (eds) (1995) Community Empowerment: A Reader in Participation and Development. London: Zed Books.1992) Policies and Strategies to Promote Equity in Health. Copenhagen: World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe.and (Dines, A. and Cribb, A. (eds) (1993) Health Promotion: Concepts and practice. Oxford: Blackwell Science.1996) Health Promotion: Models and values,, and (2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.2001) Background Report on the Draft Project Indicators Framework. Wellington, New Zealand: Public Health Policy Group., , , , and (1989) ‘Action at the grassroots: Fighting poverty and environmental decline’, Worldwatch, 2 (6): 88.(Ehrenreich, J. (ed.) (1978) The Cultural Crisis of Modern Medicine. New York: Monthly Review Press.1994) ‘Survey of neighbourhood-based, comprehensive community empowerment initiatives’, Health Education Quarterly, 21 (2): 235–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819402100208(1994) ‘Measuring community competence in the Mississippi Delta: the interface between programme evaluation and empowerment’, Health Education Quarterly, 21 (2): 199–220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819402100206and (1992) ‘Community empowerment: the critical base for primary health care’, Family Community Health, 15 (1): 1–12., and (1994) ‘Empowerment in Spanish: words can get in the way’, Health Education Quarterly, 21 (3): 417–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819402100312(Evans, R., Barer, M. and Marmor, T. (eds) (1994) Why Are Some People Healthy and Others Not? The Determinants of the Health of Populations. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.1990) ‘Producing health, consuming health care’, Social Science and Medicine, 31 (12): 1347–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2890%2990074-3and ([Page 142]1997) ‘Interaction of workplace demands and cardiovascular reactivity in progression of carotid atherosclerosis: population based study’, British Medical Journal, 314: 553–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.314.7080.553, , , , , , , and (1999) Promoting Health: A practical guide,and (4th edn. London: Bailliere Tindall.1991) Social Movements: A cognitive approach. Cambridge: Polity Press.and (1991) ‘Empowerment as an Emerging Approach in Health Education’, Journal of Health Education, 22 (3): 185–93., , and (1991) ‘Addressing the Contradictions. Health Promotion and Community Health in Action in the UK’, International Journal of Health Services, 21 (3): 423–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/2DP4-J4UP-R3MG-N75G(1995) ‘Using empowerment theory in collaborative partnerships for community health and development’, American Journal of Community Psychology, 23 (5): 677–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02506987, , , , , , , , , and (1995) Sharing Knowledge from Health Promotion Practice. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan, Praire Region Health Promotion Research Centre.and (Fetterman, D.M., Kaftarian, S.J. and Wandersman, A. (eds) (1996) Empowerment Evaluation: Knowledge and Tools for Self-Assessment and Accountability. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/97814522435731990) ‘Methods for social analysis in developing countries’, Social Impact Assessment Series No. 17. Boulder, CO: Westview Press., and (Fisher, S.L. (ed.) (1993) Fighting Back in Appalachia: Traditions of resistance and change. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.1994) ‘Building community for health: lessons from a seven-year-old neighborhood/university partnership’, Health Education Quarterly, 21 (3): 369–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819402100308, , , and (1994) ‘Empowering communities: action research through healthy cities’, Health Education Quarterly, 21 (3): 395–405. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819402100310, and (1979) Discipline and Punishment: The birth of the prison. London: Peregrine books.(1993) ‘A methodology for monitoring and evaluating community health coalitions’, Health Education Research. Theory and Practice, 8 (3): 403–416., and (1973) Education for Critical Consciousness. New York: Seabury Press.(1997) Health Promotion in the City. Atlanta, GA: Centres for Disease Control and Prevention.(1992) Empowerment: the politics of alternative development. Oxford: Blackwell.(1993) Community Empowerment: A participatory training manual on community project development. New York: PACT Publications.and (1997) ‘Some conceptual considerations on the sense of coherence’, Social Science Medicine, 44 (12): 1771–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536%2896%2900286-9(1999) ‘Meetings with meaning: health dynamics in rural Nepal’, unpublished PhD thesis, South Bank University, London.([Page 143]2002) ‘Evaluating Community Capacity’, Health and Social Care in the Community, 10 (6): 485–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2524.2002.00388.x, and (1984) The Constitution of Society, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.(1993) ‘Community: An African perspective’, Together, (July-September): 6–7.(1990) Health Behaviour and Health Education: Theory, research and practice. Oxford: Jossey-Bass., and (1998) ‘Identifying and defining the dimensions of community capacity to provide a basis for measurement’, Health Education and Behavior, 25 (3): 258–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819802500303, , , , , , , and (1995) ‘Participation, Empowerment and Sexual Health in Africa’, in G.Craig and M.Mayo (eds), (1995) Community Empowerment: A Reader in Participation and Development. London: Zed Books, pp. 181–93.(1991) ‘The marketing of empowerment and the construction of the health consumer: a critique of health promotion’, International Journal of Health Services, 21 (2): 329–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/G4DA-8L3H-EDYH-P6C6(1989) Collaborating: Finding common ground for multiparty problems. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.(1996) ‘How should governments view nongovernmental organizations?’, World Health Forum, 17: 42–5.and (1991) Health Promotion Planning. An educational and environmental approach. Toronto: Mayfield.and (1995) Study of Participatory Research in Health Promotion. Vancouver: Royal Society of Canada., , , , , and (1987) ‘Can we empower others? The paradox of empowerment in the governing of an alternative public school’, American Journal of Community Psychology, 15 (3): 353–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00922703and (1993) ‘Potency in groups: Articulating a construct’, British Journal of Social Psychology, 32: 87–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjso.1993.32.issue-1, , and (1999) ‘Indicators that count: Measuring population health at the community level’, Canadian Journal of Public Health, S22-S26., and (1998) ‘Working together to reduce suicide in the farming community in North Yorkshire’, in A.Scriven (ed.) Alliances in Health Promotion: Theory and practice. London: MacMillan pp. 132–42.(1994) ‘Capturing the meaning of 'community’ in community intervention evaluation. Some contributions from community psychology', Health Promotion International, 9 (3): 199–210.(2000) Indicators to Help with Capacity Building in Health Promotion. Sydney: Australian Centre for Health Promotion/NSW Health., , , and (1994) ‘How to Measure Empowerment’, Quality Progress, February: 41–6.(1993) ‘Helping families in developing countries: A model based on family empowerment and social justice’, Social Development Issues, 15 (1): 27–37.and (1996) ‘Building community participation in health care: a model and example from South Africa’, Image: Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 28 (2): 155–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jnu.1996.28.issue-2([Page 144]1996) Discourses of Power: From Hobbes to Foucault. Oxford: Blackwell.(1988) ‘Training for Transformation’, Contact, 106 (December): 4–7.and (1994) ‘Data Management and Analysis Methods’, in N.K.Denzin and Y.S.Lincoln (eds), Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage pp. 428–44.and (1998) Health Promotion Action: What works? What needs to be changed?. Toronto: Centre for Health Promotion.(IRED (1997) People's Empowerment. Grassroots Experiences in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Rome: IRED-NORD.1985) ‘Social networks and social support: implications for natural helper and community level interventions’, Health Education Quarterly, 12 (1): 65–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019818501200106(1994) ‘Health education and community empowerment: conceptualizing and measuring perceptions of individual, organizational and community control’, Health Education Quarterly, 21 (2): 149–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819402100203, , and (1995) ‘Evaluation of health education programs: current assessment and future directions’, Health Education Quarterly, 22 (3): 364–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819402200308, , , , , and (1989) ‘The community development continuum’, Community Health Studies, 8 (1): 66–73., and (1997) ‘Women, education and empowerment in Asia’, Gender and Education, 9 (4): 411–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540259721169(2001) ‘First Nation's Health Development: Tools for assessment of health and social service program impacts on community wellness and capacity’. Saskatoon: University of Regina.(2002) ‘Sustainable Livelihoods for Livestock Producing Communities in the Kyrgyz Republic’. Progress report, SLLPC, Bishkek, Kyrgyz, Republic.(Jones, L. and Sidell, M. (eds) (1997) The Challenge of Promoting Health: Exploration and action. London: MacMillan.1989) Participant Observation: A methodology for human studies. London: Sage.(Kalyalya, D. (ed.) (1988) Aid and Development in Southern Africa. Atlantic City, NJ: Africa World Press.1984) ‘Empowerment and Synergy: Expanding the Community's Healing Resources’, in J.Rappaport (eds), Studies in Empowerment: Steps toward understanding and action. New York: Ha worth Press, pp. 201–226.(1997) ‘Social capital, income equality and mortality’, American Journal of Public Health, 87 (9): 1491–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.87.9.1491, , and (1998) ‘A multiple case study of implementation in 10 local project ASSIST coalitions in North Carolina’, Health Education Research. Theory and Practice, 13 (2): 225–38., , and (1996) ‘Dynamics of Participation in a Community Health Project’, Social Science Medicine, 24 (9): 1235–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2895%2900218-9and (1984) ‘Citizen Empowerment: A Development Perspective’, Prevention in Human Services, 3: 9–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J293v03n02_03(1988) ‘Conscientisation: an empowering, nonformal education approach for community health workers’, Community Health Journal, 23 (2): 117–23.([Page 145]1995) ‘Introducing focus groups’, British Medical Journal, 311: 299–302. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.311.7000.299(1994) ‘Policy Evaluation in Community Development: Some Methodological Considerations’, Community Development Journal, 29 (3): 239–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cdj/29.3.239and (1997) ‘Facilitating cluster communities: lessons from the Iowa experience’, Community Development Journal, 32 (4): 342–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cdj/32.4.342and (1993) Building Communities from the Inside Out. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.and (1995) ‘Individual, organizational and societal empowerment: a study of the processes in a Nicaraguan agricultural cooperative’, American Journal of Community Psycology, 23 (5): 749–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02506990(1989) ‘Conceptualising and assessing potential for community participation: a planning method’, Health Education Research. Theory and Practice, 4 (3): 305–19.and (1993) ‘Leadership and team effectiveness in community coalitions for the prevention of alcohol and other drug abuse’, Health Education Research. Theory and Practice, 8 (3): 359–74., , and (1989) ‘Healthy public policy: a survey of Ontario health professionals’, International Quarterly of Community Health Education, 9 (4): 321–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/EFW1-BP4V-HVX1-MN37(1990) ‘Empowerment: Notes on Professional and Community Dimensions’, Canadian Review of Social Policy, (26): 64–75.(1992) ‘Heart health inequalities in Canada: Models, theory and planning’, Health Promotion International, 7 (2): 119–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/7.2.119(1993) Health Promotion and Empowerment: Practice Frameworks. Toronto: University of Toronto. Participaction 3.(1994) ‘Health Promotion and Empowerment: Reflections on Professional Practice’, Health Education Quarterly, 21 (2): 253–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819402100209(1996) Community Development in the Public Health Sector: The Possibilities of an Empowering Relationship Between the State and Civil Society. Toronto: York University. PhD.(1998) A Community Development Approach to Health Promotion: A background paper on practice tensions, strategic models and accountability requirements for health authority work on the broad determinants of health. Edinburgh: Health Education Board for Scotland.(2002) ‘Community capacity building: From means to program end, to end from program means’, Canadian Journal of Public Health, 93 (3): 181–2., , and (1995) Equity in Action: Supporting the Public in Public Policy. Toronto: Centre for Health Promotion/Participaction.and (1996) ‘Delivering the goods, showing our stuff: the case for a constructivist paradigm for health promotion and research’, Health Education Quarterly, 23 (4): 431–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819602300404and (1974) A New Perspective on the Health of Canadians. Ottawa: Department of Health and Welfare Canada.(1998) ‘The concept of empowerment in a traditional Fijian context’, Journal of Community Health and Clinical Medicine for the Pacific, 5 (1): 26–9.(1999) ‘Addressing the contradiction between discourse and practice in health promotion’, unpublished PhD thesis, Deakin University, Melbourne.(2001) ‘An identification and interpretation of the organizational aspects of community empowerment’, Community Development Journal, 36 (2): 40–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cdj/36.2.134([Page 146]2003) ‘Building Capable Communities: Experiences in a rural Fijian context’, Health Promotion International, 18 (2): 99–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/18.2.99(2000) ‘A planning framework for the accommodation of community empowerment goals within health promotion programming’, Health Policy and Planning, 15 (3): 255–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapol/15.3.255and (2001) ‘Measuring community empowerment: a fresh look at organizational domains’, Health Promotional International, 16 (2): 179–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/16.2.179and (1994) ‘Expatriates as Agents of Cross-Cultural Transmission’, Compare, 24 (3): 217–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0305792940240303(1991) DUVATA: Management and planning in Fiji. The Ministry of Fijian Affairs. Suva: Harms Seidel Foundation.and (1986) Surplus Powerlessness. Oakland, CA: The Institute for Labour and Mental Health.(1983) ‘Organisation or Disruption? Strategic options for marginal groups: The case of the Chicago Indian village’, in Freeman, J. (ed.), Social Movements of the Sixties and Seventies. New York: Longman, pp. 211–34.(1993) ‘A critical analysis of different leadership approaches to community health work in Kirseberg, Sweden’, Health Promotion International, 8 (4): 291–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/8.4.291and (1994) ‘Health and Empowerment’, The Journal of Applied Social Sciences, 18 (1): 33–40.(1994) ‘Keeping the heart beat in Grampian — a case study in community participation and ownership’, Health Promotion International, 9 (1): 13–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/9.1.13and (1996) ‘Evidence for success in health promotion: suggestions for improvement’, Health Education Research. Theory and Practice, 11 (3): 367–76., and (1999) 'A comparison a day keeps the doctor away … or does it?, Health Variations, (5): 10–11., , , and (1995) ‘Self-efficacy in health promotion research and practice: conceptualization and measurement’, Health Education Research. Theory and Practice, 10 (1): 37–50.and (1994) Measuring the Process: Guidelines for evaluating social development. Oxford: INTRAC., and (1994) ‘Power and difference in participatory research: A reflection on process’, in K.de Koorie (ed.), The proceedings of an international symposium of participatory research in health promotion. Liverpool: Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, pp. 116–119.(1995) ‘Organizational characteristics of empowering community settings: a multiple case study approach’, American Journal of Community Psychology, 23 (5): 631–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02506985and (1988) ‘The implications of Eastern African rural social structure for local level development: the case for participatory development based on indigenous knowledge systems’, Regional Development Dialogue, 9 (2): 41–69.(1997) Developing Guidelines to Enhance the Evaluation of Overseas Development Projects. Melbourne: Overseas Service Bureau.(1994) ‘De Madres a Madres. A community primary health care programme based on empowerment’, Health Education Quarterly, 21 (3): 382–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819402100309and ([Page 147]1994) ‘Design of process evaluation within the child and adolescent trial for cardiovascular health (CATCH)’, Health Education Quarterly, Supplement2 (S5-S26)., , , , , , , and (1986) ‘The patterning of health by social position in contemporary Britain: directions for sociological research’, Social Science and Medicine, 23 (4): 393–415. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2886%2990082-1(1987) ‘Regenerating community’, Social Policy, 17 (3): 54–8.(1995) ‘Empowerment praxis in community coalitions’, American Journal of Community Psychology, 23 (5): 699–727. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02506988, , , and (1989) Nomads of the Present: Social Movements and Individual Needs in Contemporary Society. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.(1985) ‘Social support and the elderly’, in S.Cohen and L.Syme (eds), Social Support and Health. Toronto: Academic Press.(1989) ‘Health education, health promotion and the open society: an historical perspective’, Health Education Quarterly, 16 (1): 17–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019818901600105(Minkler, M. (ed.) (1997) Community Organizing and Community Building for Health. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.1980) ‘Creating critical consciousness in health: applications of Freire's philosophy and methods to the health care setting’, International Journal of Health Services, 10 (2): 311–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/023K-58E7-6TM8-3RRMand (1987) Power: A philosophical analysis. New York: St. Martin's Press.(1995) ‘Practice-based needs assessment: use of four methods in a small neighbourhood’, British Medical Journal, 310:1443–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.310.6992.1443and (1995) ‘Health promotion and African-Americans: from personal empowerment to community action’, American Journal of Health Promotions, March/April (4): 281–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.4278/0890-1171-9.4.281, and (North York Community Health Promotion Research Unit (NYCHPRU) (1993), Community Health Responses to Health Inequalities. Toronto: NYCHPRU.1997) Health Promotion Glossary. Geneva: World Health Organisation.(1995) Health Promotion: Principles and practice in the Australian context. Marrickville, NSW: Allen and Unwin.and (1995) ‘Brazilian Community Development: Changes and Challenges’, in G.Craig and M.Mayo (eds), Community Empowerment: A Reader in Participation and Development. London: Zed Books, pp. 206–17.(1992) ‘Community participation in Quebec's health system: A strategy to curtail community empowerment’, International Journal of Health Services, 22 (2): 287–301. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/AKBE-UN31-6QEF-VG15(1991) Projects with People: The practice of participation in rural development. Geneva: International Labour Office.(1984) Contradictions of the Welfare State. Boston, MA: MIT Press.(Olsen, M.E. and Marger, M.N. (eds) (1993) Power in Modern Societies. San Francisco, CA: Westview Press.1994) ‘The homeless prenatal program: a model for empowering homeless pregnant women’, Health Education Quarterly, 21 (2): 187–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819402100205, , and (1991) Social Movements. The politics of moral protest. Sydney: Longman Cheshire.([Page 148]1986) ‘Assessing the development of community involvement’, World Health Statistics Quarterly, 39: 345–52.and (1992) ‘Partnership: Myth or reality?’, Community Development Journal, 27 (2): 156–65.(1960) Structure and Process in Modern Societies. New York: Collier-MacMillan.(1997) ‘Toward distinguishing empowerment evaluation and placing it in a larger context’, Evaluation Practice, 18 (2): 147–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0886-1633%2897%2990019-2(Pederson, A., O'Neill, M. and Rootman, I. (eds) (1994) Health Promotion in Canada: Provincial National and International Perspectives. Toronto: W.B. Saunders.1994) ‘The use of information in the Iringa Nutrition Programme’, Food Policy, 19 (3): 301–313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0306-9192%2894%2990077-9and (1994) ‘Community development in Health Promotion: empowerment or regulation?’, Australian Journal of Public Health, 1 (2): 213–17.(1994) Health and Development. New York: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203307939and (1977) Poor Peoples' Movements: Why they succeed, how they fail. New York: Pantheon Books.and (1994) ‘Implementing the Boston Healthy Start Initiative: a case study of community empowerment and public health’, Health Education Quarterly, 21 (2): 221–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819402100207and (Poland, B., Green, L. and Rootman, I. (eds) (2000) Settings for Health Promotion: linking theory and practice. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/97814522328291994) ‘Participatory health development in rural Nepal: clarifying the process of community empowerment’, Health Education Quarterly, 21 (3): 329–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819402100305, , and (Puska, P., Tuomilehto, J., Nissinen, A. and Vartiainen, E. (eds) (1995) The North Karelia Project: 20 year results and experiences. Helsinki: The National Public Health Institute.1993) Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press., and (1993) How Effective is Strengthening Community Action as a Strategy for Health Promotion?Toronto: University of Toronto. ParticiACTION. 3.(1998) People-Centred Health Promotion. Chichester: John Wiley.and (1984) Studies in Empowerment: Steps toward understanding and action. New York: Haworth Press.(1985) ‘The Power of Empowerment Language’, Social Policy, Fall: 15–21.(1987) ‘Terms of empowerment/exemplars of prevention. Toward a theory of community psychology’, American Journal of Community Psychology, 15 (2): 121–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00919275(1988) ‘Empowerment for primary health care and child survival. Escalating community participation, community competence and self reliance in the Pacific’, Asian Pacific Journal of Public Health, 2 (2): 90–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/101053958800200203and (1996) ‘Participatory evaluation of development assistance. Dealing with power and facilitative learning’, Evaluation, 2 (2): 151–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/135638909600200203(1994) ‘Fostering empowerment, building community: the challenge for state funded feminist organisations’, Human Relations, 47 (6): 685–704. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872679404700606(1995) ‘Paradigms lost: toward a new understanding of community participation in health programmes’, Acta Tropica, 61: 72–92.([Page 149]1990) Community Participation in Maternal and Child Health/Family Planning Programmes. Geneva: World Health Organisation.(1988) ‘Primary health care: on measuring participation’, Social Science Medicine, 26 (9): 931–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2888%2990413-3, and (1984) ‘Vehicles for Empowerment: The case of Feminist Movement Organisations’, in J.Rappaport (ed.), Studies in Empowerment: steps toward understanding and action. New York: Haworth Press: 99–117.(1994) ‘Empowerment: the holy grail of health promotion?’, Health Promotion International, 9 (1): 39–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/9.1.39(1996a) ‘Empowerment, alcohol, 8th grade students and health promotion’, Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 41 (2): 105–19., , , , and (1996b) ‘Toward the assessment of psychological empowerment in health promotion: initial tests of validity and reliability’, Journal of the Royal Society of Health, 116 (4): 211–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/146642409611600403, , and (1996) Community Research as Empowerment: Feminist links, postmodern interruptions. New York: Oxford University Press.and (1994) ‘New health promotion movement: a critical examination’, Health Education Quarterly, 21 (3): 295–312. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819402100303and (1993) Real World Research. Oxford: Blackwell.(1988) ‘Empowerment as organisational policy in nutrition programs: A case study from the Pacific islands’, Journal of Nutrition Education, 20 (3): 133–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3182%2888%2980238-3(1947) Management and the Worker. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press., and (1994) ‘The concept of health’, in A.Pederson, M.O'Neill and I.Rootman (eds), Health Promotion in Canada: Provincial, National and International Perspectives. Toronto: W.B. Saunders, pp. 56–71.and (1986) ‘Community Organisation: A survival strategy for community-based, empowerment-orientated programs’, Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 13 (3): 491–506.(1986) Village Organization for Development: Department of Political Science. Honolulu: University of Hawaii. PhD.(1994) ‘Learner development materials: an empowerment product’, Health Education Quarterly, 21 (3): 313–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819402100304and (1996) ‘Empowerment education: A case study of the resource sisters/companeras program’, Health Education Quarterly, 23 (3): 281–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819602300301(1996) ‘Process-focused and product-focused community planning: Two variations of empowering professional practice’, Community Development Journal, 32 (1): 3–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cdj/32.1.3and (1994). ‘The listening dimension of evaluation: Evaluation and Development’. Proceedings of the 1994 World Bank conference, World Bank Operations Evaluation Department.(1979) Leadership for Community Empowerment: A source book. Midland, MI: Pendell.and (1997) Community Control of Aboriginal Health Services in the Northern Territory. Darwin: Menzies School of Health Research. Report 2, 1997.(1997) ‘Book review. Empowerment Evaluation: Knowledge and tools for self-assessment and accountability’, Evaluation Practice, 18 (2): 165–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0886-1633%2897%2990020-9(1997) ‘Book review. Empowerment Evaluation: Knowledge and tools for self-assessment and accountability’, Environment and Behavior, 29 (3): 422–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001391659702900305([Page 150]1997) Health Promotion: Philosophy, Prejudice and Practice. Chichester: John Wiley.(Seidman, S. and Wagner, D.G. (eds) (1992) Postmodernism and Social Theory: The debate over general theory. Oxford: Blackwell.1975) Helplessness: On Depression, Development and Death. San Francisco, CA: W.H. Freeman.(1990) Learned Optimism. Toronto: Pocket Books.(1967) ‘Failure to escape traumatic shock’, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 74: 1–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0024514and (1984) ‘The Illusion of Empowerment: Community Development Within a Colonial Context’, in J.Rappaport (ed.), Studies in Empowerment: Steps toward understanding action. New York: Haworth Press. pp. 173–200.(1991) Ecology and the Politics of Survival: Conflicts over natural resources in India. New Delhi: Sage.(1995) ‘Community Participation in Food and Nutrition Programmes: An Analysis of Recent Governmental Experiences’, in P.Pinstrup-Andersen, D.Pellitier and H.Alderman (eds), Child Growth and Nutrition in Developing Countries: Priorities for action. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. pp. 243–61.(1995) Managing Health Promotion: Developing healthy organisations and communities. Chichester: John Wiley.(1996) ‘Empowerment: the process and the outcome’, Health Education Quarterly, 23 (3): 290–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819602300302and (1994) ‘Advocacy, empowerment and international collaboration. An experiment for rural development in India’, Indian Journal of Social Work, 55 (3): 327–35.(1993) ‘The Potential Autonomy of the State’, in M.E.Olsen and M.N.Marger (eds), Power in Modern Societies. San Francisco, CA: Westview Press. pp. 306–13.(1995) Power, Process and Participation — Tools for Change. London: Intermediate Technology Publications., , and (1996) ‘Income inequality and mortality: why are they related?’, British Medical Journal, 312: 987–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.312.7037.987(1990) ‘The Black report on socioeconomic inequalities in health 10 years on’, British Medical Journal, 301: 373–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.301.6748.373, and (1998) Community Involvement in Health. Aldershot: Ashgate.and (1995) ‘Who participates in the evaluation of international development aid?’, Evaluation Practice, 16 (2): 141–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0886-1633%2895%2990023-3and (1995) ‘Community organising: An ecological route to empowerment and power’, American Journal of Community Psychology, 23 (5): 729–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02506989and (1997) ‘The search for evidence of effective health promotion’, British Medical Journal, 315: 361–3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.315.7104.361, and (2001) ‘Improving equity in health: A research agenda’International Journal of Health Services, 31 (3): 545–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/DGJ8-4MQW-UP9J-LQC1(1990) Truth or Dare: Encounters with power, authority and mystery. New York: HarperCollins.([Page 151]1991) ‘Bureaucratic logic in new social movement clothing: the limits of health promotion research’, Health Promotion International6 (4): 281–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/6.4.281and (1996) ‘Evaluation and self-direction in community-prevention coalitions’, in D.M.FettermanS.T.Kaftarian and A.Wandersman (eds), Empowerment Evaluation: Knowledge and tools of self-assessment and accountability. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. pp. 208–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452243573, and (1990) Focus Groups: Theory and practice. London: Sage.and (1994) ‘Beyond the buzz word: empowerment in community outreach and education’, Journal of Applied Behavioural Science, 30 (2): 159–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0021886394302002(1996) ‘Mutual support arrangements among the poor in South Asia’, Community Development Journal, 31 (4): 302–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cdj/31.4.302(1998) ‘The gentle art of defeating a giant’, The Age, 21 November: 10.(1994) ‘Empowerment evaluation, objectivist evaluation and evaluation standards: where the future of evaluation should not go and where it needs to go’, Evaluation Practice, 15 (3): 321–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0886-1633%2894%2990027-2(2002) ‘Community development and health work in Northern Ireland: Context, history and development’, in L.Adams, M.Amos and J.Munro (eds), Promoting Health: Politics and practice. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446220269(1987) ‘Empowerment: an emerging mental health technology’, Journal of Primary Prevention, 8 (1 and 2): 71–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01695019and (1997) ‘Individual vs Community Interventions in Public Health Practice: Some Thoughts about a New Approach’, Vichealth Letter, July (2): 2–9.(1985) ‘What is health promotion?’, Health Education Journal, 44 (4): 167–3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001789698504400402(1985) ‘Medicine as a social science: Rudolf Virchow on the typhus epidemic in Upper Silesia’, International Journal of Health Services, 15: 547–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/XX9V-ACD4-KUXD-C0E5and (1995) ‘Social Reconstruction and Community Development in the Transition to Democracy in South Africa’, in G.Craig and M.Mayo (eds), Community Empowerment: A reader in participation and development. London: Zed Books, pp. 168–80.(1990) Health Education: Effectiveness and Efficiency. London: Chapman and Hall., and (1980) ‘Concepts in community empowerment: a case of sanitary change in a Guatemalan village’, International Journal of Health Education, 23 (4): 1–16.(Toronto Department of Public Health (1991a) Health Inequalities in the City of Toronto. Toronto: Department of Public Health.Toronto Department of Public Health (1991b) Advocacy for Basic Health Prerequisites: Policy Report. Toronto: Department of Public Health.1986) ‘Empowerment: Structured conceptualisation and instrument development’. PhD, Cornell University.(1986) ‘Why are the many poor?’, International Journal of Health Services, 16 (1): 1–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/4NXY-AW8R-HFBK-UFX1(1998) Evaluation with Power: A new approach to organizational effectiveness, empowerment and excellence. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.(1997) ‘The future of health promotion’, in L.Jones and M.Sidell (eds), The challenge of promoting health: Exploration and action. London: MacMillan. pp. 278–80.and ([Page 152]1996) ‘The Enigma of Empowerment: A Study of the Transformation of Concepts in Policy Making Processes’. PhD, University of Bath.(1990) ‘Paraprojects as New Modes of International Development Assistance’, World Development18 (10): 1401–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0305-750X%2890%2990118-H(1991) ‘A field methodology for participatory self-education’, Community Development Journal, 26 (4): 271–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cdj/26.4.271(1994) Monitoring and Evaluating Social Programs in Developing Countries: A handbook for policymakers, managers and researchers. Washington DC: World Bank Publications. http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/0-8213-2989-8and (1991) Critical Theory in health education. Montreal: Montreal DSC.(1991) ‘Reflections on methodology of evaluation’, Community Development Journal, 26 (4): 266–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cdj/26.4.266(1991) ‘Grass-root Mobilisation and Citizen Participation: Issues and Challenges’, Community Development Journal, 26 (1): 1–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cdj/26.1.1(1988) ‘Voluntary organisations and women's struggle for change: experience with BCT’, Indian Journal of Social Work, 50 (2): 183–97.and (1992) Understanding Anytime: A consumer evaluation of acute psychiatric hospitals. MelbourneVMIAC.and (1992) ‘Powerlessness, empowerment and health: Implications for health promotion programs’, American Journal of Health Promotion, 6 (3): 197–205. http://dx.doi.org/10.4278/0890-1171-6.3.197(1988) ‘Empowerment education: Freire's ideas adapted to health education’, Health Education Quarterly, 15 (4): 379–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019818801500402and (1994) ‘Introduction to community empowerment: Participatory education and health’, Health Education Quarterly, 21 (2): 171–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819402100202and (1994) ‘Freirian praxis in health education: research results from an adolescent prevention program’, Health Education: Theory and practice, 9 (1): 105–18.and (1994) ‘Empowerment through photo novella: Portraits of participants’, Health Education Quarterly, 21 (2): 171–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819402100204and (1987) ‘Community development with marginal people: the role of conflict’, Community Development Journal, 22 (1): 18–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cdj/22.1.18(1990) The Forms of Power: From domination to transformation. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.(1947) The Theory of Social and Economic Organization. New York: The Free Press.(1992) Participation Approaches to Urban Water Supply and Sanitation. The Hague: IRC.(1988) ‘Empowerment and health’, Contact. Christian Medical Commission, 102: 1–9.(1997) (April) Banking on a better future, Guardian Weekly. 9th February: 19.(1991) ‘The concepts and principles of equity and health’, Health Promotion International, 6 (3): 217–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/6.3.217(1986) ‘Income and Mortality’, in R.Wilkinson (ed.) Class and Health: Research and Longitudinal Data. London: Tavistock.(1996) Unhealthy Societies: The Afflictions of Inequality. New York: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203421680(World Health Organisation (1978) Declaration of Alma Ata. Geneva: World Health Organisation.[Page 153]World Health Organisation (1986) Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. Geneva: World Health Organisation.World Health Organisation (2002a) ‘Conference statement. The Adelaide Recommendations’ available at http://www.who.int/hpr (accessed 6 June 2002).World Health Organisation (2002b) ‘Sundsvall Statement On Supportive Environments For Health’ available at http://www.who.int/hpr (accessed 6 June 2002).World Health Organisation (2002c) ‘The Jakarta Declaration on Leading Health Promotion into the 21st Century’ available at http://www.who.int/hpr (accessed 6 June 2002).World Health Organisation (2002d) ‘Mexico Global Conference for Health Promotion’ available at http://www.who.int/hpr (accessed 6 June 2002).1988) Power: Its forms, bases and uses. Chicago, IL: TheUniversity of Chicago Press.(1993) ‘Toward an ethic of empowerment for health promotion’, Health Promotion International, 8 (3): 225–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/8.3.225(1993) ‘The Project Cycle and the Project Appraisal Process’, in ESCAP (eds), Selected readings on project planning. New York: United Nations, pp. 51–58.and (1998) ‘Revisiting community participation’, Health Policy and Planning, 13 (1): 1–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapol/13.1.1and (1988) ‘Citizen participation, perceived control and psychological empowerment’, American Journal of Community Psychology, 16 (5): 725–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00930023and (1991) ‘Refinements of sphere-specific measures of perceived control: development of a socio-political control scale’, Journal of Community Psychology, 19 (April): 189–204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(ISSN)1520-6629and (