Group Counselling


Keith Tudor

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Professional Skills for Counsellors

    The Professional Skills for Counsellors series, edited by Colin Feltham, covers the practical, technical and professional skills and knowledge which trainee and practising counsellors need to improve their competence in key areas of therapeutic practice.

    Titles in the series include:

    Counselling by Telephone

    Maxine Rosenfield

    Time-Limited Counselling

    Colin Feltham

    Long-Term Counselling

    Geraldine Shipton and Eileen Smith

    Client Assessment

    Stephen Palmer and Gladeana McMahon (eds)

    Counselling, Psychotherapy and the Law

    Peter Jenkins

    Contracts in Counselling

    Charlotte Sills (ed.)

    Counselling Difficult Clients

    Kingsley Norton and Gill McGauley

    Learning and Writing in Counselling

    Mhairi MacMillan and Dot Clark

    Counselling and Psychotherapy in Private Practice

    Roger Thistle

    Referral and Termination Issues for Counsellors

    Anne Leigh

    The Management of Counselling and Psychotherapy Agencies

    Colin Lago and Duncan Kitchin


    View Copyright Page


    No man is an island, entire of itself; every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main.

    John Donne (1624) Devotions, XVII

    No individual is self-sufficient; the individual can exist only in an environmental field. The individual is inevitably, at every moment, a part of some field. His behavior is a function of the total field, which includes both him and his environment.

    Fritz Perls (1973) The Gestalt Approach and Eye Witness to Therapy

    I am because we are

    African proverb


    In memory of Margaret Proctor, FBPsS Principal Educational Psychologist, ILEA generous Godmother and enlightening witness (1914–1997)


    Although writing is often a lone and isolated task, writing a book especially about groups is not possible without the experience, help and support of a number of people. My heartfelt thanks and acknowledgements go: to past and present clients, supervisees and trainees with whom I have been and continue to be privileged to work and who consistently remind me about the resilience, potential and aspiration of the individual and collective human condition; to Jenny Robinson, a valued colleague, who – and whose radical therapeutic work – deserves more recognition; to friends and colleagues for their help through discussion and research – Kevin Brown, Mike Fitter, Colin Lago, Adrienne Lee, Fiona Purdie, Val Smith and Ian Stewart – who, for me, formed a conceptual group matrix around this book; to Colin Feltham for his constructive editing; to Susan Worsey at Sage for her support and patience; to Jo and Simon Browes for their secretarial and design skills; and, finally and mostly, to Louise Embleton Tudor, my most valued colleague, best friend and life partner who, as ever, provides both support and constructive criticism and whose love and understanding contributes to my immediate facilitative environment and who, with Saul and Raiya, forms my most immediate family group.

    Appendix 1, ‘Best Practice Guidelines for Groupwork’, © ACA. Reprinted with permission. No further reproduction authorized without written permission of the American Counseling Association.

    Every effort has been made to trace the copyright holders, but if any have been inadvertently overlooked, the publishers will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements and acknowledgement at the first opportunity.

  • Appendix 1: Best Practice Guidelines for Groupwork

    Association for Specialists in Group Work (ASGW) Best Practice


    Approved by the ASGW Executive Board, 29 March 1998

    Prepared by Lynn Rapin and Linda Keel, Co-Chairs, ASGW Ethics


    The Association for Specialists in Group Work (ASGW) is a division of the American Counseling Association whose members are interested in and specialize in groupwork. We value the creation of community; service to our members, clients, and the profession; and value leadership as a process to facilitate the growth and development of individuals and groups.

    The Association for Specialists in Group Work recognizes the commitment of its members to the Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice (as revised in 1995) of its parent organization, the American Counseling Association, and nothing in this document shall be construed to supplant that code. These Best Practice Guidelines are intended to clarify the application of the ACA Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice to the field of group work by defining Group Workers’ responsibility and scope of practice involving those activities, strategies and interventions that are consistent and current with effective and appropriate professional ethical and community standards. ASGW views ethical process as being integral to group work and views Group Workers as ethical agents. Group Workers, by their very nature in being responsible and responsive to their group members, necessarily embrace a certain potential for ethical vulnerability. It is incumbent upon Group Workers to give considerable attention to the intent and context of their actions because the attempts of Group Workers to influence human behavior through group work always have ethical implications. These Best Practice Guidelines address Group Workers’ responsibilities in planning, performing, and processing groups.

    Section A: Best Practice in Planning
    A.1. Professional Context and Regulatory Requirements

    Group Workers actively know, understand and apply the ACA Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice, the ASGW Professional Standards for the Training of Group Workers, these ASGW Best Practice Guidelines, the ASGW diversity competencies, the ACA Multicultural Guidelines, relevant state laws, accreditation requirements, relevant National Board for Certified Counselors Codes and Standards, their organization's standards, and insurance requirements impacting the practice of group work.

    A.2. Scope of Practice and Conceptual Framework

    Group Workers define the scope of practice related to the core and specialization competencies defined in the ASGW Training Standards. Group Workers are aware of personal strengths and weaknesses in leading groups. Group Workers develop and are able to articulate a general conceptual framework to guide practice and a rationale for use of techniques that are to be used. Group Workers limit their practice to those areas for which they meet the training criteria established by the ASGW Training Standards.

    A.3. Assessment
    • Assessment of self: Group Workers actively assess their knowledge and skills related to the specific group(s) offered. Group Workers assess their values, beliefs and theoretical orientation and how these impact upon the group, particularly when working with a diverse and multicultural population.
    • Ecological assessment: Group Workers assess community needs, agency or organization resources, sponsoring organization mission, staff competency, attitudes regarding group work, professional training levels of potential group leaders regarding group work; client attitudes regarding group work, and multicultural and diversity considerations. Group Workers use this information as the basis for making decisions related to their group practice, or to the implementation of groups for which they have supervisory, evaluation, or oversight responsibilities.
    A.4. Program Development and Evaluation
    • Group Workers identify the type(s) of group(s) to be offered and how they relate to community needs.
    • Group Workers concisely state in writing the purpose and goals of the group. Group Workers also identify the role of the group members in influencing or determining the group goals.
    • Group Workers set fees consistent with the organization's fee schedule, taking into consideration the financial status and locality of prospective group members.
    • Group Workers choose techniques and a leadership style appropriate to the type(s) of group(s) being offered.
    • Group Workers have an evaluation plan consistent with regulatory, organization and insurance requirements, where appropriate.
    • Group Workers take into consideration current professional guidelines when using technology, including but not limited to Internet communication.
    A.5. Resources

    Group Workers coordinate resources related to the kind of group(s) and group activities to be provided, such as: adequate funding; the appropriateness and availability of a trained co-leader; space and privacy requirements for the type(s) of group(s) being offered; marketing and recruiting; and appropriate collaboration with other community agencies and organizations.

    A.6. Professional Disclosure Statement

    Group Workers have a professional disclosure statement which includes information on confidentiality and exceptions to confidentiality, theoretical orientation, information on the nature, purpose(s) and goals of the group, the group services that can be provided, the role and responsibility of group members and leaders, Group Workers’ qualifications to conduct the specific group(s), specific licenses, certifications and professional affiliations, and address of licensing/credentialing body.

    A.7. Group and Member Preparation
    • Group Workers screen prospective group members if appropriate to the type of group being offered When selection of group members is appropriate, Group Workers identify group members whose needs and goals are compatible with the goals of the group.
    • Group Workers facilitate informed consent. Group Workers provide in oral and written form to prospective members (when appropriate to group type): the professional disclosure statement; group purpose and goals; group participation expectations including voluntary and involuntary membership; role expectations of members and leader(s); policies related to entering and exiting the group; policies governing substance use; policies and procedures governing mandated groups (where relevant); documentation requirements; disclosure of information to others; implications of out-of-group contact or involvement among members; procedures for consultation between group leader(s) and group mem-ber(s); fees and time parameters; and potential impacts of group participation.
    • Group Workers obtain the appropriate consent forms for work with minors and other dependent group members.
    • Group Workers define confidentiality and its limits (for example, legal and ethical exceptions and expectations; waivers implicit with treatment plans, documentation and insurance usage). Group Workers have the responsibility to inform all group participants of the need for confidentiality, potential consequences of breaching confidentiality and that legal privilege does not apply to group discussions (unless provided by state statute).
    A.8. Professional Development

    Group Workers recognize that professional growth is a continuous, ongoing, developmental process throughout their career.

    • Group Workers remain current and increase knowledge and skill competencies through activities such as continuing education, professional supervision, and participation in personal and professional development activities.
    • Group Workers seek consultation and/or supervision regarding ethical concerns that interfere with effective functioning as a group leader. Supervisors have the responsibility to keep abreast of consultation, group theory, process, and adhere to related ethical guidelines.
    • Group Workers seek appropriate professional assistance for their own personal problems or conflicts that are likely to impair their professional judgement or work performance.
    • Group Workers seek consultation and supervision to ensure appropriate practice whenever working with a group for which all knowledge and skill competencies have not been achieved.
    • Group Workers keep abreast of group research and development
    A.9. Trends and Technological Changes

    Group Workers are aware of and responsive to technological changes as they affect society and the profession. These include but are not limited to changes in mental health delivery systems; legislative and insurance industry reforms; shifting population demographics and client needs; and technological advances in Internet and other communication and delivery systems. Group Workers adhere to ethical guidelines related to the use of developing technologies.

    Section B: Best Practice in Performing
    B.1. Self Knowledge

    Group Workers are aware of and monitor their strengths and weaknesses and the effects these have on group members.

    B.2. Group Competencies

    Group Workers have a basic knowledge of groups and the principles of group dynamics, and are able to perform the core group competencies, as described in the ASGW Professional Standards for the Training of Group Workers. Additionally, Group Workers have adequate understanding and skill in any group specialty area chosen for practice (psychotherapy, counseling, task, psychoeducation, as described in the ASGW Training Standards).

    B.3. Group Plan Adaptation
    • Group Workers apply and modify knowledge, skills and techniques appropriate to group type and stage, and to the unique needs of various cultural and ethnic groups.
    • Group Workers monitor the group and progress toward the group goals and plan.
    • Group Workers clearly define and maintain ethical, professional, and social relationship boundaries with group members as appropriate to their role in the organization and the type of group being offered.
    B.4. Therapeutic Conditions and Dynamics

    Group Workers understand and are able to implement appropriate models of group development, process observation and therapeutic conditions.

    B.5. Meaning

    Group Workers assist members in generating meaning from the group experience.

    B.6. Collaboration

    Group Workers assist members in developing individual goals and respect group members as co-equal partners in the group experience.

    B.7. Evaluation

    Group Workers include evaluation (both formal and informal) between sessions and at the conclusion of the group.

    B.8. Diversity

    Group Workers practice with broad sensitivity to client differences including but not limited to ethnic, gender, religious, sexual, psychological maturity economic class, family history, physical characteristics or limitations, and geographic location. Group Workers continuously seek information regarding the cultural issues of the diverse population with whom they are working both by interaction with participants and from using outside resources.

    B.9. Ethical Surveillance

    Group Workers employ an appropriate ethical decision making model in responding to ethical challenges and issues and in determining courses of action and behavior for self and group members. In addition, Group Workers employ applicable standards as promulgated by ACA, ASGW; or other appropriate professional organizations.

    Section C: Best Practice in Group Processing
    C.1. Processing Schedule

    Group Workers process the workings of the group with themselves, group members, supervisors or other colleagues, as appropriate. This may include assessing progress on group and member goals, leader behaviors and techniques, group dynamics and interventions; developing understanding and acceptance of meaning. Processing may occur both within sessions and before and after each session, at time of termination, and later follow up, as appropriate.

    C.2. Reflective Practice

    Group Workers attend to opportunities to synthesize theory and practice and to incorporate learning outcomes into ongoing groups. Group Workers attend to session dynamics of members and their interactions and also attend to the relationship between session dynamics and leader values, cognition and affect.

    C.3. Evaluation and Follow-Up
    • Group Workers evaluate process and outcomes. Results are used for ongoing program planning, improvement and revisions of current group and/or to contribute to professional research literature. Group Workers follow all applicable policies and standards in using group material for research and reports.
    • Group Workers conduct follow-up contact with group members, as appropriate, to assess outcomes or when requested by a group member(s).
    C.4. Consultation and Training with Other Organizations

    Group Workers provide consultation and training to organizations in and out of their setting, when appropriate. Group Workers seek out consultation as needed with competent professional persons knowledgeable about group work.

    Appendix 2: Group Counselling: Q-Sort Research*

    Information to Clients

    Aim of the exercise:

    To sort 60 statements about group counselling/therapy into your own rank ordering.


    Enclosed with this is a list of 60 statements about the therapeutic factors of groups and seven envelopes. Please sort the statements into the seven envelopes marked:

    • Most helpful to me in the group (2 statements)
    • Extremely helpful to me in the group (6 statements)
    • Very helpful to me in the group (12 statements)
    • Helpful to me in the group (20 statements)
    • Barely helpful to me in the group (12 statements)
    • Less helpful to me in the group (6 statements)
    • Least helpful to me in the group (2 statements).

    Then, within each envelope rank each statement in the order of helpfulness by writing a number (1–60) on the statement. Thus in the ‘Most helpful to me in the group’ you will have statements ranked 1 and 2, in the ‘Extremely helpful to me in the group’ you will have statements ranked and marked 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 and so on through the envelopes until you have ranked all the statements. You will probably find it easiest to sort the statements into the seven groups, then make any necessary adjustments in terms of the numbers of statements in each group, and then rank-order and number them and put them in the envelopes.

    I am also enclosing a sheet of paper asking you to write your comments on the pre- and post-group time as well as what, if anything, happens outside the group, and any other comments you have about your experience of group counselling/therapy

    With thanks for your consideration.

    • Helping others has given me more self-respect.
    • Putting others' needs ahead of mine.
    • Forgetting myself and thinking of helping others.
    • Giving part of myself to others.
    • Helping others and being important in their lives.
    • Belonging to and being accepted by a group.
    • Continued close contact with other people.
    • Revealing embarrassing things about myself and still being accepted by the group.
    • Feeling alone no longer.
    • Belonging to a group of people who understand and accept me.
    • Learning I'm not the only one with my type of problem; ‘We're all in the same boat.’
    • Seeing that I am just as well off as others.
    • Learning that others have some of the same ‘bad’ thoughts and feelings I do.
    • Learning that others had parents and backgrounds as unhappy or mixed up as mine.
    • Learning that I'm not very different from other people gives me a ‘welcome to the human race’ feeling.
    • The group's teaching me about the type of impression I make on others.
    • Learning how I come across to others.
    • Other members honestly telling me what they think of me.
    • Group members pointing out some of my habits or mannerisms that annoy other people.
    • Learning that I sometimes confuse people by not saying what I really think.
    • Improving my skills in getting along with people.
    • Feeling more trustful of groups and of other people.
    • Learning about the way I relate to other group members.
    • The group's giving me an opportunity to learn to approach others.
    • Working out my difficulties with one particular member in the group.
    • The therapist's suggesting or advising something for me to do.
    • Group members suggesting or advising something for me to do.
    • Group members telling me what to do.
    • Someone in the group giving definite suggestions about a life problem.
    • Group members advising me to behave differently with an important person in my life.
    • Getting things off my chest.
    • Expressing negative and/or positive feelings towards another member.
    • Expressing negative and/or positive feelings towards the therapist.
    • Learning how to express my feelings.
    • Being able to say what was bothering me instead of holding it in.
    • Trying to be like someone in the group who is better adjusted than I.
    • Seeing that others could reveal embarrassing things and take other risks and benefit from it helps me to do the same.
    • Adopting mannerisms or the style of another group member.
    • Admiring and behaving like my therapist.
    • Finding someone in the group I can pattern myself after.
    • Being in the group is, in a sense, like reliving and understanding my life in the family in which I grew up.
    • Being in the group somehow helps me to understand old hang-ups that I had in the past with my parents, brothers, sisters, or other important people.
    • Being in the group is, in a sense, like being in a family, only this time a more accepting family.
    • Being in the group somehow helps me to understand how I grew up in my family.
    • The group is something like my family – some members or the therapist being like my parents and others being like my relatives. Through the group experience I understand my past relationships with my parents and relatives (brothers, sisters etc.).
    • Learning that I have likes or dislikes for a person for reasons which may have little to do with the person and more to do with my hang-ups or experiences with other people in my past.
    • Learning why I think and feel the way I do (that is, learning some of the causes and sources of my problems).
    • Discovering and accepting previously unknown or unacceptable parts of myself.
    • Learning that I react to some people or situations unrealistically (with feelings that somehow belong to earlier periods in my life).
    • Learning that how I feel and behave today is related to my childhood and development (there are reasons in my early life why I am as I am).
    • Seeing others getting better is inspiring to me.
    • Knowing others have solved problems similar to mine.
    • Seeing others have solved problems similar to mine
    • Seeing that other group members improve/d encourages me.
    • Knowing that the group has helped others with problems like mine encourages me.
    • Recognising that life is at times unfair and unjust.
    • Recognising that ultimately there is no escape from some of life's pain and from death.
    • Recognising that no matter how close I get to other people, I must still face life alone.
    • Facing the basic issues of my life and death, and thus living my life more honestly and being less caught up in trivialities.
    • Learning that I must take responsibility for the way I live my life no matter how much guidance and support I get from others.

    *Based on Yalom (1995).

    Group Counselling – before, after and outside the Group
    • I am interested in your thoughts and feelings about the time you spend with people before the group. Please write as much or as little as you want.

      Some questions you may consider – Do you come for this time or aim to come for the starting time of the group at 7.30pm? What is the purpose of this time for you? What, if any value does it have? Has this time changed over the time you've been in the group?

    • I am interested in your thoughts and feelings about the time you spend with the group after I have left. Again, please write as much or as little as you want.

      Some questions you may consider – Do you stay on after the group, if so how regularly and for how long? Does this depend on anything and if so what? What's different about this time compared to the time in the group (7.30–9.30pm)? Are there particular therapeutic factors (e.g. the 60 statements) which are more relevant or pertinent to this time? Has any of this changed over the time you've been in the group?

    • I am also interested in any contact you have with group members, or indeed as a group, outside the group.

      Some questions – Do you have any contact with any group member/s outside the group? Is this one or two particular people or with anyone in the group and if so how often? What is the nature and purpose of this contact? Has it changed over the time you've been in the group?

    • Any other comments about your experience of group counselling/ therapy

    With thanks

    Keith Tudor

    Appendix 3: A Simple Group Contract

    Using the parallel with legal contracts, Steiner (1971) outlines four basic requirements for contracts:

    • Mutual consent – which, in turn, involves a request for treatment, an offer of treatment and an acceptance of treatment.
    • Valid consideration – that is, the benefit to both parties, for instance, a service for a fee.
    • Competency – that both parties are competent to agree to the contract and to fulfil their side of it. This is especially important in the case of working with minors or people whose mental facilities are impaired for some reason and will almost certainly involve a third party (see Chapter 6) such as a parent or legal guardian (also see Vanwynsberghe, 1998).
    • Lawful object – that the object or outcome of the contract is legal and not illegal.

    Updating Steiner's requirements in terms of British contract law, four elements create a legal ‘simple contract’ (as distinct from a contract by deed or a contract under seal): agreement, clarity, legality and valid consideration and, bearing in mind that some counsellors draw up written agreements with their clients, dates and signatures. The content of a written, legal counselling contract may be considered thus:

    • An introduction, outlining the purpose of the contract.
    • The definitions of terms, including any ambiguous terms such as ‘getting better’
    • The responsibilities of parties to the contract, including other parties, for example parents when working with children and other group members when working with groups
    • A description of what is to be delivered
    • Any issues as regards copyright – this may be relevant to any writing and publication of material about clients.
    • The delivery of service specified.
    • Agreed terms of payment
    • An agreed disputes procedure – or access to an identified complaints or disputes procedure.

    In the light of their empirical findings from studying group confidentiality and the law, Roback et al. (1996) suggest a model for an ‘informed consent’ form which includes a clear outlining of ‘risks’:

    • The legal and professional position on the counsellor's obligation or choice to report any disclosure of child abuse. All counsellors, including group counsellors, need to be clear where they stand on this in terms of the law, their professional associations and codes of ethics and practice, any requirements arising from the setting of their work, for example in primary care, and morally (see BAC, 1997, especially B.3.3 and B.3.4).
    • The risk of disclosure of any ‘secrets’ by other members of the group.
    • The implications of telling other people outside the group of group members' secrets, including the possibility of legal action.
    • The risk of expulsion from the group.

    This model also proposes a signed and witnessed declaration of acceptance of the terms, conditions and risks of group counselling (see Roback et al., 1996, pp. 134–5).

    Appendix 4: Training Courses in Groupwork

    These are listed in terms of specialist courses leading to UKCP registration and other training courses in groupwork.

    This is not intended as a comprehensive list. It is based on entries in and a brief survey of courses – of a minimum duration of one year, part time – listed in the BAC's (1995) Directory of Training Courses. Details of other group-work training courses may be sent to the author at Sage Publications for inclusion in future editions/publications.

    Specialist Training Courses in Groupwork Leading to UKCP Registration

    In addition to these there are organisations currently seeking membership of the UKCP with a view to having their groupwork training accepted as leading to UKCP registration, including Cambridge Group Work (Diploma in Group Analysis) and Goldsmiths' College, London University (Diploma in Group Psychotherapy).

    Other Courses in Groupwork
    Organisation:Cambridge Group Work
    Course:Introductory General Course
    Duration:1 year, part-time
    Qualification:Advanced Diploma in Group Work/Advanced Diploma in Educational Studies (University of Cambridge Institute of Education)
    Duration:3 years, part-time
    Contact:CGW Administrator, 4 George Street, Cambridge CB4 1AJ
    Organisation:Group Analysis North
    Course:Manchester Course in Group Psychotherapy
    (recognised by the IGA as equivalent to its Introductory General Course in Group Work)
    Duration:1 year, part-time
    Course:Advanced Learning in Group Psychotherapy
    Duration:1 year, part-time
    Course:Diploma in Dynamic Psychotherapy
    Duration3.5 years, part-time
    Contact:Group Analysis North (address above)
    Organisation:The Institute of Group Analysis
    Course:Introductory General Course in Group Work
    Duration:1 year, part-time
    Contact:IGA (address above)
    Organisation:Minster Centre
    Qualification:Diploma in Integrative Group Psychotherapy
    Duration:2 years, part-time
    Contact:Minster Centre, 1 Drakes Court Yard, 291 Kilburn High Road, London NW6 7JR
    Organisation:Westminster Pastoral Foundation
    Qualification:Diploma in Groupwork Skills
    Duration:1 year, part-time
    Contact:WPF (address above)


    Adler, G. (1979) Dynamics of the self. London: Coventure. (Original work published 1951).
    Alford, CF. (1994) Group psychology and political theory. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Alladin, W. (1988) Cognitive-behavioural group therapy. In: M.Aveline and W.Dryden (eds), Group therapy in Britain. Milton Keynes: Open University Press. pp. 115–139.
    American Counseling Association. (1995) Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice. Alexandria, VA: ACA
    Applebaum, P. and Greer, A. (1993) Confidentiality in group therapy. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 44: 311–312.
    ASGW (Association for Specialists in Group Work) (1989) Ethical guidelines for group counselors. Alexandria, VA: ASGW
    ASGW (Association for Specialists in Group Work) (1992) Professional standards for the training of group workers. Alexandria, VA: ASGW.
    ASGW (Association for Specialists in Group Work) (1998) Best Practice Guidelines. Alexandria, VA: ACA.
    AHPP (Association of Humanistic Psychology Practitioners) (1997) Criteria for AHPP full membership in the category of group counsellor. Available from the AHPP, BCMAHPP, LondonWCIN3XX.
    Atkinson, D., Morton, G. and Sue, DW (1989) Counseling American minorities: a cross cultural perspective. Dubuque, IA: William C. Brown.
    Autton, N. (1989) Touch: an exploration. London: Darton, Longman and Todd.
    Aveline, M. (1988) Issues in the training of goup therapists. In: M.Aveline and W.Dryden (eds), Group therapy in Britain. Milton Keynes: Open University Press. pp. 317–336.
    Aveline, M. (1996) The training and supervision of individual therapists. In: WDryden (ed.), Handbook of individual therapy. London: Sage. pp. 365–394.
    Aveline, M. and Dryden, W. (1988) A comparative review of small group therapies. In: M.Aveline and W.Dryden (eds), Group therapy in BritainMilton Keynes: Open University Press, pp. 140–150.
    Bach, G.R. (1954) Intensive group psychotherapy. New York: Ronald Press.
    Bach, G.R. (1966) The marathon group: intensive practice of intimate interaction. Psychological Reports, 18: 995–1002.
    Barrett-Lennard, G. (1979) The client-centered system unfolding. In: EJ.Turner (ed.), Social work treatment: interlocking theoretical approaches (
    2nd edn
    ). New York: Free Press, pp. 171–241.
    Barrett-Lennard, G. (1984) The topography of family relationships: a person-centered systems view. In: A.Segrera (ed), Proceedings of the First International Forum on the Person-Centered Approach. Oaxtepec, Morelos, Mexico: Universidad Iberoamericana
    Barrett-Lennard, G.T. (1990) The therapy pathway reformulated. In: G.Lietaer, J.Rombauts and R.Van Balen (eds), Client-centered and experiential psychotherapy in the nineties. Leuven: Leuven University Press, pp. 123–153.
    Becvar, R.J., Canfield, B.S. and Becvar, D.S. (eds) (1997) Group work: Cybernetic, constructivist and social constructionist perspectives. Denver: Love Publishing.
    Berke, J.H, Masoliver, C. and Ryan, T.J. (1995) Sanctuary: the Arbours Experience of alternative community care. London: Process Press.
    Berke, J.H. (ed.) (1990) The Arbours: Twenty years on [Special Issue]. Therapeutic Communities, 11(4)
    Bernard, H. (1989) Guidelines to minimize premature terminations. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 39(4): 523–529.
    Berne, E. (196l/1975a) Transactional analysis in psychotherapy. London: Souvenir Press.
    Berne, E. (1963) The structure and dynamics of organizations and groups. New York: Grove Press.
    Berne, E. (1964/1968) Games people playHarmondsworth: Penguin.
    Berne, E. (1966) Principles of group treatment. New York: Grove Press.
    Berne, E. (1970/1973) Sex in human loving. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Berne, E. (1972/1975b) What do you say after you say hello?London: Corgi.
    Bindrim, P (1968) A report on a nude marathon. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 5: 180–188.
    Bion, W. (1961) Experience in groups and other papers. London: Tavistock.
    Bloch, S. (1988) Research in group psychotherapy. In: M.Aveline and W.Dryden (eds), Group therapy in Britain. Milton Keynes: Open University Press, pp. 283–316.
    Bloch, S. and Crouch, E. (1985) Therapeutic factors in group psychotherapy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Bloom, B.S., Engelhart, M.D., Furst, E.J., Hill, WD. and Krathwohl, D.R. (1956) Taxonomy of educational objectives. Handbook I: Cognitive domain. London: Longman.
    Bond, T. (1993) Standards and ethics for counselling in action. London: Sage.
    Bowlby, J. (1981) Attachment and loss: Volume 3. loss: sadness and depression. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Boyd, R.D. (1991) Personal transformations in small groups: A Jungian perspective. London: Routledge.
    Bozarth, J.D. (1981) The person-centred approach in the large community group. In: G.Gazda (ed.), Innovations to group psychotherapy (
    2nd edn.
    ). Springfield, IL: Thomas.
    Bozarth, J.D. (1984) Beyond reflection: emergent modes of empathy. In: RELevant and John M.Shlien (eds), Client-centered therapy and the person-centered approach: new directions in theory, research and practice. New York: Praeger.
    BAC; (British Association for Counselling) (1992) Code of ethics and practice for counsellors. Rugby: BAC. (Amended 1993 and 1996)
    BAC; (British Association for Counselling) (1994) Accreditation criteria. LeafletRugby: BAC.
    BAC (British Association for Counselling) (1995) Training in Counselling and Psychotherapy: A Directory (
    12th ed.
    ). Rugby: BAC
    BAC; (British Association for Counselling) (1997) Code of ethics and practice for counsellors. Rugby: BAC
    Brown, A. (1992) Groupwork,
    3rd edn.
    Aldershot: Arena.
    Brown, R. (1988) Group processes: dysfunction within and between groups. Oxford: Blackwell
    Burrow, T. (1927) The social basis of consciousness. London: Kegan Paul.
    Butler, S. and Wintram, C. (1991) Feminist groupwork. London: Sage
    Castel, R., Castel, E and Lovell, A. (1982) The psychiatric society. New York: Columbia University Press
    Central Council for Education and Training in Social Work (1995) Diploma in Social Work: Paper 20,
    rev. edn.
    London: CCETSW
    Christ, J. (1975) Contrasting the charismatic and reflective leader. In: Z.A.Liff (ed.), The leader in the group. New YorkJason Aronson. pp. 104–113
    Clarkson, P (1990) A multiplicity of psychotherapeutic relationships. British Journal of Psychotherapy, 7: 148–163.
    Clarkson, P (1991) Group imago and the stages of group development. Transactional Analysis Journal, 21: 36–50.
    Clarkson, P (1992) Transactional analysis psychotherapy: an integrated approach. London: Routledge
    Clarkson, P (1995a) Change in organisations. London: Whurr.
    Clarkson, P (1995b) The therapeutic relationship. London: Whurr
    Clarkson, P and Fish, S. (1988) Systemic assessment and treatment considerations in TA child psychotherapy. Transactional Analysis Journal, 18. 123–132
    Coche, J. and Coche, E. (1990) Couples group psychotherapy: a clinical practice model. New York: Brunner/Mazel
    Coghlan, D. and McIlduff, E. (1990) Structuring and nondirectiveness in group facilitation. Person-Centered Review, 5: 13–29.
    Cohn, R. (1972) Style and spirit of the theme-based interactional method. In: CJSager and H.S.Kaplan (eds), Progress in group and family therapy. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    Corey, G. (1995) Theory and practice of group counseling,
    4th edn.
    Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole
    Cornell, WE (1997) Touch and boundaries in transactional analysis: ethical and transferential considerations. Transactional Analysis Journal, 27: 30–37.
    Corsini, R. and Rosenberg, B. (1955) Mechanisms of group psychotherapy: Processes and dynamics. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 51: 406–411.
    Cox, M. (1993) The group therapy interaction chronogram. British Journal of Social Work, 3(2): 243–256.
    Craib, I. (1987) The psychodynamics of theory. Free Associations, 10: 32–56.
    de Mare, P (1972) Perspectives in group psychotherapy. London: Allen and Unwin.
    de Mare, P (1975) The politics of large groups. In: L.Kreeger (ed.), The large group: dynamics and therapy. London: Maresfield. pp. 145–158.
    de Mare, P, Piper, R. and Thompson, S. (1991) Koinonia: From hate, through dialogue, to culture in the large group. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    de Marignac, D. (1984) Experimenting the person-centred approach in various groups of my close neighbourhood and aspects of my daily life. In: A.Segrera (ed.), Proceedings of the First International Forum on the Person-Centered Approach. Oaxtepec, Morelos, Mexico: Universidad Iberoamericana.
    Dierick, P and Lietaer, G. (1990) Member and therapist perceptions of therapeutic factors in therapy and growth groups: comments on a category system. In: G.Lietaer, J.Rombauts and R.Van Balen (eds), Client-centered and experiential psychotherapy in the nineties. Leuven: Leuven University Press, pp. 741–770.
    Dies, R.R. (1985) Leadership in short-term group therapy: manipulation or facilitation? Short-term Group Treatment [Special Issue]. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 35: 435–455.
    Douglas, T. (1979) Group processes in social work: a theoretical synthesis. Chichester: John Wiley.
    Douglas, T. (1993) A theory of groupwork practice. London: Macmillan.
    Dryden, W. and Feltham, C. (1994) Developing counsellor training. London: Sage.
    Ebersole, G.O., Leiderman, PH. and Yalom, ID. (1969) Training the nonprofessional group therapist. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders, 149: 385.
    Edelson, M. (1970) Sociotherapy and psychotherapy. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Eissler, K. (1955) The psychiatrist and the dying patient. New York: International Universities Press.
    Embleton Tudor, L. and Tudor, K. (1994) The personal and the political: power, authority and influence in psychotherapy. In: PClarkson and M.Pokorney (eds), The handbook of psychotherapy. London: Routledge. pp. 384–402.
    Embleton Tudor, L. and Tudor, K. (1995) Acting up as acting out: containing anxiety in Social Services. Changes, 13: 241–253.
    Embleton Tudor, L. and Tudor, K. (1997) Sharing life therapy. Presentation at Ten Years On’ International Conference on the Person-Centred Approach, University of Sheffield, September 1997.
    Embleton Tudor, L. and Tudor, K. (in preparation) Témenos: the creation of psychotherapeutic space.
    English, F. (1975) The three-cornered contract. Transactional Analysis Journal, 5: 383–384.
    Erikson, E. (1968) Identity, youth and crisis. New York: W.W. Norton.
    Ernst, F.H. (1971) The OK corral: the grid for get-on-with. Transactional Analysis Journal, 1(4): 33–42.
    Erwin, E. (1997) Philosophy and psychotherapy. London: Sage
    Feder, B. and Ronall, R. (1994) Beyond the hot seat: Gestalt approaches to group. Highland, NY: The Gestalt Journal Press
    Feltham, C. (1997a) Challenging the core theoretical model. Counselling, 8(2): 121–125.
    Feltham, C. (1997b) Time-limited counselling. London: Sage
    Fiumara, R. (ed.) (1989) Jungian analysts and group analysis [Special Issue]. Group Analysis, 22(2).
    Fleming, P. (1998). Seven levels of listening. In Contribution training manual. Available from Pellin Institute, 15 Killyon Road, London SW8 2XS.
    Foulkes, S.H. (1964) Therapeutic group analysis. London: George Allen and Unwin.
    Foulkes, S.H. (Speaker) (1972) Group-analytic psychotherapy [Cassette recording]. Fort Lee, NJ: Sigma Information.
    Foulkes, S.H. (1975) Problems of the large group from a group-analytic point of view. In: L.Kreeger (ed), The large group: dynamics and therapy. London: Maresfield. pp. 33–56
    Foulkes, S.H. (1983) Introduction to group-analytic psychotherapy. London: Marsefield. (Original work published 1948)
    Freire, P. (1972) Pedagogy of the oppressed. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Freire, P. (1974) Education: the practice of freedom. London: Readers and Writers
    Freud, S. (1913/1958) On beginning the treatment. In: J.Strachey (ed. and trans), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud;Volume 12. London: Hogarth Press, pp. 123–144.
    Freud, S. (1921/1985a) Group psychology and the analysis of the ego. In: A.Dickson (ed), Civilization, society and groups (J.Strachey, trans.). Harmondsworth: Penguin, pp. 93–178
    Freud, S. (1930/1985b) Civilization and its discontents. In: A.Dickson (ed), Civilization, society and groups (J.Strachey, trans). Harmondsworth: Penguin, pp. 243–340.
    Furedi, F (1997) Culture of fear: risk-taking and the morality of low expectation. London: Cassell
    Gans, J.S. (1989) Hostility in group psychotherapy, international Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 39(4): 499–516.
    Gelso, CJ. and Carter, J.A. (1985) The relationship in counseling and psychotherapy: components, consequences and theoretical antecedents. The Counseling Psychologist, 13(2): 155–243.
    Gelso, CJ. and Carter, J.A. (1994) Components of the psychotherapy relationship: their interaction and unfolding during treatment. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 41(3): 296–306.
    Gendlin, ET. and Beebe, J. (1968) Experiential groups. In: G.M.Gazda (ed.), Innovations to group psychotherapy. Springfield, IL: Thomas, pp. 190–206.
    Giesekus, U. and Mente, A. (1986) Client empathic understanding in client-centered therapy. Person-Centered Review, 1: 163–171.
    Ginott, H.G. (1961) Group psychotherapy with children. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.
    Glassman, U. and Kates, L. (1990) Group Work: a humanistic approach. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Gordon, R. (1978) Dying and creating: a search for meaning. London: The Society of Analytic Psychology.
    Gottlieb, S. (1989) The pregnant psychotherapist: a potent transference stimulus. British Journal of Psychotherapy, 5: 287–299.
    Gottschalk, L.A. (1966) Psychoanalytic notes on T-groups at the Human Relations Laboratory, Bethel, Maine. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 7: 472–487.
    Harris, J.B. (1996) The power of silence in groups. British Gestalt Journal. 5(1): 24–30.
    Hawkins, P. and Shohet, R. (1989) Supervision in the helping professions. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Helms, JE. (1984)Towards a theoretical model of the effects of race on counseling: a black and white model. The Counseling Psychologist, 12: 153–165.
    Henry, M. (1988) Revisiting open groups. Groupwork, 3: 215–228.
    Herman, J. and Schatzow, E. (1984) Time-limited group therapy for women with a history of incest. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 34(4): 605–616.
    Hillery, G.A. (1955) Definitions of community: areas of agreement. Rural Sociology, 20: 111–123.
    Hillman, J. (1993) Loving the community and work. In: R.Bly, J.Hillman and M.Meade (eds), The rag and bone shop of the heart. New York: HarperCollins pp. 229–232.
    Hillman, J. and Ventura, M. (1992) We've had a hundred years of psychotherapy and the world's getting worseSan Francisco, CA: Harper
    Hinshelwood, R.D. (1987) What happens in groups: psychoanalysis, the individual and the community. London: Free Association Books.
    Hobbs, N. (1951) Group-centered leadership and administration. In: C.R.Rogers, Client-centered therapy. London: Constable.
    Holland, S. (1990) Psychotherapy, oppression and social action: gender, race and class in black women's depression. In: R.Perelberg and A.Miller (eds), Gender and power in families. London: Routledge. pp. 256–269.
    Holloway, E. (1995) Clinical supervision: A systems approach. London: Sage.
    Holloway, W.H. (1974) Beyond permission. Transactional Analysis Journal, 4: 15–17.
    Hopper, E. and Weyman, A. (1975) A sociological view of large groups. In: L.Kreeger (ed.), The large group: dynamics and therapy. London: Maresfield. pp. 159–189.
    House, R. and Totton, N. (1997) Implausible professions: arguments for pluralism and autonomy in psychotherapy and counselling. Ross-on-Wye: PCCS.
    Houston, G. (1982) The red book of gestalt. London: Rochester Foundation.
    Houston, G. (1990) The red book of groups,
    3rd edn.
    London: Rochester Foundation.
    Hunter, M. and Struve, J. (1997) The ethical use of touch in psychotherapy. London: Sage.
    Hyde, K (1988) Analytic group psychotherapies. In: M.Aveline and W.Dryden (eds), Group therapy in Britain. Milton Keynes: Open University Press, pp. 14–42.
    Igwe, A. (1997/8) An exploration of the impact of multi cultural issues on the supervision process. RACE Journal, No. 15, 30–32.
    Ivey, A.E., Ivey, MB. and Simek-Morgan, L. (1993) Counseling and psychotherapy,
    3rd edn.
    London: Allyn and Bacon
    Jacobs, A. (1987) Autocratic power. Transactional Analysis Journal, 17: 59–71.
    James, M. (1971) Breaking Free. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley
    Jenkins, F (1997) Counselling, psychotherapy and the law. London: Sage.
    Jung, C.G. (1931/1968) Commentary on “The secret of the golden flower” In: H.Read, M.Fordham and G.Adler (eds) and RFC.Hull (trans), The collected works of C.G. Jung: Volume 13London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. pp. 1–56.
    Kaplan, S.R. and Roman, M. (1961) Characteristic responses in adult therapy groups to the introduction of new members: a reflection on group process. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 11(4): 374–381
    Kennard, D. (1988) The therapeutic community. In: M.Aveline and W.Dryden (eds), Group therapy in Britain. Milton Keynes: Open University Press, pp. 153–184.
    Kingdom, R. (1992) No such thing as society? Individualism and community. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Klass, D., Silverman, P and Nickman, S. (eds) (1996) Continuing bonds: new understandings of grief. Washington, DC: Taylor and Francis.
    Klein, D.C. (1968) Community dynamics and mental health. New York: Wiley
    Klein, R.H. (1985) Some principles of short-term group therapy. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 35: 309–329
    Kopp, S. (1974) If you meet the Buddha on the road, kill him!London: Sheldon Press.
    Knowles, J. (1995) How I assess for group psychotherapy. In: C.Mace (ed.), The art and science of assessment in psychotherapy. London: Routledge.
    Kreeger, L. (ed.) (1975) The large group: dynamics and therapy. London: Mares-field.
    Krueger, D. (1986) The last taboo. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    Kübler-Ross, E. (1973) On death and dying. London: Tavistock.
    Lacoursiere, R. (1980) Life cycle of groups. New York: Human Sciences Press.
    Lago, C. (1996) Computer therapeutics. Counselling, 7(4): 287–289
    Lago, C. and Macmillan, M. (1999) Experience in relatedness: Group work and the person-centred approach. Llangarron: PCCS Books
    Lambert, MJ. (1985) Implications of psychotherapy outcome research for eclectic psychotherapy. In: T.C.Norcross (ed), Handbook of eclectic psychotherapy. New York: Brunner/Mazel. pp. 436–462.
    Lazarus, A.A. (1968) Behavior therapy in groups. In G.H.Gazda (ed), Basic approaches to group psychotherapy and group counseling. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
    Le Bon, G. (1896/1920) The crowd: a study of the popular mind (B.Niall, trans.) London: Fisher Unwin.
    Leopold, H.S. (1961) The new member in the group: some specific aspects of the literature. International Journal of Croup Psychotherapy, 11(4): 367–371
    Le Vine, R.A. (1990) Infant environments in psychoanalysis: a cross-cultural view In: J.W.Stigler, R.A.Shweder and G.Herdt (eds), Cultural psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 454–476.
    Levitan, A. (1998) Arabic-Jewish relationships in Israel: observed in the person-centered approach to counseling and supervision. Paper presented at the Person Centred Approach Forum, Johannesburg, July 1998
    Lewin, K. (1952) Field theory in social science. London: Tavistock
    Liddell, KG. and Scott, R. (1901) A Greek-English lexicon,
    8th edn
    Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Lieberman, M, Yalom, I. and Miles, M. (1973) Encounter groups: first facts. New York: Basic Books
    Lietaer, G and Dierick, P. (1996) Client-centered group psychotherapy in dialogue with other orientations: commonality and specificity. In: R.Hutterer, G.Pawlowsky, PE.Schmid and R.Stipsits (eds), Client-centered and experiential psychotherapy. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. pp. 563–583.
    Liff, Z.A. (ed.) (1975) The leader in the group. New York: Jason Aronson.
    Lindemann, E. (1944) Symptomatology and management of acute grief. American Journal of Psychiatry, 101: 141–149
    Lukas, E. (1989) From self-actualization to global responsibility. Paper presented at the Seventh World Congress of Logotherapy, Kansas City, KS, June 1989
    Lynch, G. (1997) Words and silence: counselling after Wittgenstein. Counselling, 8(2): 126–128.
    MacKenzie, K.R. (1996) Time-limited group psychotherapyInternational Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 46(1): 41–60.
    MacKenzie, K.R. and Livesley, W.J. (1983) A developmental model for brief group therapy. In: R.R.Dies and K.R.MacKenzie (eds), Advances in group psychotherapy. New York: International Universities Press, pp. 107–116.
    Mackewn, J. (1997) Developing gestalt counselling. London: Sage.
    Macmillan, M. and Lago, C. (1993) Large groups: critical reflections and some concerns. The Person-Centred Approach and Cross-Cultural Communication: An International Review, 2: 35–53
    Macmillan, M. and Lago, C. (1996) The facilitation of large groups: experiences of facultative moments. In: R.Hutterer, GPawlowsky, P.FSchmid and R.Stipsits (eds), Client-centered and experiential psychotherapy. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. pp. 599–609.
    Main, T. (1946) The hospital as a therapeutic institution. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 10: 66–70.
    Manor, O. (1994) Group psychotherapy. In: RClarkson and M.Pokorney (eds), The handbook of psychotherapy. London: Routledge. pp. 249–264.
    Marcovitz, R.J. and Smith, JE. (1983) Patients’ perceptions of curative factors in short-term psychotherapy. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 33(1): 21–39.
    Marrone, R.L., Merksamer, M.A. and Salzberg, P.M. (1970) A short duration group treatment of smoking behavior by stimulus saturation. Behavior Research and Therapy, 8: 347–352.
    Marx, K. (1932/1975) Economic and philosophical manuscripts. In L.Colletti (ed.), Karl Marx. Early writings (G.Benton, trans.). Harmondsworth: Penguin. pp. 279–400.
    Marx, K. and Engels, F. (1846/1970) The German ideology (C.Arthur, ed.). London: Lawrence and Wishart.
    Maslow, AH. (1962) Towards a psychology of being. New York: Van Nostrand.
    Masson, J. (1989) Against therapy. London: Collins.
    McDougall, W. (1920) The group mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    McGraw, W. (Producer and Director) (1973) The steel shutter [Film]La Jolla, CA: Center for the Studies of the Person.
    Mearns, D. (1994) Developing person-centred counselling. London: Sage.
    Mearns, D. (1997) Person-centred counselling training. London: Sage.
    Mente, A. (1990) Improving Rogers’ theory: toward a more completely client-centered psychotherapy. In: G.Lietaer, J.Rombauts and RVan Balen (eds), Client-centered and experiential psychotherapy in the nineties. Leuven: Leuven University Press, pp. 771–778.
    Menzies Lyth, I.E.P. (1959/1988) The functioning of social systems as a defence against anxiety: a report on the nursing service of a general hospital. In: Containing anxiety in institutions. London: Free Associations Books, pp. 43–85.
    Merry, T. (1995) Invitation to person centred psychology. London: Whurr.
    Merry, U. and Brown, G.I. (1987) The neurotic behaviour of organizations. New York: Gardner Press.
    Midgley, D. (1994) Character disorder: the flipside of neurosis. A practitioner's guide to diagnosis and treatment. Middlesborough: New Directions.
    Miller, A. (1988/1990) Banished knowledge: facing childhood injuries (L.Vennewitz, trans.). London: Virago.
    Mindell, A. (1992) The leader as martial artist. New York: HarperCollins.
    Mindell, A. (1995) Sitting in the fire. Portland, OR: Lao Tse Press.
    Moreno, J.L. (1958) Fundamental rules and techniques of psychodrama. In: J.HMasserman and J.L.Moreno (eds), Techniques of psychotherapy. New York: Grune and Stratton.
    Moreno, J.L. (1946/1964) Psychodrama: Volume 1,
    rev. edn.
    Beacon, NY: Beacon House.
    Mosse, J. (1994) Introduction: the institutional roots of consulting to institutions. In: A.Obholzer and V.Z.Roberts (eds), The unconscious at work: individual and organizational stress in the human services. London: Routledge. pp. 1–8.
    Mowbray, R. (1995) The case against psychotherapy registration: a conservation issue for the human potential movement. London: Trans Marginal Press.
    Murphy, M. and de Smith, J. (1997) On the death of a client. Counselling, 8(3): 176–177.
    Nitsun, M. (1996) The anti-group: destructive forces in the group and their creative potential. London: Routledge.
    Nobles, W.W. (1973) Psychological research and the black self-concept: a critical review. Journal of Social Issues, 29: 11–31.
    Novellino, M. (1985) Antileadership in TA groups. Transactional Analysis Journal, 15(2): 64–167.
    O'Hara, M. (1989) Person-centered approach as conscientizaçao: The works of Carl Rogers and Paulo Freiré. Journal Of Humanistic Psychology, 29(1): 11–36
    Older, J. (1982) Touching is healing. New York: Stein and Day
    O'Sullivan, G. (1996) Behaviour therapy. In: W.Dryden (ed.), Handbook of individual therapy. London: Sage. pp. 282–303
    Parkes, CM. (1972) Bereavement: studies of grief in adult life. New York: International Universities Press.
    Patterson, JE. (1973) Effects of touch on self-exploration and the therapeutic relationshipJournal of Counselling and Clinical Psychology, 40: 170–175
    Pavlov, IP (1941) Conditioned reflexes and psychiatry (W.H.Gantt, trans). New York: International Universities Press.
    Peck, S. (1987) A different drum. London: Rider and Co.
    Perls, ES., Hefferline, R.E and Goodman, P (1973) Gestalt therapy. Harmondsworth: Penguin. (Original work published 1951)
    Perls, E (1967) Group vs. individual therapy. Etc. Review of General Semantics, 24: 306–312.
    Pines, M. (ed.) (1983) The evolution of group analysis. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Piper, WE. and Klein, R.H. (eds) (1996) Termination in Group Therapy [Special Issue]. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 46(1).
    Price, J. (1988) Single-sex therapy groups. In: M.Aveline and W.Dryden (eds), Group therapy in Britain. Milton Keynes: Open University Press, pp. 254–280.
    Rapoport, R.N. (1960) Community as doctor. London: Tavistock.
    Rawson, D., Buddendiek, H. and Haigh, R. (1994) Trident Housing Association Therapeutic (THAT) Community. Community study: Basic principles and values. Therapeutic Communities, 15(3): 193–207
    Reich, W. (1933/1975) The mass psychology of fascism (V.R.Carfagno, trans),
    3rd edn.
    Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Rice, A.K. (1965) Learning for leadership. London: Tavistock.
    Rice, CA. (1996) Premature termination of group therapy: a clinical perspective. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 46(1): 5–23
    Rigby, A. (1974) Communes in Britain. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul
    Rigney, M. (1981) A critique of Maslow's self-actualization theory: the highest good’ for the aboriginal is relationship. Videotape. Aboriginal Open College, Adelaide, Australia.
    Roback, H.B., Moore, R.E, Bloch, ES. and Shelton, M. (1996) Confidentiality in group psychotherapy: empirical findings and the law. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 46(1): 117–135.
    RobertsJ.P (1982) Foulkes’ concept of the matrix. Group Analysis, 15: 111–126
    Robinson, J. (1998) Reparenting in a therapeutic communityTransactional Analysis Journal, 28(1): 88–94.
    Rogers, C.R. (1951) Client-centered therapy. London: Constable.
    Rogers, C.R. (1957) The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality changeJournal of Consulting Psychology, 21: 95–103
    Rogers, C.R. (1958/1990b) The characteristics of a helping relationship. In: HKirschenbaum and VL.Henderson (eds), The Carl Rogers readerLondon: Constable, pp. 108–126.
    Rogers, C.R. (1959) A theory of therapy, personality, and interpersonal relationships, as developed in the client-centered framework. In: S.Koch (ed.), Psychology: a Study of a Science: Volume J. Formulations of the person and the social context. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 184–256
    Rogers, C.R. (1961) On becoming a person. London: Constable
    Rogers, C.R. (1967) The process of the basic encounter group. In: JET.Bugenthal (ed.), Challenges of humanistic psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 261–278.
    Rogers, C.R. (1970/1973) Encounter groups. Harmondsworth: Penguin
    Rogers, C.R. (1973/1990a) Some challenges to the helping professions. In H.Kirschenbaum and VL.Henderson (eds), The Carl Rogers reader. London: Constable, pp. 357–375.
    Rogers, C.R. (1975) In retrospect: Forty six years. In: R.I.Evans (ed.), Carl Rogers: The man and his ideas. New York: E.P. Dutton. pp. 121–146.
    Rogers, C.R. (1978) Carl Rogers on personal power: inner strength and its revolutionary impact. London: Constable.
    Rogers, C.R. (1983) Freedom to learn for the 80s. New York: Macmillan.
    Rogers, C.R. and Sandford, R. (1980) Client-centred psychotherapy. In: H.Kaplan, B.Sadock and A.Freeman (eds), Comprehensive textbook of psychiatryVol. 3Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins.
    Rogers, C.R. (1986) Rogers, Kohut and Erickson: a personal perspective on some similarities and differences. Person-Centered Review, 1: 125–140.
    Røine, E. (1997) Group psychotherapy as experimental theatre. London: Jessica Kingsley
    Roller, B. and Nelson, V (1991) The art of co-therapy: how therapists work together. London: Guildford Press.
    Rosenfield, M. and Smillie, E. (1998) Group counselling by telephone. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 26(1): 11–20.
    Rowan, J. (1976) The power of the group. London: Davis-Poynter.
    Russell, J. (1993) Out of bounds: Sexual exploitation in counselling and therapyLondon: Sage.
    Samuels, A. (1993) The political psyche. London: Routledge.
    Satir, V (1982) The therapist and family therapy: Process model. In: A.Home and M.Ohlsen (eds), Family counseling and therapy. Itasca, IL: F.E. Peacock. pp. 12–42.
    Schiff, AW, Mellor, K., Schiff, E., Schiff, S., Richman, D., Fishman, J., Wolz, L., Fishman, C. and Momb, D. (1975) Cathexis reader: transactional analysis treatment of psychosisNew York: Harper and Row.
    Schilder, R (1936) The analysis of ideologies as a psychotherapeutic method, especially in group treatment. American Journal of Psychiatry, 93: 601–617.
    Schilder, R (1939) Results and problems of group psychotherapy in severe neurosis. Mental Hygiene, 23: 97.
    Schmid, RF. (1996) ‘Probably the most potent social invention of the century’: person-centered therapy is fundamentally group therapy. In R.Hutterer, G.Pawlowsky, P.F.Schmid and R.Stipsits (eds), Client-centered and experiential psychotherapy. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. pp. 611–625.
    Schutz, W. (1973) Elements of encounter. Big Sur, CA: Joy Press.
    Scott, M.J. and Stradling, S.G (1998) Brief group counselling. Chichester. Wiley.
    Shaffer, J.B.P and Galinsky, M.D. (1974) Models of group theory and sensitivity training. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Shellow, R.S., Ward, J.L. and Rubenfeld, S. (1958) Group therapy and the institutional delinquent. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 8: 256–275
    Shohet, R. (1997) Reflections on fear and love in accreditation. In R.House and N.Totton (eds), Implausible professions: arguments for pluralism and autonomy in psychotherapy and counselling. Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books, pp. 45–50.
    Shorter Oxford English dictionary,
    3rd edn
    (1973) Oxford: Clarendon Press
    Shweder, R.A. (1990) Cultural psychology – what is it? In: J.W.Stigler, R.A.Shweder and G.Herdt (eds), Cultural psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1–43.
    Sills, C. (1997a) Contracts and contract making. In: C.Sills (ed.), Contracts in counselling. London: Sage. pp. 11–35
    Sills, C. (ed.) (1997b) Contracts in counselling. London: Sage.
    Singh, J. and Tudor, K. (1997) Cultural conditions of therapy. The Person-Centered Journal, 4(3): 32–46.
    Skinner, BE (1938) The behavior of organisms. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
    Southwell, C. (1990) Touch and the psychotherapeutic relationship. Paper presented at the Conference of the Institute of Chiron Psychotherapy Centre, London, July 1990.
    Speierer, G.W. (1990) Toward a specific illness concept of client-centered therapy. In G.Lietaer, J.Rombauts and RVan Balen (eds), Client-centered and experiential psychotherapy in the nineties. Leuven: Leuven University Press, pp. 337–360.
    Spotnitz, H. (1961) The couch and the circle. New York: Knopf.
    Stafford, W. (1977) Stories that could be true.
    Stamatiadis, R. (1990) Sharing life therapy: a personal and extended way of being with clients. Person-Centered Review, 5(3): 287–307.
    Stein, T.S. (1982) Mens groups. In: K.L.Solomon and N.B.Levy (eds), Men in transition: Theory and therapy. New York: Plenum pp 275–307
    Stein, M. and Hollwitz, J. (1992) Psyche at work: workplace applications of Jungian analytic psychology. Wilmette, IL: Chiron.
    Steiner, C. (1971) Games alcoholics play. New York: Grove Press
    Steiner, C. (1987) The seven sources of power: An alternative to authorityTransactional Analysis Journal. 17: 102–104
    Stewart, I. (1996) Developing transactional analysis counselling. London: Sage
    Stockwell, D (1984) An attempt at an on-going, person-centred community. In: A.Segrera (ed). Proceedings of the First International Forum on the Person-Centered Approach. Oaxtepec, Morelos, Mexico: Universidad Iberoamericana
    Stoller, F.H. (1972) Marathon groups: toward a conceptual model. In: L.N.Soloman and B.Berzon (eds), New perspectives on encounter groups. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Stoltenberg, CD. and Delworth, U. (1987) Supervising counselors and therapists. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Sturdevant, K. (1995) Classical Greek ‘koinonia’, the psychoanalytic median group, and the large person-centred community group: Dialogue in three democratic contexts. The Person-Centred Journal, 2(2): 64–71.
    Syme, G. (1994) Counselling in independent practice. Milton Keynes: Open University.
    Thomas, L.K. (1997) Reworking stereotypes for self identity in a black men's psychotherapy group. RACE Journal, No. 13, 23–25.
    Thorne, B. (1995) The accountable therapist: Standards, experts and poisoning the well. Self& Society, 23(4): 31–38.
    Traynor, B. and Clarkson, P (1992) What happens when a psychotherapist dies?Counselling, 3(1): 23–24.
    Tuckman, B.W. (1965) Developmental sequence in small groups. Psychological Bulletin, 63: 384–399.
    Tuckman, B.W. and jenson, K. (1977) Stages of small-group development revisited. Group and Organization Studies, 2(4): 419–427.
    Tudor, K. (1995) What do you say about saying goodbye? Ending psychotherapy. Transactional Analysis Journal, 25(3): 228–233.
    Tudor, K. (1996a) Mental health promotion at work. In: DR.Trent and CA.Reed (eds), Promotion of mental health: Volume 5. Aldershot: Avebury. pp. 115–143.
    Tudor, K. (1996b) Mental health promotion: paradigms and practice. London: Routledge.
    Tudor, K. (1996c) Transactional analysis intragration: a metatheoretical analysis for practice. Transactional Analysis Journal, 26: 329–340
    Tudor, K. (1997a) A complexity of contracts. In: C.Sills (ed.), Contracts in counselling. London: Sage. pp. 157–172.
    Tudor, K. (1997b) Being at disease with ourselves: alienation and psychotherapyChanges, 22(2): 143–150.;2-3
    Tudor, K. (1997c) Counselling and psychotherapy: an issue of orientation. ITA News, No. 47, 40–42.
    Tudor, K. (1997d) Social contracts: contracting for social change. In: CSills (ed.), Contracts in counselling. London: Sage. pp. 207–215.
    Tudor, K. (ed.) (1997e) The person-centred approach and the political sphere [Special Issue], Person-Centred Practice, 5(2).
    Tudor, K. (1998a) Men in therapy: opportunity and change. In: J.Wild (ed.), Working with men for change. London: UCL Press, pp. 73–97.
    Tudor, K. (1999a) Change, time, place and community: an integral approach to counselling. In: PLapworth, C.Sills and S.Fish (eds), Integrative counselling.
    Tudor, K. (1999b) I'm OK, You're OK – and They're OK: therapeutic relationships in transactional analysis. In: C.Feltham (ed.), The counselling relationship. London: Sage.
    Tudor, K. (1998b) Value for money? Issues of fees in counselling and psychotherapy. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 26(4): 477–493.
    United Kingdom Council for Psychotherapy (1996) Ethical guidelines. In: National register of psychotherapists 1996–97. London: Routledge.
    Vanwynsberghe, J. (1998) Therapy with alcoholic clients: guidelines for good contracts. Transactional Analysis Journal, 28(2): 127–131
    Wasdell, D. (1997) T-groups: the Tavistock Leicester experience. Self & Society., 25(2), 17–22.
    Watson, J.B. and Rayner, R. (1920) Conditioned emotional reactionsJournal of Experimental Psychology, 3: 1–14
    Wender, L. (1936) Dynamics of group psychotherapy and its applicationJournal of Nervous Mental Diseases, 84: 54–60
    Whitaker, C.A. and Malone, T.P (1953) The roots of psychotherapy. New York: Blakiston.
    Whitaker, D.S. (1985) Using groups to help people. London: Routledge.
    Whiteley, J.S. (1975) The large group as a medium for sociotherapy. In: L.Kreeger (ed.), The large group: dynamics and therapy. London: Maresfield. pp. 193–211.
    Whitman, R.M. and Stock, D. (1958) The group focal conflict. Psychiatry: Journal for the Study of Interpersonal Processes, 21: 269–276.
    Whitney, N.J. (1982) A critique of individual autonomy as the key to personhood. Transactional Analysis Journal, 12: 210–212.
    Wibberley, M. (1988) Encounter. In: J.Rowan and W.Dryden (eds), Innovative therapy in Britain. Milton Keynes: Open University Press, pp. 61–84.
    Wolf, A. (1949) The psychoanalysis of groups. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 3: 525–558.
    Wolf, A. (1975) The loving leader. In: Z.A.Liff (ed.), The leader in the group. New York: Jason Aronson. pp. 72–78.
    Wolf, A. and Swartz, E.K. (1975a) The responsible leader. In: Z.A.Liff (ed.), The leader in the group. New York: Jason Aronson. p 66.
    Wolf, A. and Swartz, E.K. (1962) Psychoanalysis in groups. New York: Grune and Stratton.
    Wolf, A. and Swartz, E.K. (1975b) The role of the leader's values. In: ZA.Liff, (ed), The leader in the group. New York: Jason Aronson. pp. 13–30.
    Wolpe, J. and Lazarus, A.A. (1966) Behavior therapy techniques. New York: John Wiley.
    Wood, J.K. (1982) Person-centered group therapy. In: G.Gazda (ed.), Basic approaches to group psychotherapy and group counseling. Springfield, IL: Charles Thomas.
    Wood, J.K. (1984) Communities for learning: A person-centred approach. In: RELevant and John M.Shlien (eds), Client-centered therapy and the person-centered approach: new directions in theory, research and practice. New York: Praeger
    Wood, J.K. (1995a) Communities for learning: Observations on the person-centred approach to large group workshops. Privately circulated manuscript
    Wood, J.K. (1995b) The person-centered approach to small groups: More than psychotherapy. Privately circulated manuscript.
    Wood, J.K. (1999) Towards an understanding of large group dialogue and its implications. In: C.Lago and M.Macmillan (eds), Experience in relatedness: Group work and the person-centred approach. Llangarron: PCCS Books, pp. 137–166.
    Woodmansey, A.C. (1988) Are psychotherapists out of touch?British Journal of Psychotherapy, 5(1): 57–65.
    Woollams, S. and Brown, M. (1978) Transactional analysis. Dexter, MI: Huron Valley Institute Press.
    Worden, J.W. (1982/1983) Grief counselling and grief therapy: a handbook for the mental health practitioner. London: Tavistock.
    Wruck, K.H. and Eastley, ME (1997) Landmark Education Coorporation: selling a paradigm shift. Harvard Business School. (Ms. No. 9-898-081)
    Yablonsky, L. (1965) The tunnel back: synanon. New York: Macmillan.
    Yalom, ID. (1970) The theory and practice of group psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books.
    Yalom, I.D. (1985) The theory and practice of group psychotherapy,
    3rd edn.
    New York: Basic Books.
    Yalom, I.D. (1995) The theory and practice of group psychotherapy,
    4th edn.
    New York: Basic Books.
    Yalom, I.D., Tinklenberg, J. and Gilula, M. (1968) Curative factors in group therapy. Unpublished study.
    Zimmerman, J.M. and Coyle, V. (1996) The way of council. Las Vegas, NV: Bramble Books.

    Author Index

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website