Grantsmanship for Criminal Justice and Criminology

Books

Mark S. Davis

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  • Books Under the General Editorship of DANIEL CURRAN

    CRIME AS STRUCTURED ACTION

    by James W. Messerschmidt

    EMERGING CRIMINAL JUSTICE

    Three Pillars for a Proactive Justice System

    by Paul H. Hahn

    CRIME CONTROL AND WOMEN

    Implications of Criminal Justice Policy

    edited by Susan L. Miller

    HOW TO RECOGNIZE GOOD POLICING

    Problems and Issues

    edited by Jean-Paul Brodeur

    CRIME AND IMMIGRANT YOUTH

    by Tony Waters

    GRANTSMANSHIP FOR CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND CRIMINOLOGY

    by Mark S. Davis

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Dedication

    I would like to dedicate this book to the thousands of law enforcement officers, court administrators, victim advocates, domestic violence shelter workers, researchers, professors, and others whose careers either directly or indirectly involve the prevention and control of crime and delinquency, who, in addition to their demanding duties, find the time to write grant applications and proposals.

    Acknowledgments

    There are a number of people to whom I am indirectly indebted. Some of my former and current colleagues at the Ohio Office of Criminal Justice Services have taught me more about grants and grantsmanship than they realize. Especially deserving of thanks are Paul Bronsdon, Melissa Dunn, Jack Harmeyer, Phyllis Hester, Tracy Mahoney, Tom Mallory, D. Jeanne Roberts, and Bob Swisher. Through countless hours of team review, these women and men inculcated in me an appreciation of what constitutes an application worthy of funding. I hope that the many grantees of the Office of Criminal Justice Services appreciate the numerous contributions those people make.

    In addition, I acknowledge the hundreds of police officers, sheriff's deputies, victim advocates, judges, court administrators, probation officers, alcohol and drug counselors, and other professionals who enrolled in my grantsmanship courses at the then Cincinnati Private Police Academy, the Criminal Justice Technology and Education Center in Toledo, and the Ohio Peace Officer Training Academy in London, Ohio. In testing these materials with challenging students, I was able to see the need for such a book and eventually to refine the ideas into a manuscript. All these students were eager and attentive, and I hope that they went on to win the grants they needed.

    I also would like to thank Terry Hendrix of Sage for his seeing the merits of this book and championing my cause. I will very much miss his enthusiastic support of new ideas. I also greatly appreciate the efforts of Terry's successor, Kassie Gavrilis, who saw the book through to publication. A special thanks is due to Alison Binder, who patiently guided me through the copyediting process.

  • Appendix A: Statistical Analysis Centers

    SACs, as discussed earlier in this book, are rich sources of statewide criminal justice data. They also conduct various studies that may be relevant to the grant seeker's problem. Because the centers receive federal support, they are accustomed to fielding requests for information.

    Alabama

    Statistical Analysis Center

    Alabama Criminal Justice

    Information Center

    770 Washington Avenue, Suite 350

    Montgomery, AL 36130

    Phone: (334) 242-4900

    Fax: (334) 242-0577

    Alaska

    Statistical Analysis Center

    Justice Center

    University of Alaska, Anchorage

    3211 Providence Drive

    Anchorage, AK 99508

    Phone:(907)786-1810

    Fax: (907) 786-7777

    WWW: http://www.uaa.alaska.edu/just/

    Arizona

    Statistical Analysis Center

    Arizona Criminal Justice Commission

    1501 West Washington, Suite 207

    Phoenix, AZ 85007

    Phone: (602) 542-1928

    Fax: (602) 542-4852

    Arkansas

    Arkansas Crime Information Center

    One Capitol Mall

    Little Rock, AR 72201

    Phone: (501) 682-2222

    Fax: (501) 682-7444

    WWW: http://www.acic.org

    California

    Statistical Analysis Center

    California Department of Justice

    P.O. Box 903427

    Sacramento, CA 94203

    Phone:(916)227-3282

    Fax:(916)227-0427

    WWW: http://caag.state.ca.us

    Colorado

    Office of Research and Statistics

    Colorado Division of Criminal Justice

    700 Kipling Street, Suite 3000

    Denver, CO 80403

    Phone: (303) 239-4453

    Fax: (303) 239-4491

    WWW: http://www.state.co.us/gov_dir/cdps/dcj/dcj.htm

    Connecticut

    Office of Policy and Development

    Policy Development and

    Planning Division

    450 Capitol Avenue, Mail Stop 52-CPD

    P.O. Box 341441

    Hartford, CT 06134

    Phone:(860)418-6376

    Fax:(860)418-6496

    WWW: http://www.state.ct.us/opm/pdpd/justice/sac.htm

    Delaware

    Delaware Statistical Analysis Center

    60 The Plaza

    Dover, DE 19901

    Phone: (302) 739-4626

    Fax: (302) 739-4630

    District of Columbia

    Office of Grants Management and Development

    717 14th Street, NW, Suite 400

    Washington, DC 20005

    Phone: (202) 727-6537

    Fax:(202)727-1617

    Florida

    Statistical Analysis Center

    Florida Department of Law Enforcement

    2331 Phillips Road

    Tallahassee, FL 32308

    Phone: (904) 487-4808

    Fax:(904)487-4812

    WWW: http://www.fdle.state.fl.us/FSAC

    Georgia

    Statistical Analysis Center

    Georgia Criminal Justice

    Coordinating Council

    503 Oak Place, Suite 540

    Atlanta, GA 30349

    Phone: (404) 559-4949

    Fax: (404) 559-4960

    Hawaii

    Research and Statistics

    Department of the Attorney General

    Crime Prevention and

    Justice Assistance Division

    425 Queen Street

    Honolulu, HI 96813

    Phone: (808) 586-1420

    Fax: (808) 586-1373

    WWW: http://www.cpja.ag.state.hi.us

    Idaho

    Statistical Analysis Center

    Idaho Department of Law Enforcement

    P.O. Box 700

    Meridian, ID 83630

    Phone: (208) 884-7044

    Fax: (208) 884-7094

    Illinois

    Illinois Criminal Justice

    Information Authority

    120 South Riverside Plaza, Suite 1016

    Chicago, IL 60606

    Phone: (312) 793-8550

    Fax: (312) 793-8422

    WWW: http://www.icjia.org

    Indiana

    Statistical Analysis Center

    Indiana Criminal Justice Institute

    302 West Washington Street,

    Room E-209

    Indianapolis, IN 46204

    Phone: (317) 232-7611

    Fax: (317) 232-4979

    Iowa

    Statistical Analysis Center

    Criminal and Juvenile Justice Planning

    Lucas State Office Building

    Des Moines, IA 50319

    Phone: (515) 242-5816

    Fax: (515) 242-6119

    Kansas

    Criminal Justice Coordinating Council

    Kansas Sentencing Commission

    700 Southwest Jackson, Suite 501

    Topeka, KS 66603

    Phone: (913) 296-0923

    Fax: (913) 296-0927

    Kentucky

    Statistical Analysis Center

    Office of the Attorney General

    700 Capitol Avenue, Suite 116

    Frankfort, KY 40602-3449

    Phone: (502) 696-5300

    Fax: (502) 564-8310

    Louisiana

    Statistical Analysis Center

    Louisiana Commission on

    Law Enforcement

    1885 Wooddale Boulevard, Suite 708

    Baton Rouge, LA 70806

    Phone: (504) 925-4429

    Fax: (504) 925-6752

    Maine

    Statistical Analysis Center

    Department of Corrections

    State of Maine

    State House Station #111

    Augusta, ME 04333-0111

    Phone: (207) 287-4386

    Fax: (207) 287-4370

    Maryland

    Maryland Justice Analysis Center

    University of Maryland

    2220 LeFrak Hall

    College Park, MD 20742

    Phone: (301) 405-4701

    Fax: (301) 314-0179

    Massachusetts

    Research and Evaluation

    Executive Office of Public Safety

    Programs Division

    100 Cambridge Street, Room 2100

    Boston, MA 02202

    Phone: (617) 727-6300, ext. 325

    Fax: (617) 727-5356

    Michigan

    Michigan Justice Statistics Center

    School of Criminal Justice

    Michigan State University

    560 Baker Hall

    East Lansing, MI 48824

    Phone: (517) 353-4515

    Fax: (517) 432-1787

    WWW: http://www.ssc.msu.edu/~cj

    Minnesota

    Criminal Justice Center

    Minnesota Planning

    658 Cedar Street

    St. Paul, MN 55155

    Phone: (612) 297-3279

    Fax: (612) 296-3698

    WWW: http://www.mnplan.state.mn.us

    Missouri

    Statistical Analysis Center

    Missouri State Highway Patrol

    1510 East Elm Street

    P.O. Box 568

    Jefferson City, MO 65102

    Phone: (573) 526-6299

    Fax: (573) 526-6274

    Montana

    Statistical Analysis Center

    Montana Board of Crime Control

    303 North Roberts Street

    Helena, MT 59620

    Phone: (406) 444-4298

    Fax: (406) 444-4722

    Nebraska

    Statistical Analysis Center

    Nebraska Commission on Law

    Enforcement and Criminal Justice

    P.O. Box 94946

    Lincoln, NE 68509

    Phone: (402) 471-2194

    Fax: (402) 471-2837

    New Hampshire

    Department of Justice

    Office of the Attorney General

    State House Annex

    33 Capitol Street

    Concord, NH 03301

    Phone: (603) 271-1234

    Fax: (603) 271-2110

    New Jersey

    Research and Evaluation Section

    Division of Criminal Justice

    25 Market Street, CN 085

    Trenton, NJ 08625

    Phone: (609) 984-5693

    Fax: (609) 984-4473

    New Mexico

    Statistical Analysis Center

    University of New Mexico

    Institute for Social Research

    2808 Central, SE

    Albuquerque, NM 87106

    Phone: (505) 277-4257

    Fax: (505) 277-4215

    WWW: http://www.unm.edu/~isrnet/SAC.html

    New York

    Bureau of Statistical Services

    NYS Division of Criminal

    Justice Services

    Executive Park Tower

    Stuyvesant Plaza

    Albany, NY 12203-3764

    Phone: (518) 457-8381

    Fax: (518) 485-8039

    WWW: http://criminaljustice.state.ny.us

    North Carolina

    North Carolina Governor's

    Crime Commission

    Criminal Justice Analysis Center

    3824 Barrett Drive, Suite 100

    Raleigh, NC 27609

    Phone: (919) 571-4736

    Fax: (919) 571-4745

    WWW: http://www.gcc.state.nc.us

    North Dakota

    Information Services Section

    Bureau of Criminal Investigation

    P.O. Box 1054

    Bismarck, ND 58502

    Phone: (701) 328-5500

    Fax: (701) 328-5510

    Northern Mariana Islands

    Criminal Justice Planning Agency

    Commonwealth of the Northern

    Mariana Islands

    P.O. Box 1133-CK

    Saipan, MP 96950

    Phone: (670) 664-4550

    Fax: (670) 664-4560

    WWW: http://www.saipan.com/gov/branches/cjpa

    Ohio

    Office of Criminal Justice Services

    400 East Town Street, Suite 120

    Columbus, OH 43215-4242

    Phone: (614) 466-5174

    Fax: (614) 466-0308

    WWW: http://www.ocjs.state.oh.us

    Oklahoma

    Oklahoma Statistical Analysis Center

    5500 North Western, Suite 245

    Oklahoma City, OK 73118

    Phone: (405) 858-7025

    Fax: (405) 858-7040

    WWW: http://www.state.ok.us/~ocjrc

    Oregon

    Mr. Phillip Lemman

    Executive Director

    Oregon Criminal Justice Commission

    155 Cottage Street, NE

    Salem, OR 97310

    Phone: (503) 378-2053

    Fax: (503) 378-8666

    Pennsylvania

    Bureau of Statistics and Policy Research

    Pennsylvania Commission on

    Crime and Delinquency

    P.O. Box 1167

    Harrisburg, PA 17108

    Phone: (717) 787-5152

    Fax: (717) 783-7713

    WWW: http://www.pccd.state.pa.us

    Puerto Rico

    Statistical Analysis Center

    Criminal Justice Information System

    P.O. Box 192

    San Juan, PR 00902

    Phone: (787) 729-2122

    Fax: (787) 729-2261

    Rhode Island

    Rhode Island Governor's Justice

    Commission

    One Capitol Hill, 4th Floor

    Providence, RI 02908

    Phone: (401) 222-4499

    Fax: (401) 222-1294

    South Carolina

    Planning and Research

    South Carolina Department of

    Public Safety

    5400 Broad River Road

    Columbia, SC 29210

    Phone: (803) 896-8717

    Fax: (803) 896-8719

    South Dakota

    Statistical Analysis Center

    Office of the Attorney General

    500 East Capitol Avenue

    Pierre, SD 57501

    Phone: (605) 773-6313

    Fax: (605) 773-6471

    Tennessee

    Statistical Analysis Center

    Tennessee Bureau of Investigation

    1148 Foster Avenue

    Nashville, TN 37210

    Phone: (615) 726-7970

    Fax: (615) 741-4789

    Texas

    Criminal Justice Policy Council

    Stephen F. Austin Building

    1700 North Congress, Suite 1029

    Austin, TX 78701

    Phone: (512) 463-1810

    Fax: (512) 475-4843

    Utah

    Statistical Analysis Center

    101 State Capitol

    Salt Lake City, UT 84114

    Phone: (801) 538-1031

    Fax: (801) 538-9609

    WWW: http://www.justice.state.ut.us

    Vermont

    Vermont Center for Justice Research

    33 College Street

    Montpelier, VT 05602

    Phone: (802) 828-8511

    Fax: (802) 828-8512

    WWW: http://www.norwich.edu/pubs/djrb

    Virginia

    Statistical Analysis Center

    Department of Criminal Justice Services

    805 East Broad Street

    Richmond, VA 23219

    Phone: (804) 371-2371

    Fax: (804) 225-3853

    Washington

    Office of Financial Management

    Statistical Analysis Center

    P.O. Box 43113

    Olympia, WA 98504

    Phone: (360) 902-0528

    Fax: (360) 664-8941

    West Virginia

    Criminal Justice Statistical

    Analysis Center

    1204 Kanawha Boulevard, East

    Huntington, WV 25301

    Phone: (304) 558-8814, ext. 218

    Fax: (304) 558-0391

    Wisconsin

    Statistical Analysis Center

    Wisconsin Office of Justice Assistance

    222 State Street, 2nd Floor

    Madison, WI 53702

    Phone: (608) 266-7185

    Fax: (608) 266-6676

    Appendix B: State Administering Agencies

    SAAs, some of which also undertake statewide criminal justice planning, administer federal grant programs, most notably, the Edward Byrne Memorial State and Local Law Enforcement Assistance Program. Grant seekers should contact the SAA in their respective state or territory and get on the mailing list for grant announcements, application materials, and other related documents.

    Alabama

    Department of Economic and

    Community Affairs

    401 Adams Avenue, P.O. Box 5690

    Montgomery, AL 36103-5690

    Phone: (334) 242-5891

    Fax: (334) 242-0712

    Alaska

    Alaska State Troopers

    5700 East Tudor Road

    Anchorage, AK 99507

    Phone: (907) 269-5082

    Fax: (907) 337-2059

    American Samoa

    Criminal Justice Planning Agency

    American Samoa Government

    Executive Office Building, 3rd Floor

    Pago Pago, AS 96799

    Phone: (011) (684) 633-5221

    Fax: (011) (684) 633-7894

    Arizona

    Arizona Criminal Justice Commission

    1501 West Washington Street, Suite 207

    Phoenix, AZ 85007

    Phone: (602) 542-1928

    Fax: (602) 542-4852

    Arkansas

    Office of Intergovernmental Services

    Department of Finance and

    Administration

    1515 Building, Suite 417

    P.O. Box 3278

    Little Rock, AR 72203

    Phone: (501) 682-1074

    Fax: (501) 682-5206

    California

    Office of Criminal Justice Planning

    1130 K Street, Suite 300

    Sacramento, CA 95814

    Phone: (916) 324-9163

    Fax: (916) 327-8714

    WWW: http://www.ocjp.ca.gov/

    Colorado

    Division of Criminal Justice

    700 Kipling Street, 3rd Floor

    Denver, CO 80215

    Phone: (303) 239-4442

    Fax: (303) 239-4491

    WWW: http://www.state.co.us/gov_dir/cdps/dcj.htm

    Connecticut

    Office of Policy and Management

    450 Capitol Avenue, MS #52CPD

    P.O. Box 341441

    Hartford, CT 06134-1441

    Phone: (860) 418-6210

    Fax: (860) 418-6496

    Delaware

    Criminal Justice Council

    Carvel State Office Building

    820 North French Street, 4th Floor

    Wilmington, DE 19801

    Phone: (302) 577-5030

    Fax: (302) 577-3440

    WWW: http://www.state.de.us/govern/agencies/cjc/cjc.htm

    District of Columbia

    Office of Grants Management and Development

    717 14th Street, NW, Suite 500

    Washington, DC 20005

    Phone: (202) 727-6537

    Fax: (202) 727-1617

    Florida

    Department of Community Affairs

    2555 Shumard Oak Blvd.

    Tallahassee, FL 32399

    Phone: (904) 488-8016

    Fax: (904) 487-4414

    Georgia

    Criminal Justice Coordinating Council

    503 Oak Place, Suite 540

    Atlanta, GA 30349

    Phone: (404) 559-4949

    Fax: (404) 559-4960

    Guam

    Bureau of Planning

    Governor's Office

    P.O. Box 2950

    Agana, GU 96910

    Phone: (011) (671) 472-4201

    Fax: (011) (671) 477-1812

    Hawaii

    Attorney General

    State of Hawaii

    425 Queen Street, Room 221

    Honolulu, HI 96813

    Phone: (808) 586-1151

    Fax: (808) 586-1373

    Idaho

    Idaho Department of Law

    Enforcement

    P.O. Box 700

    Meridian, ID 83680-0700

    Phone: (208) 884-7040

    Fax: (208) 884-7094

    Illinois

    Illinois Criminal Justice

    Information Authority

    120 South Riverside Plaza, Suite 1016

    Chicago, IL 60606

    Phone: (312) 793-8550

    Fax: (312) 793-8422

    WWW: http://www.icjia.state.il.us/

    Indiana

    Indiana Criminal Justice Institute

    302 West Washington Street,

    Room E-209

    Indianapolis, IN 46204

    Phone: (317) 232-1230

    Fax: (317) 232-4979

    Iowa

    Governor's Alliance on Substance Abuse

    Lucas State Office Building, 2nd Floor

    Des Moines, IA 50319

    Phone: (515) 281-3788

    Fax: (515) 242-6390

    Kansas

    Kansas Criminal Justice

    Coordinating Council

    700 Jackson Street, SW, Room 501

    Topeka, KS 66603

    Phone: (913) 296-0923

    Fax: (913) 296-0927

    Kentucky

    Division of Grants Management

    Justice Cabinet

    Bush Building

    403 Wapping Street, 2nd Floor

    Frankfort, KY 40601

    Phone: (502) 564-7554

    Fax: (502) 564-4840

    Louisiana

    Louisiana Commission on

    Law Enforcement

    1885 Wooddale Blvd., Suite 708

    Baton Rouge, LA 70806

    Phone: (504) 925-3513

    Fax: (504) 925-1998

    Maine

    Department of Public Safety

    State House Station 42

    Augusta, ME 04333

    Phone: (207) 877-8016

    Fax: (207) 624-8768

    Maryland

    Governor's Office of Crime

    Control and Prevention

    300 East Joppa Road, Suite 1105

    Baltimore, MD 21286-3016

    Phone: (410) 321-3521

    Fax: (410) 321-3116

    WWW: http://www.bsos.umd.edu/cesar/goccp/goccp.html

    Massachusetts

    Jonathan M. Petuchowski,

    Executive Director

    Massachusetts Committee on

    Criminal Justice

    100 Cambridge Street, Room 2100

    Boston, MA 02202

    Phone: (617) 727-6300

    Fax: (617) 727-5356

    Michigan

    Office of Drug Control Policy

    Lewis Cass Building, 2nd Floor

    320 South Walnut

    Lansing, MI 48913

    Phone: (517) 373-2952

    Fax: (517) 373-2963

    Minnesota

    Office of Drug Policy and

    Violence Prevention

    Department of Public Safety

    550 Cedar Street, Suite 409

    St. Paul, MN 55101

    Phone: (612) 296-0922

    Fax: (612) 297-7313 (ODP)

    Mississippi

    Division of Public Safety Planning

    Department of Public Safety

    401 North West Street, 8th Floor

    P.O. Box 23039

    Jackson, MS 39225-3039

    Phone: (601) 359-7880

    Fax: (601) 359-7832

    Missouri

    Missouri Department of Public Safety

    Truman State Office Building,

    Room 870

    P.O. Box 749

    Jefferson City, MO 65102-0749

    Phone: (573) 751-4905

    Fax: (573) 751-5399

    Montana

    Montana Board of Crime Control

    303 North Roberts

    Scott Hart Bldg.

    Helena, MT 59620

    Phone: (406) 444-3604

    Fax: (406) 444-4722

    Nebraska

    Nebraska Commission on Law

    Enforcement and Criminal Justice

    301 Centennial Mall South

    P.O. Box 94946

    Lincoln, NE 68509

    Phone: (402) 471-3416

    Fax: (402) 471-2837

    Nevada

    Office of Criminal Justice Assistance

    555 Wright Way

    Carson City, NV 89711-0900

    Phone: (702) 687-5282

    Fax: (702) 687-8798

    New Hampshire

    Office of the Attorney General

    33 Capitol Street

    Concord, NH 03301

    Phone: (603) 271-1297

    Fax: (603) 271-2110

    New Jersey

    Division of Criminal Justice

    Department of Law and Public Safety

    25 Market Street, CN 085

    Trenton, NJ 08625-0085

    Phone: (609) 292-5939

    Fax: (609) 292-1451

    New Mexico

    Department of Public Safety

    P.O. Box 1628

    Santa Fe, NM 87504-1628

    Phone: (505) 827-3420

    Fax: (505) 827-3398

    New York

    New York State Division of Criminal

    Justice Services

    Executive Park Tower

    Stuyvesant Plaza

    Albany, NY 12203-3764

    Phone: (518) 457-8462

    Fax: (518) 457-1186

    North Carolina

    Governor's Crime Commission

    3824 Barrett Drive, Suite 100

    Raleigh, NC 27609

    Phone: (919) 571-4736

    Fax: (919) 571-4745

    North Dakota

    Bureau of Criminal Investigation

    Attorney General's Office

    P.O. Box 1054

    Bismarck, ND 58502

    Phone: (701) 328-5500

    Fax: (701) 328-5510

    Northern Mariana Islands

    Criminal Justice Planning Agency

    Commonwealth of the Northern

    Mariana Islands

    Office of the Governor

    Saipan, MP 96950

    Phone: (011) (670) 664-4550

    Fax: (011) (670) 664-4560

    Ohio

    Office of Criminal Justice Services

    400 East Town Street, Suite 120

    Columbus, OH 43215-4242

    Phone: (614) 466-7782

    Fax: (614) 466-0308

    WWW: http://www.ocjs.state.oh.us/

    Oklahoma

    District Attorneys Training and

    Coordination Council

    2200 Classen Blvd., Suite 1800

    Oklahoma City, OK 73106-5811

    Phone: (405) 557-6707

    Fax: (405) 524-0581

    Oregon

    Oregon Department of State Police

    Criminal Justice Services Division

    400 Public Service Building

    Salem, OR 97310

    Phone: (503) 378-3720

    Fax: (503) 378-6993

    Pennsylvania

    Pennsylvania Commission on Crime and Delinquency

    P.O. Box 1167, Federal Square Station

    Harrisburg, PA 17108-1167

    Phone: (717) 787-8559, ext. 3064

    Fax: (717) 783-7713

    Puerto Rico

    Attorney General

    Department of Justice

    Commonwealth of Puerto Rico

    P.O. Box 9020192

    San Juan, PR 00902-0192

    Phone: (787) 725-0335

    Fax: (787) 725-6144

    Rhode Island

    Governor's Justice Commission

    One Capitol Hill, 4th Floor

    Providence, RI 02908-5803

    Phone: (401) 222-2620

    Fax: (401) 222-1294

    South Carolina

    Office of Safety and Grants

    Department of Public Safety

    5400 Broad River Road

    Columbia, SC 29210-4088

    Phone: (803) 896-8707

    Fax: (803) 896-8714

    South Dakota

    Attorney General's Task Force on Drugs

    State Capitol Building

    500 East Capitol Avenue

    Pierre, SD 57501-5070

    Phone: (605) 773-6313

    Fax: (605) 773-6471

    Tennessee

    Office of Criminal Justice Programs

    Department of Finance and

    Administration

    1400 Andrew Jackson Building

    500 Deaderick Street

    Nashville, TN 37243-1700

    Phone: (615) 532-2986

    Fax: (615) 532-2989

    Texas

    Criminal Justice Division

    Office of the Governor

    P.O. Box 12428, Capitol Station

    Austin, TX 78711

    Phone: (512) 463-1806

    Fax: (512) 475-2440

    Utah

    Commission on Criminal and

    Juvenile Justice

    State Capitol Building, Room 101

    Salt Lake City, UT 84114

    Phone: (801) 538-1031

    Fax: (801) 538-1024

    Vermont

    Vermont Department of Public Safety

    Waterbury State Complex

    103 South Main Street

    Waterbury, VT 05676-0850

    Phone: (802) 244-8781

    Fax: (802) 244-1106

    Virginia

    Department of Criminal Justice Services

    805 East Broad Street, 10th Floor

    Richmond, VA 23219

    Phone: (804) 786-1577

    Fax: (804) 371-8981

    Virgin Islands

    Virgin Islands Law Enforcement

    Planning Commission

    8172 Submarine Base, Suite 3

    Estate Nisky #6 Southside Quarters

    St. Thomas, VI 00802

    Phone: (809) 774-6400

    Fax: (809) 776-3317

    Washington

    Washington State Department of

    Community, Trade and Economic

    Development

    906 Columbia Street, SW

    P.O. Box 48300

    Olympia, WA 98504

    Phone: (360) 586-8411

    Fax: (360) 586-0489

    West Virginia

    Office of Criminal Justice and

    Highway Safety

    Department of Military Affairs and Public Safety

    1204 Kanawha Blvd., East

    Charleston, WV 25301

    Phone: (304) 558-8814, ext. 215

    Fax: (304) 558-0391

    Wisconsin

    Wisconsin Office of Justice Assistance

    222 State Street, 2nd Floor

    Madison, WI 53702

    Phone: (608) 266-7282

    Fax: (608) 266-6676

    Wyoming

    Division of Criminal Investigation

    316 West 22nd Street

    Cheyenne, WY 82002

    Phone: (307) 777-7181

    Fax: (307) 777-7252

    Appendix C: Sample Program Proposal

    The following sample of a direct service program proposal was created for illustration. The names, affiliations, and references all are fictitious. This example does, however, show how the elements of a program proposal come together into a unified “story” of a real-world criminal justice problem.

    Serial Criminal Apprehension Tactic (SCAT)
    Abstract

    The Metro-Franklin Police Department proposes to use National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) data to identify and apprehend serial offenders. NIBRS data offer a detailed picture of individual crime incidents, enabling the crime analyst to perform complex, multivariate analyses of offender, victim, crime scene, and property characteristics. Because they are geocoded, these data can also be mapped. The proposed project involves the immediate, in-depth analysis of NIBRS data for commonalities that can link them to serial offenders. The immediate turnaround of mapped, serial crime data is expected to allow law enforcement authorities to visually track each incident when reported. This, in turn, will enable authorities to identify possible crime series early in the series. Early identification of crime series will facilitate earlier apprehension of predatory serial offenders, thereby reducing victimization in Metropolitan Franklin County.

    Problem Statement

    Serial murderers, rapists, and arsonists are responsible for a disproportionate amount of predatory crime in the Metropolitan Franklin County area (Miller, 1998). Within the past 10 years, local law enforcement agencies have identified 17 serial offenders. Although all but 3 were eventually identified and apprehended, together they were responsible for 243 known offenses. These included 41 homicides, 176 sexual assaults, and 26 cases of arson.

    Such staggering numbers do not reveal the extent of the human misery wrought by such offenders. The Victim-Witness Program reveals that for every serial offender, the office receives no fewer than six referrals (Baxter, 1998). Often, these are the so-called secondary victims—relatives and friends of those who were murdered or assaulted. The victim toll of these offenders also includes owners of residential and commercial property destroyed by the serial arsonists.

    In addition to the untold emotional devastation wreaked by these offenders, they cost the local criminal justice system millions of dollars. The Metro-Franklin Police Department alone estimates its investigatory and court time for these cases during the past 5 years at $840,000 (Shaw, 1997). The estimated disposition costs of all these offenses total more than $2.5 million (Chambers, 1998).

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation's Violent Criminal Apprehension Program (VICAP) was designed to help law enforcement across the country combat violent, predatory crime. The original design called for law enforcement agencies across the United States to contribute detailed information on homicide, sexual assault, and arson cases to the VICAP database. The FBI would then regularly and systematically search for patterns and other common characteristics in the hopes of identifying such offenses and offenders early on in their series (Rollins, 1987).

    For possible serial crimes to be contributed to the VICAP computerized database, the contributing law enforcement agency must complete a detailed, 14-page questionnaire. The information from this questionnaire is then entered into the FBI's VICAP computer system. Every day, the FBI computer searches the entered cases for commonalities. Cases with similar characteristics may then warrant further investigation.

    Despite the strong conceptual underpinnings, VICAP has not worked as originally intended. Although several states have developed programs similar to VICAP, the majority of law enforcement agencies across the United States do not voluntarily contribute crime data (Wakefield, 1995). This effectively eliminates the possibility of tracking serial offenders, many of whom do not offend within specific geographical boundaries (Sellers, 1997). Consequently, the VICAP system cannot adequately serve the needs of Metro-Franklin and surrounding areas.

    Methods

    The Metro-Franklin Police Department's Crime Analysis Unit proposes to implement a new program known as the Serial Criminal Apprehension Tactic (SCAT). This will involve hiring a crime analyst whose sole responsibility will be to search for serial crime patterns. The crime analyst will use an IBM-compatible computer to systematically analyze crime patterns in the county crime data. The crime analyst and new equipment will be housed in a secure office within the county administration complex. The program will also require a new, full-time data entry specialist who will immediately enter crime incident forms into the department's NIBRS database.

    Once each morning, the crime analyst will meet with experienced detectives from the homicide, sexual assault, and arson squads. The analyst will discuss any and all patterns recently identified. These patterns will take the form of color maps that show the location of similar homicide, sex, and arson offenses.

    When the analyst and detectives are confident that they have identified a possible series, they will generate a list of possible suspects. This list will consist of persons who are known to local law enforcement agencies for having been charged with, or suspected of, qualifying offenses within the past 5 years. The list will also include those persons who are known to live near the crime scenes who fit the profile of either organized or disorganized serial offenders.

    On the basis of previous serial crime investigations, such early identification of possible suspects leads to, in the majority of cases, identification and apprehension of the offender responsible for the series in question (Fuller, 1990). The proposed project, then, will save countless hours of investigative time spent on erroneous leads. More important, however, SCAT will result in a significant reduction of victimization by these serial offenders.

    Objectives

    The proposed project has several objectives for the first year of operation. Each of these is detailed below.

    Objective 1: Beginning with the second month of the project period, the proposed project will produce daily lists of possible serial crimes.

    Currently, the department does not generate any lists of qualifying crimes. This project will result in no fewer than 335 such lists for the entire project period.

    Objective 2: Beginning with the second month of the project period, the proposed project will produce and distribute location maps of possible serial crimes.

    Currently, the department does not generate any maps of serial crimes. Maps will be distributed to patrol officers at roll call each day during the project period.

    Objective 3: We will reduce the time between identification of a violent crime series and apprehension of a suspect by 25% within the project period.

    This objective will be assessed by comparing the time intervals of cases during the project period with serial cases solved prior to the implementation of this project. Previously, the mean time from identification to apprehension for homicide, sexual assault, and arson cases was 13 months, 2 weeks.

    Budget
    Personnel
    Crime Analyst, 2,080 hours @ $19.65 per hour$40,872
    Benefits @ 28% of total salary$11,444
    Data Entry Clerk, 2,080 hours @ $11.80 per hour$24,544
    Benefits @ 28% of total salary$6,872
    Personnel subtotal$83,732
    Equipment
    Personal computer, 1 @ $2,495$2,495
    Color mapping printer, 1 @ $729$729
    Equipment subtotal$3,224
    Travel
    Airfare to Washington, D.C.$280
    Per diem, 3 days @ $175 per day$525
    Travel subtotal$805
    Contractual Items
    Computer and printer maintenance contract @ $125 per year$125
    Consultants
    Richard Righteous, 30 hours @ $35 per hour$1,050
    Budget total$88,936
    Budget Narrative

    Personnel

    The salary for both positions reflects the current rate of pay plus the upcoming raise currently being negotiated by the bargaining unit. Benefits, calculated for all department employees at 28% of salary, include health insurance, workers' compensation, dental benefits, and prepaid legal services.

    Equipment

    This project will require a state-of-the-art Pentium computer capable of multiple tasks including statistical analyses, mapping, database management, word processing, and presentation. The estimated cost comes from the department's term contract with DataLaw, Inc. The printer, also listed by term contract price, is necessary to print complex, colored crime maps.

    Travel

    Ms. Samuels will be traveling round-trip to the annual meeting of the Homicide Investigators' Roundtable meeting in Washington, D.C. There she will attend advanced sessions on the analysis of NIBRS data for serial crime investigation. The per diem is the normal amount allowed for lodging, meals, and related incidental expenses.

    Contractual Items

    This contract, with InfoFix, Inc., will cover both regular and emergency maintenance of the computer and printer for 1 year.

    Consultants

    Richard Righteous will advise the project staff on the analysis of serial crime data. This hourly rate, which is the rate he customarily charges law enforcement agencies, includes his travel, hotel, and other business expenses.

    Capability Statement
    Organizational Capability

    The Metro-Franklin Police Department has been in operation for the past 110 years. It consists of patrol, detective, identification, research and planning, and traffic bureaus. As of January of this year, the department employed 305 staff members, 260 of whom are sworn police officers.

    The department has embraced the philosophy embodied in the principles of community policing. This resulted in a restructuring of the department that flattened the pyramidal hierarchy and replaced it with 16 neighborhood substations, each of which is more or less autonomous. Since adopting community policing, the Metro-Franklin area has experienced an overall decrease in both violent and property crime. Specifically, within the past 3 years, Part I violent crimes have dropped by 17%, and Part I property crimes have diminished by 24%. Although other factors may have played a part in these declines, the department is confident that community policing is responsible for most of it.

    Within the past 5 years, the department has been awarded 13 discretionary grants from state and federal agencies. The amounts of these grants have ranged from $8,500 to $282,000. All required fiscal and programmatic reports have been submitted on time. Moreover, in all but one grant, the projects met or exceeded all their objectives. Three of these funded projects were awarded “exemplary status” by the federal Office of Exemplary Criminal Justice Projects.

    Staff Qualifications

    Kendra Samuels, crime analyst for the proposed project, holds the B.A. and M.A. degrees in criminology and criminal justice from the University of Maryland at College Park. Currently, she is graduate research associate at the Institute for Juvenile Research in Chicago. In addition to her university course work, Ms. Samuels has taken advanced workshops in data mapping from the Justice Research and Statistics Association and a course on the analysis of NIBRS data at the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research. She participates in the Homicide Investigators' Roundtable, which holds annual conferences centering on the study of murder.

    Richard Righteous, consultant to the proposed project, is a former profiler with the FBI's Behavioral Sciences Unit in Quantico, Virginia. He has conducted in-depth research on serial offenders, the results of which have been published in the Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Violence and Victims, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, and many other professional and scholarly journals. He holds a doctorate in clinical psychology from Georgetown University. Since 1977, he has consulted in more than 400 serial crime investigations. Now retired from the FBI, Dr. Righteous is President of MonsterMash, a private consulting firm dedicated to helping law enforcement identify and apprehend violent, predatory offenders.

    Reference
    Baxter, H. J. (1998). Serial murderers account for disproportionate amount of crime. The Law Enforcer, 9(2), 107–122.
    Chambers, M. (1998). Serial cases break the bank. In R.Ganz (Ed.), Murder in America. La Jolla Park, CA: Policy Publications.
    Fuller, J. Q. (1990). Identifying serial offenders: The benefits of early detection. In R.Meriweather (Ed.), Violence in the United States. New York: Academician's Press.
    Miller, J. (1998, August 12). Serial murderers frustrating authorities. Metro-Franklin Mirror-Times, pp. A1-A2.
    Rollins, P. (1987). VICAP: Its history, purpose and potential. In V.Humboldt (Ed.), Technology in the fight against crime. Cincinnati, OH: Forthright.
    Sellers, J. R. (1997). The spatial considerations of serial crime. Journal of Applied Criminology, 7(3), 58–71.
    Shaw, K. E. (1997). Serial cases breaking the bank: Special report to the Metro-Franklin Commissioners. Franklin City, OH: Metro-Franklin Department of Public Safety.
    Wakefield, J. (1995). VICAP's promising potential compromised. American Journal of Homicide Studies, 4(2), 32–51.

    Appendix D: Sample Research Proposal

    This sample was based on an actual proposal. The names, affiliations, and references are, however, mostly fictitious.

    Elite Deviance and Labeling Theory: A Test Using Wayward Scientists
    Abstract

    A number of investigators have examined deviant behavior in science. Previous studies have focused on the various forms of deviant behavior by scientists, as well as on the incidence of such behavior. Theoretical work in the field, however, lags behind the empirical work. One facet not yet explored by previous research is the effect of labeling on scientists who have been found guilty of engaging in scientific misconduct. Fraud in science, for example, considered the most serious crime of science, is said to bring about severe responses from peers and employers, as well as from the sponsors of scientific research.

    The proposed study will explore the extent to which scientists who have been found guilty of lab-coat crime are labeled by institutions of social control. Data for this project will be gathered through interviews with scientists who have been found guilty of plagiarism or the falsification of data. These interview data will be supplemented by an examination of official documents of the ethical misconduct proceedings and by interviews with former employers of these wayward scientists. The textual material will be quantitatively analyzed using CONTEXT content analysis software.

    Introduction

    Once criminology embraced Sutherland's (1940) concept of white-collar crime, criminology expanded these inquiries well beyond the corporate world and its profits. The scandal in the 1970s known as Watergate became a symbol of the legal and ethical breaches of the political world. At about the same time, corporations such as Boeing and Dow were suspected of blatant disregard of the sanctity of human life. Even prominent members of the clergy became embroiled in scandals that brought them down in disgrace. Elite crime and deviance, it was discovered, had many forms and found expression in many arenas.

    Sociologist of science Thompson (1951) was among the first to explore the notion of deviant behavior in science. Violations that Thompson called “laboratory indiscretions” were used to describe deviant—perhaps even criminal—behavior that could be endemic to the scientific profession.

    Feinstein (1963), in his essay on deviant behavior in science, discussed several ways in which scientists breach scientific norms. One major form of norm violation in science is plagiarism. Other forms include the falsification of data, regarded by Feinstein as science's most reprehensible offense. In this review article, he attempts to apply several of the more popular theoretical perspectives on deviant behavior. None is found to explain scientific misconduct satisfactorily.

    Neither Thompson nor Feinstein gave lengthy discussion in their works to the application of the labeling perspective to scientific misconduct. Inasmuch as Thompson's writing on the norms of science predated much of the work on labeling theory, that is to be expected. It is curious, however, that Feinstein, in his inventory of theoretical perspectives on deviant behavior in science, failed to explore labeling theory in any detail.

    The labeling perspective does not purport to explain primary deviance. That is, it is not concerned with establishing etiology for those who originally engage in deviant behavior. Instead, labeling theory is more concerned with the consequences that the labeling process has for those to whom the label of deviant has been successfully applied.

    The proposed inquiry, then, intends to explore several related theoretical questions deriving from the labeling perspective. The first has to do with establishing that labeling occurs as a result of social control in academic science. The literature to date says little about the labeling of those who have been found guilty of engaging in ethical misconduct. In instances in which scientists are found to be guilty of the falsification of data, plagiarism, or other forms of scientific norm violation, is an identifiable label actually applied to the individual? In academic science, who performs this labeling process? Can these labels be substantiated using agency records and other archival data?

    The second question of interest in the proposed study deals with the consequences of any label that might be applied as a result of informal or formal social control. That is, what is the negative impact, if any, of having been labeled as a plagiarist or data falsifier? Is the individual so labeled cut off from significant professional or career opportunities? Is the individual no longer able to apply for grant monies? How do prospective employers view those who have been found guilty of scientific misconduct?

    The proposed project, then, will explore the following hypotheses on the labeling of wayward scientists:

    • Scientists labeled as deviant early in their careers are more likely than their established counterparts to suffer from the effects of labeling.
    • The more prestigious the institution in which the alleged misconduct occurs, the less harmful are the effects of labeling.
    • Scientists with crossover credentials (e.g., M.D.) are less likely to suffer from the effects of labeling than are those with nonprofessional, terminal degrees (e.g., Ph.D.).
    Methods
    Sample

    The participants for this study will be identified from the list of all those whose cases of scientific misconduct have been published in the Federal Register, the publication of the U.S. Government Printing Office that appears every weekday except holidays. In the Federal Register, the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) publishes those cases of scientific misconduct in which the Office of Research Integrity has made a finding against an alleged offender. The notice reveals the scientist's name, affiliation, and the type of misconduct of which he or she has been found guilty. The proposed study will include all cases published in the Federal Register from January 1994 through December 1998.

    The population for this study, then, will consist of all scientists who have been listed in the Federal Register as having a finding of scientific misconduct against them. Each of these scientists will be contacted to determine if he or she will agree to an interview. It is expected that not all scientists in the population will be located. Further, it is possible, if not probable, that not all those contacted will agree to interviews.

    In selected cases in which the participant lives in proximity to the principal investigator, the interview will be conducted in person. In most cases, the interview will take place via telephone. With the interviewee's permission, the interview will be tape-recorded. The first phase of data collection, then, will involve semistructured interviews with the labeled scientists. A semistructured interview schedule will ensure that comparable data are collected from all study participants. This process will permit the interviewer to pursue additional inquiries based on the information provided by the interviewee. The structured portion of the data for this interview schedule will include but not necessarily be limited to the following:

    • Age
    • Sex
    • Race/ethnicity
    • Highest degree earned
    • Year degree earned
    • Institution from which highest degree earned
    • Field of study of highest degree
    • Affiliation at time of accusation
    • Affiliation at time of alleged misconduct
    • Narrative explanation of incident

    In the second phase of the study, the researcher team will collect data from the institution with which the scientist was affiliated when he or she engaged in scientific misconduct. Of interest here is the extent to which archival sources or persons other than the accused reveal information about the possible labeling of the scientist in question. Data elements for the Phase II Questionnaire will include but not necessarily be limited to the following:

    • Institution from which data are secured
    • Is scientist eligible for rehire?
    • Do official records verify the alleged misconduct?
    • Do official records verify contacts by employers subsequent to alleged misconduct?
    • Press coverage of incident
    • Sponsoring agency (e.g., NSF, NIH) decision on alleged misconduct
    • Sponsoring agency notice in Federal Register
    • Criminal prosecution status
    • Measure of the institution's grant activity (number of grants, amounts, etc.)

    The quantitative data will be entered into an SPSS data file. The textual material, which includes narrative statements of the scientists under study, as well as those of knowledgeable parties such as former employers and research colleagues, will be keyed and subsequently analyzed using CONTEXT software, which is designed specifically for content analysis.

    Methods of Analysis

    The analysis of the data will consist first of an examination of frequencies of the variables. In subsequent bivariate analyses, which will take the form of cross tabulations, the research team will look for evidence that the labeling of scientists had negative consequences. This will be revealed by the comparison of the scientists' position and salary with what they report they would have had in the absence of a guilty finding by DHHS.

    These data will be further analyzed, controlling for various individual and institutional variables detailed above. This will be accomplished by log-linear analysis and logistic regression.

    Once analyzed, the data will be presented at the upcoming annual meetings of the American Sociological Association and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. The research team also intends to submit the results of the proposed project to appropriate scholarly journals.

    Budget
    Personnel
    Project Director, 2,080 hours @ $37.85 per hour$78,728
    Benefits @ 34% of total salary$26,768
    Graduate Research Assistant, 1,040 hours @ $11.80 per hour$12,272
    Benefits @ 34% of total salary$4,172
    Personnel subtotal$121,940
    Equipment
    Transcribing tape recorder, 1 @ $395$395
    Supplies
    Audiotapes, 50 @ $2.00 per tape$100
    Travel
    Round-trip airfare to ASA and AAAS meetings$960
    Auto mileage, 1,500 miles @ $.32 per mile$480
    Travel subtotal$1,440
    Contractual Items
    Not applicable
    Consultants
    Richard Righteous, 30 hours @ $35 per hour$1,050
    Budget total$124,925
    Budget Narrative

    Personnel

    Dr. Norman Greenleaf, Project Director and Principal Investigator, will work full-time on this project. The 34% for employee benefits is the university's customary rate and includes health insurance coverage, life insurance, workers' compensation and disability benefits, and contributions to the State Instructors' Retirement System.

    Nora Fairchild, Graduate Research Assistant, will spend 50% of her time on this project. Full-time graduate student benefits are calculated by the university at the same rate as faculty and staff. These include all coverages listed above.

    Equipment

    The transcribing tape recorder will permit Dr. Greenleaf to record and later have transcribed the detailed interviews with the project's participants. The price reflects the lowest of three bids for this equipment.

    Supplies

    This amount consists of only 50 audiotapes, which will be purchased at a local discount office supply warehouse.

    Travel

    Dr. Greenleaf will make presentations at the annual meetings of the American Sociological Association and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. His hotel and meal expenses for these meetings will be covered by another grant under which he is making other presentations.

    Contractual Items

    Not applicable

    Consultants

    Dr. Righteous will consult on the analysis of textual data. The hourly fee is his customary charge for statistical and methodological consultation.

    Organizational Capability and Staffing
    Organizational Capability

    The State University of Northern Virginia opened its doors in 1870. It consists of an undergraduate college and 16 other academic subdivisions offering undergraduate, graduate, and professional education. The university has been listed in Public Gothic, a compilation of those institutions of higher learning in which the quality of education is comparable with the great universities.

    Currently, the University Research Foundation manages 82 grants and cooperative agreements awarded by such organizations as the National Science Foundation, the National Institute of Justice, the National Institutes of Health, and many other funding agencies and organizations. All programmatic and fiscal reports are submitted on time or early. Neither the university nor any of its faculty or staff has been debarred from applying for or receiving grants.

    The Science Study Center, opened in 1985, has served as the university's focal point for the sociological study of the scientific professions. As a center, it now has 22 faculty affiliated as research associates. Current, active research grants and cooperative agreements, which have been awarded by such agencies as the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health, now total more than $1.6 million.

    Staff Qualifications

    Dr. Norman Greenleaf will serve as Principal Investigator and Project Director. He holds the Ph.D. in sociology with distinction from Columbia University. For the past 8 years, he has served as Director of the Science Study Center at the State University of Northern Virginia. His research on the sociology of science has appeared in Science, Technology and Human Values, American Journal of Sociology, and Social Forces. He is recent past president of the National Society for the Study of Science and is currently Editor-in-Chief of its quarterly, Scientists on Science.

    Nora Fairchild, ABD, is Graduate Research Associate at the Science Study Center. She holds the B.A. and M.A. degrees in sociology from the University of Delaware, where she graduated with honors in 1998.

    Reference
    Feinstein, J. (1963). Departures from scientific norms. Northwestern Sociological Review, 21(4), 37–53.
    Sutherland, E. H. (1940). White-collar criminality. American Sociological Review, 5, 1–12.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2083937
    Thompson, J. P. (1951). Laboratory indiscretions in the conduct of scientific research. Annals of Western Science, 97(5), 32–39.

    Appendix E: For Further Reading

    The following books are additional sources of information on grants and grants-manship. The reader is encouraged to go beyond the introduction offered in this work and to learn as much as possible about the process of securing grants. Although these titles do not speak specifically to criminal justice professionals, each offers unique advice that grant seekers should add to their toolboxes.

    Bauer, D. G. (1984). The “how to” grants manual. New York: Macmillan.
    Coley, S. M., & Scheinberg, C. A. (1990). Proposal writing. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Conrad, D. L. (1980). The quick proposal workbook. San Francisco: Public Management Institute.
    Frost, G. J. (1993). Winning grant proposals. Rockville, MD: Fund Raising Institute.
    Gilpatrick, E. (1989). Grants for nonprofit organizations: A guide to funding and grant writing. New York: Praeger.
    Hall, M. S. (1988). Getting funded: A complete guide to proposal writing. Portland, OR: Portland State University, Continuing Education Publications.
    Keegan, P. B. (1990). Fundraising for non-profits. New York: HarperCollins.
    Kiritz, N. J. (1980). Program planning & proposal writing. Los Angeles: Grantsmanship Center.
    Lauffer, A. (1984). Grantsmanship and fund raising. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Lefferts, R. (1990). Getting a grant in the 1990s: How to write successful grant proposals. New York: Simon & Schuster/Fireside.
    Locke, L. F., Spirduso, W. W., & Silverman, S. J. (1987). Proposals that work: A guide for planning dissertations and grant proposals (
    2nd ed.
    ). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Margolin, J. B. (1983). The individual's guide to grants. New York: Plenum.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-4520-6
    Masterman, L. E. (1978). The applicant's guide to successful grantsmanship. Cape Girardeau, MO: Keene.
    Nauffts, M. F. (1994). Foundation fundamentals: A guide for grantseekers (
    5th ed.
    ). New York: Foundation Center.
    Schumacher, D. (1992). Get funded! A practical guide for scholars seeking research support from business. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

    About the Author

    Mark S. Davis is Chief Criminologist in Ohio's Office of Criminal Justice Services. He holds BA, MA, and PhD degrees from The Ohio State University, where he occasionally teaches criminology. Grant proposals he has authored or coauthored have resulted in awards from the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, the National Science Foundation, the Office of Criminal Justice Services, and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. His research has appeared in the Journal of Criminal Justice, Social Justice Research, and Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management.


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