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A social movement can be defined as a sustained and organised public effort targeting authorities that can use both conventional and unconventional strategies to achieve its goals (Tilly, 2004). Criteria to assess whether a social mobilisation meets the requirements to be called a ‘movement’ have been developed and include:
- the presence of articulated grievances;
- policy goals;
- access to human and financial resources;
- sustained activities to meet these goals;
- participants with a shared worldview and identity. (Freudenberg et al., 2011)
Some of these criteria can also be applied to pressure and advocacy groups. What makes a social movement different is its ability to go beyond the influence of its participant and resource base, to maintain an ideology irrespective of membership, function ...