Globalization: Prospects and Problems

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JoAnn Chirico

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
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  • Copyright

    Acknowledgements

    This book is dedicated to my father, Joseph Chirico, who taught me that all of humanity was my family; my mother, Mary Chirico, who taught me the importance of home; my daughters, Casey Miller and Erin Corrado; and grandchildren, Nathan, Natalie, AJ, Angel, and EJ.

  • Notes

    Chapter 1

    1. If you have never seen this famous picture, it can be found in many online sites. Search under her name: Kim Phúc Phan Thi. (Phan Thi. Kim Phúc). Kim Phúc was rescued by the photographer who took the famous photo. He took her immediately to a hospital where his status as a media reporter facilitated her getting treatment. She now lives in Canada.

    2.Organization Man, a study of CEOs in major U.S. corporations, was written in 1956 by William Whyte. The phrase organizational man became widely used to describe bureaucratic workers. It symbolized the loss of individuality and creativity working in a bureaucracy. Rational man captures the assumption that people have free will and deliberately calculate the costs and benefits of their actions.

    3. In the 1960s, alienation and anomie made older political, economic, cultural, and social scripts obsolete. The structure of social life and the principles on which it was organized increasingly failed more people in more societies. Ultimately, the status quo became untenable. Globalization as a process of contemporary social change is analogous to a Kuhnian “revolution.” Part and parcel of the rationality and legitimation crises facing nations, it also provides the reference for a new framework, a new organizing principle for social life and social relations, a way out of the anomie that it—at least in part—created.

    Chapter 2

    1. Recent research has suggested that we are becoming addicted to extra-sensory environments.

    2. The page numbers used in the text are from the article as it appeared on Douglas Kellner's website.

    3. Rodrik borrows this term and concept from the work of Thomas Friedman (1999).

    4. Wallerstein is neither a globalization theorist nor, as he admits, a theorist of any type; instead, he is a historian. Other world systems thinkers have promoted a world systems theory and view of globalization.

    5. The volume of international trade would be expected to increase steadily as societies grow in population and develop. They require more resources, goods, and markets. In some measures of globalization, satisfying these needs internally is debited from external trade. Increasing globalization is only indicated if the volume of across-border trade increases more than within-border trade. Other researchers have used measures of globalization based on external trade only. It is a straightforward indicator of interaction. The crux is whether globalization is wrought by increasing interaction or only by increasing the amount of external in relation to internal interaction. Interaction across borders still requires the same degree of order, regardless of the interaction within borders. Total volume of trade, without modification, should be considered a valid measure of globalization. Increasing outside interactions has significant consequences, even if internal interactions increase at the same rate.

    Chapter 3

    1. The East India Company colonized and administered India until the company was dissolved in the late 19th century. The British government took over, bolstered by the continued large military presence.

    2. Sweden gave (some) women the right to vote in the 18th century; New Zealand and a few others in the 19th. It was not until 1868 that the 14th Amendment to the Constitution proclaimed that justice should extend to all citizens (not all people) in the United States. Women were not given the right to vote in national elections until 1920 with passage of the 19th Amendment.

    3. Markoff (1999) points out that there were some “prototypical” constitutions before the U.S. Constitution. The centerpiece of Markoff's study is that constitutional and democratic innovation arose in semi-peripheral societies, not the central powers of the era. This is similar to world systems theory theses concerning economic innovation arising from the periphery.

    4. These are now housed in the United Nations Treaty Collection (UN 2010).

    Chapter 4

    1. Protectionism does not necessarily inhibit trade flows and liberalization does not necessarily increase it.

    2. The most basic definition of liberalization is opening a country's trade and financial markets to foreign competition,investment, and influence—allowing them to operate freely, with few if any national barriers to economic activity among actors, individual or corporate.

    3.Neo-liberalism and Washington Consensus came to be used interchangeably. John Williamson, who identified the trend in policies and named them the Washington Consensus, did not intend them to be a blueprint to be followed in every country. He simply identified them.

    4. There is disagreement as to whether inequality among nations has been increasing or decreasing. Most of the disagreement results from different methods of measuring and comparing income. For an excellent review of these debates, see Svedberg (2004).

    5. The OECD has developed a lengthy list of economic indicators of globalization, clustered into four categories: multinational activity, foreign direct investment, capital flow, and internationalization of technology.

    Chapter 5

    1. Adam Ferguson is credited with coining the term civil society in 1767 (Roginsky and Shortall 2009, 474).

    2. There is not a clear delineation between INGO and NGO. Many NGOs get involved in global governance, some through their states and some in partnership with or as local or domestic affiliates of INGOs.

    3. Senator Patrick Leahy remained very active in the landmine ban movement. The ICBL continues its work as well. On May 18, 2010, over two thirds of U.S. Senators signed a letter to President Barack Obama asking him to finally sign the Ottawa Convention.

    4. These countries had a significant intellectual heritage associated with liberal ideas whereas in other bloc countries intellectuals were more nationalistic in focus. Hungary already enjoyed significantly more cultural freedoms and experienced little mobilization at this time.

    5. Charter 77 took its name from the year, 1977, which was proclaimed the Year of the Political Prisoner (Manifesto of Charter 77).

    Chapter 6

    1. According to Mauro Guillén's “Indicators of Globalization,” in 2009 there were 241 international organizations and 7,752 non-governmental organizations (Guillén 2010). There are other much higher estimates.

    2. Tilly differentiates three periods of globalization, 1500, 1850–1914, and 1950 onward. The period 1950 onward, he argues, is strikingly different from other periods in many ways, notably in being global.

    3. A 2010 decision by the U.S. Supreme Court cemented the free speech right of corporations as individuals and eliminated the cap on contributions to political parties. Many people viewed this as reinforcing the role of corporations in governance and increasing the democratic deficit in governance.

    Chapter 7

    1. This is not to say that they did not interfere in the inner workings of other states. States regularly interfered, supporting revolutions, advancing coups, assassinating foreign nationals.

    2. The 22 member states of the League of Arab States are Jordan, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Tunisia, Algeria, Djibouti, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Somalia, Iraq, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Comoros, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Egypt, Morocco, Mauritania, and Yemen.

    3. These terms are all used in this text in accordance with the usage of the analyst under discussion.

    Chapter 8

    1. A number of surveys—World Values Survey, Global Attitudes Project, and Afrobarometer, among others—show that support for democracy is strong globally.

    2. The world's countries increased in number from 151 to 194 during these years.

    3. One major exception to this pattern is China, reporting 74.4% have a “great deal” or “quite a lot” of confidence in their government and less (37.1%) in the UN.

    4. The Polity Index runs from −10 to +10. “A “+10” democracy … has institutionalized procedures for open, competitive, and deliberative political participation; chooses and replaces chief executives in open, competitive elections; and imposes substantial checks and balances on the powers of the chief executive. Countries with Polity scores from +6 to +10 are counted as democracies (Marshall and Cole 2009, 9).

    5. East Asian countries included are Japan, Mongolia, South Koreas, Taiwan, Hong Kong, China, the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Singapore, Indonesia, and Malaysia.

    6. South Asian countries included are India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Nepal.

    7. See Ames, Reno, and Rodrigues (2003) for a discussion of diffuse support, specific support, and commitment to democracy.

    8. Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan.

    Chapter 9

    1. Anomie, Durkheim taught us in Suicide, was the underlying cause of suicide. When meaning drains from life, life does not seem worth living. Rapid social change can render many ways of life meaningless, such as in the transition from agricultural to industrial society. Strong systems of meaning can protect individuals from anomie. That is one of the reasons that charismatic leaders and fundamentalist groups have such broad appeal in times of rapid change.

    2. Interconnectivity, mobility, and security are three of five elements of global culture discussed by Paul James (2004).

    3. South Africa (1993), Australia (1992, 1995), Canada (2002, to Acadians), Great Britain (1995, to Tainui of New Zealand), New Zealand, the United States (1993, to Hawaiin natives), and Pope John Paul II (1995, to women) made public apologies (PNC 2003). In March 2010, Michele Bachelet, the outgoing president of Chile, apologized for the treatment of the indigenous Kawesqar. The Mapuche of Chile, however, still feel like “prisoners of war” and called for an end to the discriminatory treatment (MRG 2007).

    Chapter 11

    1. This report depends very heavily on the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life reports on Pentecostalism (2006a, 2006b, 2006c). Although Charismatics may belong to a mainstream Protestant or Catholic denomination, the Pew report lumps them together into a “renewalist” category. Any people who speak in tongues, call themselves charismatic, or call themselves a pentecostalist but do not belong to a Pentecostal denomination are considered charismatics.

    Chapter 12

    1. A list of the goals, targets and indicators can be found at the UN statistics site: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/mdg/Host.aspx?Content=Indicators/OfficialList.htm.

    2. The Congressional Research Service Report notes that in the accounting, some projects which span several years may have been included as one year. Some obligation not fulfilled may have been counted. Some projects may have been counted in more than one category. In other cases, the value of projects may be underestimated because the costs of Chinese materials and labor were not included (Lum et al. 2009, 4).

    Chapter 13

    1. The most frequent differentiation between violent conflict and war is the level of intensity. If a conflict results in 1,000 or more deaths within a year, it is called a war.


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