Health and Well-Being across the Life Course


Mary Larkin

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright


    This book is dedicated to a true life course friend, Molly Brewer Hoeg

    About the Author

    Dr Mary Larkin is a Principal Lecturer in the Faculty of Health and Life Sciences at De Montfort University, Leicester. She is also Programme Leader for the BA Health Studies and BSc Public and Community Health. She has published widely in her main research areas of health and well-being and health and social care.

  • Postscript

    The unique synthesis of the existing body of national and international literature on health and well-being across all the life stages undertaken in this book from a life course perspective provides the most comprehensive account of health and well-being from a life course perspective that exists to date. Furthermore, it unequivocally supports the main argument put forward within the life course approach that risks to health and well-being accumulate across the whole life course – from conception, through to infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. Other aspects of the life course perspective that were endorsed were its emphasis on the importance of other influences in each life stage of the life course and the way that positive experiences over the life course can offset exposure to negative events and risk factors.

    However, there was little support for the emphasis placed by those who adopt an epidemiological approach on the importance of the timing of exposure to events in our lives determining their eventual impact on our health and well-being. Similarly, Graham's assertion that ‘pregnancy, childhood and adolescence’ are more significant in terms of ‘an individual's health and well-being across their whole life’ (Graham, 2009: 26) remained unproven. As pointed out in Chapter 1, identifying all the processes that can affect our health and well-being throughout our lives raises ‘formidable methodological challenges’ (Graham, 2007: 145). Moreover, research in this area is rapidly gathering momentum and capturing the latest findings can be problematic even for the most enthusiastic researchers. Therefore the lack of corroboration of some aspects of the life course approach to health and well-being does not detract from its value in understanding the patterning of health and illness over the life course and its subsequent role in the contemporary public health movement. Nonetheless it does highlight areas which need further research in order to develop the strengths of the life course approach more generally. In addition, research for this book foregrounded other national and international developments that will need to be considered in future theoretical models of life course processes; at the time of writing, we are in the middle of a global recession. Serious concerns are being raised about the implications for health and well-being of issues such as rising poverty levels amongst children and working-age poverty (Brewer et al., 2012). Examples of other matters high on the global agenda are widening health inequalities, the incidence of chronic diseases and the world-wide obesity pandemic (Busse et al., 2010; Marmot, 2010; Swinburn et al., 2011). Therefore, whilst the life course approach currently provides us with invaluable insights, it does require ongoing targeted research and needs to respond to local, national and global changes in order to maximise its contributions to the understanding of health and well-being and the development of effective policies.


    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS):

    caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, it results in the progressive failure of the immune system. This in turn leads to life-threatening infections and cancers. As yet, there is no known cure

    acute illness:

    a short-term illness, such as a sickness bug or a chest infection


    when a person is discriminated against on the grounds of age

    age-related macular degeneration (AMD):

    an eye disease that involves deterioration of the retina. It mainly affects the elderly and is hard to treat. Whilst it eventually leads to legal blindness, individuals affected are not completely sightless

    Alzheimer's disease:

    this is the most common form of dementia (see below) and is characterised by gradual deterioration of memory and personality

    anorexia nervosa:

    an eating disorder that means that sufferers have a morbid fear of gaining weight. Their body image is distorted, with the result that they dramatically restrict their eating, lose significant amounts of weight and for females menstruation ceases

    attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD):

    often referred to as ADHD, this is a group of behavioural symptoms that include inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsiveness. Common symptoms include a short attention span, restlessness, being easily distracted and constant fidgeting. Many people with ADHD also have additional problems, such as sleep disorders or learning difficulties

    binge drinking:

    the purposeful consumption of alcohol over a short period of time with the primary intention of becoming intoxicated. It is more common in males during adolescence and young adulthood

    biomedical approach to health:

    this rests on an assumption that all causes of disease (both mental disorders and physical disease) can be understood in biological terms. It also views disease and sickness as deviations from normal functioning that medicine has the power to put right with its scientific knowledge and understanding of the human body

    blood pressure:

    the pressure exerted by circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels. Although average values for this pressure have been computed with their relevance to general health, there is often a large variation from person to person and it also varies in individuals from moment to moment

    body mass index (BMI):

    often referred to as BMI, this is a measurement of a person's weight in kilograms divided by their height in metres squared

    bulimia nervosa:

    an eating disorder involving frequent compulsions to eat large quantities of food over a relatively short period of time. These episodes of binge eating are preceded by intense feelings of anxiety and tension and often end with self-induced vomiting and/or excessive use of laxatives


    this is an eye disease that is common amongst the elderly and involves a thickening of the lens in the eye with the result that vision becomes cloudy and distorted

    chronic illness:

    a long-term health disorder that interferes with social interaction and role performance. Examples are multiple sclerosis, arthritis and Alzheimer's disease

    conduct disorders:

    these are recognised psychiatric conditions and involve persistent disobedience and defiance. Typical behaviours are frequent and severe temper tantrums (beyond the usual age for these), excessive levels of fighting and bullying, cruelty to others and to animals, criminal activities and running away from home

    congenital heart defect (CHD):

    this is a defect in the heart that is present at birth and can obstruct blood flow in the heart or vessels near it, cause blood to flow through the heart in an abnormal pattern or affect the heart's rhythm. Some defects go undetected throughout life but symptoms of CHDs in childhood are shortness of breath, underdeveloping of limbs and muscles, skin discolouration, poor feeding or growth and respiratory infections


    the irreversible loss of brain functioning caused by brain damage or disease. It becomes more common with age and leads to impaired judgement, memory and problem-solving ability. The main types of dementia are Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, fronto-temporal dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies and mixed dementia


    groups of ideas or patterned ways of thinking that shape the understanding about a particular subject in society. Use of language is central to the construction of discourses. A variety of discourses can exist at any one time; some discourses are more powerful than others and often reflect the interests of dominant and/or political groups


    when members of a particular group in society are denied resources, rewards and opportunities that are available to and can be obtained by others in society


    a medically recognised transient psychological condition in which a person experiences intense feelings of sadness, sorrow and anguish, anxiety and discontent. It is also accompanied by irritability and indifference to the world

    empty nest syndrome:

    refers to the negative reactions that parents experience when their children leave the parental home and the difficulties that they have in making the adjustments required. However, some parents enjoy their newfound sense of freedom


    injury to the brain that may cause irreversible damage to the brain, resulting in a variety of brain disorders such as loss of cognitive function, seizures and respiratory abnormalities


    the study of patterns of disease within a population over time. It involves statistical measures to establish the risk factors of diseases as well as their social origins and transmission

    exercise referral schemes:

    these aim to identify inactive adults in the primary care setting. They involve referral to a third-party service that takes responsibility for prescribing and monitoring an exercise programme tailored to the needs of individual patients

    externalising behaviour problems:

    childhood behaviour problems that are manifested in outward behaviour and reflect the child negatively acting on the external environment. Examples are disruptive, hyperactive and aggressive behaviours. Studies show that childhood externalising behaviour problems are strong predictors of adult crime and violence

    Female Athlete Triad (FAT):

    this is most common amongst young women who take part in sports that emphasise low body weight (for example, ballet dancing and ice-skating) and is the physical manifestation of the pathological pursuit of exercise regimes. It is often coupled with an inappropriate diet

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD):

    these occur because of the way that alcohol damages fetal brain development and the central nervous system. This damage can result in facial deformities, physical and emotional developmental problems, memory and attention deficits, as well as cognitive and behavioural problems

    gestational diabetes:

    high blood glucose (hyperglycaemia) during pregnancy. In most cases it can be controlled through diet and exercise and does not continue beyond pregnancy. However, women with gestational diabetes are at increased risk of developing Type 2 diabetes mellitus in later life


    an eye disease that involves pressure resulting from a buildup of fluid within the eye which causes damage to the optic nerve. It can be successfully treated but if left untreated it can destroy vision

    health-related quality of life:

    a broad, multidimensional concept that encompasses physical and mental health, social and role functioning and general well-being.

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV):

    a virus that causes Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The latter is a condition that results in the progressive failure of the immune system that in turn leads to life-threatening infections and cancers. HIV infections can be transferred during unsafe sex, use of contaminated needles, through breast milk and from an infected mother to her baby at birth. Although HIV is still incurable, treatment with antiretroviral drugs usually reduces both the mortality and the morbidity of those infected with the virus


    this is also known as high blood pressure and occurs when the heart has to work harder than it should to pump the blood around the body. This puts a strain on the arteries and the heart and persistent hypertension is one of the risk factors for stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure, arterial aneurysm and chronic kidney failure. Moderate hypertension can also shorten life expectancy. Although dietary and lifestyle changes can improve blood pressure control and decrease the risk of associated health complications, drug treatment is often necessary for patients for whom lifestyle changes prove ineffective or insufficient

    in utero:

    this literally means ‘in the uterus’. It has different meanings in different contexts; in biology, the phrase is used to describe the state of an embryo or fetus. In legal contexts, it is used to refer to unborn children

    ischaemic heart disease:

    a disease characterised by reduced blood supply to the heart muscle. Symptoms include chest pain on exertion and decreased exercise tolerance. It is a major cause of hospital admissions and the most common cause of death in most Western countries

    lone parent family:

    usually defined as a divorced, separated, single or widowed mother or father living without a spouse (and not cohabiting) with his or her never-married dependent child or children

    low birth weight:

    this refers to a baby who weighs less than 2500 grams (5 lbs) at birth


    the beginning of a woman's reproductive life that coincides with the onset of menstruation


    typically occurs in women between the ages of 42–58 and is officially defined as being reached a year after a woman's last period. It involves a set of changes over a number of years: the ovaries slowly produce less oestrogen and progesterone, which leads to irregular menstruation and its eventual complete cessation. Menopausal symptoms include vaginal dryness, night sweats, hot flushes, increased stress, breast tenderness, forgetfulness and mood changes. Women are at a much higher risk of osteoporosis after the menopause as lowered oestrogen levels lead to bone loss

    morbidity rates:

    the number and patterns of physical and mental illnesses within a designated group at a given time, expressed as a rate per 100,000 of the population

    mortality rates:

    the number and causes of deaths within a designated group at a given time, expressed as a rate per 100,000 of the population

    motherchild attachment:

    the bond between a mother and child. This requires continuity and sensitivity in care-giving from babyhood, and plays an important role in a child's future development in general but particularly in their mental health

    neuroendocrine systems:

    the interactions that take place between the nervous system and the endocrine system that control essential physiological functions such as reproduction in all of its aspects, metabolism, blood pressure and the body's response to stress and infection

    non-accidental injury:

    the deliberate physical or psychological/emotional mistreatment or neglect of a vulnerable person, such as a child or an old person, that results in harm, potential for harm or threat of harm to that person


    a level of body fat that is harmful. A person is considered obese if they have a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 30 or more

    obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD):

    an anxiety disorder characterised by recurrent urges to repeat certain behaviours or avoid certain situations. Examples are repeated checking and excessive washing or cleaning


    this involves an excess of body fat and having a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 25 or more

    perinatal asphyxia:

    this is the medical condition resulting from deprivation of oxygen during labour. It can lead to brain damage and long-term physical and cognitive impairment

    poor fetal growth:

    definitions are controversial and there are many influences on fetal growth. Poor fetal growth is most commonly said to be occurring when a fetus is small for its gestational age


    affects 2 to 5 per cent of pregnancies. It is usually diagnosed from around 20 weeks and is most common in the third trimester of pregnancy. There are usually no symptoms apart from protein in the urine and a high blood pressure reading. If untreated, pre-eclampsia can have serious consequence for the mother and her unborn child

    pregnancy trimesters:

    pregnancy is typically broken into three trimesters to describe the changes that take place. Each trimester is about three months: the first trimester is weeks 1 to 12, the second is weeks 13 to 27, and the third is weeks 28 to 42


    age-related hearing loss that affects around 40 per cent of those over 65

    preterm birth:

    refers to the birth of a baby at less than 37 weeks gestation. Births at less than 32 weeks gestation are known as ‘very preterm births’ whilst those between 32 and 36 weeks gestation are called ‘moderately preterm birth’


    a generic term used to describe mental illness, mental distress and abnormal/maladaptive behaviour

    public health:

    this movement aims to improve lives by reducing inequalities in the incidence of ill health and diseases (such as heart disease and mental illness) at population and community level, rather than at an individual level. The focus of public health intervention is the prevention of health problems and identifying illness at a stage where treatment is more likely to be effective. It makes extensive use of the life course approach to track the causes, progression and pattern of health problems in order to identify the most effective ways of preventing them from developing at different life stages

    puerperal psychoses:

    also known as postpartum psychoses and refers to a group of mental illnesses that start suddenly following childbirth. Some patients have manic symptoms, such as euphoria, hyperactivity, irritability, violence and grandiose delusions. Others have severe depression, with delusions, verbal hallucinations and stupor. There are also those who switch from mania to depression (or vice versa) within the same episode

    reconstituted family:

    a household unit including a stepparent as a consequence of divorce, separation and remarriage. This type of family is created when a new partnership is formed by a mother and/or father who already have dependent children. Since most children remain with their mother following divorce or separation, stepfamilies are more likely to have a stepfather than a stepmother

    sexually transmitted diseases (STDs):

    these are illnesses that are usually transmitted between humans by means of human sexual behaviour, including vaginal intercourse, oral sex and anal sex. Some STDs can also be transmitted via the use of intravenous (IV) drug needles after their use by an infected person, as well as through childbirth or breastfeeding. Examples are chlamydia, gonorrhea and genital warts. STDs are also known as sexually transmitted infections (STIs)

    social construction:

    this refers to the way that aspects of society or behaviour are ‘constructed’ in a particular way as a result of social relations and human agency rather than being ‘natural’ or biological in origin. Social constructions vary historically, socially and culturally and are therefore essentially contestable

    social support:

    this is provided by positive involvement in social networks. It has been shown to act as a buffer to stress and mental ill health, particularly if intimate and confiding relationships are involved

    status inconsistency:

    where someone ranks high on one status indicator, such as education, but low on another, such as occupation or income

    substance use disorder:

    the pathological overindulgence in and dependence on a non-medical drug or other chemical. This disorder has detrimental effects on physical and mental health as well as having adverse social consequences, such as failure to meet school, work and family commitments, interpersonal conflicts and legal problems

    suicidal ideation:

    a term for thoughts about suicide, which may involve a detailed plan. Whilst most people who engage in suicidal ideation do not commit suicide, some do go on to attempt suicide

    teenage birth rate:

    the number of births per 1000 women aged 15 to 19

    Type 1 diabetes:

    this occurs when the body does not produce any insulin at all and involves insulin injections for life. It is therefore often referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes. Those with Type 1 diabetes also have to make sure that their blood glucose levels stay balanced by eating a healthy diet and carrying out regular blood tests

    Type 2 diabetes:

    this is far more common than Type 1 diabetes and is often associated with obesity. It occurs when not enough insulin is produced by the body for it to function properly, or when the body's cells do not react to insulin. Those with Type 2 diabetes are usually able to control their symptoms by eating a healthy diet and monitoring their blood glucose level. However, as Type 2 diabetes is a progressive condition, they may eventually need to take insulin medication, usually in the form of tablets

    venous thrombosis:

    a blood clot in the vein is called a venous thrombosis, and an example of this is deep vein thrombosis (DVT) when a blood clot occurs in a deep vein, usually in the leg. The usual symptoms of deep vein thrombosis include pain, tenderness, swelling of the leg and possible discolouration. If the thrombosis is in the thigh veins the whole leg may be swollen

    vital organs:

    these are the cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, lymphatic and renal/urinary organs. They are vital to the human body because they work together to do necessary jobs needed for our survival


    Abebe D.S., Lien L., Torgersen L., and von Soest T. (2012). ‘Binge eating, purging and non-purging compensatory behaviours decrease from adolescence to adulthood: a population-based, longitudinal study’, BMC Public Health, 12: 32.
    Age Concern (2008). Undiagnosed, Untreated, At Risk: The Experiences of Older People with Depression. London: Age Concern England.
    Aiyama H., Utsunomiya A., Suzuki S., Hirano T., Suzuki I., Nimura T., Nishino A., and Sakurai Y. (2009). ‘A case of enlargement of an intradiploic epidermoid cyst by a head contusion’, Brain and Nerve, 61(6): 70710.
    Alcorn K.L., O'Donovan A., Patrick J.C., Creedy D., Devilly G.J. (2010). ‘A prospective longitudinal study of the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder resulting from childbirth events’, Psychological Medicine, 40(11): 184959.
    Aliyu M.H., O'Neill L., Beloglovvkin V., Zoorab R., and Salihu H.M. (2010). ‘Maternal alcohol use and medically indicated vs. spontaneous preterm birth outcomes: a population-based study’, European Journal of Public Health, 20(5): 5827.
    Allen J. (2008). Older People and Well-Being. London: Institute for Public Policy Research.
    Allen P. (2011). ‘France's young binge drinkers upset cafe society with their “British boozing”’, Observer, 24 July, p. 25.
    Almquist Y.M. (2011). ‘Childhood friendships and adult health: findings from the Aberdeen children of the 1950s Cohort study’, European Journal of Public Health, 22(3): 37883.
    Alwan N., Siddiqi K., Thomson H., and Cameron I. (2010). ‘Children's exposure to secondhand smoke in the home: a household survey in the North of England’, Health and Social Care in the Community, 18(3): 25763.
    Amato R.R. (2010). ‘Research on divorce: continuing trends and new developments’, Journal of Marriage and Family, 72(3): 65066.
    Amirkhanyan A.A., and Wolf D.A. (2006). ‘Parent care and the stress process: findings from panel data’, Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 61(5): S24855.
    Anokye N.K., Trueman P., Green C., Pavey T.G., Hillsdon M., and Taylor R.S. (2011). ‘The cost-effectiveness of exercise referral schemes’, BMC Public Health, 11: 954.
    Appel L.J. (2005). ‘Hypertension: dietary factors’, Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 89(11): 43350.
    Arber S., and Ginn J. (1995). Connecting Gender and Ageing: A Sociological Approach. Buckingham: Oxford University Press.
    Aries P. (1965). Centuries of Childhood. London: Cape.
    Arksey H., Kemp P., Glendinning C., Kotchetkova I., and Toze R. (2005). Carers’ Aspirations and Decisions Around Work and Retirement. Leeds: Department for Work and Pensions.
    Asthana A. (2010). ‘Parents find a new freedom after children leave the nest’, Observer, 8 August, p. 15.
    Atkinson A., Elliott G., Bellis M., and Sumnall H. (2011). Young People, Alcohol and the Media. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
    Baggott R. (2004). Health and Health Care in Britain, 3rd edn. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Balsa A.I., Giuliano L.M., and French M.T. (2011). ‘The effects of alcohol use on academic achievement in high school’, Economics of Education Review, 30(1): 115.
    Ban L., Gibson J.E., West J., and Tata L.J. (2010). ‘Association between perinatal depression in mothers and the risk of childhood infections in offspring’, BMC Public Health, 10: 799.
    Barlow J., and Svanberg P.O. (eds) (2010). Keeping the Baby in Mind. London: Routledge.
    Bartlett J., Grist M., and Hahn B. (2011). Under the Influence. London: Demos.
    Bartley M., Blane D., and Montgomery S. (1997). ‘Health and the life course: why safety nets matter’, British Medical Journal, 314(7088): 11946.
    Batty G.D., Lewars H., Emslie C., Benzeval M., and Hunt K. (2008). ‘Problem drinking and exceeding guidelines for “sensible” alcohol consumption in Scottish men: associations with life course socioeconomic disadvantage in a population-based cohort study’, BMC Public Health, 8: 302.
    Bazalgette L., Tew P., Holden J., Hubble N., and Morrison J. (2011). Ageing is not a Policy Problem to be Solved: Coming of Age. London: Demos.
    Beauchamp A., Wolfe R., Magliano D., Turrell G., Tonkin A., Shaw J., and Peeters A. (2011). ‘Incidence of cardiovascular risk factors by education level 2000–2005: the Australian diabetes, obesity, and lifestyle (AusDiab) cohort study’, Longitudinal and Life Course Studies, 2(3): 33145.
    Beckett C. (2009). Human Growth and Development, 7th edn. London: Sage.
    Ben-Shlomo Y., and Kuh D. (2002). ‘A life course approach to chronic disease epidemiology: conceptual models, empirical challenges and interdisciplinary perspectives’, International Journal of Epidemiology, 31(2): 28593.
    Bendelow G. (2009). Health, Emotion and the Body. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Benzies K.M., Trute B., Worthington C., Reddon J., Keown L.-A., and Moore M. (2011). ‘Assessing psychological well-being in mothers of children with disability: evaluation of the parenting morale index and family impact of childhood disability scale’, Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 36(5): 50616.
    Beresford B., Sloper T., and Bradshaw J. (2005). ‘Physical health’, in Bradshaw J., and Mayhew E. (eds), The Well-Being of Children in the UK, 2nd edn. London: Save the Children Fund.
    Berger K. (2011). The Developing Person through the Lifespan, 8th edn. New York: Worth Publishers.
    Berkman L.F., Glass T., Brissette I., and Sutman T.E. (2000). ‘From social integration to health: Durkheim in the new millennium’, Social Science and Medicine, 51: 84357.
    Berry C. (2010). The Future of Retirement. London: International Longevity Centre.
    Biddle L., Donovan J., Hawton K., Kapur N., and Gunnell D. (2008). ‘Suicide and the Internet’, British Medical Journal, 336: 8002.
    Blackwell D.L., Hayward M.D., and Crimmins E.M. (2001). ‘Does childhood health affect chronic morbidity in later life?’, Social Science and Medicine, 52(8): 126984.
    Blanchflower D.G., and Oswald A.J. (2008). ‘Is well-being U-shaped over the life cycle?’, Social Science and Medicine, 66(8): 173349.
    Boardman J.D., and Alexander K.B. (2011). ‘Stress trajectories, health behaviors, and the mental health of Black and White young adults’, Social Science and Medicine, 72(10): 165966.
    Boffey D. (2011). ‘Growing up gets tougher for girls as “teen angst” levels rise’, Observer, 17 April, p. 15.
    Boone-Heinonen J., Diez Roux A.V., Kiefe C.I., Lewis C.E., Guilkey D.K., and Gordon-Larsen P. (2011). ‘Neighborhood socioeconomic status predictors of physical activity through young to middle adulthood: the CARDIA study’, Social Science and Medicine, 72(5): 6419.
    Borgonovi F. (2010). ‘A life cycle approach to the analysis of the relationship between social capital and health in Britain’, Social Science and Medicine, 71(11): 192734.
    Bowlby J. (1965). Child Care and the Growth of Love. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.
    Boyd D., and Bee H. (2012). Lifespan Development. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
    Bracke P.F., Colman E., Symoens S.A., and van Praag L. (2010). ‘Divorce, divorce rates, and professional care seeking for mental health problems in Europe: a cross-sectional population-based study’, BMC Public Health, 10: 224.
    Bradshaw J., and Mayhew E. (eds) (2005). The Well-Being of Children in the UK, 2nd edn. London: Save the Children Fund.
    Bradshaw J., Hoelscher P., and Richardson D. (2006). Comparing Child Well-Being in OECD Countries: Concepts and Methods. Florence: United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF).
    Braig S., Peter R., Nagel G., Hermann S., Rohrmann S., and Linseisen J. (2011). ‘The impact of social status inconsistency on cardiovascular risk factors, myocardial infarction and stroke in the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort’, BMC Public Health, 11: 104.
    Brandlistuen R.E., Stene-Larsen K., Holmstr⊘m H., Landolt M.A., Eskedal L.T., and Vollrath M.E. (2011). ‘Symptoms of communication and social impairment in toddlers with congenital heart defects’, Child: Care, Health and Development, 37(1): 3743.
    Brekke M., and Straand J. (2011). ‘Does present use of cardiovascular medication reflect elevated cardiovascular risk scores estimated ten years ago? A population-based longitudinal observational study’, BMC Public Health, 11: 144.
    Brennan P.L., Schutte K.K., Moos B.S., and Moos R.H. (2011). ‘Twenty-year alcohol-consumption and drinking-problem trajectories of older men and women’, Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 72(2): 30821.
    Brewer M., Browne J., and Joyce R. (2012). Child and Working-Age Poverty from 2010 to 2020. London: Institute for Fiscal Studies.
    Brewer M., Browne J., and Sutherland H. (2006). What Will it Take to End Child Poverty? York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
    British Medical Association Board of Science (2007). Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: A Guide for Healthcare Professionals. London: British Medical Association.
    Brixval C.S., Rayce S.L.B., Rasmussen M., Holstein B.E., and Due P. (2011). ‘Overweight, body image and bullying: an epidemiological study of 11- to 15-years olds’, European Journal of Public Health, 21(1): 1228.
    Broekhuizen K.M., van Poppel M.N.M., Lando L.J., Koppes L.J.K., Brug J., and van Mechelen W. (2010). ‘A tailored lifestyle intervention to reduce the cardiovascular disease risk of individuals with Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH): design of the PRO-FIT randomised controlled trial’, BMC Public Health, 10: 69.
    Brouwers E.P.M., van Baa A.L., and Pop V.J.M. (2001). ‘Maternal anxiety during pregnancy and subsequent infant development’, Infant Behavior and Development, 24(1): 95106.
    Brown A.E., Raynor P., Benton D., and Lee M.D. (2010a). ‘Indices of Multiple Deprivation predict breastfeeding duration in England and Wales’, European Journal of Public Health, 20(2): 2315.
    Brown D., Anda R.F., Felitti V.J., Edwards V.J., Malarcher A.M., Croft J.B., and Giles W.H. (2010b). ‘Adverse childhood experiences are associated with the risk of lung cancer: a prospective cohort study’, BMC Public Health, 10: 20.
    Brown J.E., Broom D.H., Nicholson J.M., and Bittman M. (2010c). ‘Do working mothers raise couch potato kids? Maternal employment and children's lifestyle behaviours and weight in early childhood’, Social Science and Medicine, 70(11): 181624.
    Brown S.J., Yelland J.S., Sutherland G.A., Baghurst P.A., and Robinson J.S. (2011). ‘Stressful life events, social health issues and low birthweight in an Australian population-based birth cohort: challenges and opportunities in antenatal care’, BMC Public Health, 11: 196.
    Bryant A.L., Schulenberg J.E., O'Malley P.M., Bachman J.G., and Johnston L.D. (2003). ‘How academic achievement, attitudes and behaviors relate to the course of substance use during adolescence: a 6-year, multiwave national longitudinal study’, Journal of Research on Adolescence, 13(3): 36197.
    Burdorf A. (2010). ‘Is early retirement good for your health?’, British Medical Journal, 341: c6089. Doi: 10.1136/bmj.c6089.
    Burns R.A., Anstey K.J., and Windsor T.D. (2010). ‘Subjective well-being mediates the effects of resilience and mastery on depression and anxiety in a large community sample of young and middle-aged adults’, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 45(3): 2408.
    Burt A., Maconochie N., Doyle P., and Roman E. (2004). ‘Learning difficulties in children born to male UK nuclear industry employees: analysis from the nuclear industry family study’, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 61(9): 7869.
    Bury M. (2000). ‘Health, ageing and the lifecourse’, in Williams S.J., Gabe J., and Calnan M. (eds), Health Medicine and Society: Key Theories, Future Agendas. London: Routledge.
    Busse R., Blümel M., Scheller-Kreinsen D., and Zentner A. (2010). Tackling Chronic Disease in Europe. Copenhagen: World Health Organization, on behalf of the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies.
    Cable N., Bartley M., McMunn A., and Kelly Y. (2010). ‘Gender differences in the effect of breastfeeding on adult psychological well-being’, International Journal of Behavioural Medicine, 17: 319.
    Calafat A., Blay N.T., Hughes K., Bellis M., Juan M., Duch M., and Kokkevi A. (2011). ‘Nightlife young risk behaviours in Mediterranean versus other European cities: are stereotypes true?’, European Journal of Public Health, 21(3): 31115.
    Campbell D. (2010). ‘Cigarettes “to be sold in plain brown packs”’, Guardian, 20 November, p. 11.
    Campbell F., Johnson M., Messina J., Guillaume L., and Goyder E. (2011). ‘Behavioural interventions for weight management in pregnancy: a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative data’, BMC Public Health, 11: 491.
    Cancer Research UK (2011). CancerStats: Incidence 2008, UK. London: Cancer Research UK.
    Cancer Research UK (2012). Smoking: Statistics, available at:
    Carlson D.L. (2011). ‘Explaining the curvilinear relationship between age at first birth and depression among women’, Social Science and Medicine, 72(4): 494503.
    Case A., Fertig A., and Paxson C. (2005). ‘The lasting impact of childhood health and circumstance’, Journal of Health Economics, 24(2): 36589.
    Cattan M., Kime N., and Bagnal A.-M. (2011). ‘The use of telephone befriending in low-level support for socially isolated older people: an evaluation’, Health and Social Care in the Community, 19(2): 198206.
    Centre for Maternal and Child Enquiries (CMACE) (2007a). Confidential Enquiry into Maternal and Child Health. London: CMACE.
    Centre for Maternal and Child Enquiries (CMACE) (2007b). Diabetes in Pregnancy: Are we Providing the Best Care? Findings of a National Enquiry: England, Wales and Northern Ireland. London: CMACE.
    Centre for Maternal and Child Enquiries (CMACE) (2010). Maternal Obesity in the UK: Findings for a National Project. London: CMACE.
    Chatzitheochari S., and Arber S. (2011). ‘Identifying the third agers: an analysis of British retirees’ leisure pursuits’, Sociological Research Online, 16(4): 3, available at:
    Chen H., Cohen P., Kasen S., Johnson J.G., Berenson K., and Gordon K. (2006). ‘Impact of adolescent mental disorders and physical illnesses on quality of life 17 years later’, Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 160(1): 939.
    Claassen L., Henneman L., Janssens A.C.J.W., Wijdenes-Pijl M., Qureshi N., Walter F.M., Yoon P.W., and Timmermans D.R.M. (2010). ‘Using family history information to promote healthy lifestyles and prevent diseases: a discussion of the evidence’, BMC Public Health, 10: 24.
    Clapham D., Buckley K., Mackie P., Orford S., and Stafford I. (2010). Young People and Housing in 2020: Identifying Key Drivers for Change. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
    Cohen G. (ed.) (1987). Social Change and Life Course. London: Tavistock Publications.
    Coleman J. (2007a). ‘Emotional health and well-being’, in Coleman J., Hendry L., and Kloep M. (eds), Adolescence and Health. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
    Coleman J. (2007b). ‘Sexual health’, in Coleman J., Hendry L., and Kloep M. (eds), Adolescence and Health. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
    Coleman J., Hendry L., and Kloep M. (2007). ‘Understanding adolescent health’, in Coleman J., Hendry L., and Kloep M. (eds), Adolescence and Health. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
    Collins R.L., Ellickson P.L., and Klein D.J. (2007). ‘The role of substance use in young adult divorce’, Addiction, 102(5): 78694.
    Connor J., Gray A., and Kypri K. (2010). ‘Drinking history, current drinking and problematic sexual experiences among university students’, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 34(5): 48794.
    Crawshaw M.A., and Sloper P. (2010). ‘“Swimming against the tide”: the influence of fertility matters on the transition to adulthood or survivorship following adolescent cancer’, European Journal of Cancer Care, 19(5): 61020.
    Crow S.J. (2010). ‘Eating disorders in young adults’, in Grant J.E., and Potenza M.A. (eds), Young Adult Mental Health. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Crowley B.J., Hayslip B. Jr, and Hobdy J. (2003). ‘Psychological hardiness and adjustment to life events in adulthood’, Journal of Adult Development, 10(4): 23748.
    Crump C., Winkleby M.A., Sundquist K., and Sundquist J. (2011a). ‘Risk of asthma in young adults who were born preterm: a Swedish national cohort study’, Pediatrics, 127(4): 91320.
    Crump C., Winkleby M.A., Sundquist K., and Sundquist J. (2011b). ‘Risk of hypertension among young adults who were born preterm: a Swedish national study of 636,000 births’, Pediatrics, 173(7): 797803.
    Darlington R., Margo J., Sternberg S., and Karol Burks B. (2011). Through the Looking Glass. London: Demos.
    Dave D.M., and Kelly I.R. (2012). ‘How does the business cycle affect eating habits?’, Social Science and Medicine, 74(2): 25462.
    Davey Smith G., and Ebrahim S. (2002). ‘A life course approach to chronic disease epidemiology: conceptual models, empirical challenges and interdisciplinary perspectives’, International Journal of Epidemiology, 32(2): 28593.
    Davey Smith G., and Lynch D. (2005). ‘Life course approaches to socioeconomic differential in health’, in Kuh D., and Ben-Shlomo Y. (eds), A Life Course Approach to Chronic Disease Epidemiology, 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press).
    Davey Smith G., Gunnell D., and Ben-Shlomo Y. (2000). ‘Life-course approaches to socio-economic differentials in cause specific adult mortality’, in Leon D., and Walt G. (eds), Poverty, Inequality and Health: An International Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Davidson K., and Meadows R. (2010). ‘Older men's health: the role of marital status and masculinities’, in Gough B., and Roberston S. (eds), Men, Masculinities and Health: Critical Perspectives. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Davies K., Collerton J.C., Jagger C., Bond J., Barker S.A.H., Edwards J., Hughes J., Hunt J.M., and Robinson L. (2010). ‘Engaging the oldest old in research: lessons from the Newcastle 85+ study’, BMC Geriatrics, 10: 64.
    Davis E.P., and Sandman C.A. (2006). ‘Prenatal exposure to stress and stress hormones influences child development’, Infants and Young Children, 19(3): 24659.
    Davison T.E., McCabe M.P., Mellor D., Ski C., George K., and Moore K.A. (2007). ‘The prevalence and recognition of major depression among low-level aged care residents with and without cognitive impairment’, Ageing and Mental Health, 11(1): 828.
    de Ree J., and Alessie R. (2011). ‘Life satisfaction and age: dealing with underidentifcation in age-period-cohort models’, Social Science and Medicine, 73(1): 17782.
    Debette S. (2009). ‘Parental dementia linked with compromised midlife memory in offspring’, American Academy of Neurology 61st Annual Meeting, available at:
    Degnen C. (2007). ‘Minding the gap: the construction of old age and oldness amongst peers’, Journal of Aging Studies, 21(1): 6980.
    Delisle T.T., Werch C.E., Wong A.H., Bian H., and Weiler R. (2010). ‘Relationship between frequency and intensity of physical activity and health behaviors of adolescents’, Journal of School Health, 80(3): 13440.
    Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) (2005). Opportunity Age. London: The Stationery Office.
    Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) (2009). Opportunity Age Indicators: 2008 Update. London: DWP, Older People and Ageing Society Division.
    Department of Health (2006). The Health of Minority Ethnic Groups. London: The Stationery Office.
    Department of Health (2007). The Pregnancy Book 2007. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
    Department of Health (2008). End of Life Care Strategy: Promoting High Quality Care for All Adults at the End of Life. London: The Stationery Office.
    Department of Health (2009a). National Child Measurement Programme. London: The Stationery Office.
    Department of Health (2009b). New Horizons: A Shared Vision for Mental Health. London: Department of Health.
    Department of Health (2009c). The Pregnancy Book 2009. London: The Stationery Office.
    Department of Health (2010a). A Vision for Adult Social Care: Capable Communities and Active Citizens. London: Department of Health, available at:
    Department of Health (2010b). Healthy Lives, Healthy People: Our Strategy for Public Health in England. London: The Stationery Office.
    Department of Health (2011a). Health and Social Care Bill. London: The Stationery Office.
    Department of Health (2011b). Mortality Monitoring Bulletin: Infant Mortality, Inequalities: Update to Include Data for 2010. London: The Stationery Office.
    Department of Health (2011c). No Health without Mental Health. London: The Stationery Office.
    Desai A. (2010). ‘Governments confront drunken violence’, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 88(9): 6445.
    Desai S. (2000). ‘Maternal education and child health: a feminist dilemma’, Feminist Studies, 26(2): 42546.
    Diener E., Oishi S. and Lucas R.E. (2003). ‘Personality, culture, and subjective well-being: emotional and cognitive evaluations of life’, Annual Review of Psychology, 54: 40325.
    Dike van de Mheen H., Stronks K., and Mackenbach J.P. (1998). ‘A lifecourse perspective on socio-economic inequalities in health: the influence of childhood socio-economic conditions and selection processes’, Sociology of Health and Illness, 20(5): 75477.
    DiPietro J.A., Novak M.F., Costigan K.A., Atella L.D., and Reusing S.P. (2006). ‘Maternal psychological distress during pregnancy in relation to child development at age 2’, Child Development, 77(3): 57387.
    Donath C., Gräßel E., Baierm D., Pfeiffer C., Karagülle D., Bleich S., and Hillemacher T. (2011). ‘Alcohol consumption and binge drinking in adolescents: comparison of different migration backgrounds and rural vs. urban residence – a representative study’, BMC Public Health, 11: 84.
    D'Onise K., Lynch J.W., McDermott R.A., and Esterman A. (2011). ‘The beneficial effects of preschool attendance on adult cardiovascular disease risk’, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 35(3): 27883, doi: 10.1111/j.1753-6405.2010.00661.x.
    dos Santos Silva I., and de Stavola B. (2002). ‘Breast cancer aetiology: where do we go from here?’, in Kuh D., and Hardy R. (eds), A Life Course Approach to Women's Health. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Doyle Y.G., McKee M., and Sherriff M. (2010). ‘A model of successful ageing in British populations’, European Journal of Public Health, 22(1): 716.
    Drenowatz C., Eisenmann J.C., Pfeiffer K.A., Welk G., Heelan K., Gentile D., and Walsh D. (2010). ‘Influence of socio-economic status on habitual physical activity and sedentary behavior in 8- to 11-year old children’, BMC Public Health, 10: 214.
    Dyson L., McCormick F., and Renfrew M.J. (2007). ‘Interventions for promoting the initiation of breastfeeding’, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005, (2), CD001688.
    Eadie D., MacAskill S., Brooks O., Heim D., Forsyth A., and Punc S. (2010). Pre-teens Learning about Alcohol: Drinking and Family Contexts. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
    Eckersley R. (2009). ‘Population measures of subjective wellbeing: how useful are they?’, Social Indicators Research, 94(1): 112.
    Ecob R., Russ S., and Davis A. (2011). ‘BMI over the life course and hearing ability at age 45 years: a population-based cohort study’, Longitudinal and Life Course Studies, 2(3): 24259.
    Economic and Social Research Council (2011). Understanding Society: Early Findings from the First Wave of the UK's Household Longitudinal Study. Swindon: Economic and Social Research Council.
    Eilertsen M.B., Rannestad T., Rannestad M.S., and Vik T. (2011). ‘Psychosocial health in children and adolescents surviving cancer’, Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 25(4): 72534.
    Eisenhower A.S., Baker B.L., and Blacher J. (2009). ‘Children's delayed development and behavior problems: impact on mothers’ perceived physical health across early childhood’, Social Science and Medicine, 68(1): 8999.
    Eldh A.C., and Carlsson E. (2011). ‘Seeking a balance between employment and the care of an ageing parent’, Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 25(2): 28593.
    Ely G.E., and Dulmus C.N. (2010). ‘Disparities in access to reproductive health options for female adolescents’, Social Work in Public Health, 25(3): 34151.
    Emslie C., and Hunt K. (2009). ‘“Live to work” or “Work to live”? A qualitative study of gender and work–life balance among men and women in mid-life’, Gender, Work and Organization, 16(1): 15172.
    Emslie C., Hunt K., and Lyons A. (2011). ‘Older and wiser? Men's and women's accounts of drinking in early mid-life’, Sociology of Health and Illness, 34: 48196.
    Entringer S., Buss C., and Wadhwa P.D. (2010). ‘Prenatal stress and developmental programming of human health and disease risk: concepts and integration of empirical findings’, Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity, 17(6): 50716.
    Entringer S., Wüst S., Kumsta R., Layes I.M., Nelson E.L., Hellhammer D.H., and Wadhwa P.D. (2008). ‘Prenatal psychosocial stress exposure is associated with insulin resistance in young adults’, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 199(5): 498505.
    Eschmann S., Zimprich D., Metzke C.W., and Steinhausen H.-C. (2011). ‘A developmental trajectory model of problematic substance use and psychosocial correlates from late adolescence to young adulthood’, Journal of Substance Use, 16(4): 295312.
    EuroHealthNet (2011). Making the Link: Pensions and Health Equity. Brussels: Equity Channel Publications.
    EuroHealthNet (2012). Healthy Ageing: The Importance of Technology. Brussels: Equity Channel Publications.
    European Social Survey (2011). European Social Survey: Monitoring Attitude Change. London: City University.
    Fagerström L. (2010). ‘Positive life orientation: an inner health resource among older people’, Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 24(2): 34956.
    Faulkner S. (2007). ‘Eating disorders, dieting and body image’, in Coleman J., Hendry L., and Kloep M. (eds), Adolescence and Health. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
    Fergusson D.M., and Boden J.M. (2008). ‘Cannabis use and later life outcomes’, Addiction, 103(6): 96976.
    Ferri C.P., Prince M., Brayne C., Brodaty H., Fratiglioni L., Ganguli M., Hall K., Hasegawa K., Hendrie H., Huang Y., Jorm A., Mathers C., Menezes P.R., Rimmer E., and Scazufca M. (2006). ‘One hundred years on: global prevalence of dementia’, The Lancet, 366(9503): 211217.
    Field D., and Taylor S. (eds) (2007). Sociological Perspectives on Health, Illness and Health Care, 4th edn. Oxford: Blackwell Science.
    Field F. (2010). The Foundation Years: Preventing Poor Children Becoming Poor Adults. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
    Finch N., and Searle B. (2005). ‘Children's lifestyles’, in Bradshaw J., and Mayhew E. (eds), The Well-Being of Children in the UK, 2nd edn. London: Save the Children Fund.
    Fincham F.D., and Beach S.R.H. (2010). ‘Marriage in the new millennium: a decade in review’, Journal of Marriage and Family, 72(3): 63049.
    Fisher A., Saxton J., Hill C., Webber L., Purslow L., and Wardle J. (2010). ‘Psychosocial correlates of objectively measured physical activity in children’, European Journal of Public Health, 21(2): 14550.
    Fisher A.J., and Gerein N. (2008). ‘Adolescents’, in Hegginhoggan H.K. (ed.) Encyclopaedia of Public Health. San Diego, CA: Elsevier.
    Foley G., Alston R., Geraci M., Brabin L., Kitchener H., and Birch J. (2011). ‘Increasing rates of cervical cancer in young women in England: an analysis of national data 1982–2006’, British Journal of Cancer, 105(1): 17784.
    Fonseca H., Matos M.G., Guerra A., and Gomes-Pedro J. (2011). ‘How much does overweight impact the adolescent developmental process?’, Child: Care, Health and Development, 37(1): 13542.
    Foot C., and Harrison T. (2011). How to Improve Cancer Survival: Explaining England's Relatively Poor Rates. London: The King's Fund.
    Foresight Report (2007). Trends and Drivers of Obesity: A Literature Review for the Foresight Project on Obesity. London: Government Office for Science.
    Fox N., Ward K., and O'Rourke A. (2005). ‘Pro-anorexia, weight-loss drugs and the internet: an “anti-recovery” explanatory model of anorexia’, Sociology of Health and Illness, 27(7): 94471.
    Freedman V.A., Stafford F., Schwarz N., Conrad F., and Cornman J.C. (2012). ‘Disability, participation, and subjective wellbeing among older couples’, Social Science and Medicine, 74(4): 58896.
    Freunscht I., and Feldmann R. (2011). ‘Young adults with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS): social, emotional and occupational development’, Klinische Padiatrie, 223(1): 337.
    Friedli L. (2009). Mental Health, Resilience and Inequalities. Copenhagen: World Health Organization.
    Friedman H.S., Tucker J.S., Tomlinson-Keasey C., Schwartz J.E., Wingard D.L., and Criqui M.H. (1993). ‘Does childhood personality predict longevity?’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65: 17685.
    Fuller E., and Sanchez M. (eds) (2010). Smoking, Drinking and Drug Abuse among Young People in England in 2009. London: NHS Information Centre for Health and Social Care.
    Gammell C. (2009). ‘Middle-aged women suffering most from mental health problems’, Telegraph, 27 January, p. 7.
    Garber J., Ciesla J.A., McCauley E., Diamond G., and Schloredt K.A. (2011). ‘Remission of depression in parents: links to healthy functioning in their children’, Child Development, 82(1): 22642.
    Garthus-Niegel S., Knut A., Hagtvet K.A., and Vollrath M.E. (2010). ‘A prospective study of weight development and behavior problems in toddlers: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study’, BMC Public Health, 10: 626.
    Gatrell C. (2008). Embodying Women's Work. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill.
    Gaudineau A., Ehlinger V., Vayssiere C., Jouret B., Arnau C., and Godeau E. (2010). ‘Factors associated with early menarche: results from the French Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study’, BMC Public Health, 10: 175.
    Geijer R.M.M., Sachs A.P.E., Verheij T.J.M., Salomé P.L., Lammers J.-W.J., and Hoes A.W. (2006). ‘Incidence and determinants of moderate COPD (GOLD II) in male smokers aged 40–65 years: 5-year follow-up’, British Journal of General Practice, 56(530): 65661.
    Gerhardt S. (2006). Why Love Matters: How Affection Shapes a Baby's Brain. London: Routledge.
    Gerward S., Tydén P., Engström G., and Hedblad B. (2010). ‘Marital status and occupation in relation to short-term case fatality after a first coronary event: a population-based cohort’, BMC Public Health, 10: 235.
    Gibb S.J., Fergusson D.M., and Horwood L.J. (2010). ‘Burden of psychiatric disorder in young adulthood and life outcomes at age 30’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 197(2): 1227.
    Gibbs I., Sinclair I., and Stein M. (2005). ‘Children and young people in and leaving care’, in Bradshaw J., and Mayhew E. (eds), The Well-Being of Children in the UK, 2nd edn. London: Save the Children Fund.
    Giles L.C., Glonek G.F.V., Moore V.M., Davies M.J., and Luszcz M.A. (2010). ‘Lower age at menarche affects survival in older Australian women: results from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing’, BMC Public Health, 10: 341.
    Gill T. (2007). No Fear: Growing up in a Risk Averse Society. London: Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation.
    Gillman M. (2005). ‘A life course approach to obesity’, in Kuh D., and Ben-Shlomo Y. (eds), A Life Course Approach to Chronic Disease Epidemiology, 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Giskes K., Turrell G., Bentley R., and Kavanagh. A. (2011). ‘Individual and household-level socioeconomic position is associated with harmful alcohol consumption behaviours among adults’, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 35(3): 2707.
    Glaser K., Evandrou M., and Tomassini C. (2006). ‘Multiple role occupancy and social participation among midlife wives and husbands in the United Kingdom’, International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 63(1): 2747.
    Glendinning C., Kloep M., and Hendry L.B. (2000). ‘Parenting practices and well-being in youth: family life in rural Scotland and Sweden’, in Ryan H., and Bull J. (eds), Changing Families, Changing Communities: Researching Health and Well-Being among Children and Young People. London: Health Development Agency.
    Goodman S.H., and Rous M.H. (2010). Perinatal Depression and Children: A Developmental. Montreal: Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development.
    Graham H. (2002). ‘Building an inter-disciplinary science of health inequalities: the example of life course research’, Social Science and Medicine, 55(11): 200516.
    Graham H. (2007). Unequal Lives: Health and Socioeconomic Inequalities. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
    Graham H. (ed.) (2009). Understanding Health Inequalities, 2nd edn. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill.
    Graham H., and Power C. (2004). ‘Childhood disadvantage and health inequalities: a framework for policy based on life course research’, Child: Care, Health and Development, 30(6): 6718.
    Graham S. (2010). Home Truths, 2010: Why Investment in Affordable Housing Matters. London: National Housing Federation.
    Gralinski-Bakker J.H., Hauser S., Billings R., Allen J., Lyons P., and Melton G. (2005). Transitioning to Adulthood for Young Adults with Mental Health Issues (Network on Transitions to Adulthood Policy Brief). Philadelphia, PA: MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Transitions to Adulthood and Public Policy, University of Pennsylvania.
    Grant J.E., and Potenza M.A. (eds) (2010). Young Adult Mental Health. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Gray C.M., Hunt K., Lorimer K., Anderson A.S., Benzeval M., and Wyke S. (2011). ‘Words matter: a qualitative investigation of which weight status terms are acceptable and motivate weight loss when used by health professionals’, BMC Public Health, 11: 513.
    Green L. (2010). Understanding the Life Course: Sociological and Psychological Perspectives. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Grinyer A. (2007). Young People Living with Cancer. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill.
    Grinyer A. (2009). Life after Cancer in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: The Experience of Survivorship. Abingdon: Routledge.
    Gruenewald T.L., Karlamangla A.S., Hu P., Stein-Merkin S., Crandall C., Koretz B., and Seeman T.E. (2012). ‘History of socioeconomic disadvantage and allostatic load in later life’, Social Science and Medicine, 74(11): 7583.
    Grundy E.M.D., and Tomassini C. (2010). ‘Marital history, health and mortality among older men and women in England and Wales’, BMC Public Health, 10: 554.
    Gunderson E.P., Matias S.L., Hurston S.R., Dewey K.G., Ferrara A., Quesenberry C.P., Lo J.C., Sternfeld B., and Selby J.V. (2011). ‘Study of women, infant feeding, and Type 2 diabetes mellitus after GDM pregnancy (SWIFT), a prospective cohort study: methodology and design’, BMC Public Health, 11: 952.
    Gunnarsson E. (2009). ‘“I think I have had a good life”: the everyday lives of older women and men from a life course perspective’, Ageing and Society, 29(1): 3348.
    Guo H.J., McGee R., Reeder T., and Gray A. (2010). ‘Smoking behaviours and contextual influences on adolescent nicotine dependence’, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 34(5): 5027.
    Hall B., and Place M. (2010). ‘Cutting to cope: a modern adolescent phenomenon’, Child: Care, Health and Development, 36(5): 6239.
    Hallfors D.D., Waller M.W., Ford C.A., Halpern C.T., Brodish P.H., and Iritani B. (2004). ‘Adolescent depression and suicide risk: association with sex and drug behavior’, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 27(3): 22431.
    Hallgren M.A., Högberg P., and Andréasson S. (2010). ‘Alcohol consumption and harm among elderly Europeans: falling between the cracks’, European Journal of Public Health, 20(6): 61617.
    Halpern C.T. (2010). ‘Reframing research on adolescent sexuality: healthy sexual development as part of the life course’, Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 42(1): 67.
    Hanratty B., Drever F., Jacoby A., and Whitehead M. (2007). ‘Retirement age caregivers and deprivation of area of residence in England and Wales’, European Journal of Ageing, 4(1): 3543.
    Hardy R., and Kuh D. (2002). ‘Menopause and gynaecological disorders: a life course perspective’, in Kuh D., and Hardy R. (eds), A Life Course Approach to Women's Health. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Hareven T.K. (1995). ‘Changing images of aging and the social construction of the life course’, in Featherstone M., and Wernick A. (eds), Images of Aging: Cultural Representations of Later Life. London: Routledge.
    Harris J.R. (1998). The Nurture Assumption: Why Children Turn out the Way They Do. New York: Free Press.
    Harris P. (2010). ‘Health concerns over boom in anti-age therapy’, Observer, 5 September, p. 12.
    Harrison F., Jones A.P., van Sluijs E.M.F., Cassidy A., Bentham G., and Griffin S.J. (2011a). ‘Environmental correlates of adiposity in 9–10 year old children: considering home and school neighbourhoods and routes to school’, Social Science and Medicine, 72(9): 141119.
    Harrison K., Bost K.K., McBride B.A., Donovan S.M., Grigsby-Toussaint D.S., Kim J., Liechty J.M., Wiley A., Teran-Garcia M., and Costa Jacobsohn G. (2011b). ‘Toward a developmental conceptualization of contributors to overweight and obesity in childhood: the six-Cs model’, Child Development Perspectives, 5(1): 508.
    Hart C.L., Davey Smith G., Gruer L., and Watt G.C.M. (2010). ‘The combined effect of smoking tobacco and drinking alcohol on cause-specific mortality: a 30-year cohort study’, BMC Public Health, 10: 789.
    Hart C.N., Raynor H.A., Jelalian E., and Drotar D. (2010). ‘The association of maternal food intake and infants’ and toddlers’ food intake’, Child: Care, Health and Development, 36(3): 396403.
    Harvey K.J., Brown B., Crawford P., Macfarlane A., and McPherson A. (2007). ‘“Am I normal?” Teenagers, sexual health and the Internet’, Social Science and Medicine, 65: 77181.
    Hauge S., and Kirkevold M. (2012). ‘Variations in older persons’ descriptions of the burden of loneliness’, Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 26(3): 55360.
    Health Protection Agency (2009). National Chlamydia Screening Programme, 3rd edn. London: Health Protection Agency.
    Health Protection Agency (2011). HIV in the United Kingdom: 2011 Report. London: Health Protection Agency.
    Heffner K.L., Waring M.E., Roberts M.B., Eaton C.B., and Gramling R. (2011). ‘Social isolation, C-reactive protein, and coronary heart disease mortality among community-dwelling adults’, Social Science and Medicine, 72(9): 14828.
    Heikkilä K., Sacker A., Kelly Y., Renfrew M.J., and Quigley M.A. (2011). ‘Breast feeding and child behaviour in the Millennium Cohort Study’, Archives of Disease in Childhood, 96(7): 63542.
    Helm T. (2010). ‘Don't ruin the health of our children's schools plead after cuts to sport cash’, Observer, 21 November, p. 8.
    Helms P.J. (2007). ‘Being different: adolescents, chronic illness and disability’, in Coleman J., Hendry L., and Kloep M. (eds), Adolescence and Health. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
    Hendrie G.A., Covene J., and Cox D.N. (2011). ‘Factor analysis shows association between family activity environment and children's health behaviour’, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 356(6): 5249.
    Her Majesty's Treasury (2004). Spending Review: Public Service Agreements 2005–2008. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
    Hester R.K., Squires D.D., and Delaney H.D. (2005). ‘The drinker's check-up: 12-month outcomes of a controlled clinical trial of a stand-alone software program for problem drinkers’, Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 28(2): 15969.
    Hillsdon M., Foster C., Naidoo B., and Crombie H. (2005). The Effectiveness of Public Health Interventions for Increasing Physical Activity among Adults: A Review of Reviews, Evidence Briefing. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence.
    Hockey J., and James A. (2003). Social Identities across the Life Course. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Hoeck S., François G., Geerts J., Van der Heyden J., Vandewoude M., and Van Hal G. (2011). ‘Health-care and home-care utilization among frail elderly persons in Belgium’, European Journal of Public Health, doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckr133.
    Hogan A.H., Howell-Jones R.S., Pottinger E., Wallace L.M., and McNulty C.A.M. (2010). ‘“…they should be offering it”: a qualitative study to investigate young peoples’ attitudes towards chlamydia screening in GP surgeries’, BMC Public Health, 10: 616.
    Holme A., MacArthur C., and Lancashire R. (2010). ‘The effects of breastfeeding on cognitive and neurological development of children at 9 years’, Child: Care, Health and Development, 36(4): 58390.
    Holstein J.A., and Gubrium J.F. (2000). Constructing the Life Course. New York: General Hall, Inc.
    Holt A. (2011). ‘The terrorist in my home: teenagers’ violence towards parents – constructions of parent experiences in public online message boards’, Child and Family Social Work, 16(4): 45463.
    Hooper C. (2005). ‘Child maltreatment’, in Bradshaw J., and Mayhew E. (eds), The Well-Being of Children in the UK, 2nd edn. London: Save the Children Fund.
    Hopkins Tanne J. (2010). ‘Babies born at night have higher risk of encephalopathy, Californian study shows’, British Medical Journal, 341: c7036.
    Hosking J., Ameratunga S., Morton S., and Blank D. (2011). ‘A life course approach to injury prevention: a “lens and telescope” conceptual model’, BMC Public Health, 11: 695.
    Hughes S.K., Hughes K., Atkinson A.M., Bellis M.A., and Smallthwaite L. (2011). ‘Smoking behaviours, access to cigarettes and relationships with alcohol in 15- and 16-year-old schoolchildren’, European Journal of Public Health, 21(1): 814.
    Humensky J.L. (2010). ‘Are adolescents with high socioeconomic status more likely to engage in alcohol and illicit drug use in early adulthood?’, Substance Abuse: Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 5: 19.
    Hunt K., Sweeting H., Keoghan M., and Platt S. (2006). ‘Sex, gender role orientation, gender role attitudes and suicidal thoughts in three generations: a general population study’, Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 41(8): 6417.
    Hunt S. (2005). The Life Course: A Sociological Introduction. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Jackson S., and Scott S. (2006). ‘Childhood’, in Payne G. (ed.) Social Divisions. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Jago R., Fox K.R., Page A.S., Brockman R., and Thompson J.L. (2010). ‘Parent and child physical activity and sedentary time: do active parents foster active children?’, BMC Public Health, 10: 194.
    Järvinen M., and Ravn S. (2011). ‘From recreational to regular drug use: qualitative interviews with young clubbers’, Sociology of Health and Illness, 33(4): 55469.
    Johnson R.C., Schoeni R.F., and Rogowski J.A. (2012). ‘Health disparities in mid-to-late life: the role of earlier life family and neighborhood socioeconomic conditions’, Social Science and Medicine, 74(4): 62536.
    Jonas S., Bebbington P., McManus S., Meltzer H., Jenkins R., Kuipers E., Cooper C., King M., and Brugha T. (2011). ‘Sexual abuse and psychiatric disorder in England: results from the 2007 adult psychiatric morbidity survey’, Psychological Medicine, 41(4): 70919.
    Joseph K.S., and Kramer M.S. (2005). ‘Should we intervene to improve fetal and infant growth?’, in Kuh. D., and Ben-Shlomo Y. (eds), A Life Course Approach to Chronic Disease Epidemiology, 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Jotangia D., Ogunbadejo T., and Simmonds N. (2010). ‘Drug use’, in Fuller E., and Sanchez M. (eds), Smoking, Drinking and Drug Abuse among Young People in England in 2009. London: NHS Information Centre for Health and Social Care.
    Joyce K., and Loe M. (2010). ‘A sociological approach to ageing, technology and health’, Sociology of Health and Illness, 32(2): 17180.
    Kahneman D., Krueger A.B., Schkade D., Schwarz N., and Stone A. (2004). ‘Toward national well-being accounts’, American Economic Review, 9: 42934.
    Katz J., Holland C., Peace S., and Taylor E. (2011). A Better Life: What Older People with High Support Needs Value. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
    Keller S.K., and Schulz P.J. (2010). ‘Distorted food pyramid in kids’ programmes: a content analysis of television advertising watched in Switzerland’, European Journal of Public Health, 21(3): 3005.
    Kelly Y.J., and Watt R.G. (2005). ‘Breastfeeding initiation and exclusive duration at 6 months by social class: results from the Millennium Cohort Study’, Public Health Nutrition, 8(4): 41721.
    Kerr D.C.R., and Capaldi D. (2011). ‘Young men's intimate partner violence and relationship functioning: long-term outcomes associated with suicide attempt and aggression in adolescence’, Psychological Medicine, 41(4): 75969.
    Kidger J., Donovan J.L., Biddle L., Campbell R., and Gunnell D. (2009). ‘Supporting adolescent emotional health in schools: a mixed methods study of student and staff views in England’, BMC Public Health, 9: 403.
    Kim M.J., Catalano R.F., Haggerty K.P., and Abbott R.D. (2011). ‘Bullying at elementary school and problem behaviour in young adulthood: a study of bullying, violence and substance use from age 11 to age 21’, Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 21(2): 13644.
    Kimbro R.T. (2008). ‘Together forever? Romantic relationship characteristics and prenatal health behaviors’, Journal of Marriage and Family, 70(3): 74557.
    King A.C., Parkinson K., Adamson A.J., Murray L., Besson H., Reilly J.J., and Basterfield L. (2010). ‘Correlates of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in English children’, European Journal of Public Health, 21(4): 42431.
    Klijs B., Mackenbach J.P., and Kunst A.E. (2011). ‘Obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption and years lived with disability: a Sullivan life table approach’, BMC Public Health, 11: 378.
    Knapp M., McDaid D., and Parsonage M. (eds) (2011). Mental Health Promotion and Mental Illness Prevention: The Economic Case. London: Department of Health.
    Koshy P., Mackenzie M., Tappin D., and Bauld L. (2010). ‘Smoking cessation during pregnancy: the influence of partners, family and friends on quitters and non-quitters’, Health and Social Care in the Community, 18(5) 50010.
    Kramer M., Cooper H.L., Drews-Botsch C.D., Waller L.A., and Hogue C.R. (2010). ‘Metropolitan isolation segregation and Black–White disparities in very preterm birth: a test of mediating pathways and variance explained’, Social Science and Medicine, 71: 210816.
    Kravdal H., and Syse A. (2011). ‘Changes over time in the effect of marital status on cancer survival’, BMC Public Health, 11: 804.
    Kubzansky L.D., Martin L.T., and Buka S.L. (2009). ‘Early manifestations of personality and adult health: a life course perspective’, Health Psychology, 28(3): 36472.
    Kuh D., and Ben-Shlomo Y. (eds) (2005). A Life Course Approach to Chronic Disease Epidemiology, 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Kuh D., and Hardy R. (eds) (2002). A Life Course Approach to Women's Health. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Kuh D., and Wadsworth M. (1993). ‘Physical health status at 36 years in a British national birth cohort’, Social Science and Medicine, 37(7): 90516.
    Kuh D., Power C., Blane D., and Bartley M. (2005). ‘Socioeconomic pathways between childhood and adult health’, in Kuh D., and Ben-Shlomo Y. (eds), A Life Course Approach to Chronic Disease Epidemiology, 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Kuramoto S.J., Stuart E., Runeson B., Lichtenstein P., Langstrom N., and Wilcox H.C. (2010). ‘Maternal versus paternal suicide and offspring risk of hospitalization for psychiatric disorders and suicide attempt’, Pediatrics, 126(5): 102632.
    Kwansa T. (2007). ‘Adolescent risk taking in sexual behaviours’, in Leishman J.L., and Moir J. (eds), Pre-teen and Teenage Pregnancy: A Twenty-First-Century Reality. Keswick: M&K Publishing Ltd.
    Landau R., Avital M., Berger A., Atzaba-Poria N., Arbelle S., Faroy M., and Auerbach J.G. (2010). ‘Parenting of 7-month-old infants at familial risk for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder’, Infant Mental Health Journal, 31(2): 14158.
    Landstedt E., Asplund K., and Gillander Gådin K. (2009). ‘Understanding adolescent mental health: the influence of social processes, doing gender and gendered power relations’, Sociology of Health and Illness, 31(7): 96278.
    Larkin M. (2009). Vulnerable Groups in Health and Social Care. London: Sage.
    Larkin M. (2011a). Social Aspects of Health, Illness and Healthcare. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill.
    Larkin M. (2011b). ‘What about the carers?’, in Heller T.D., and Lloyd C.E. (eds), Long Term Conditions: Challenges in Health and Social Care Practice. London: Sage.
    Law C. (2009). ‘Life influences on children's futures’, in Graham H. (ed.) Understanding Health Inequalities. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill.
    Lawlor D.A., Benfield L., Logue J., Tilling K., Howe L.D., Fraser A., Cherry L., Watt P., Ness A.R., Davey Smith G., and Sattar N. (2010). ‘Association between general and central adiposity in childhood, and change in these, with cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence: prospective cohort study’, British Medical Journal, 341: c6224.
    Leach P. (2010). The Essential First Year. London: Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd.
    Lee E. (2010). ‘Pathologising fatherhood: the case of male post-natal depression in Britain’, in Gough B., and Roberston S. (eds), Men, Masculinities and Health: Critical Perspectives. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Legleye S., Obradovic I., Janssen E., Spilka S., Le Nézet O., and Beck F. (2009). ‘Influence of cannabis use trajectories, grade repetition and family background on the school-dropout rate at the age of 17 years in France’, European Journal of Public Health, 20(2): 15763.
    Leishman J.L. (2007). ‘Pre-teen and teenage pregnancy’, in Leishman J.L., and Moir J. (eds), Pre-teen and Teenage Pregnancy: A Twenty-First-Century Reality. Keswick: M&K Publishing Ltd.
    Leishman J.L., and Moir J. (eds) (2007). Pre-teen and Teenage Pregnancy: A Twenty-First-Century Reality. Keswick: M&K Publishing Ltd.
    Levinson D.J. (1978). The Seasons of a Man's Life. New York: Ballantine.
    Lindeberg S.I., Rosvall M., Choi B.-K., Canivet C., Isacsson S.-O., Karasek R., and Östergren P.-O. (2011). ‘Psychosocial working conditions and exhaustion in a working population sample of Swedish middle-aged men and women’, European Journal of Public Health, 21(2): 1906.
    Lindvall K., Larsson L., Weinehall L., and Emmelin M. (2010). ‘Weight maintenance as a tight rope walk: a Grounded Theory study’, BMC Public Health, 10: 51.
    Littlefield A.K., and Sher K.J. (2010). ‘Alcohol use disorders in young adulthood’, in Grant J.E., and Potenza M.A. (eds), Young Adult Mental Health. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Lloyd C.E., and Skinner T.C. (2009). ‘Policy and practice for diabetes care’, in Denny E., and Earle S. (eds), The Sociology of Long-term Conditions and Nursing Practice. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Loucks E.B., Abrahamowicz M., Xiao Y., and Lynch J.W. (2011). ‘Associations of education with 30-year life course blood pressure trajectories: Framingham Offspring Study’, BMC Public Health, 11: 139.
    Lovasi G.S., Quinn J.W., Rauh V.A., Perera F.P., Andrews H.F., Garfinkel R., Hoepner L., Whyatt R., and Rundle A. (2010). ‘Chlorpyrifos exposure and urban residential environment characteristics as determinants of early childhood neurodevelopment’, American Journal of Public Health, online 101(1): 6370.
    Lowry R., Kremer J., and Trew K. (2007). ‘Young people: physical health, exercise and recreation’, in Coleman J., Hendry L., and Kloep M. (eds), Adolescence and Health. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
    Lu M.C., Kotelchuck M., Hohan V., Jones L., Wright K., and Halfon N. (2010). ‘Closing the Black–White gap in birth outcomes; a life-course approach’, Ethnicity and Disease, 20(1, Suppl. 2): S6276.
    Luo Y., Hawkley L.C., Waite L.J., and Cacioppo J.T. (2012). ‘Loneliness, health, and mortality in old age: a national longitudinal study’, Social Science and Medicine, 74(6): 90714.
    Lynch J.W., and Davey Smith G. (2005). ‘A life course approach to chronic disease epidemiology’, Annual Review of Public Health, 26: 135.
    Lynch J.W., Kaplan G., and Salonen J.T. (1997). ‘Why do poor people behave poorly? Variations in adult health behaviours and psychosocial characteristics by stages of the socio-economic life course’, Social Science and Medicine, 44(6): 80919.
    Lynch J.W., Law C., Brinkman S., Chittleborough C., and Sawyer M. (2010). ‘Inequalities in child healthy development: some challenges for effective implementation’, Social Science and Medicine, 71(7): 12448.
    Macfarlane A., and McPherson A. (2007). ‘Getting it right in health services for young people’, in Coleman J., Hendry L., and Kloep M. (eds), Adolescence and Health. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
    Majer I.M., Nusselder W.J., Mackenbach J.P., and Kunst A.E. (2011). ‘Socioeconomic inequalities in life and health expectancies around official retirement age in 10 Western-European countries’, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 65: 9729.
    Mandal B., Ayyagari P., and Gallo W.T. (2011). ‘Job loss and depression: the role of subjective expectations’, Social Science and Medicine, 72(8): 57683.
    Marmot M. (2010). Fair Society, Healthy Lives: A Strategic Review of Health Inequalities in England Post-2010 (Marmot Review). London: The Marmot Review.
    Marmot Review Team (2011). The Health Impacts of Cold Homes and Fuel Poverty. London: The Marmot Review.
    Marshall N.L., and Tracy A.J. (2009). ‘After the baby: work–family conflict and working mothers’ psychological health’, Family Relations, 58(4): 38091.
    Martin L.G., Schoeni R.F., Freedman V.A., and Andreski P. (2007). ‘Feeling better? Trends in general health status’, Journals of Gerontology, 62(1): 1121.
    Martin R.M., Ben-Shlomo Y., Gunnell D., Elwood P., Yarnell J.W., and Davey Smith G. (2005). ‘Breast feeding and cardiovascular disease risk factors, incidence, and mortality: the Caerphilly study’, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 59(2): 1219.
    Martín-Matillas M., Ortega F.B., Ruiz J.R., Martínez-Gómez D., Marcos A., Moliner-Urdiales D., Polito A., Pedrero-Chamizo R., Béghin L., Molnár D., Kafatos A., Moreno L.A., De Bourdeaudhui I., and Sjöström M. (2010). ‘Adolescents’ physical activity levels and relatives’ physical activity engagement and encouragement: the HELENA study’, European Journal of Public Health, 21(6): 70512.
    Mayhew E., Finch N., Beresford B., and Keung A. (2005). ‘Children's time and space’, in Bradshaw J., and Mayhew E. (eds), The Well-Being of Children in the UK, 2nd edn. London: Save the Children Fund.
    Mayhew L., Richardson J., and Rickayzen B. (2009). ‘A study into the detrimental effects of obesity on life expectancy in the UK’, available at:
    McCarron P., Smith G.D., Okasha M., and McEwen J. (2000). ‘Blood pressure in young adulthood and mortality from cardiovascular disease’, The Lancet, 355(9213): 14301.
    McCarthy H., and Thomas G. (2004). Home Alone: Combating Isolation with Older Housebound People. London: Demos.
    McColl K. (2010). ‘Experts pool ideas on how to cut maternal mortality’, British Medical Journal, 341: c5017.
    McConkey R., Truesdale-Kennedy M., Chang M.-Y., Jarrah S., and Shukri R. (2008). ‘The impact on mothers of bringing up a child with intellectual disabilities: a cross-cultural study’, International Journal of Nursing Studies, 45(1): 6574.
    McCormick J., Clifton J., Sachrajda A., Cherti M., and McDowell E. (2009). Getting on: Well-Being in Later Life. London: Institute for Public Policy Research.
    McCrone P., Dhanasiri S., Patel A., Knapp M., and Lawton-Smith S. (2008). Paying the Price: The Cost of Mental Health Care in England to 2026. London: The King's Fund.
    McCrory C., and Layte R. (2011). ‘The effect of breastfeeding on children's educational test scores at nine years of age: results of an Irish cohort study’, Social Science and Medicine, 72(9): 151521.
    McGauran A. (2010). ‘Over 55s in US are less healthy than their English peers but live longer’, British Medical Journal, 341: c6311, doi: 10.1136/bmj.c6311.
    McGorry P.D., Purcell R., Goldstone S., and Amminger G.P. (2011). ‘Age of onset and timing of treatment for mental and substance use disorders: implications for preventive intervention strategies and models of care’, Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 24(4): 3016.
    McMahon T. (2010). ‘Developmental pathways to parenting’, in Grant J.E., and Potenza M.N. (eds), Young Adult Mental Health. New York: Oxford University Press.
    McVeigh T. (2011). ‘Breast feeding makes babies more intelligent, claim scientists’, Observer, 13 March, p. 26.
    McVicar D. (2011). ‘Estimates of peer effects in adolescent smoking across twenty-six European countries’, Social Science and Medicine, 73(8): 118693.
    Meltzer H., Doos L., Vostanis P., Ford T., and Goodman R. (2009). ‘The mental health of children who witness domestic violence’, Child and Family Social Work, 14(4): 491501.
    Meltzer H., Gatward R., Corbin T. et al. (2003). Persistence, Onset, Risk Factors and Outcomes of Childhood Mental Disorders. London: Office for National Statistics.
    Mensah F.K., and Kiernan K.E. (2011). ‘Maternal general health and children's cognitive development and behaviour in the early years: findings from the Millennium Cohort Study’, Child: Care, Health and Development, 37(10): 4454.
    Mertens V.-C., Bosma H., Groffen D.A.I., and van Eijk J.T.M. (2011). ‘Good friends, high income or resilience? What matters most for elderly patients?’, European Journal of Public Health, 22(5): 66671.
    Milkie M.A., Norris D.R., and Bierman A. (2011). ‘The long arm of offspring: adult children's troubles as teenagers and elderly parents’ mental health’, Research on Aging, 33(3): 32755.
    Miller D. (2011). ‘Associations between the home and school environments and child body mass index’, Social Science and Medicine, 72(5): 67784.
    Minet Kinge J., and Morris S. (2010). ‘Socioeconomic variation in the impact of obesity on health-related quality of life’, Social Science and Medicine, 71(10): 67784.
    Mitchell D.B., and Hauser-Cram P. (2008). ‘The well-being of mothers of adolescents with developmental disabilities in relation to medical care utilization and satisfaction with health care’, Research in Developmental Disabilities, 29(2): 97112.
    Morgen C.S., Mortensen L.H., Rasmussen M., Andersen A.M., S⊘rensen T.I., and Due P. (2010). ‘Parental socioeconomic position and development of overweight in adolescence: longitudinal study of Danish adolescents’, BMC Public Health, 10: 520.
    Musacchio N.S., and Forcier M. (2008). ‘Adolescent health’, International Encyclopaedia of Public Health, 43(2): 2014.
    Nabieva T.N. (2007). ‘Physical and neurological state of the newborn after the perinatal asphyxia’, Uspekhi Fiziologicheskikh Nauk, 38(4): 739.
    Nabkasorn C., Miyai N., Sootmongkol A., Junprasert S., Yamamoto H., Arita M., and Miyashita K. (2005). ‘Effects of physical exercise on depression, neuroendocrine stress hormones and physiological fitness in adolescent females with depressive symptoms’, European Journal of Public Health, 16(2): 17984.
    Nagle C., Skouteris H., Hotchin A., Bruce L., Paterson D., and Teale G. (2011). ‘Continuity of midwifery care and gestational weight gain in obese women: a randomised control trial’, BMC Public Health, 11, 174, doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-174.
    National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2006). Four Commonly Used Methods to Increase Physical Activity: Brief Interventions in Primary Care, Exercise Referral Schemes, Pedometers and Community-Based Exercise Programmes for Walking and Cycling. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence.
    National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2007a). Antenatal and Postnatal Mental Health. London: British Psychological Society and Royal College of Psychiatrists.
    National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2007b) Behaviour Change at Population, Community and Individual Level. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence.
    Neelsen S., and Stratmann T. (2012). ‘Long-run effects of fetal influenza exposure: evidence from Switzerland’, Social Science and Medicine, 74(1): 5866.
    NHS Information Centre for Health and Social Care (2009). Adult Psychiatric Morbidity in England, 2007: Results of a Household Survey. Leeds: NHS Information Centre.
    NHS Information Centre for Health and Social Care (2010). Health Survey for England, 2009: Trend Tables. Leeds: NHS Information Centre.
    NHS Information Centre for Health and Social Care (2011). National Diabetes Audit Mortality Analysis 2007–2008. Leeds: NHS Information Centre.
    Nilsson M., and Emmelin M. (2010). ‘“Immortal but frightened”: smoking adolescents’ perceptions on smoking uptake and prevention’, BMC Public Health, 10: 776.
    Nonnemaker J.M., McNeely C.A., and Blum R.W. (2003). ‘Public and private domains of religiosity and adolescent health risk behaviors: evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health’, Social Science and Medicine, 57(11): 204954.
    Norlund S., Reuterwall C., Höög J., Lindah B., Janlert U., and Birgander L.S. (2010). ‘Burnout, working conditions and gender: results from the northern Sweden MONICA Study’, BMC Public Health, 10: 326.
    Norström T., and Palme J. (2010). ‘Public pension institutions and old-age mortality in a comparative perspective’, International Journal of Social Welfare, 19(1): 12130.
    Nulman I. (2010). ‘Carbamazepine in pregnancy’, British Medical Journal, 341: c6582.
    Nunes E.V. (2010). ‘Drug use disorders among young adults: evaluation and treatment’, in Grant J.E., and Potenza M.A. (eds), Young Adult Mental Health. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Nusselder W.J., Francom O.H., Peeters A., and Mackenbach J.P. (2009). ‘Living healthier for longer: comparative effects of three heart-healthy behaviors on life expectancy with and without cardiovascular disease’, BMC Public Health, 9: 487.
    Nyhlén A., Fridell M., Hesse M., and Krantz P. (2011). ‘Causes of premature mortality in Swedish drug abusers: a prospective longitudinal study 1970–2006’, Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, 18(2): 6672.
    O'Brien M., and Jack B. (2010). ‘Barriers to dying at home: the impact of poor co-ordination of community service provision for patients with cancer’, Health and Social Care in the Community, 18(4): 33745.
    O'Connor T.G., Ben-Shlomo Y., Heron J., Golding J., Adams D., and Glover V. (2005). ‘Prenatal anxiety predicts individual differences in cortisol in pre-adolescent children’, Biological Psychiatry, 58(3): 21117.
    O'Donnell T. (2005). ‘Social class and health’, in Denny E., and Earle S. (eds), Sociology for Nurses. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Office for National Statistics (2005). General Household Survey 2003. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
    Office for National Statistics (2006). General Household Survey 2004. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
    Office for National Statistics (2007). General Household Survey 2005. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
    Office for National Statistics (2008). Population Estimates. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
    Office for National Statistics (2009a). Birth Statistics, England and Wales (Series FM1), No. 37, 2008. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
    Office for National Statistics (2009b). Conception Statistics, England and Wales. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
    Office for National Statistics (2009c). General Household Survey 2007. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
    Office for National Statistics (2011a). Death Registrations Summary Tables, England and Wales, 2010. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
    Office for National Statistics (2011b). General Lifestyle Survey, 2009. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
    Orme J., Powell J., Taylor P., and Grey M. (eds) (2007). Public Health for the 21st Century. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
    Orsini N., Bellocco R., Bottai M., Pagano M., Michaëlsson K., and Wolk A. (2008). ‘Combined effects of obesity and physical activity in predicting mortality among men’, Journal of Internal Medicine, 264(5): 44251.
    Ortega G., Castellà C., Martín-Cantera C., Ballvé J.L., Díaz E., Saez M., Lozano J., Rofes L., Morera C., Barceló A., Cabezas C., Pascual J.A., Pérez-Ortuño R., Saltó E., Valverde A., and Jané M. (2010). ‘Passive smoking in babies: the BIBE study (Brief Intervention in Babies: Effectiveness)’, BMC Public Health, 10: 772.
    Pabayo R., Belsky J., Gauvin L., and Curtis S. (2011). ‘Do area characteristics predict change in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity from ages 11 to 15 years?’, Social Science and Medicine, 72(3): 4308.
    Padilla-Moledo C., Castro-Piñero J., Ortega F.B., Mora J., Márquez S., Sjöström M., and Ruiz J.R. (2011). ‘Positive health, cardiorespiratory fitness and fatness in children and adolescents’, European Journal of Public Health, 22(1): 526.
    Palacios-Cena D., Alonso-Blanco C., Jimenez-Garcia R., Hernandez-Barrera V., Carrasco-Garrido P., Pileno-Martinez E., and Fernandez-de-las-Penas C. (2011). ‘Time trends in leisure time physical activity and physical fitness in elderly people: 20-year follow-up of the Spanish population national health survey (1987–2006)’, BMC Public Health, 11: 799.
    Palloni A., Milesi C., White R., and Turner A. (2009). ‘Early childhood health, reproduction of economic inequalities and the persistence of health and mortality differentials’, Social Science and Medicine, 68(9): 157482.
    Parentline Plus (2010). When Family Life Hurts: Family Experience of Aggression in Children. London: Family Lives Group.
    Parkes C.M., Stevenson-Hinde J., and Marris P. (eds) (1991). Attachment Across the Life Cycle. London: Routledge.
    Patel N. (2012). ‘Growing old far away from home: migration, ageing and ethnicity in Europe’, Runnymede Bulletin, Winter 2011–12 (368): 1213.
    Patsios D. (2006). ‘Pensioners, poverty and social exclusion’, in Pantazis C., Gordon D., and Levitas R. (eds), Poverty and Social Exclusion in Britain: The Millennium Survey. Bristol: Policy Press.
    Patton G.C., Coffey C., Carlin J.B., Sawyer S.M., Williams J., Olsson C.A., and Wake M. (2011). ‘Overweight and obesity between adolescence and young adulthood: a 10-year prospective cohort study’, Journal of Adolescent Health, 48(3): 27580.
    Peadon E., Payne J., Henley N., D'Antoine H., Bartu A., O'Leary C., Bower C., and Elliot E.J. (2010). ‘Women's knowledge and attitudes regarding alcohol consumption in pregnancy: a national survey’, BMC Public Health, 10: 510.
    Peebles D.M., Marlow N., and Brocklehurst P. (2010). ‘Antenatal magnesium sulphate’, British Medical Journal, 341: c6004.
    Peng Ng S., Korda R., Latz I., Bauman A., Bambrick H., Liu B., Rogers, K., Herbert N., and Banks E. (2011). ‘Validity of self-reported height and weight and derived body mass index in middle-aged and elderly individuals in Australia’, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 35(6): 55763.
    Percy A., Wilson J., McCartan C., and McCrystal P. (2011). Teenage Drinking Cultures. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
    Perry I.J., and Lumey L.H. (2005). ‘Fetal growth and development: the role of nutrition and other factors’, in Kuh D., and Ben-Shlomo Y. (eds), A Lifecourse Approach to Chronic Disease Epidemiology, 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Pesa J.A., Turner L.W., and Mathews J. (2001). ‘Sex differences in barriers to contraceptive use among adolescents’, Journal of Pediatrics, 139(5): 68993.
    Petit C., Chevrier C., Durand G., Monfort C., Rouget F., Garlent R., and Cordier S. (2010). ‘Impact on fetal growth of prenatal exposure to pesticides during agricultural activities: a prospective cohort study in Brittany France’, Environmental Health, 9: 71.
    Peto R., Lopez A.D., Boreham J., and Thun M. (2010). Mortality from Smoking in Developed Countries, 1950–2000, 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Pickard L., Wittenberg R., Comas-Herrera A., King D., and Malley J. (2007). ‘Care by spouses, care by children: projections of informal care for older people in England to 2031’, Social Policy and Society, 6(3): 35366.
    Pilgrim D. (2007). Key Concepts in Mental Health. London: Sage.
    Plant M., Miller P., Plant M., Gmel G., Kuntsche S., Bergmark W.K., Bloomfield K., Csémy L., Ozenturk T., and Vidal A. (2010). ‘The social consequences of binge drinking among 24- to 32-year-olds in six European countries’, Substance Use and Misuse, 45(4): 52842.
    Platt L. (2011). Understanding Inequalities: Stratification and Difference. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Pollard M.S., Tucker J.S., Green H.D., Kennedy D., and Go M.H. (2010). ‘Friendship networks and trajectories of adolescent tobacco use’, Addictive Behaviours, 35(7): 67885.
    Powell J., Robison J., Roberts H., and Thomas G. (2007). ‘The single assessment process in primary care: older people's accounts of the process’, British Journal of Social Work, 37(6): 104358.
    Priestly M. (2010). Disability: A Life Course Approach. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Prins R.G., van Empelen P., Beenackers M.A., Brug J., and Oenema A. (2010). ‘Systematic development of the YouRAction program, a computer-tailored Physical Activity promotion intervention for Dutch adolescents, targeting personal motivations and environmental opportunities’, BMC Public Health, 10: 474.
    Pritchard J. (2006). Putting a Stop to the Abuse of Older People. London: Help the Aged.
    Quilgars D., Searle B., and Keung A. (2005). Mental health and well-being’, in Bradshaw J., and Mayhew E. (eds), The Well-Being of Children in the UK, 2nd edn. London: Save the Children Fund.
    Rayner G., Gracia M., Young E., Mauleon J.R., Luque E., and Rivera-Ferrem M.G. (2010). ‘Why are we fat? Discussions on the socioeconomic dimensions and responses to obesity’, Globalization and Health, 6: 7.
    Rees Jones I., Papacosta O., Whincup P.H., Goya Wannamethee S., and Morris R.W. (2011). ‘Class and lifestyle “lock-in” among middle-aged and older men: a Multiple Correspondence Analysis of the British Regional Heart Study’, Sociology of Health and Illness, 33(3): 399419.
    Regis D. (2011). Young People into 2011. Exeter: Schools and Students Health Education Unit.
    Reichman N.E., and Nepomnyaschy L. (2008). ‘Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and diagnosis of asthma in offspring at age 3 years’, Maternal and Child Health Journal, 12(6): 72533.
    Reilly J.J. (2006). ‘Obesity in childhood and adolescence: evidence based clinical and public health perspectives’, Postgraduate Medical Journal, 82: 42937.
    Reynolds A.J., Temple J.A., and White B.A. (2011). ‘Age 26 Cost–Benefit Analysis of the Child–Parent Center Early Education Program’, Child Development, 82(1): 379404.
    Rice F., Harold G.T., Boivin J., van den Bree M., Hay D.F., and Thapar A. (2010). ‘The links between prenatal stress and offspring development and psychopathology: disentangling environmental and inherited influences’, Psychological Medicine, 40(2): 33542.
    Rice N.E., Lang I.A., Henley W., and Melzer D. (2011). ‘Common health predictors of early retirement: findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing’, Age and Ageing, 40(1): 5461.
    Rich-Edwards J. (2002). ‘A life course approach to women's reproductive health’, in Kuh D., and Hardy R. (eds), A Life Course Approach to Women's Health. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Ridge T. (2011). ‘The everyday costs of poverty in childhood: a review of qualitative research exploring the lives and experiences of low-income children in the UK’, Children and Society, 25(1): 7384.
    Roberts Y. (2011). ‘Let's dispel this gloom about living longer and make life better for the old’, Observer, 7 August, p. 29.
    Robson S.E., and Waugh J. (eds) (2008). Medical Disorders in Pregnancy: A Manual for Midwives. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
    Roche K.M., Ghazarian S.R., Little T.D., and Leventhal T. (2011). ‘Understanding links between punitive parenting and adolescent adjustment: the relevance of context and reciprocal associations’, Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21(2): 44860.
    Roehr B. (2010). ‘US adolescents get a fifth of their calories from fast food, study finds’, British Medical Journal, 341: c6406.
    Rogers A., and Pilgrim D. (2003). Mental Health and Inequality. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
    Rogers A., and Pilgrim D. (2010). A Sociology of Mental Health and Illness, 4th edn. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
    Rogers L. (2010). ‘Test-tube babies may inherit fertility problems’, Sunday Times, 7 February, p. 4.
    Rostosky S.S., Danner F., and Riggle E.D.B. (2007). ‘Is religiosity a protective factor against substance use in young adulthood? Only if you're straight!’, Journal of Adolescent Health, 40(5): 4407.
    Royal College of Psychiatrists (2010). No Health without Public Mental Health: The Case for Action. London: Royal College of Psychiatrists.
    Ruckstuhl K., Colijn G.P., Amiot V., and Vinish E. (2010). ‘Mother's occupation and sex ratio at birth’, BMC Public Health, 10: 269.
    Rugg J. (2010). Young People and Housing: The Need for a New Policy Agenda. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
    Ruidavets J.-B., Ducimetière P., Evans A., Montaye M., Haas B., Bingham A., Yarnell J., Amouyel P., Arveiler D., Kee F., Bongard V., and Ferrières J. (2010). ‘Patterns of alcohol consumption and ischaemic heart disease in culturally divergent countries: the Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction (PRIME)’, British Medical Journal, 341: c6077.
    Rutger C.M.E., and van den Eijnden R. (2007). ‘Substance use in adolescence’, in Coleman J., Hendry L., and Kloep M. (eds), Adolescence and Health. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
    Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health: Rethink (2010). The Diversion Dividend: Interim Report. London: Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health: Rethink.
    Salonen M.K., Kajantie E., Osmond C., Forsen T., Yliharsila H., Paile-Hyvarinen M., Barker D.J.P., and Eriksosn G. (2010). ‘Prenatal and childhood growth and leisure time physical activity in adult life’, European Journal of Public Health, 21(6): 71924.
    Sanders C., Donovan J., and Dieppe P. (2002). ‘The significance and consequences of having painful and disabled joints in older age: co-existing accounts of normal and disrupted biographies’, Sociology of Health and Illness, 24(2): 22753.
    Sanderson K., Patton G.C., McKercher C., Dwyer T., and Venn A.J. (2011). ‘Overweight and obesity in childhood and risk of mental disorder: a 20-year cohort study’, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 45(5): 38492.
    Sandman C.A., Glynn L.M., Dunkel Schetter C., Wadhwa P.D., Garite T.J., Chicz-DeMet A., and Hobel C.J. (2006). ‘Elevated maternal cortisol early in pregnancy predicts third trimester levels of placental corticotropin-releasing hormone in pregnant women: priming the placental clock’, Peptides, 21(6): 145763.
    Sassler S. (2010). ‘Partnering across the life course: sex, relationships, and mate selection’, Journal of Marriage and Family, 72(3): 55775.
    Sauber-Schatz E.K., Markovic N., Weiss H.B., Bodnar L.M., Wilson J.W., and Pearlman M.D. (2010). ‘Descriptive epidemiology of birth trauma in the United States in 2003’, Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 24(2): 11624.
    Schmidt M., Absalah S., Nierkens V., and Stronks K. (2008). ‘Which factors engage women in deprived neighbourhoods to participate in exercise referral schemes’, BMC Public Health, 8: 371.
    Schneider B., Grebner K., Schnabel A., Hampel H., Georgi K., and Seidler A. (2011). ‘Impact of employment status and work-related factors on risk of completed suicide: a case-control psychological autopsy study’, Psychiatry Research, 190(2-3): 26570.
    Scholtens S., Brunekreef B., Visscher T.L.S., Smit H.A., Kerkhof M., de Jongste J.C., Gerritsen J., and Wijga A.H. (2007). ‘Reported versus measured body weight and height of 4-year-old children and the prevalence of overweight’, European Journal of Public Health, 17(4): 36974.
    Schuckit M.A. (2009). ‘Alcohol-use disorders’, The Lancet, 373: 492501.
    Scott E.J., Dimairo M., Hind D., Goyder E., Copeland R.J., Breckon J.D., Crank H., Walters S.J., Loban A., and Cooper C.L. (2011). ‘“Booster” interventions to sustain increases in physical activity in middle-aged adults in deprived urban neighbourhoods: internal pilot and feasibility study’, BMC Public Health, 11: 129.
    Sealy Y.M. (2010). ‘Parents’ perceptions of food availability; implications for childhood obesity’, 49(6): 56580.
    Seaman P., and Ikegwuonu T. (2010). Young People and Alcohol: Influences on How they Drink. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
    Sellström E., Bremberg S., and O'Campo P. (2010). ‘Yearly incidence of mental disorders in economically inactive young adults’, European Journal of Public Health, 21(6): 81214.
    Senior J. (2010). ‘All joy and no fun: why parents hate parenting’, New York Magazine, 4 July, p. 15.
    Sharif N., Brown W., and Rutter D. (2008). Systematic Map Report 3: The Extent and Impact of Depression on BME Older People and the Acceptability and Effectiveness of Social Care Provision. London: Social Care Institute for Excellence.
    Shrewsbury V., and Wardle J. (2008). ‘Socioeconomic status and adiposity in childhood: a systematic review of cross-sectional studies 1990–2005’, Obesity, 16(2): 27584.
    Sjögren K., Ekvall Hansson E., and Stjernberg L. (2011). ‘Parenthood and factors that influence outdoor recreational physical activity from a gender perspective’, BMC Public Health, 11: 93.
    Sloan F., Grossman D., and Platt A. (2011). ‘Heavy episodic drinking in early adulthood and outcomes in midlife’, Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 72(3): 45970.
    Smith A.E., and Krishnan-Sarin S. (2010). ‘Tobacco use and nicotine dependence’, in Grant J.E., and Potenza M.A. (eds), Young Adult Mental Health. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Social Exclusion Unit (2005). Excluded Older People: Social Exclusion Unit Interim Report. London: Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
    Somn IA (2010). Optimising Quality of Sleep Among Older People in the Community and Care Homes: An Integrated Approach. Guildford: SomnIA.
    Sona A., Maggiani G., Astengo M., Comba M., Chiusano V., Isaia G., Merlo C., Pricop L., Quagliotti E., Moiraghi C., Fonte G., and Bo M. (2012). ‘Determinants of recourse to hospital treatment in the elderly’, European Journal of Public Health, 22(1): 7680.
    Sondhi A., and Turner C. (2011). The Influence of Family and Friends on Young People's Drinking. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
    S⊘rensen H.J., Mortensen E.L., Reinisch J.M., and Mednick S.A. (2011). ‘A prospective study of smoking in young women and risk of later psychiatric hospitalization’, Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 65(1): 38.
    Spencer N. (2001). ‘The social patterning of teenage pregnancy’, Journal of Epidemiological Community Health, 55(5): 15.
    Spiegel K., Leproult R., and Van Cauter E. (1999). ‘Impact of sleep debt on metabolic and endocrine function’, The Lancet, 354(9188): 14359.
    Spijkers W., Jansen D.E.M.C., and Reijneveld S.A. (2011). ‘The impact of area deprivation on parenting stress’, European Journal of Public Health, doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckr146.
    Steeman E., Godderis J., Grypdonck M., De Bal N., and de Casterle B.D. (2007). ‘Living with dementia from the perspective of older people: is it a positive story?’, Aging and Mental Health, 11(2): 11930.
    Stegeman I., Otte-Trojel T., Costongs C., and Considine J. (2012). Health and Active Aging. Brussels: Eurohealthnet.
    Stein Z., Susser M., Saenger G., and Marolla F. (1975). Famine and Human Development: The Dutch Hunger Winter of 1944–45. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Steinberg J. (2001). ‘We know some things: parent–adolescent relationships in retrospect and prospect’, Journal of Research on Adolescence, 11(1): 119.
    Strang-Karlsson S., Räikkönen K., Pesonen A.-K., Kajantie E., Paavonen E.J., Lahti J., Hovi P., and Andersson S. (2008). ‘Very low birth weight and behavioral symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in young adulthood: the Helsinki study of very-low-birth-weight adults’, American Journal of Psychiatry, 165(10): 134553.
    Suvisaari J., Aalto-Setälä T., Tuulio-Henriksson A., Härkänen T., Saarni S.I., Perälä J., Schreck M., and Lönnqvist J. (2009). ‘Mental disorders in young adulthood’, Psychological Medicine, 39(2): 28799.
    Sweeney M.M. (2010). ‘Remarriage and stepfamilies: strategic sites for family scholarship in the 21st century’, Journal of Marriage and Family, 72(3): 66784.
    Sweeting H., West P., Young R., and Der G. (2010). ‘Can we explain increases in young people's psychological distress over time?’, Social Science and Medicine, 71(10): 181930.
    Swinburn B.A., Sacks G., Hall K.D., McPherson K., Finegood D.T., Moodie M.L., and Gortmaker S.L. (2011). ‘The global obesity pandemic: shaped by global drivers and local environments’, The Lancet, 378(9793): 80414.
    Szinovacz M.E., and Davey A. (2006). ‘Effects of retirement and grandchild care on depressive symptoms’, International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 62(1): 120.
    Tanaka K., Miyake Y., Arakawa M., Sasaki S., and Ohya Y. (2010). ‘Household smoking and dental caries in schoolchildren: the Ryukyus Child Health Study’, BMC Public Health, 10: 335.
    Tassitano R.M., Barros M.V.G., Tenorio M.C.M., Bezerra J., Florindo A.A., Reis R.S. (2010). ‘Enrollment in physical education is associated with health-related behavior among high school students’, Journal of School Health, 80(3): 12633.
    Taylor D.H., Kuchibhatla M., Østbye T., Plassman B.L., and Clipp E.C. (2008). ‘The effect of spousal caregiving and bereavement on depressive symptoms’, Aging and Mental Health, 12(1): 1007.
    Thomson J.A., Wang W.C., Browning C., and Kendig H.L. (2010). ‘Self-reported medication side effects in an older cohort living independently in the community – the Melbourne Longitudinal Study on Healthy Ageing (MELSHA): cross-sectional analysis of prevalence and risk factors’, BMC Geriatrics, 10: 37.
    Timimi S. (2004). ‘Rethinking childhood depression’, British Medical Journal, 329: 13946.
    Torp S., Nielsen R.A., Fosså S.D., Gudbergsson S.B., and Dahl A.A. (2012). ‘Change in employment status of 5-year cancer survivors’, European Journal of Public Health, doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckr192.
    Treasure J., and Friederich H.C. (2009). ‘Neural correlates of impaired cognitive-behavioural flexibility in anorexia-nervosa’, American Journal of Psychiatry, 166: 60816.
    Tromp K., Claessens J.J.M., Knijnenburg S.L., van der Pal H.J.H., van Leeuwen F.E., Caron H.N., Beerendonk C.C.M., and Kremer L.C.M. (2011). ‘Reproductive status in adult male long-term survivors of childhood cancer’, Human Reproduction, 26(7): 177583.
    Tucker-Seeley R.D., Li Y., Sorensen G., and Subramanian S.V. (2011). ‘Lifecourse socioeconomic circumstances and multimorbidity among older adults’, BMC Public Health, 11: 313.
    Umberson D., Pudrovska T., and Reczek C. (2010). ‘Parenthood, childlessness, and well-being: a life course perspective’, Journal of Marriage and Family, 72(30): 61229.
    United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) (2007). Child Poverty in Perspective: An Overview of Child Well-Being in Rich Countries, Innocenti Report Card 7. Florence: United Nations Children's Fund Innocenti Research Centre.
    United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) (2010). The Children Left Behind. A League Table of Inequality in Child Wellbeing in the World's Rich Countries. Florence: United Nations Children's Fund Innocenti Research Centre.
    United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) (2011a). Child Well-Being in the UK, Spain and Sweden. London: United Nations Children's Fund and IPSOS Mori.
    United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) (2011b). The State of the World's Children 2011. New York: United Nations Children's Fund.
    Valentine G., Jayne M., and Gould M. (2010). Alcohol Consumption and Family Life. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
    Van den Bergh B.R.H., and Marcoen A. (2004). ‘High antenatal maternal anxiety is related to ADHD symptoms, externalizing problems, and anxiety in 8- and 9-year-olds’, Child Development, 75(4): 108597.
    van der Wel K.A. (2011). ‘Long-term effects of poor health on employment: the significance of life stage and educational level’, Sociology of Health and Illness, 33(7): 10961111.
    van Dijk A.E., van Eijsden M., Strionks K., Gemke R.J.B.J., and Vrijkotte T.G.M. (2010). ‘Cardio-metabolic risk in 5-year-old children prenatally exposed to maternal psychosocial stress: the ABCD study’, BMC Public Health, 10: 251.
    Van Rossem R., Berten H., and Van Tuyckom C. (2010). ‘AIDS knowledge and sexual activity among Flemish secondary school students: a multilevel analysis of the effects of type of education’, BMC Public Health, 10: 30.
    van Solinge H., and Henkens K. (2010). ‘Living longer, working longer? The impact of subjective life expectancy on retirement intentions and behavior’, European Journal of Public Health, 20(1): 4751.
    Vander Weele T.J., Lantos J.D., and Lauderdale D.S. (2012). ‘Rising preterm birth rates, 1989–2004: changing demographics or changing obstetric practice?’, Social Science and Medicine, 74(2): 196201.
    Vederhus B.J., Markestad T., Eide G.E., Graue M., and Halvorsen T. (2010). ‘Health-related quality of life after extremely preterm birth: a matched controlled cohort study’, Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 8: 53.
    Venn S., and Arber S. (2011). ‘Day-time sleep and active ageing in later life’, Ageing and Society, 31(2): 197216.
    Venter K. (2011). ‘Fathers “care” too: the impact of family relationships on the experience of work for parents of disabled children’, Sociological Research Online, 16(3). Available at:
    Vera-Sanso P. (2006). ‘Experiences in old age: a South Indian example of how functional age is socially structured’, Oxford Development Studies, 34(4): 45772.
    Victor C. (2010). Ageing, Health and Care. Bristol: Policy Press.
    Victor C., Scrambler S., and Bond J. (2009). Growing Older. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill.
    Vincent J.A. (2003). Old Age. London: Routledge.
    Vincent J.A. (2006). ‘Age and old age’, in Payne G. (ed.) Social Divisions. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Wadhwa P.D., Culhane J., Rauh V., and Barve S.S. (2001). ‘Stress and preterm birth: neuroendocrine, immune-inflammatory and vascular mechanisms’, Maternal and Child Health Journal, 5(2): 11925.
    Wadhwa P.D., Sandman C.A., Porto M., Dunkel-Schetter C., and Garite T.J. (1993). ‘The association between prenatal stress and infant birth weight and gestational age at birth: a prospective investigation’, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 169(4): 85865.
    Wadsworth M.E., and Compas B.E. (2002). ‘Coping with family conflict and economic strain: the adolescent perspective’, Journal of Research on Adolescence, 12(2): 24374.
    Walker M. (2006). Breastfeeding Management for the Clinician: Using the Evidence. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Inc.
    Walton A., and Flouri E. (2010). ‘Contextual risk, maternal parenting and adolescent externalizing behaviour problems: the role of emotion regulation’, Child: Care, Health and Development, 36(2): 27584.
    Ward L.M., and Friedman K. (2006). ‘Using TV as a guide: associations between television viewing and adolescents’ sexual attitudes and behavior’, Journal of Research on Adolescence, 16(1): 13356.
    West R., Zatonski W., Przewozniak K., and Jarvis M.J. (2007). ‘Can we trust national smoking prevalence figures? Discrepancies between biochemically assessed and self-reported smoking rates in three countries’, Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 16(4): 8202.
    Westerlund H., Vahtera J., Ferrie J.E., Singh-Manoux A., Pentti J., Melchior M., Leineweber C., Jokela M., Siegrist J., Goldberg M., Zuins M., and Kivimäki M. (2010). ‘Effect of retirement on major chronic conditions and fatigue: French GAZEL occupational cohort study’, British Medical Journal, 341: c6149.
    Wheeler S.B. (2010). ‘Effects of self-esteem and academic performance on adolescent decision-making: an examination of early sexual intercourse and illegal substance use’, Journal of Adolescent Health, 47(6): 58290.
    Wiencke J.K., Thurston S.W., Kelsey K.T., Varkonyi A., Wain J.C., Mark E.J., and Christiani D.C. (1999). ‘Early age at smoking initiation and tobacco carcinogen DNA damage in the lung’, Journal of National Cancer Institute, 91(7): 61419.
    Wijga A.H., Scholtens S., Bemelmans W.J.E., de Jongste J.C., Kerkhof N., Schipper M., Sanders E.A., Gerritsen J., Brunekreef B., and Smit H.A. (2010). ‘Comorbidities of obesity in school children: a cross-sectional study in the PIAMA birth cohort’, BMC Public Health, 10: 184.
    Wilkinson K., Martin I.C., Gough M.J., Stewart J.A.D., Lucas S.B., Freeth H., Bull B., and Mason M. (2010). An Age-Old Problem: A Review of the Care Received by Elderly Patients Undergoing Surgery. London: National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death.
    Williams A., Ylanne V., and Wadleigh P.M. (2007). ‘Selling the “elixir of life”: images of the elderly in an Olivio advertising campaign’, Journal of Aging Studies, 21(1): 121.
    Wills T. A. (2008). ‘Adolescent health and health behaviours.’ International Encyclopaedia of Public Health, 10512, doi: 10.1016/B0-08043076-7/03848-1.
    Wilson H.W., and Widom C.S. (2011). ‘Pathways from childhood abuse and neglect to HIV-risk sexual behavior in middle adulthood’, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79(2): 23646.
    World Health Organization (WHO) (1946). Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization. Geneva: World Health Organization.
    World Health Organization (WHO) (1986). Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. Copenhagen: World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe.
    World Health Organization (WHO) (2002). Active Ageing: A Policy Framework. Geneva: World Health Organization.
    World Health Organization (WHO), World Bank, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and United Nations Population Fund (2010). Trends in Maternal Mortality: 1990 to 2008. Geneva: World Health Organization.
    Xu W.L., Atti A.R., Gatz M., Pedersen N.L., Johansson B., and Fratiglioni L. (2011). ‘Midlife overweight and obesity increase late-life dementia risk: a population-based twin study’, Neurology, 76(8): 156874.
    Yeandle S., Bennett C., Buckner L., Fry G., and Price C. (2007). Diversity in Caring: Towards Equality for Carers. London: Carers UK.
    Zarate C.A. (2010). ‘Psychiatric disorders in young adults: depression assessment and treatment’, in Grant J.E., and Potenza M.A. (eds), Young Adult Mental Health. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Zarrit S.H. (1996). ‘Continuities and discontinuities in very late life’, in Bengston V.I. (ed.) Adulthood and Aging: Research on Continuities and Discontinuities. New York: Springer.
    Zhang Z., and Hayward M.D. (2006). ‘Gender, the marital life course, and cardiovascular disease in late midlife’, Journal of Marriage and Family, 68(3): 63957.
    Zimmermann E., Holst C., and S⊘rensen T.I. (2011). ‘Morbidity, including fatal morbidity, throughout life in men entering adult life as obese’, PLoS One, 6(4): 17.
    Zunzunegui M.-V., Béland F., Sanchez M.-T., and Otero A. (2009). ‘Longevity and relationships with children: the importance of the parental role’, BMC Public Health, 9: 351.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website