Global Social Policy: International Organizations and the Future of Welfare

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Bob Deacon

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    Preface

    This book is a textbook based on original research and develops an important thesis. It concerns the globalization of social policy and the socialization of global politics. The book demonstrates first that national social policy is increasingly determined by global economic competition and by the social policy of international organizations such as the World Bank, and secondly that the substance of social policy is increasingly transnational. Global social policy is constituted of global social redistribution, global social regulation and global social provision and empowerment. This textbook reviews for students the state of the world's welfare in terms of how far human needs are met. Trends in global inequity, and the diverse experiences of different kinds of welfare regime North, South, East and West, are summarized. The social policies of international organizations are reviewed systematically for the first time. The book is also a report of two major research projects which focused on the making of post-communist social policy and the role played in this by international organizations in Bulgaria, Hungary, Ukraine and the post-Yugoslav countries. The research which documents the global discourse taking place within and between international organizations about the future for welfare policy reinforces the thesis concerning the globalization of social policy.

    The book is primarily addressed to students of social policy but it is also intended that it should be read by other colleagues and students in academia, government and international organizations. Development studies specialists would benefit from the comparisons and connections made between social policy in developing and developed countries. Students of international organizations and international relations will find the book informs the debates concerning the future of these areas of study. Economists should read it because it demonstrates that choices between economic and social policies are a matter not of mathematical modelling but of political values. Political scientists should read it because it demonstrates that the locus of key policy decisions lies far from national governments and inside global banking organizations. Soviet and East European area studies specialists should read it to appreciate the importance of external influences on the region. Sociologists should read it as an example of an attempt to study the social relations of power and the nature of discursive practices at a global level. Social policy makers and their advisers should read it to locate the institutions within which it might be most appropriate to apply their skills.

    The book is the culmination of almost four years' work. It has been informed by research undertaken by myself and my research assistant Michelle Hulse into the role played by international organizations in shaping post-communist social policy. For Michelle's support and companionship on numerous trips to Eastern Europe I am grateful. The completeness of the references has depended on her. Chapter 5 has been informed by research undertaken by Paul Stubbs into social development and social reconstruction in post-Yugoslav countries. Paul wrote the first draft of this chapter. We are all three grateful to Leeds Metropolitan University social policy research fund, the Nuffield Foundation small grants scheme, the Ford Foundation grant scheme administered by the British Association of Soviet and East European Studies, and the Overseas Development Administration of the UK government for financial support. At the same time the book has been informed by my involvement, at various points in the life of the project, with some of the international organizations that are the subject of the research. This involvement has included acting as a social policy consultant on an ILO project in the Czech and Slovak Republics, on a World Bank funded project in Bulgaria, on an UNPREDEP mission in Macedonia, on an UNRISD project for the UN World Summit on Social Development, on an ODA funded project in Beijing, as an expert for EU TACIS, and as an expert for the Directorate of Economic and Social Affairs of the Council of Europe. Such involvement has sharpened my insight into the role being played by these organizations in shaping social policy but also, of course, detracted from the time available to complete this book.

    I discussed some of the ideas in this book at an early stage of development with Fiona Williams. Those early conversations have continued to inform the book. I am indebted also to my students who have responded positively when they have had the book tried out on them in lectures, including especially my ‘most enthusiastic student’ Ruth. Michelle's role I have already acknowledged. Paul, while formally only responsible for a draft of one chapter, has become a valued collaborator and a most enthusiastic publicist for the cause of international social policy analysis. I am indebted to several people who have commented on drafts of chapters, helped me formulate ideas, or answered detailed questions by fax or e-mail. Among these are Alastair McCauley, David Donnison, Branko Milanovic, Michael Cichon, Sandor Sipos, Guy Standing, Mita Castle and Dharam Ghai. My newest research student David Chandler has been important in challenging some ideas and his fellow student Zoe Irving has contributed ideas also. For putting up with me being boring about the topic over several pints of beer or glasses of wine I have been grateful at different times to Gerry Lavery, Gordon Johnston, Alan Ward and Joan Forbes. For being a supportive friend who has encouraged me to stick at the task of keeping the flag of research going in the ex-polytechnics I must thank Alison Ravetz. For word processing the final draft thanks to Marilyn Harrison. Of immense value to the book have been the small army of ministers, officials and professionals Michelle and I have interviewed in international organizations and governments in Kiev, Budapest, Sofia, Paris, Strasbourg, Brussels, Geneva, New York and Washington. Paul would want to acknowledge the contribution of many working in the NGOs in post-Yugoslav countries who have helped formulate ideas about the region. He would also want to thank Jasmina for her support. I reserve my most grateful appreciation for Lynda who has been unswervingly loving and loyal and proven for me that it is possible to write a book and remain human.

    BobDeacon

    Abbreviations

    APECAsian Pacific Economic Co-operation
    BWIBretton Woods institutions
    CEECentral East Europe
    CEETCentral and Eastern European Team (ILO: Budapest)
    CCETCentre for Co-operation with Economies in Transition (OECD)
    CEFSocial Development Fund (COE)
    CISConfederation of Independent States
    COECouncil of Europe
    DGIExternal Relations Directorate (EU)
    DGVDirectorate of Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs (EU)
    EBRDEuropean Bank for Reconstruction and Development
    ECEuropean Commission (EU)
    ECHOEuropean Commission Humanitarian Office
    ECHREuropean Charter of Human Rights
    ECOSOCEconomic and Social Council (UN)
    ECUEuropean currency unit
    ESCEuropean Social Charter
    EUEuropean Union
    FSUFormer Soviet Union
    FYROMFormer Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
    GATTGeneral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
    GDPgross domestic product
    GNPgross national product
    G7Group of Seven (industrialized countries)
    G77Group of Seventy-Seven
    HDIhuman development index
    IBRDInternational Bank for Reconstruction and Development
    ILOInternational Labour Organization
    IMFInternational Monetary Fund
    ISSAInternational Social Security Association.
    NAFTANorth Atlantic Free Trade Area
    NGOnon-governmental organization
    NISnew independent states (of the FSU)
    ODAOverseas Development Agency
    OECDOrganization for Economic Co-operation and Development
    OSCEOrganization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
    PAYGpay as you go
    PHAREassistance for economic restructuring in Central and Eastern Europe (initially only Poland and Hungary) (EU)
    PITPartners in Transition (OECD programme)
    TACISTechnical Assistance Programme to the former republics of the Soviet Union (EU)
    TNCtransnational co-operations
    UNCTADUnited Nations Conference on Trade and Development
    UNDPUnited Nations Development Programme
    UNECEUnited Nations Economic Commission for Europe
    UNESCOUnited Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
    UNIDOUnited Nations Industrial Development Organization
    UNHCRUnited Nations High Commission for Refugees
    UNICEFUnited Nations Children's Fund
    UNPREDEPUnited Nations Preventive Deployment Force
    UNPROFORUnited Nations Protection Force
    UNRISDUnited Nations Research Institute for Social Development
    WBWorld Bank
    WHOWorld Health Organization
    WTOWorld Trade Organization
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