Health Promotion: Evidence and Experience

Books

Kevin Lucas & Barbara Lloyd

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Praise for the Book

    The importance of health promotion is currently acknowledged by many health professionals and most politicians; indeed it is frequently equated with public health in general! However, there is at the same time a significant amount of confusion over its definition, meaning and purpose – a situation that is neither helpful for theoreticians and researchers, nor for practitioners. Accordingly this new and accessible book by Kevin Lucas and Barbara Lloyd is a welcome addition to existing texts and makes a refreshing contribution to debate.

    While addressing many generally accepted key issues, the authors offer an unorthodox perspective on theory and practice. Unsurprisingly, they challenge the hegemony of the medical model and the narrow individualistic focus on health and its determinants that have been deservedly castigated as ‘victim blaming’. They also comment on the occasional sterility of the social cognitive approaches of contemporary health psychology to explaining health choices. However, they do this without the stridency associated with much radical criticism and, more importantly, they invite us to consider – and in some cases rediscover – perspectives on health and health promotion not commonly considered in contemporary texts. They rightly argue that such perspectives may be very fruitful in adding depth and breadth to our understanding of health. In short, Lucas and Lloyd's approach is challenging in its emphasis on a ‘positive’ and holistic orientation to health and always humane in its emphasis on quality of life and, in the authors' words, ‘the indivisibility of the individual from society’.

    This new perspective on health promotion complements other key texts in health education and health promotion. I commend it to readers.

    KeithTones

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Acknowledgements

    We would like to express our gratitude to a number of people who gave their support during the writing of this book, particularly to Helen Lucas, Peter Lloyd and Janet McInnes. Their encouragement is greatly appreciated.

    Kevin Lucas and Barbara Lloyd 2005

  • References

    Abraham, C. & Sheeran, P. (2003a). Implications of goal theories for the theories of reasoned action and planned behaviour. Current Psychology, 22, 264–280. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12144-003-1021-7
    Abraham, C. & Sheeran, P. (2003b). Acting on intentions: The role of anticipated regret. British Journal of Social Psychology, 42, 495–511. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/014466603322595248
    Abraham, C., Sheeran, P., Norman, P., Conner, M., de Vries, N. & Otten, W. (1999). When good intentions are not enough: Modelling postdecisional cognitive correlates of condom use. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29, 2591–2612. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1999.tb00127.x
    Aggleton, P. (1994). Health. London and New York: Routledge.
    Aggleton, P. & Homans, H. (1987). Educating about AIDS. London: National Health Service.
    Aho, W.R. (1979). Participation of senior citizens in the swine flu inoculation program: An analysis of health belief model variables in preventive health behavior. Journal of Gerontology, 34, 201–208.
    Ainsworth, S. (1999). A plague on public health. Health Service Journal, 7 January.
    Ajzen, I. (1998). Models of human social behaviour and their application to health psychology. Psychology and Health, 13, 735–739. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08870449808407426
    Ajzen, I. & Fishbein, M. (Eds.) (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Ajzen, I. & Madden, T.J. (1986). Prediction of goal-directed behaviour: Attitudes, intentions and perceived behavioral control. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 22, 453–474. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2886%2990045-4
    Allen, D.T. (1997). Effects of dogs on human health. Journal of the American Veterinary Medicine Association, 210, 1136–1139.
    Anderson, W., Reid, C. & Jennings, G. (1992). Pet ownership and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Medical Journal of Australia, 157, 298–301.
    Antonovsky, A. (1979). Health, stress and coping: New perspectives on mental and physical well-being. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Antonovsky, A. (1987). Unravelling the mystery of health. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Antonovsky, A. (1993). The salutogenic approach to ageing. Address to University of California, Berkeley, 21st January 1993. http://www.angelfire.com/ok/soc/a-berkeley.html
    Arber, S. & Cooper, H. (1999). Gender differences in later life: the new paradox. Social Science & Medicine, 48, 61–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536%2898%2900289-5
    Arber, A. & Cooper, H. (2000). Gender and inequalities in health across the lifecourse. In E.Annandale & K.Hunt (Eds.), Gender inequalities in health (pp. 123–149). Buckingham and Philadelphia: Open University Press.
    Archer, J. & Lloyd, B. (2002). Sex and gender (
    2nd edn
    ). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Aronowitz, R.A. (1998). Making sense of illness: Science, society and disease. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Armitage, C.J. & Conner, M. (2001). Efficacy of the theory of planned behaviour: A meta-analytic review. British Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 471–499. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/014466601164939
    Atkinson, P. (1995). Medical talk and medical work: The liturgy of the clinic. American Journal of Epidemiology, 115, 684–694.
    Bäckman, G. (1990). Life control and perceived health. Tijdschr Soc Gezondheidsz, Suppl. 11: 123–127.
    Bäckman, G. (1991). Livskontroll – en buffert mot ohälsa? (Life control – a buffer against ill health?) In B.Bergsten, A.Bjerkmans, H.-E.Hermanssohn & J.Israel (Eds.), Etik, Solidaritet, Välfärd. Festskrift till Harald Swedner (Ethics, Solidarity, Welfare. Festschrift for Harald Swedner) (pp. 231–237). Uddevalla: Diadalos.
    Bailey, S.L., Ennett, S.T. & Ringwalt, C.L. (1993). Potential mediators, moderators, or independent effects in the relationship between parents’ former and current cigarette use and their children's cigarette use. Addictive Behaviors, 18, 601–621. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0306-4603%2893%2990015-2
    Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behaviour change. Psychological Review, 84, 191–215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191
    Batten, L. (1985). Addiction and perceived dependence as smoking motivations: An empirical analysis. Unpublished manuscript, University of Southampton, UK.
    Bauman, K. (1987). School of Public Health, University of Carolina, USA. In D.Mcvey (Ed.), Teenage smoking: A report on an expert seminar examining the use of mass-media strategies to reduce smoking among teenagers. London: HEA.
    Beck, U. (1992). Risk society: Towards a new modernity. London: Sage.
    Becker, M.H. (1974). The health belief model and personal health behaviour. Health Education Mongraphs, 2, 324–508.
    Becker, M.H. (1993). A medical sociologist looks at health promotion. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 34, 1–6. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2137300
    Becker, M.H. & Rosenstock, I.M. (1984). Compliance with medical advice. In A.Steptoe & A.Mathews (Eds.), Health care and human behaviour. London: Academic Press.
    Belsky, J. (1980). Child maltreatment: An ecological integration. American Psychologist, 34, 320–335. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.35.4.320
    Belsky, J. (1984). The determinants of parenting: A process model. Child Development, 55, 83–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1129836
    Benjamin, J. (1998). The shadow of the other: Intersubjectivity and gender in psychoanalysis. New York and London: Routledge.
    Bennett, L.W., Cardone, S. & Jarczyk, J. (1998). Effects of a therapeutic camping program on addiction recovery: The Algonquin Relapse Prevention Program. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 15, 469–474. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0740-5472%2897%2900222-5
    Bentler, P.M. & Speckart, G. (1979). Models of attitude-behaviour relations. Psychological Review, 86, 452–464. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.86.5.452
    Berger, P.L. & Luckman, T. (1967). The social construction of reality. London: Allen Lane.
    Berkman, L.F. & Syme, S.L. (1979). Social networks, host resistance and mortality: A nine year follow-up study of Alameda County residents. American Journal of Epidemiology, 109, 186–204.
    Berman, D.S. & Anton, M.T. (1988). A wilderness therapy program as an alternative to adolescent psychiatric hospitalisation. Residential Treatment Children and Youth, 5, 41–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J007v05n03_05
    Best, J.A. (1975). Tailoring smoking procedures to personality and motivational differences. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 1–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0076325
    Billings, J.S. (1891). Vital statistics of the Jews. New American Review, 153, 70–84.
    Birnbaum, A. (1991). Haven hugs and bugs. American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care, 8, 23–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/104990919100800507
    Blaxter, M. (1983). The causes of disease: Women talking. Social Science & Medicine, 17, 59–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2883%2990356-8
    Blaxter, M. (1985). Self-definition of health status and consulting rates in primary care. Quarterly Journal of Social Affairs, 1, 131–171.
    Blaxter, M. (1995a). Health and lifestyles. London: Routledge.
    Blaxter, M. (1995b). What is health? In B.Davey, A.Gray & C.Seale (Eds.), Health and disease: A reader. Buckingham and Philadelphia: Open University Press.
    Blaxter, M. & Paterson, E. (1982). Mothers and daughters: A three-generational study of health attitudes and behaviour. London: Heinnemann.
    Blazer, D.G. (1982). Social support and mortality in an elderly community population. American Journal of Epidemiology, 115, 684–694.
    Bloor, M. & Horobin, G. (1975). Conflict and conflict resolution in doctor-patient relationships. In C.Cox and A.Mead (Eds.), A sociology of medical practice (pp. 271–284). London: Collier Macmillan.
    Bourdieu, P. (1986). The forms of capital. In J.Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education (pp. 241–258). New York: Macmillan.
    Bowling, A. (1997). Measuring health: A review of quality of life measurement scales,
    2nd edn
    . Buckingham and Philadelphia: Open University Press.
    Bradley, C. (1985). Psychological aspects of diabetes. In D.G.M.M.Alberti and L.P.Drall (Eds.), Diabetes Annual. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
    British Broadcasting Corporation/Health Education Authority (1990). Quit and win. London: BBC/HEA.
    Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Bryson, L. & Mowbray, M. (1981). ‘Community’ – the spray-on solution. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 16, 255–267.
    Budd, R.J. (1987). Response bias and the theory of reasoned action. Social Cognition, 5, 95–107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/soco.1987.5.2.95
    Budd, R.J. & Spencer, C.P. (1985). Exploring the role of personal normative beliefs in the theory of reasoned action: The problem of discriminating between alternative path models. European Journal of Social Psychology, 15, 299–313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420150305
    Burnkrant, R.E. & Page, T.J. (1988). The structure and antecedents of the normative and attitudinal components of Fishbein's theory of reasoned action. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 24, 66–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2888%2990044-3
    Bury, M. (1997). Health and illness in a changing society. London: Routledge.
    Busfield, J. (2000). Health and health care in modern Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Bush, R., Dower, J. & Mutch, A. (2002). Community Capacity Index. Centre for Primary Health Care, University of Queensland, Brisbane.
    Byrd, R.C. (1988). Positive therapeutic effects of intercessory prayer in a coronary care unit population. Southern Medical Journal, 81, 826–829. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00007611-198807000-00005
    Calnan, M. (1984). The health belief model and participation in programmes for the early detection of breast cancer: A comparative analysis. Social Science & Medicine, 19, 823–830. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2884%2990399-X
    Calnan, M. (1987). Health and illness: The lay perspective. London: Tavistock.
    Campbell, E.J.M., Scadding, J.G. & Roberts, R.S. (1979). The concept of disease. British Medical Journal, 2, 757–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.6193.757
    Cancer Research Campaign/Teacher's Advisory Council on Alcohol and Drug Education (1988). Packing it in?Manchester: CRC/TACADE.
    Casel, J.C. (1976). The contribution of the social environment to host resistance. American Journal of Epidemiology, 104, 107–123.
    Charng, H.-W., Piliavin, J.A. & Callero, P.L. (1988). Role identity and reasoned action in the prediction of repeated behaviour. Social Psychology Quarterly, 51, 303–317. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2786758
    Chassin, L., Presson, C.C., Sherman, S.J., Corty, E. & Olshavsky, R.W. (1984). Predicting the onset of cigarette smoking in adolescents: A longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 14, 224–243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1984.tb02233.x
    Cimprich, B. (1993). Development of an intervention to restore attention in cancer patients. Cancer Nursing, 16, 83–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00002820-199304000-00001
    Clarke, M. & Kurinczuk, J.J. (1992). Health services research: A case of need or special pleading. British Medical Journal, 304, 1675–1676. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.304.6843.1675
    Clarke, R., Frost, C., Collins, R., Appleby, P. & Peto, R. (1997). Dietary lipids and blood cholesterol: Quantitative meta-analysis of metabolic ward studies. British Medical Journal, 314, 112–117. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.314.7074.112
    Coan, R.W. (1973). Personality variables associated with cigarette smoking. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 26, 86–104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0034213
    Cockerham, W.C. (1999). Health and social change in Russia and Eastern Europe. London: Routledge.
    Cockerham, W.C. (2001). Medical sociology (
    8th edn
    ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Coggon, D., Rose, G. & Barker, D.J.P. (1993). Epidemiology for the uninitiated (
    3rd edn
    ). London: BMJ Publishing Group.
    Cohen, S. (1988). Psychosocial models of the role of social support in the etiology of physical disease. Health Psychology, 7, 269–297. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.7.3.269
    Coleman, J.S. (1990). Foundations of Social Theory. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
    Comstock, G.W. & Partridge, K.B. (1972). Church attendance and health. Journal of Chronic Diseases, 25, 665–672. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9681%2872%2990002-1
    Cooper, J. & Croyle, R. (1984). Attitudes and attitude change. Annual Review of Psychology, 35, 395–426. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.35.020184.002143
    Cornwell, J. (1984). Hard-earned lives: Accounts of health and illness from East London. London: Tavistock Press.
    Courtenay, W.H. (2000). Constructions of masculinity and their influence on men's well-being: A theory of gender and health. Social Science & Medicine, 50, 1385–1401. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536%2899%2900390-1
    Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper and Row.
    Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1993). Activity and happiness: Towards a science of occupation. Journal of Occupational Science: Australia, 1, 38–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14427591.1993.9686377
    Csikszentmihalyi, M. & LeFevre, J. (1989). Optimal experience in work and leisure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 5–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.56.5.815
    Cummings, K.M., Jette, A.M. & Brock, B.M. (1979). Psychosocial determinants of immunization behavior in a swine influenza campaign. Medical Care, 17, 639–649. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005650-197906000-00008
    d'Houtard, A. & Field, M.G. (1984). The image of health: Variations in perception by social class in a French population. Sociology of Health & Illness, 6, 30–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.ep10777358
    Dahlin, L., Cederblad, M., Antonovsky, A. & Hagnell, O. (1990). Childhood vulnerability and adult invincibility. Acta Psychiatry Scandanavia, 82, 228–232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1990.tb03058.x
    Davidson, W.B. & Cotter, P.R. (1986). Measurement of sense of community within the sphere of the city. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 16, 608–619. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1986.tb01162.x
    Davis-Berman, J. & Berman, D.S. (1989). The wilderness therapy program: An empirical study of its effects with adolescents in an outpatient setting. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 19, 271–281. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00946092
    Davison, C., Davey Smith, G. & Frankel, S. (1991). Lay epidemiology and the prevention paradox: The implications of coronary candidacy for health education. Sociology of Health and Illness, 13, 1–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.ep11340301
    DISC (1995). Efficacy and safety of lowering dietary intake of fat and cholesterol in children with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: The dietary intervention study in children (DISC). Journal of the American Medical Association, 273, 1429–1436. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1995.03520420045036
    Doherty, W.J. & Allen, W. (1994). Family functioning and parental smoking as predictors of adolescent cigarette use: A six-year prospective study. Journal of Family Psychology, 8, 347–353. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.8.3.347
    Downie, R.S., Tannahill, C. & Tannahill, A. (1996). Health promotion models and values,
    2nd edn.
    Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Doyal, L. (2000). Gender equity in health. Social Science & Medicine, 51, 931–939. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536%2800%2900072-1
    Doyal, L. (2001). Sex, gender and health: The need for a new approach. British Medical Journal, 323, 1061–1063. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.323.7320.1061
    Draper, P., Griffiths, J., Dennis, J. & Popay, J. (1980). Three types of health education. British Medical Journal, 281, 493–495. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.281.6238.493
    Draper, R.J., Gerber, G.J. & Layng, E.M. (1990). Defining the role of pet animals in psychotherapy. Psychology Journal of the University of Ottowa, 15, 169–172.
    Dreon, D.M., Fernstrom, H.A., Miller, B. & Krauss, R.M. (1994). Low-density lipoprotein subclass patterns and lipoprotein response to a reduced-fat diet in men. FASEB Journal, 8, 121–126.
    Durkheim, E. (1897). La Suicide. Paris: Alcan.
    Eaton, L. (1999). Unknown quantities. Health Service Journal, 22 May.
    Eberstadt, N. (1999). Russia: Too sick to matter?Policy Review, 95, 3–24.
    Eckerman, L. (2000). Gendering indicators of health and well-being: Is quality of life gender-neutral?Social Indicators Research, 52, 29–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1007075705683
    Edwards, W. (1954). The theory of decision-making. Psychological Bulletin, 51, 380–417. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0053870
    Elo, I.T. & Preston, S.H. (1996). Educational differential in mortality: United States, 1979–85. Social Science & Medicine, 42, 47–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2895%2900062-3
    Emlen, S.T. (1997). The evolutionary study of human family systems. Social Science Information, 36, 563–589. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/053901897036004001
    Emslie, C., Hunt, K. & Macintyre, S. (1999). Problematizing gender, work and health: The relationship between gender, occupational grade, working conditions and minor morbidity in full-time bank employees. Social Science & Medicine, 48, 33–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536%2898%2900287-1
    Ermisch, J. & Francesconi, M. (2000). The increasing complexity of family relationships: Lifetime experience of lone motherhood and stepfamilies in Great Britain. European Journal of Population, 16, 235–249. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1026589722060
    Eskin, F. (1999). Response to Maynard. Health Service Journal, 24 June.
    Evaluation of two school education programmes under normal classroom conditions. British Medical Journal, 306, 102–107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.306.6870.102
    Ewles, L. & Simnett, I. (1985). Promoting health: A practical guide to health education. Chichester: Wiley.
    Fallowfield, L. (1990). The quality of life: The missing measurement in health care. London: Souvenir.
    Farkas, A.J., Pierce, J.P., Zhu, S.-H., Rosbrook, B., Gilpin, E.A., Berry, C. & Kaplan, R.M. (1996). Addiction versus stages of change models in predicting smoking cessation. Addiction, 91, 1271–1280. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.1996.tb03608.x
    Fee, E. & Acheson, R.M. (Eds.) (1991). A history of education in public health. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Fishbein, M. & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention and behavior. An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Førde, O.H. (1998). Is imposing risk awareness cultural imperialism?Social Science & Medicine, 47, 1155–1159.
    Foucault, M. (1973). The birth of the clinic (trans. A.M. SheridanSmith). London: Tavistock.
    Fox, N. (1998). Postmodernism and ‘health’. In A.Petersen & C.Waddell (Eds.), Health matters: A sociology of illness, prevention and care. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Freidson, E. (1970). Profession of medicine: A study of the sociology of applied knowledge. New York: Harper Row.
    Friedman, E. & Thomas, S.A. (1995). Pet ownership, social support, and one-year survival after acute myocardial infarction in the cardiac arrhythmia suppression trial. American Journal of Cardiology, 76, 1213–1217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9149%2899%2980343-9
    Frith, C.D. (1971). Smoking behaviour and its relation to the smoker's immediate experience. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 10, 73–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8260.1971.tb00714.x
    Frumkin, H. (2001). Beyond toxicity: Human health and the natural environment. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 20, 234–240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797%2800%2900317-2
    Fuhrer, R., Stanfield, S.A., Chemali, J. & Shipley, M.J. (1999). Gender, social relations and mental health: Prospective finding from an occupational cohort (Whitehall II Study). Social Science & Medicine, 48, 77–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536%2898%2900290-1
    Ghate, D. & Hazel, N. (2002). Parenting in poor environments: Stress, support and coping. London and Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley.
    Giddens, A. (1990). The consequences of modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Giddens, A. (1991). Modernity and self-identity: Self and society in the late modern age. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Ginn, J. & Arber, S. (1999). Women's pension poverty: Prospects and options for change (pp. 75–97). In S.Walby (Ed.), New agendas for women. London: Macmillan.
    Good, B.J. (1994). Medicine, rationality and experience: An anthropological perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Goodman, E. (2002). How much does socioeconomic status matter to adolescent health?Journal of Adolescent Health, 30, 102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X%2801%2900365-2
    Goodman, E., Amick, B.C., Rezendes, M.O., Levine, S., Kagan, J., Rogers, W.H. & Tarlov, A.R. (2000). Adolescents’ understanding of social class: A comparison of white upper middle class and working class youth. Journal of Adolescent Health, 27, 80–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X%2899%2900116-0
    Green, G., Macintyre, S., West, P. & Ecob, R. (1990). Do children of lone parents smoke more because their mothers do?British Journal of Addiction, 86, 745–758. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.1991.tb03100.x
    Griffiths, S. (1999). Response to Maynard. Health Service Journal, 24 June.
    Habermas, J. (1970). On symbolically distorted communication and towards a theory of communicative competence. Inquiry, 13, 2205–2218 and 360–375.
    Hadden, F. (1999). Non-medical worthies would not necessarily be more cost-effective. Health Science Journal, 24th June.
    Hall, H. (1910). The work cure. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, 54, 13–15.
    Hardey, M. (1998). The social context of health. Buckingham and Philadelphia, PA: Open University Press.
    Hartig, T., Mang, M. & Evans, G. (1991). Restorative effects of natural environmental experiences. Environment and Behaviour, 23, 3–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013916591231001
    Hawe, P. & Shiell, A. (2000). Social capital and health promotion: A review. Social Science & Medicine, 51, 871–885. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536%2800%2900067-8
    Hawe, P., King, L., Noort, M., Jordens, C. & Lloyd, B. (2000). Indicators to help with capacity-building in health promotion. New South Wales: Health Department.
    Health Development Agency (2004). http://www.hda-online.org.uk
    Health Education Authority (1989). How to Stop Smoking for You and Your Baby. HEA.
    Health Education Authority (1990a). A Smoker's Guide to Giving Up. HEA.
    Health Education Authority (1990b). Family Smoking Education Project, Pupil's Booklet. HEA.
    Health Education Authority (1997). Personal communication.
    Health Education Authority/British Broadcasting Corporation (1990). Quit and Win!
    Health Education Board for Scotland (1998). So you want to cut down your drinking? A self-help guide to sensible drinking. Edinburgh: HEBS.
    Health of the nation: A strategy for health in England (1992). London: HMSO.
    Health Education Council (1986). Women and smoking: A guide for action. London: HEC.
    Health of the Nation, The (1992). A strategy for health in England. London: HMSO.
    Heerwagen, J.H. (1990). The psychological aspects of windows and window design. In K.H.Anthony, J.Choi & B.Orland (Eds.), Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the Environmental Research Association (pp. 269–280). Oklahoma City: EDRA.
    Heider, F. (1944). Social perception and phenomenal causality. Psychological Review, 51, 358–374. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0055425
    Heider, F. (1958). The psychology of interpersonal relations. New York: John Wiley. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10628-000
    Herrnstein, R.J. & Murray, C. (1994). The bell shaped curve: Intelligence and class structure in American life. London: Free Press.
    Hertzman, C. (1995). Environment and health in Eastern and Central Europe. Washington, DC: World Bank.
    Herzlich, C. (1973). Health and illness: A social psychological analysis. London: Academic Press.
    Hill, A.B. (1965). The environment and disease: Association or causation?Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 58, 1217–1219.
    Hobbs, T.R. & Shelton, G.C. (1972). Therapeutic camping for emotionally disturbed adolescents. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 23, 298–301.
    Holland, W (2002). Foundations for health improvement: Productive epidemiological public health research 1919–1998. The Nuffield Trust for Research and Policy in Health Services. London: HMSO.
    Holme, I. (1990). An analysis of randomised controlled trial evaluating the effect of cholesterol reduction on total mortality and coronary heart disease incidence. Circulation, 82, 1916–1924. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.82.6.1916
    Honeyman, M.K. (1992). Vegetation and stress: A comparison study of varying amounts of vegetation in countryside and urban scenes. In D.Relf (Ed.), The role of horticulture in human well-being and social development: A national symposium (19–21 April, Arlington, Virginia) (pp. 143–145). Portland, OR: Timber Press.
    House, J.S., Landis, K.R. & Umberson, D. (1988). Social relationships and health. Science, 241, 540–545. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.3399889
    Hull, R.B. & Revell, G.R.B. (1989). Cross-cultural comparison on landscape scenic beauty evaluations: A case study in Bali. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 9, 177–191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944%2889%2980033-7
    Hunt, L.M. (1985). Relativism in the diagnosis of hypoglycemia. Social Science & Medicine, 20, 1289–1294. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2885%2990383-1
    Hunt, K. & Annandale, E. (1999). Relocating gender and morbidity: Examining men's and women's health in contemporary western societies. Introduction to special issue. Gender & Health, 48, 1–5.
    Hyer, L., Boyd, S., Scurfield, R., Smith, D. & Burke, J. (1996). Effects of outward bound experience as an adjunct to inpatient PTSD treatment of war veterans. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 52, 263–278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291097-4679%28199605%2952:3%3C263::AID-JCLP3%3E3.0.CO;2-T
    Ikard, F.F., Green, D.E. & Horn, D. (1969). A scale to differentiate between types of smoking as related to the management of affectInternational Journal of the Addictions, 4, 649–659.
    Illich, I. (1976). The limits of medicine. London: Marion Boyars.
    Isohanni, M., Moilanen, I. & Rantakillo, P. (1991). Determinants of teenage smoking, with special reference to non-standard family background. British Journal of Addiction, 86, 391–398. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.1991.tb03416.x
    Jenkins, C.D. (1971). Psychologic and social precursors of coronary disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 284, 244–255, 307–317. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM197102042840506
    Jerstad, L. & Stelzer, J. (1973). Adventure experiences as treatment for residential mental patients. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 7, 8–11.
    Jung, C.G. (1928). Two essays on analytical psychology. Complete Works 7. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Kalimo, R. & Vuori, J. (1990). Work and sense of coherence: Resources for competence and life satisfaction. Behavioral Medicine, 16, 76–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08964289.1990.9934595
    Kalimo, R. & Vuori, J. (1991). Work factors and health: The predictive role of pre-employment experiences. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 64, 97–115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1991.tb00546.x
    Karpf, A. (1988). Doctoring the box. London: Routledge.
    Katcher, A., Segal, H. & Beck, A. (1984). Comparison of contemplation and hypnosis for the reduction of anxiety and discomfort during dental surgery. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 27, 14–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00029157.1984.10402583
    Kellert, S.R. & Wilson, E.O. (1993). The biophilia hypothesis. Washington, DC: Island Press.
    Kennedy, E. & Offutt, S. (2000). Alternative nutrition outcomes using a fiscal food policy. British Medical Journal, 320, 301–305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.320.7230.301
    Kennedy, E.T., Ohls, J., Carlson, S. & Fleming, K. (1999). The healthy eating index: Design and application. Journal of the American Dietary Association, 95, 1103–1108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-8223%2895%2900300-2
    Keyes, A., Anderson, J. & Grande, R. (1965). Serum cholesterol response to changes in diet (IV). Particular fats in the diet. Metabolism, 14, 776–786. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0026-0495%2865%2990004-1
    King, H. & Locke, F.B. (1980). American White Protestant clergy as a low-risk population for mortality research. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 65, 1115–1124.
    King, J.B. (1982). The impact of patients’ perceptions of high blood pressure on attendance at screening. Social Science & Medicine, 16, 1079–1092. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2882%2990184-8
    Knott, V.J. (1979). Personality, arousal and individual differences in cigarette smoking. Psychological Reports, 45, 423–428. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1979.45.2.423
    Kolata, G. (2001). Cancer screening faces rising scientific doubt. International Herald Tribune, 31 December 2001–1 January 2002, p. 2.
    Korpela, K. & Hartig, T. (1996). Restorative qualities of favourite places. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 16, 221–233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jevp.1996.0018
    Laslett, P. (1989). A fresh map of Life. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
    Lau, R.R. (1995). Cognitive representations of health and illness. In D.Gochman (Ed.), Handbook of Health Behaviour Research, Vol. 1 (pp. 51–69). London, Thousand Oaks, CA and New Delhi: Sage.
    Law, M.R., Wald, N.J. & Thompson, S.G. (1994). By how much and how quickly does reduction in serum cholesterol concentration lower risk of ischaemic heart disease?British Medical Journal, 308, 367–373. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.308.6925.367
    Levin, J.S. (1994). Religion and health: Is there an association, is it valid, and is it causal?Social Science & Medicine, 38, 1475–1482. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2894%2990109-0
    Levin, J.S. & Schiller, P.L. (1987). Is there a religious factor in health?Journal of Religion and Health, 26, 9–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01533291
    Levin, J.S. & Vanderpool, H.Y. (1989). Is frequent religious attendance really conducive to better health? Toward an epidemiology of religion. Social Science & Medicine, 24, 589–600.
    Levine, D. (1994). Breaking through barriers: Wilderness therapy for sexual assault survivors. Women and Therapy, 15, 175–184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J015v15n03_14
    Lewis, C.A. (1996). Green nature/human nature: The meaning of plants in our lives. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
    Lloyd, B. & Lucas, K. (1997). Why do adolescent girls smoke? A quantitative/behavioural study. London: Department of Health.
    Lloyd, B. & Lucas, K. (1998). Smoking in adolescence: Images and identities. London and New York: Routledge.
    Lloyd, B., Lucas, K. & Fernbach, M. (1997). Adolescent girls’ constructions of smoking identities: Implications for health promotion. Journal of Adolescence, 20, 43–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jado.1996.0063
    Lord, J. & Farlow, D.M. (1990). A study of personal empowerment: Implications for health promotion. Health Promotion (Canada), 29, 2–8.
    Lucas, K. (1994). The relationship between beliefs, attitudes, negative affect and changes in changes in smoking behaviour during pregnancy. D. Phil. Thesis, University of Sussex, UK.
    Lucas, K. & Lloyd, B. (1999). Starting smoking: Girls’ explanations of the influence of peers. Journal of Adolescence, 22, 647–655. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jado.1999.0260
    Luck, G.M. & Luckman, J. (1974). Patients, hospitals and operational research. London: Tavistock.
    Ludmerer, K.M. (1999). Time to heal: American medical education from the turn of the century to the era of managed care. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Lundberg, O. & Nyström Peck, M. (1994). Sense of coherence, social structure and health. European Journal of Public Health, 4, 252–257. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/4.4.252
    Macintyre, S. (1993). Gender differences in the perceptions of common cold symptoms. Social Science & Medicine, 36, 15–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2893%2990301-J
    Macintyre, S., Ford, G. & Hunt, K. (1999). Do women ‘over-report’ morbidity? Men's and women's responses to structured prompting on a standard question on longstanding illness. Social Science & Medicine, 48, 89–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536%2898%2900292-5
    Maclaine, K. & MacLeod Clark, J. (1991). Womens’ reasons for smoking in pregnancy. Nursing Times, 87, 22, 39–42.
    Macleod, J., Smith, G.D., Heslop, P., Metcalfe, C., Carroll, D. & Hart, C. (2002). Psychological stress and cardiovascular disease: Empirical demonstration of bias in a prospective observational study of Scottish men. British Journal of Medicine, 324, 1247–1251. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.324.7348.1247
    Macleod Clark, J., Haverty, S. & Kendall, S. (1990). Helping people to stop smoking: A study of the nurse's role. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 16, 357–363. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.1990.tb01823.x
    MacMahon, B. & Trichopoulos, D. (1996). Epidemiology: Principles and methods. Boston: Little Brown & Company.
    Maibach, E.W., Rothschild, M.L. & Novelli, W.D. (2002). Social marketing. In K.Glanz et al., Health behavior and health education: Theory, research and practice. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
    Maiman, L.A. & Becker, M.H. (1974). The health belief model: Origins and correlates in psychological theory. Health Education Monographs, 2, 336–358.
    Manstead, A.S., Proffitt, C. & Smart, J.L. (1983). Predicting and understanding mothers’ infant feeding intentions and behaviour: Testing the theory of reasoned action. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 657–671. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.44.4.657
    Marmot, M. (1999). Introduction. In M.Marmot & R.G.Wilkinson (Eds.), Social determinants of health. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
    Marmot, M. & Wilkinson, R.G. (Eds.) (1999). Social determinants of health. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
    Marmot, M.G., Rose, G., Shipley, M. & Hamilton, P.J.S. (1978). Employment grade and coronary heart disease in British civil servants. Epidemiology and Community Health, 32, 244–249. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech.32.4.244
    Marshall, T. (2000). Exploring a fiscal food policy: The case of diet and ischaemic heart disease. British Medical Journal, 320, 301–305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.320.7230.301
    Marx, J.D. (1988). An outdoor adventure counselling program for adolescents. Social Work, 33, 517–520.
    Matthews, S., Manor, O. & Power, C. (1999). Social inequalities in health: Are there gender differences?Social Science & Medicine, 48, 49–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536%2898%2900288-3
    Maynard, A. (1999). Money down the drains. Health Service Journal, 10 June.
    Mazel, D. (2000). American literary environmentalism. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.
    McDonough, P. & Walters, V. (2001). Gender and health: Reassessing patterns and explanations. Social Science & Medicine, 52, 547–559. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536%2800%2900159-3
    McIntyre, K.O., Lichtenstein, E. & Marmelstein, R.J. (1983). Self-efficacy and relapse in smoking cessation: A replication and extension. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 632–633. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.51.4.632
    McKennell, A.C. (1970). Smoking motivation factor. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 9, 8–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8260.1970.tb00632.x
    McKennell, A.C. & Thomas, R.K. (1967). Adults’ and adolescents’ smoking habits and attitudes. London: HMSO.
    McKeown, T. (1976). The role of medicine: Dream, mirage or Nemesis?London: Nuffield Provincial Hospitals Trust.
    McKinley, J.B. (1972). Some approaches and problems in the study of the use of services – an overview. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 13, 115. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2136896
    McLuhan, T.C. (1994). The way of the Earth: Encounters with nature in ancient and contemporary thought. New York: Simon and Schuster.
    Meyer, A. (1922). The philosophy of occupational therapy. Archives of Occupational Therapy, 1, 1–10.
    Michie, S., Marteau, T.M. & Kidd, J. (1990). Cognitive predictors of attendance at antenatal classes. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 29, 193–199. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8260.1990.tb00869.x
    Michie, S. & Abraham, C. (2004). Interventions to change behaviours: Evidence-based or evidence-inspired?Psychology and Health, 19, 29–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0887044031000141199
    Miniard, P. & Cohen, J.B. (1981). An examination of the Fishbein-Ajzen behavioral intentions model's concepts and measures. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 17, 309–339. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2881%2990031-7
    Mirowsky, J. (1999). Subjective life expectancy in the US: Correspondence to actuarial estimates by age, sex and race. Social Science & Medicine, 49, 967–979. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536%2899%2900193-8
    Moyer, J.A. (1988). Bannock bereavement retreat: A camping experience for surviving children. American Journal of Hospice Care, 5, 26–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/104990918800500212
    Moynihan, R., Heath, I. & Henry, D. (2002). Selling sickness: The pharmaceutical industry and disease mongering. British Journal of Medicine, 324, 886–890. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.324.7342.886
    Mullen, P.D., Hersey, J.C. & Iverson, D.C. (1987). Health models compared. Social Science & Medicine, 16, 323–331.
    Murphy, P.D., Gifford, T. & Yamazato, K. (1998). Literature of nature: An international sourcebook. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers.
    Myrsten, A.L., Anderssen, K., Frankenaeuser, M. & Elgerot, A. (1975). Immediate effects of cigarette smoking as related to different smoking habits. Perceptual Motor Skills, 40, 515–523. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pms.1975.40.2.515
    Nash, R. (1982). Wilderness and the American mind (
    3rd edn
    ). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Nettleton, S. (1995). The sociology of health and illness. Cambridge and Malden, MA: Polity Press.
    North, D.C. (1990). Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Nutbeam, D. (1986). Health promotion glossary. Health Promotion, 1, 113–126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/1.1.113
    Nutbeam, D. & Harris, E. (2004). Theory in a nutshell (
    2nd edn
    ). New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Nutbeam, D., Macaskill, P., Smith, C., Simpson, J.M. & Catford, J. (1993). Evaluation of two school education programmes under normal classroom conditions. British Medical Journal, 306, 102–107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.306.6870.102
    O'Connor, K. (1985). A model of situational preference among smokers. Personality and Individual Differences, 6, 151–160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869%2885%2990104-7
    O'Neill, R. (2002). Experiments in living: The fatherless family. London: http://www.civitas.org.uk.
    Oakley, A. (1980). Women confined: Towards a sociology of childbirth. Oxford: Martin Robertson.
    Office for National Statistics (2001). Mortality statistics: General review of the Registrar General on Death in England and Wales. DH1, Series 32.
    Office of National Statistics (2001). Accommodation type: By household composition. Social Trends, 34. London: ONS.
    Office of National Statistics (2004). Expectation of life (in years) at birth and selected age, 1981 onwards. Health Statistics Quarterly, 26. London: ONS.
    Ogden, J. (1996). Health psychology: A textbook. Buckingham and Philadelphia: Open University Press.
    Oliver, R. & Berger, P. (1979). A path analysis of preventive health care decision models. Journal of Consumer Research, 6, 113–122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/208755
    Paisley, C.M. & Sparks, P. (1998). Expectations of reducing fat intake: The role of perceived need within the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Psychology and Health, 13, 341–353. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08870449808406755
    Palmer, M. (1997). Freud and Jung on religion. London and New York: Routledge.
    Parsons, T. (1951). The social system. Glencoe, IL: The Free Press.
    Parsons, T. (1972). Definitions of health and illness in the light of American values and social structure. In E.Jaco & E.Gartley (Eds.), Patients, physicians and illness: A sourcebook in behavioural science and health (pp. 165–187). London: Collier-Macmillan.
    Pearse, I.H. & Crocker, L.H. (1943). The Peckham Experiment: A study in the living structure of society. London: Allen and Unwin.
    Pearson, J. (1989). A wilderness program for adolescents with cancer. Journal of the Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses, 6, 24–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/104345428900600214
    Pederson, L.L., Wanklin, J.M. & Baskerville, J.C. (1984). The role of health beliefs in compliance with physician advice to quit smoking. Social Science & Medicine, 19, 573–580. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2884%2990052-2
    Pierce, J.P., Farkas, A., Zhu, S.-H., Berry, C. & Kaplan, R.M. (1996). Should the stage of change model be challenged?Addiction, 91, 1290–1292. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.1996.tb03615.x
    Pill, R. & Stott, N. (1982). Concepts of illness causation and responsibility: Some preliminary data from a sample of working class mothers. Social Science & Medicine, 16, 13–51.
    Plakun, E.M., Tucker, G.J. & Harris, P.Q. (1981). Outward bound: An adjunctive psychiatric therapy. Journal of Psychiatric Treatment Evaluation, 3, 33–37.
    Porter, R. (1995). Medical science and human science in the enlightenment. In C.Fox & R.Porter (Eds.), Inventing human science: Eighteenth-century domains (pp. 53–87). Berkeley: University of California Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/california/9780520200104.003.0003
    Portes, A. (1998). Social capital: Its origins and applications. New York: Russell Sage.
    Prior, L. (2000). Reflections on the ‘mortal’ body in late modernity. In S.J.Williams, J.Gabe & M.Calnan (Eds.), Health, medicine and society: Key theories, future agendas (pp. 186–202). London and New York: Routledge.
    Prochaska, J.O. (1979). Systems of psychotherapy: A transtheoretical analysis. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.
    Prochaska, J.O. & DiClemente, C.C. (1982a). Transtheoretical therapy: Toward a more integrative model of change. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 19, 276–288. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0088437
    Prochaska, J.O. & DiClemente, C.C. (1982b). Self-change processes, self-efficacy and self-concept in relapse and maintenance of smoking. Psychological Reports, 51, 983–990. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1982.51.3.983
    Prochaska, J.O. & DiClemente, C.C. (1983). Stages and processes of self-change of smoking: Toward an integrative model of change. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 390–395. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.51.3.390
    Purcell, A.T., Lamb, R.J., Peron, E.M. & Falchero, S. (1994). Preference or preferences for landscape?Journal of Environmental Psychology, 14, 195–209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944%2894%2980056-1
    Putnam, R.D. (1993). Making democracy work: Civic transitions in modern Italy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Putnam, R.D. (1995). Bowling alone: America's declining social capital. Journal of Democracy, 6, 65–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/jod.1995.0002
    Putnam, R.D. (1997). Democracy in America at century's end. In A.Hardenius (Ed.), Democracy's victory and crisis (pp. 27–70). New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Pybus, M.W. & Thomson, M.C. (1985). Health awareness and health actions of parents (ANZERCH/APHA conference 1979). In J.Boddy (Ed.), Health: Perspectives and practice (pp. 9–22). New Zealand: The Dunmore Press.
    Raeburn, J. & Rootman, I. (1998). People centred health promotion. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.
    Rappaport, J. (1981). In praise of paradox: A social policy of empowerment over prevention. American Journal of Community Psychology, 9, 1–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00896357
    Reilly, M.A. (1966). A psychiatric occupational therapy program as a teaching model. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 22, 61.
    Riley, J.N. (1977). Western medicine's attempt to become more scientific: Examples from the United States and Thailand. Social Science & Medicine, 11, 549. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0037-7856%2877%2990173-1
    Roberts, R., Towell, T. & Golding, J.F. (2001). Foundations of health psychology. London: Palgrave.
    Rogers, E.M. (1983). Diffusion of innovations. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
    Rogers, E.M. (2002). Diffusion of preventative interventions. Addictive Behaviours, 27, 989–993. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4603%2802%2900300-3
    Rose, R. (2000). How much does social capital add to individual health? A survey of Russians. Social Science & Medicine, 51, 1421–1435. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536%2800%2900106-4
    Rosenstock, I.M. (1966). Why people use health services. Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, 44, 94–124. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3348967
    Rosenstock, I.M. (1974). The health belief model and preventive health behaviour. Health Education Monographs, 2, 354–386.
    Ross, C.E. & Bird, C.E. (1994). Sex stratification and health life-style: Consequences for men's and women's perceived health. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 35, 161–178. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2137363
    Rothman, J. (2001). Approaches to community interventions. In J.Rothman, J.L.Erlich & J.E.Tropman (Eds.), Strategies of community interventions. Hascam, IL: Peacock Publishers.
    Rothstein, W.G. (2001). Trends in mortality in the twentieth century. In D.A.Matcha (Ed.), Readings in medical sociology (pp. 53–70). London: Allyn and Bacon.
    Royal College of Physicians (2004). Storing up problems: The medical case for a slimmer nation. London: RCP
    Russell, M.A.H., Peto, J. & Patel, V.A. (1974). The classification of smoking by factorial structure of motives. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, 313–346. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2344953
    Rutter, D.R. & Bunce, D.J. (1989). The theory of reasoned action of Fishbein and Ajzen: A test of Touriss’ amended procedure for measuring beliefs. British Journal of Social Psychology, 28, 39–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1989.tb00844.x
    Sacks, O. (1984). A leg to stand on. New York: Harper-Collins.
    Salovey, P. & Rothman, A.J. (2003). Social psychology of health: Key Readings. New York and Hove: Psychology Press.
    Sarason, S.B. (1974). A psychological sense of community: Prospects for a community psychology. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
    Schalling, D. (1977). Personality and situational determinants of smoking: An example of interaction. In D.Magusson & N.S.Endler (Eds.), Personality at the crossroads: Current issues in international psychology. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Schlegel, R.P., Crawford, C.A. & Sanborn, M.D. (1977). Correspondence and mediational properties of the Fishbein model: An application to adolescent alcohol use. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 13, 421–430. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2877%2990027-0
    Seedhouse, D. (1986). Health: The Foundations for achievement. Chichester: John Wiley.
    Serpell, J. (1991). Beneficial effects of pet ownership on some aspects of human health and behaviour. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 84, 717–720.
    Siegel, J. (1990). Stressful life events and use of physician services among the elderly: The moderation role of pet ownership. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 1081–1086. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.58.6.1081
    Sherman, S.J., Presson, C.C., Chassin, L., Bensenberg, M., Corty, E. & Olshavsky, R.W. (1982). Smoking intentions in adolescents: Direct experience and predictability. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 8, 376–383. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167282082030
    Skolbekken, J.-A. (1995). The risk epidemic in medical journals. Social Science & Medicine, 40, 291–305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2894%2900262-R
    Skrabanek, P. & McCormick, J. (1990). Follies and fallacies in medicine. New York: Prometheus Books.
    Smith, R. (2002). In search of ‘non-disease’. British Journal of Medicine, 324, 883–885. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.324.7342.883
    Stockwell, T. (1996). Interventions cannot ignore intentions. Addiction, 91, 1283–1284. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.1996.tb03610.x
    Sutton, S.R. (1987). Social-psychological approaches to understanding addictive behaviours: Attitude-behaviour and decision-making models. British Journal of Addiction, 82, 355–370. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.1987.tb01492.x
    Sutton, S.R. (1989). Smoking attitudes and behaviour: Applications of Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action to predicting and understanding smoking decisions. In T.Ney & A.Gale (Eds.), Smoking and human behaviour (pp. 289–312). London: John Wiley & Sons.
    Sutton, S.R. (1996). Further support for the stages of change model?Addiction, 91, 1287–1289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.1996.tb03613.x
    Sutton, S.R. & Eiser, J.R. (1984). The effect of fear-arousing communications on cigarette smoking: An expectancy-value approach. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 7, 13–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00845345
    Sutton, S.R., Marsh, A. & Matheson, J. (1987). Explaining smokers’ decisions to stop: An expectancy-value approach. Social Behaviour, 2, 35–49.
    TACADE/Health Education Council (1984). Schools Health Education Project. London: HEC.
    Tang, J.L., Armitage, J.M., Lancaster, T., Silagy, C.A., Fowler, G.H. & Neil, H.A.W. (1998). Systematic review of dietary intervention trials to lower blood total cholesterol in free-living subjects. British Medical Journal, 316, 1213–1220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.316.7139.1213
    Tannahill, A. (1985). What is health promotion?Health Education Journal, 44, 167–168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001789698504400402
    Tarlov, A.R. (1996). Social determinant of health: The sociobiological translation. In D.Blane, E.Brunner & R.Wilkinson (Eds.), Health and social organization: Towards a health policy for the 21st Century. London: Routledge.
    Taylor, W.C., Pass, T.M., Shepard, D.S. & Komaroff, A.L. (1987). Cholesterol reduction and life expectancy: A model incorporating multiple risk factors. Annals of Internal Medicine, 106, 605–614.
    Tennessen, C.M. & Cimprich, B. (1995). Views to nature: Effects on attention. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 15, 77–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0272-4944%2895%2990016-0
    Tomkins, S.S. (1966). Psychological model for smoking behavior. American Journal of Public Health, 12, 17–20.
    Tomkins, S.S. (1968). A modified model of smoking behavior. In E.F.Borgatta & R.P.Evans (Eds.), Smoking, health and behavior. Chicago, IL: Aldine.
    Tones, K. & Tilford, S. (2001). Health promotion: Effectiveness, efficiency and equity. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes.
    Townsend, P., Davidson, N. & Whitehead, M. (1988). Inequalities in health: The Black Report and the Health Divide. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Tudor, K. (1996). Mental health promotion: Paradigms and practice. London: Routledge.
    Ulrich, R.S. (1984). View through a window may influence recovery from surgery. Science, 224, 420–421. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.6143402
    Ulrich, R.S. (1993). Biophilia, biophobia, and natural landscapes. In S.R.Kellert & E.O.Wilson (Eds.), The biophilia hypothesis. Washington, DC: Island Press.
    Underwood, M.J. & Bailey, J.S. (1993). Should smokers be offered coronary bypass surgery?British Medical Journal, 306, 1047–1050. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.306.6884.1047
    Unwin, N., Carr, S. & Leeson, J. (1997). An introductory study guide to public health and epidemiology. Buckingham and Philadelphia: Open University Press.
    Van den Burghe, P.L. (1989). Sociobiology. In A.Kuper and J.Kuper (Eds.), The social science encyclopaedia (pp. 795–798). London: Routledge.
    Verrall, J. (1990). Community care – who's to benefit? Unpublished paper, available from Greenwich Welfare Rights Unit, Riverside House, Beresford Street, London SE18, UK.
    Waitzkin, H. (1979). Medicine, superstructure and micropolitics. Social Science & Medicine, 13, 601–609.
    Wallston, K.A. & Wallston, B.S. (1982). Who is responsible for your health? The construct of locus of control. In G.S.Sanders & J.Suls (Eds.), Social Psychology of Health and Illness (pp. 65–95). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Wallston, R.S. & Wallston, K.A. (1984). Social psychological models of health behaviour: An examination and integration. In A.Baum, S.E.Taylor & J.E.Singer (Eds.), Handbook of psychology and health (vol. 4, pp. 23–53). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Wanless, D. (2004). Securing good health for the whole population. Final report, February. London: The Stationery Office.
    Warady, B.A. (1994). Therapeutic camping for children with end-stage renal disease. Pediatric Nephrology, 8, 387–390. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00866373
    Warshaw, P.R. & Davis, F.D. (1985). Disentangling behavioural intention and behavioural expectation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 21, 213–228. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2885%2990017-4
    Watson, P. (1995). Explaining rising mortality among men in Eastern Europe. Social Science & Medicine, 41, 923–934. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2894%2900405-I
    Weiss, C.H. (1979). The many meanings of research utilisation. Public Health Review, 39, 426–431.
    West, P. (1997). Health inequalities in the early years: Is there equalisation in youth?Social Science & Medicine, 30, 665–673.
    Wilcock, A. (1998). An occupational perspective of health. SLACK Incorporated, Australia.
    Wilkinson, D. & Abraham, C. (2004). Constructing an integrated model of the antecedents of adolescent smoking. British Journal of Health Psychology, 9, 315–333. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/1359107041557075
    Wilkinson, R.G. (1996). Unhealthy societies: The afflictions of inequality. London and New York: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203421680
    Wilkinson, R. & Marmot, M. (Eds.) (1998). Social determinants of health: The solid facts. New York: World Health Organization.
    Williams, R. (1983). Concepts of health: An analysis of lay logic. Sociology, 17, 185–205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038583017002003
    Williams, S.J. & Calnan, M. (1996). The ‘limits’ of medicalization? Modern medicine and the lay populace in ‘late’ modernity. Social Science & Medicine, 42, 1609–1620. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2895%2900313-4
    Wilson, E.O. (1984). The diversity of life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Wilson, E.J.Q. (2002). The marriage problem. New York: Harper Collins.
    Witman, J.P. (1987). The efficacy of adventure programming in the development of co-operation and trust with adolescents in treatment. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 21, 22–29.
    World Health Organization (1948). Constitution.
    World Health Organization (1980). International classification of impairments, Disabilities and handicaps. Geneva: WHO.
    World Health Organization (1992). International classification of disease − 10. Geneva: WHO.
    World Health Organization (1994). Progress towards health for all: Statistics of member states. Geneva: WHO.
    Yi, S.-L. (1985). A life renewed. National Gardening, 8, 19–21.

    Author Index


    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website