Publication Year: 2012
In the globally networked society, police power is no longer constrained by the borders of the nation state: it has globalized. Global Policing shows how security threats have been constructed by powerful actors to justify the creation of a new global policing architecture and how the subculture of policing shapes the world system
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Theorising Global Policing
- The Problem of Global Policing
- Policing and Social Theory
- Policing and the Social Contract
- Policing and Political Theory
- Policing and Law
- Colonial Policing
- Types of Transnational Policing
- Conclusion: Policing an Insecure World
- Chapter 2: Policing and the Transnational-State-System
- The Changing Morphology of the State
- Jurisdictional Sovereignty and Functional Diversity in Policing
- Agenda Setting and Transnational Policing Priorities
- Legal Discourse and Law-Making in International Police Co-Operation
- Developments in Europe
- Developments in the United States
- Multi-Agency Co-Operation; the Military, Security and Private Sectors
- Conclusion: Policing the New World Order
- Chapter 3: The Global Policing Architecture
- Global Police Agencies
- Regional Police Agencies
- National Policing Hubs
- Private Transnational Policing
- Glocal Policing
- Chapter 4: The Occupational Subcultures of Global Policing
- Police Liaison Officers and the Transnational Space between
- Subcultural Theory and Policing
- The Parameters of Policing Subculture
- Meet the Global Cops
- The Varied Occupational Character of Global Cops
- Global Policing, Subculture and Accountability
- Conclusion: Occupational Policing Subcultures – Global Thoughts/Local Acts
- Chapter 5: Global Policing in Practice
- Policing Transnational Spaces
- Policing Border Zones
- Policing the Oceans
- Policing Cyberspace
- Policing Mega-Events
- Policing Transnational Flows
- Policing People: Migrants, Criminals, Terrorists and other Suspect Populations
- Policing Drugs and Guns
- Policing Money
- Policing Weak States: Where the Flows Stop
- Conclusion: The Consequences of Global Policing
- Chapter 6: Conclusion: The Global Cops Have Arrived
The Natural Home
[Page ii]SAGE has been part of the global academic community since 1965, supporting high quality research and learning that transforms society and our understanding of individuals, groups, and cultures. SAGE is the independent, innovative, natural home for authors, editors and societies who share our commitment and passion for the social sciences.
Find out more at: http://www.sagepublications.com
© Ben Bowling and James Sheptycki 2012
First published 2012
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[Page v]For Samson, Liam, Johannes, Frederik and Nadia[Page vi]
4-Cs Communication, co-operation, coordination and collaboration ACCP Association of Caribbean Commissioners of Police AFP Australian Federal Police ASEAN Association of South East Asian Nations ASEANAPOL ASEAN Chiefs of Police ATF Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, US BKA Bundeskriminalamt, Germany BKP Bundeskriminalpolizei, Germany CIA Central Intelligence Agency, US CDO Collateralized Debt Obligation CID Criminal Investigation Department CITES Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species CIVPOL Civilian Police Programme, UN DEA Drug Enforcement Administration, US DHS Department of Homeland Security, US EAW European Arrest Warrant EC European Community EDE European Convention on Extradition EIS European Information System EU European Union EUROPOL European Police Office FATF Financial Action Task Force FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation, US FBN Federal Bureau of Narcotics, US FCO Foreign and Commonwealth Office, UK FDA Food and Drug Administration, US FinCEN Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, US FIU Financial Intelligence Unit G7/8/20 Group of 7/8/20 countries GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GDR German Democratic Republic HIV Human immunodeficiency virus HQ Headquarters [Page x] ICC International Criminal Court ICHCDC International Convention on Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding ICSHCP International Convention on the Simplification and Harmonization of Customs Procedures ICT Information and communications technologies IGO Intergovernmental Organisation ILO International Liaison Officer ILOAT International Labour Organisation Administrative Tribunal IMF International Monetary Fund INS Immigration and Naturalization Service, US JCF Jamaica Constabulary Force JHA EU Justice and Home Affairs Council JSB Joint Supervisory Body LED Law Enforcement Detachment MINUSTAH Mission des Nations Unies pour la Stabilisation en Haïti MLAT Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty MOU Memorandum of Understanding MSF Médecins Sans Frontières NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NCB National Central Bureau, Interpol NCIS National Criminal Intelligence Service, UK NCS National Crime Squad, UK NGO Non-governmental organisation NPOIU National Public Order Intelligence Unit, UK NSA National Security Agency, US NYC New York City NYPD New York City Police Department OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development PR Public Relations R2P Responsibility to Protect RIC Royal Irish Constabulary RCMP Royal Canadian Mounted Police SAFE Standards to Secure and Facilitate Global Trade SARPOL Southern African Regional Police SOCA Serious Organised Crime Agency, UK STR Suspicious Transaction Reports SWAT Special Weapons and Tactics TNCs Transnational corporations TSA Transportation Security Administration, US UN United Nations UNCLOS United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea UNODC United Nations Office on Drug Control and Crime [Page xi] UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNPOL United Nations Police UK United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland US United States USCG United States Coast Guard WCO World Customs Organisation WTO World Trade Organisation ZfV Zentralstelle für Verdachtsanzeigen, Germany
Preface and Acknowledgements[Page xii]
Many of the ideas in this book were stimulated by Stan Cohen, David Downes, Michael Mann, Paul Rock, Robert Reiner and Leslie Sklair, whose work we encountered as postgraduate research students at the London School of Economics in the mid-1980s. This scholarship provided us with an understanding of the sources of social power and how these related to the problems of order and governance. Individually we have been able to work through these ideas through empirical research on policing from the very local (including domestic violence and racist violence in London) to the transnational (such as the English Channel region and the Caribbean islands).1
Encountering policing in various forms in different parts of the world led to lengthy discussions about what we saw and the issues that were raised from what we learned from our fieldwork. At the heart of the matter is the observation that the use of coercion and the power of surveillance which lie at the heart of policework are globalising. This raises obvious questions about accountability and control. After many years of verbal fencing about these issues, it is gratifying finally to have written a general theory of global policing.
We would like to thank a number of people who have read parts of the book and discussed it with us – Katja Franko Aas, Malcolm Anderson, Margaret Beare, Kevin Haggerty, Valsamis Mitselegas, Maurice Punch, Bill Saulsbury, Leanne Weber and the anonymous peer-reviewers. Philip Stenning in particular offered very forthright comments, which put the spurs to our thought. Conversations with Mike Larsen were very helpful in shaping the analysis of policing mega events. Derek Bond deserves a special mention for taking the time to discuss with us his first-hand experience of global policing and we are also grateful to Richard Bond for sharing his thoughts with us. Jasmine Chadha and Cian Murphy provided excellent research assistance and Lea Schönfeld was an oustanding editor. At Sage, thanks are due to Caroline Porter and Sarah-Jayne Boyd for commissioning this book and guiding us gently but firmly to the finish line. We are reponsible for all the remaining theoretical and factual errors.
We wish also to say some words of appreciation for Richard Ericson and Jean-Paul Brodeur for their kindness and generosity. Their contributions to theory and research defy categorisation and have been an inspiration. Both will be enormously missed.
This book is dedicated to our grown up children.
1 We are both grateful recipients of Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) grants ‘Police co-operation in the English Channel Region’ H52427006194, and ‘Transatlantic police cooperation’ RES000220102. This book draws on the theory and empirical evidence produced through these studies.
2 Malcolm Anderson (1989) Policing the World. Oxford: Oxford University Press; Malcolm Anderson, Monica den Boer, Peter Cullen, William Gilmore, Charles Raab and Neil Walker (1995) Policing the European Union. Oxford: Oxford University Press; Ethan Nadelmann (1993) Cops Across Borders: The Internationalization of U.S. Criminal Law Enforcement. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.
3 Anderson et al., Policing the European Union see fn 2, p179.
4 Ethan Nadelmann, Cops Across Borders, see fn 2, p470.
5 Ibid., see fn 2, p10.
6 Mathieu Deflem (2004) Policing World Society: Historical Foundations of International Police Cooperation. Oxford: Oxford University Press; H.-H. Liang (1992) The Rise of Modern Police and the European State System from Metternich to the Second World War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; M. Mazower (ed.) (1997) The Policing of Politics in the Twentieth Century: Historical Perspectives. Oxford: Berghahn Books; James Sheptycki (1995) ‘Transnational Policing and the Makings of a Postmodern State’. British Journal of Criminology, 35(4): 613–35; James Sheptycki (1998) ‘Policing, Postmodernism and Transnationalisation’. British Journal of Criminology, 38(3): 485–503.
7 James Sheptycki (ed.) (2000) Issues in Transnational Policing. London: Routledge; Andrew Goldsmith and James Sheptycki (eds) (2007) Crafting Transnational Policing. Oxford: Hart Publishing; D. Brown (ed.) (2008) Combating International Crime: The Longer Arm of the Law. London: Routledge-Cavendish.
8 Bernard Porter (1992) Plots and Paranoia: A History of Political Espionage in Britain 1790–1988. London: Routledge, ch. 6.
9 Richard Bach Jensen (2001) ‘The United States, International Policing and the War against Anarchist Terrorism 1900–1914’. Terrorism and Political Violence, 13(1): 15–46.
10 Mathieu Deflem, Policing World Society, see fn 6; Jensen, ‘The United States, International Policing’, see fn 9.
11 Interpol, Annual Report 2007.
12 Ben Bowling (2010) Policing the Caribbean. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
13 U. Thant, UN Secretary General (13 June 1963) cited by Beth Greener (2009) The New International Policing. London: Palgrave Macmillan, p1.
14 UN Police Adviser Andrew Hughes addressing INTERPOL's 77th General Assembly, 8 October 2008, ‘Organized Crime Threatens Peace Efforts, Top UN Police Official Warns Interpol’. UN Police Divison Press Release, 8 October 2008.
15 Ibid., see fn 14; ‘Combating terrorism, organised crime among UN police work, says top adviser’. UN Police Division Press Release, 12 February 2009.
16 ICC Assembly of State Parties, Proposed Programme Budget for 2010 of the International Criminal Court, Eighth Session, The Hague 18–26 November 2009. ICC-ASP/8/10 advance version, 17 July 2009.
[Page 138]17 Han-Ru Zhou (2005) ‘The Enforcement of Arrest Warrants by International Forces: From the ICTY to the ICC’. Journal of International Criminal Justice, 4: 202–18.
18 Christopher Mullins, David Kauzlarich and Dawn Rothe (2004) ‘The International Criminal Court and the Control of State Crime: Prospects and Problems’. Critical Criminology, 285: 304.
19 Sandra Fowler (2008) ‘Legal Attachés and Liaison: the FBI’, in S. Brown (ed.) Combating International Crime: The Longer Arm of the Law, see fn 7, p122.
20 Such as the G7/8/20, the OECD, IMF, UN, ICC, etc.
21 Michael Mann (1997) ‘Has Globalization Ended the Rise and Rise of the Nation-state?’. Review of International Political Economy, 4(2): 472–96.
22 In Otfried Höffe's vision of a Global Republic, the maintenance of peace, security and the rule of law require ‘a permanent global police force’. Otfried Höffe (2007) Democracy in an Age of Globalisation. Guildford: Springer.
23 ‘Wine Tasting Pensioner Finds Himself in Jail and Wanted by the FBI’. Daily Telegraph 26 February 2003; ‘British Pensioner Hits Out at FBI’. Guardian 26 February 2003; Terry Kirby, ‘Briton, 72, Arrested on FBI Warrant Is a Victim of Identity Fraud, Family Says’. Independent 26 February 2003.
24 David Brown, ‘Man Arrested by FBI for Fraud a Briton’. Independent 28 February 2003; Terry Kirby, ‘Pensioner May Sue US over 17 Days Spent in jail’. Independent 27 February 2003.
25 The question of whether US agents are permitted under US Federal law to engage in extraterritorial arrests and the extent to which they may be held accountable for actions overseas has long been controversial. The leading cases stem from the 1990 abduction of Dr Alvarez-Machain from his medical office by Mexican nationals under the direction of the US Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and taken from Mexico to the USA to be tried for his alleged role in the murder of a DEA agent in Mexico. After he was acquitted, Alvarez-Machain sought civil claims against the US and a Mexican involved in his abduction. The US Supreme Court ruled in two cases – Sosa v. Alvarez-Machain, 03–339, and United States v. Alvarez-Machain, 03–485, on 29 June 2004 – that the Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA) prohibits claims for injuries that occurred on foreign territory and that the Alien Tort Claims Act (ATCA) does not permit parties to recover claims for arbitrary detention by US officials or their agents acting overseas. In the light of this judgment, it seems unlikely that Derek Bond would have succeeded in his pursuit of damages against the FBI.
26 Katja Franko Aas (2007) Globalization and Crime. London: Sage.
27 James Q. Wilson (1975) Thinking About Crime, revised edn. New York: Vintage.
28 Mark Galeotti (2005) Global Crime Today: The Changing Face of Organised Crime. London: Routledge.
29 Pasquale Pasquino (1991) ‘The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality’, in Graham Burchell, Colin Gordon and Peter Miller (eds) Theatricum Politicum: The Genealogy of Capital – Police and the State of Prosperity, with Two Lectures by and an Interview with Michel Foucault. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, p111.
30 Marcus Dirk Dubber (2005) The Police Power: Patriarchy and the Foundations of American Government. New York: Columbia University Press, pxi.
31 Marcus Dirk Dubber and Mariana Valverde (2006) The New Police Science: The Police Power in Domestic and International Governance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
32 Mark Neocleous (1998) ‘Policing and Pin-making; Adam Smith, Police and the State of Prosperity’. Policing and Society, 8(4): 425–49.
33 Pasquino, ‘Theatricum Politicum’, see fn 29, p109.
[Page 139]34 Egon Bittner (1980) The Functions of the Police in Modern Society. Cambridge: Oelgeschlager; Egon Bittner (1974) ‘Florence Nightingale in Pursuit of Willie Sutton: A Theory of Police’, in H. Jacob (ed.) The Potential for Reform of Criminal Justice, Sage Criminal Justice System Annuals. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, pp17–44.
35 Jean-Paul Brodeur (2007) ‘An Encounter with Egon Bittner’. Crime, Law and Social Change, 48: 105–132.
36 Egon Bittner, The Functions of the Police in Modern Society, see fn 34, p39.
37 William Muir (1979) Police: Streetcorner Politicans. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
38 David Bayley (1985) Patterns of Policing: A Comparative International Analysis. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press; P. Chevegny (1997) Edge of the Knife: Police Violence in the Americas. New York: Free Press.
39 James Sheptycki (2002) ‘Postmodern Power and Transnational Policing: Democracy, the Constabulary Ethic and the Response to Global (In)Secuity’, Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces, Working Paper Series, No. 19, p20.
40 Hsi-Huey Liang (1992) The Rise of Modern Police and the European State System from Metternich to the Second World War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; E.H. Monkkonen (1981) Police in Urban America 1860–1920. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
41 Richard Ericson and Kevin Haggerty (1997) Policing the Risk Society. Toronto, Canada: Toronto University Press.
42 Stan Cohen (1988a) ‘Western Crime Models in the Third World: Benign or Malignant’, in Stan Cohen (ed.) Against Criminology. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, original paper presented at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria 1980; Ben Bowling (2011) ‘Transnational Criminology and the Globalisation of Harm Production’, in Mary Bosworth and Carolyn Hoyle (eds) What Is Criminology? Oxford: Oxford University Press.
43 John Kleinig (1996) The Ethics of Policing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp11–22.
44 Cf. Bertrand Russell (1945) A History of Western Philosophy. New York: Simon & Schuster.
45 John Kleinig, The Ethics of Policing, see fn 43, pp12–14.
46 Bertrand Russell, A History of Western Philosophy, see fn 44, p684.
47 Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr (1973) The Imperial Presidency. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company; William Merren (2005) Baudrillard and the Media. Cambridge: Polity Press, p111.
48 David Trend (1997) Cultural Democracy: Politics, Media and New Technology. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
49 Bertrand Russell, A History of Western Philosophy, see fn 44, p616.
50 Charles Tilly (1985) ‘War-Making and State-Making as Organized Crime’, in P. Evans, E. Reuschemeyer and T. Skocpol (eds) Bringing the State Back In. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp169–86.
51 Jean-Paul Brodeur (1983) ‘High Policing and Low Policing; Remarks about the Policing of Political Activities’, Social Problems, 30(5): 507–20.
52 Marc Raeff (1983) The Well-Ordered Police State: Social and Institutional Change Through Law in the Germanies and Russia, 1600–1800. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
53 Willbur Miller (1977) Cops and Bobbies: Police Authority in New York and London, 1830–1870. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
54 Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri (2000) Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, pxii.
[Page 140]55 Ibid., p6.
56 Anne-Marie Slaughter (2004) A New World Order. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pp13–14.
57 George Monbiot (2006) The Age of Consent: A Manifesto for a New World Order. New York: New Press.
58 Eg. David Held and Anthony McGrew (2007) Globalization/Anti-Globalization, 2nd edn. Cambridge: Polity Press.
59 Roger Cotterell (1992) The Sociology of Law, 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
60 Sally Engle Merry (1988) ‘Legal Pluralism’, Law and Society Review, 22(5): 869–96.
61 Roger Cotterell (2003) The Politics of Jurisprudence: A Critical Introduction to Legal Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
62 Neil Walker (2007) Policing in a Changing Constitutional Order. London: Sweet and Maxwell.
63 Robert Reiner (2000) The Politics of the Police, 3rd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p116.
64 Tom R. Tyler (1990) Why People Obey the Law. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press; Tom R. Tyler (2000) ‘Social Justice; Outcome and Procedure’, International Journal of Psychology, 35: 117–25.
65 Doreen McBarnet (1981) Conviction: Law, the State and the Construction of Justice. London: Macmillan; Doreen McBarnet (1982) ‘Legal Form and Legal Mystification’, International Journal of the Sociology of Law, 10: 409–17.
66 Richard Victor Ericson (1983) The Constitution of Legal Inequality. The 1983 John Porter Memorial Lecture. Ottawa: Carleton University, Information Services, p32.
67 On socio-legal approaches to law generally see Richard Abel (1995) The Law and Society Reader. New York: New York University Press. On police as low visibility decision makers see Joseph Goldstein (1960) ‘Police Discretion Not to Invoke the Criminal Process: Low-Visibility Decisions in the Administration of Justice’, Yale Law Journal, 69(4): 554–62; see also Peter K. Manning (2004) The Narc's Game: Organizational and Informational Limits on Drug Law Enforcement. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press; Cyrille Fijnaut and Gary Marx (1995) Undercover: Police Surveillance in Comparative Perspective. The Hague: Kluwer.
68 David Kairys (1998) The Politics of Law: a Progressive Critique. New York: Basic Books, p435.
69 Sue Ellen Schuerman (1992) ‘Establishing a Tort Duty for Police Failure to Respond to Domestic Violence’, Arizona Law Review, 34: 355–8.
70 Eve Buzawa and Carl Buzawa (2002) Domestic Violence; The Criminal Justice Response, 3rd edn. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
71 Egon Bittner (1967) ‘The Police on Skid Row’, American Sociological Review, 32(5): 699–715.
72 Richard Ericson (2007) Crime in an Insecure World. Cambridge: Polity. The preceding paragraphs draw extensively on the work of R.V. Ericson, RIP.
73 Christopher Gane and M. Mackarel (1996) ‘The Admissibility of Evidence Obtained from Abroad into Criminal Proceedings – The Interpretation of Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and Use of Evidence Irregularly Obtained’. European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, 4: 98–119, esp. p114–115.
74 Roger Grimshaw and Tony Jefferson (1984) Interpreting Policework. London: Allen & Unwin; Roger Grimshaw and Tony Jefferson (1984) Controlling the Constable: Policing Accountability in England and Wales. London: Allen & Unwin.
75 Mike Brogden (1987) ‘The Emergence of the Police – the Colonial Dimension’, British Journal of Criminology, 27(1): 4–14; D. Anderson and D. Killingray (1991) Policing the Empire: Government, Authority and Control, 1830–1940. Manchester: Manchester [Page 141]University Press; D. Anderson and D. Killingray (1992) Policing and Decolonisation: Nationalism, Politics and the Police, 1917–1965. Manchester: University of Manchester Press; S.H. Palmer (1988) Police and Protest in England and Ireland 1780–1850. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Georgina Sinclair (2006) At the End of the Line: Colonial Policing and the Imperial Endgame, 1945–80. Manchester: Manchester University Press; Max Boot (2002) The Savage Wars of Peace; Small Wars and the Rise of American Power. New York: Basic Books; Chalmers Ashby Johnson (2004) Blowback: The Costs and Consequences of American Empire, 2nd edn. New York: Holt Paperback.
76 Alice Hills (2000) Policing Africa: Internal Security and the Limits of Liberalization. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner; Biko Agozino (2004) ‘Crime, Criminology and Post-Colonial Theory: Criminological Reflections on West Africa’, in James Sheptycki and Ali Wardak (eds) Transnational and Comparative Criminology. London: Taylor & Francis, pp117–34.
77 Colonial rule in West Central Africa, in what was the Congo Free State (1884–1908) and then later the Belgian Congo 1908–1960 was an extreme exception to this. Crawford Young (1994) The African Colonial State in Comparative Perspective. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
78 Georgina Sinclair, At the End of the Line, see fn 75.
79 John Newsinger (2006) The Blood Never Dried: A People's History of the British Empire. London: Pluto.
80 John Brewer (1994) Black and Blue. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp5–10; Georgina Sinclair, At the End of the Line, see fn 75.
81 Robert Reiner, The Politics of the Police, see fn 63.
82 Mike Brogden (1987) ‘The Emergence of the Police – the Colonial Dimension’, see fn 75.
83 Trevor Jones and Tim Newburn (1996) Policing and Disaffected Communities: A Review of the Literature. A Report to the Standing Advisory Committee on Human Rights. London: Policy Studies Institute, pp3–4.
84 Paul Gilroy (2004) After Empire: Multiculture or Postcolonial Melancholia. London: Routledge, p47.
85 On the concept of ‘global south’, see J. Rigg (2007) An Everyday Geography of the Global South. London: Routledge.
86 Institute of Race Relations (1987) Policing Against Black People. London: Institute of Race Relations.
87 Graham Ellison and Nathan Pino (2010) Globalization, Development and Police Reform: Doing it the Western Way? London: Palgrave Macmillan.
88 Adam Edwards and Pete Gill (2002) ‘The Politics Of “Transnational Organized Crime”: Discourse, Reflexivity and the Narration of “Threat”’, The British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 4(2): 245–270.
89 Ulrich Beck (2000) ‘What Is Globalization?’, in D. Held and A. McGrew (eds) The Global Transformation Reader: An Introduction to the Globalization Debate. Cambridge: Polity, pp99–103, quotes from p101, emphasis in original.
90 James Sheptycki (2002) In Search of Transnational Policing. Aldershot: Ashgate.
91 Clifford Shearing and Phillip Stenning (1997) ‘From the Panopticon to Disney World: The Development of Discipline’, in Ronald V. Clark (ed.) Situational Crime Prevention: Successful Case Studies, 2nd edn. Guilderland, NY: Harrow and Heston Publishers; C. Shearing and D. Bayley (1996) ‘The Future of Policing’, Law and Society Review, 30(3): 585–606; Les Johnston (2000) ‘Transnational Private Policing: The Impact of Global Commercial Security’, in James Sheptycki (ed.) Issues in Transnational Policing, see fn 7, pp21–42; Conor O'Reilly (2010) Policing Global Risks: The Transnational Security Consultancy Industry. Oxford: Hart Publishing.
[Page 142]92 Richard Ericson and Kevin Haggerty, Policing the Risk Society, see fn 41; Kevin Haggerty and Richard Ericson (2000) ‘The Surveillant Assemblage’, British Journal of Sociology, 51(4): 605–622.
93 James Sheptycki, Issues in Transnational Policing, see fn 7; Monica den Boer (guest ed.) (2002) Policing and Society: Special Issue on Police Accountability in Europe, 12(4).
94 Michael Mann, ‘Has Globalization Ended…’, see fn 21.
95 Adapted from Ben Bowling (2009) ‘Transnational Policing: The Globalisation Thesis; a Typology and Research Agenda’, Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, 3(2): 149–60.
96 Dick Hobbs and Colin Dunnighan (1998) ‘Glocal Organised Crime: Context and Pretext’, in Vincenzo Ruggeiero, Nigel South and Ian Taylor (eds) The New European Criminology. London: Routledge, pp289–303, quotes p289.
97 Maureen Cain (2000) ‘Orientalism, Occidentalism and the Sociology of Crime’. British Journal of Criminology, 40(2): 239–60.
98 James Sheptycki (1998) ‘The Global Cops Cometh: Reflections on Transnationalisation, Knowledge Work and Police Subculture’. British Journal of Sociology, 49(1): 57–74.
99 James Sheptycki (2010) ‘The Constabulary Ethic Reconsidered’, in F. Lemieux (ed.) International Police Cooperation: Emerging Issues, Theory and Practice. Cullompton, Devon: Willan Publishing, pp298–319.
100 Robert Reiner (1997) ‘Police and Policing’, in M. Maguire, R. Morgan and R. Reiner (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp997–1049, quote p1007.
101 C. Wright Mills (1959) The Sociological Imagination. New York: Oxford University Press, p8.
102 Bob Jessop (2004) ‘Hollowing Out the ‘Nation-state’ and Multilevel Governance’, in P. Kennett (ed.) Handbook of Comparative Social Policy. Cheltenham: A Edward Elgar Publishing, pp11–25, p23; Mann, ‘Has Globalization Ended…’, see fn 21.
103 David Held (2004) Global Covenant: The Social Democratic Alternative to the Washington Consensus. Cambridge: Polity Press.
104 Peter Singer (2002) One World. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
105 Leslie Sklair (1995) The Sociology of the Global System, 2nd edn. Baltimore MD: Johns Hopkins University Press; Leslie Sklair (2009) ‘The transnational capitalist class and the politics of capitalist globalisation’, in S. Dasgupta and J. NedeNeen (eds). London: Sage. pp82–97.
106 Peter Andreas (2004) ‘Illicit International Political Economy: The Clandestine Side of Globalization’, Review of International Political Economy, 11(3): 642–52; Naomi Klein (2008) The Shock Doctrine: the Rise of Disaster Capitalism. Toronto: Vintage Books Canada.
107 Manuell Castells (2007) ‘Communication, Power and Counter-Power in the Network Society’, International Journal of Communication, 1(1): 238–66.
108 Jonathan Zittrain (2008) The Future of the Internet and How to Stop It. New Haven CT: Yale University Press.
109 Ben Bowling,'Transnational Policing’, see fn 95.
110 David Harvey (1990) The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
111 David Held and Anthony McGrew (2000) ‘The Great Globalisation Debate: An Introduction’, in David Held and Anthony McGrew (eds) The Globalisation Reader. Cambridge: Polity.
112 George Monbiot, The Age of Consent, see fn 57; Peter Singer (2002) One World. fn 104.
113 Steven Spitzer (1975) ‘Toward a Marxian Theory of Deviance’, Social Problems, 22(5): 638–51.
[Page 143]114 Christian Parenti (2008) Lockdown America: Police and Prisons in the Age of Crisis. London: Verso.
115 Manuel Castells (1989) The Informational City: Information Technology, Economic Restructuring and the Urban Regional Process. Oxford: Blackwell; Manuel Castells (1996) The Rise of the Network Society, the Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture, Vol. 1, 2nd edn. Oxford: Blackwell; Manuel Castells (1997) The Power of Identity, The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture, Vol. 2, 2nd edn. Oxford: Blackwell; Manuel Castells (1998) End of the Millennium, The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture, Vol. 3, 2nd edn. Oxford: Blackwell; Manuel Castells, ‘Communication, Power and Counter-Power’, see fn 107; Lesley Sklair (1995) Sociology of the Global System. fn 105; David Held and Anthony McGrew, Globalization/Anti-Globalization, see fn 58; I. Wallerstein (2004) World-Systems Analysis: An Introduction. Durham, NC: Duke University Press; P. Beyer (2001) Religion in Process of Globalization. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag.
116 John Burton (1972) World Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp28–31.
117 Maurice Punch and T. Naylor (1973) ‘The Police: A Social Service’, New Society, 24(554): 358–61, in Robert Reiner (ed.) (1996) Policing Vol. 1: Cops, Crime and Control: Analysing the Policing Function. Aldershot: Ashgate, The International Library of Criminology, Criminal Justice and Penology Series.
118 BBC News Channel, ‘UK police end tsunami operation’, Tuesday 28 February 2006.
119 Roger Clark (1994) The United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Program: Formulations of Standards and Efforts at Their Implementation. Washington DC: Procedural Aspects of Law Institute; Adam Edwards and Peter Gill (2004) Transnational Organised Crime: Perspectives on Global Security. London: Routledge; Margaret Beare (ed.) (2003) Critical Reflections on Transnational Organized Crime, Money Laundering, and Corruption. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press; Petrus Van Duyne and M.D.H. Nelemans (forthcoming) ‘Transnational Organised Crime and Plato's Cave’, Handbook of Transnational Organised Crime; Michael Woodiwiss (2001) Organized Crime and American Power: A History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
120 UNDOC, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2010) United Nations Congresses on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice 1955–2010, 55 Years of Achievement. Geneva: United Nations Information Service.
121 Roger Clark, The United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Program, see fn 119, p109.
122 Ezzat Fattah (1997) Criminology, Past, Present and Future: A Critical Overview. Basingstoke: MacMillan, p58.
123 The account that follows is mostly derived from James Sheptycki (2004) ‘The Accountability of Transnational Policing Institutions: The Strange Case of Interpol’, Canadian Journal of Law and Society, 19(1): 128–9.
124 Mathieu Deflem and Lindsay C. Maybi (2005) ‘Interpol and the Policing of International Terrorism: Developments and Dynamics since September 11’, in Lynne L. Snowden and Brad Whitsel (eds) Terrorism: Research, Readings, & Realities. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, pp175–91.
125 House of Commons Home Affairs Committee (1995) Organised Crime. London: HMSO; A. Scherrer (2009) G8 Against Transnational Organized Crime. Aldershot: Ashgate; Adam Edwards and Peter Gill (2004) Transnational Organised Crime: Perspectives on Global Security. London: Routledge; Margaret Beare (ed.) (2004) Critical Relections on Transnational Crime, Money Laundering, and Corruption. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
[Page 144]126 ‘After the Twin Towers: The Global Economy Must Be Policed’, Guardian 29 September 2001, Leader.
127 Peter Andreas and Ethan Nadelmann (2006) Policing the Globe: Criminalization and Crime Control in International Relations. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p11.
128 Alan Boyle and Christine Chinkin (2007) The Making of International Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
129 Jonathan Winer (2004) Cops Across Borders: The Evolution of Transatlantic Law Enforcement and Judicial Co-operation. Council on Foreign Relations, URL: http://www.cfr.org/publication/7393/cops_across_borders.html, p2.
130 Mathieu Deflem (2000) ‘Bureaucratization and Social Control: Historical Foundations of International Policing’, Law & Society Review, 34(3): 601–40, p634.
131 Ethan Nadelmann, Cops Across Borders, see fn 2.
132 Cyrille Fijnaut and Gary Marx (1995) Undercover: Police Surveillance in Comparative Perspective, see fn 67; Gary Marx (1989) Undercover: Police Surveillance in America. Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.
133 James Sheptycki (1997) ‘Transnationalism, Crime Control and the European State System: A Review of the Literature’. International Criminal Justice Review, 7: 130–40, p136.
134 Maurice Punch (2003) ‘Rotten Orchards: “Pestilence”, Police Misconduct and System Failure’. Policing and Society, 13(2): 171–96; James Sheptycki (1999) ‘Political Culture and Structures of Social Control: Police Related Scandal in Low Countries in Comparative Perspective’, Policing and Society, 9(1): 1–32.
135 Ethan Nadelmann, Cops Across Borders, see fn 2.
136 James Sheptycki (2000) ‘The “Drug War”: Learning from the Paradigm Example of Transnational Policing’, in James Sheptycki (ed.) Issues in Transnational Policing, see fn 7, pp201–28.
137 Peter Andreas and Ethan Nadelmann, Policing the Globe, see fn 127, p41.
138 Edward Jay Epstein (1977) Agency of Fear; Opiates and Political Power in America. New York: Putnam and Sons, p105.
139 Peter Andreas and Ethan Nadelmann, Policing the Globe, see fn 127, pp49–51.
140 We are thinking here about the policing surveillance scandal that became public in 2011 after it was revealed that a significant team of undercover police operatives had ‘infiltrated’ groups of ecological activists. See P. Lewis and R. Evans, ‘Green Groups Targeted Polluters as Corporate Agents Hid in their Ranks’. Guardian 14 February 2011; On environmental criminology more generally see R. White (2008) Crimes Against Nature: Environmental Criminology and Ecological Justice. Cullompton, Devon: Willan; P. Bierne and N. South (eds) (2007) Toward a Green Criminology – Confronting Harms Against Humanity, Animals and Nature. Cullompton, Devon: Willan.
141 In the UK the Central Authority for Mutual Legal Assistance is part of the Judicial Co-operation Unit and is responsible for processing requests to and from other countries for evidence in criminal investigations and prosecutions. The Extradition Section of the same Unit processes requests to and from other countries for the surrender of persons accused or convicted of extradition crimes.
142 Clive Nicholls, Clare Montgomery and Julian B. Knowles (2007) The Law of Extradition and Mutual Assistance, 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
143 Frank Gregory (2000) ‘Private Criminality as a Matter of International Concern’, in James Sheptycki (ed.) Issues in Transnational Policing, see fn 7, pp100–34; Nadelmann, Cops Across Borders, see fn 2; Cyrille Fijnaut and Gary Marx, Undercover: Police Surveillance in Comparative Perspective, see fn 67.
[Page 145]144 Mathieu Deflem, Policing World Society, see fn 6, pp223–4.
145 Richard Abel, The Law and Society Reader, see fn 67.
146 Roger Cotterrell (1992) The Sociology of Law, see fn 59; Roger Grimshaw and Tony Jefferson (1984) Interpreting Policework. fn 74.
147 Named after the famous Trevi fountain in Rome.
148 The Palma Document (Madrid, June 1989); the Declaration of Trevi Group Ministers (Paris, December 1989); the Programme of Action (Dublin, June 1990) and the Coordinators Report on the Progress on the Palma Document (Edinburgh, December 1992).
149 Tony Bunyan (1993) Statewatching the New Europe: A Handbook on the European State. London: Statewatch.
150 Fenton Bressler (1992) Interpol. London: Penguin, p161.
151 Paul Stares (1998) The New Security Agenda: A Global Survey, Japan Centre for International Exchange; Barry Buzan, Ole Waever and Jaap de Wilde (1988) Security: A New Framework for Analysis. London: Lynne Rienner.
152 Preamble of Council Framework Decision 2002/584/JHA.
153 URL: http://www.fairtrials.net/campaigns/article/justice_in_europe/ (accessed 20 January 2011).
154 Tony Bunyan, Statewatching the New Europe, see fn 149, p10–11.
155 William Geller and Norval Morris (1992) ‘Relations between Federal and Local Police’, in Michael Tonry and Norval Morris (eds) Modern Policing. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, pp231–348.
156 Stephen Labaton, ‘Administration Drops Plan to Merge Justice Agencies’. New York Times 22 October 1993.
157 The institutional cultures owe something to the personalities of the two agencies' founders: Harry J. Anslinger and the legendary J. Edgar Hoover. The launch of the FBI's 10 Most Wanted List by Hoover in early 1950 was a media sensation that is still remembered today. Anslinger's tireless promotion of harsh penalties for illegal drug use is less well remembered. He facilitated the broadcast of scurrilous news stories about cocaine-using Negros, opium-addicted Chinese and lazy Mexican marijuana smokers – stereotypical folk devils said to constitute a danger to the public. Promotion of these views came largely through the chain of newspapers owned by William Randolph Hearst. It is the racist rhetoric that probably prevents the early efforts of the FBN from being remembered with quite the same glory as that of the FBI.
158 As Frank Gregory has documented, this is merely one of a number of cases of ‘judicial imperialism’. He cites literature referring to Verdugo-Urquidez (1986) and US v. Noriega (1990) as other examples of unilateral action by US enforcement agencies that receive favourable treatment in US courts. Frank Gregory (1995) ‘Transnational Crime and Law Enforcement: Problems and Processes,’ Transnational Organised Crime. Vol 4: 105–133.
159 Phillipe Sands (2006) Lawless World: America and the Making and Breaking of Global Rules. New York: Penguin; Stephen Grey (2006) Ghost Plane: The True Story of the CIA Torture Program. New York: St. Martin's Press; A. C. Thompson, and Trevor Paglen (2006). Torture Taxi: On the Trail of the CIA's Rendition Flights. Hoboken, New Jersey: Melville House.
160 Jerry H. Ratcliffe (2002) ‘Intelligence-led Policing and the Problems of Turning Rhetoric into Practice’, Policing and Society, 12(1): 53–66.
161 Report of the Congressional Committees Investigating the Iran-Contra Affair (S. Rep. No. 216, H.R. Rep. No. 433, 100th Cong., 1st Sess.). Washington DC: United States Government Printing Office; Stan Cohen (1996) ‘Crime and Politics: Spot the Difference’, British Journal of Sociology, 47(1): 1–21.
[Page 146]162 Clifford Shearing (1992) ‘The Relations Between Public and Private Policing’, in Michael Tonry and Norval Morris (eds) Modern Policing, see fn 155, pp399–434.
163 Peter Andreas and Ethan Nadelmann, Policing the Globe, see fn 127, p115.
164 Rita Abrahamsen and Michael Williams (2011) Security Beyond the State: Private Security in International Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Graham Ellison and Conor O'Reilly (2006) ‘Eye Spy Private High: Reconceptualising High Policing Theory’. British Journal of Criminology, 46(4): 641–60; Conor O'Reilly (2010) Policing Global Risks, see fn 91.
165 Wilbur Miller, Cops and Bobbies, see fn 53.
166 Nils Christie (1986) ‘Suitable enemy’, in Herman Bianchi and Rene von Swaaningen (eds) Abolitionism: Toward a Non-repressive Approach to Crime. Amsterdam: Free University Press.
167 Alice Sampson, Paul Stubbs, David Smith, Geoffrey Pearson and Harry Blagg (1988) ‘Crime Localities and the Multi-Agency Approach’, British Journal of Criminology, 24(4): 478–93; William Saulsbury and Ben Bowling (1991) The Multi-Agency Approach in Practice: The North Plaistow Racial Harassment Project. London: Home Office; A. Karabinas, B. Monaghan and J. Sheptycki (1996) ‘An Evaluation of the Craigmillar Youth Challenge’, The Howard Journal, 35(2): 113–30, doi: 10.1111/j.1468–2311.1996. tb00864.x.
168 Clive Harfield (2006) ‘SOCA; a Paradigm Shift in British Policing’, British Journal of Criminology, 46(4): 743–61.
169 Peter Kraska (2001) Miltarizing the American Criminal Justice System: The Changing Roles of the Armed Forces and the Police. Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press; Peter Kraska (2007) ‘Militarization and Policing – Its Relevance to 21st Century Policing’. Policing: A Journal of Police and Practice, 1(4): 501–13.
170 Donatella Della Porta and Abby Peterson (2005) ‘Special Issue: Policing Political Protest After Seattle’, Policing and Society, 15(3); Luis A. Fernandez (2008) Policing Dissent: Social Control and the Anti-globalization Movement. Chapel Hill, NC: Rutgers University Press.
171 Kevin Haggerty and Richard Ericson (2001) ‘The Military Technostructures of Policing’, in Peter Kraska (ed.) Miltarizing the American Criminal Justice System: The Changing Roles of the Armed Forces and the Police, see fn 169, pp43–44.
172 Pete Gill and Mark Phythian (2006) Intelligence in and Insecurity World: Surveillance, Spys and Snouts. Cambridge: Polity Press; Peter Gill, Stephen Marrin and Mark Phythian (2008) Intelligence Theory: Key Questions and Debates. London: Routledge.
173 Jerry Ratcliffe (2008) Intelligence-led Policing. Cullompton, Devon: Willan; Jerry Ratcliffe (ed.) (2004) Strategic Thinking in Criminal Intelligence. Annadale, NSW: Federation Press; Marc Alain (2001) ‘The Trapeze Artists and the Ground Crew – Police Co-operation and Intelligence Exchange Mechanisms in Europe and North America: A Comparative Empirical Study’, Policing and Society, 11(1): 1–28.
174 Gregory F. Treverton (2008) Reorganising US Domestic Intelligence: Assessing the Options. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corp. Homeland Security Program and the Intelligence Policy Centre, prepared for the Department of Homeland Security.
175 Angus Smith (1997) Intelligence Led Policing: International Perspectives on Policing in the 21st Century. Lawrenceville, NJ: International Association of Law Enforcement Intelligence Analysts.
176 Loch Johnson (ed.) (2007) Strategic Intelligence. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, p8–9.
177 Ibid., p8–9.
[Page 147]178 Tim Newburn (2007) ‘Governing Security: The Rise of the Privatized Military’, in David Downes, Paul Rock, Christine Chinkin and Conor Gearty (eds) Crime, Social Control and Human Rights. From Moral Panics to States of Denial: Essays in Honour of Stanley Cohen. Cullompton, Devon: Willan, pp195–210; Conor O'Reilly, Policing Global Risks, see fn 91; Peter Singer (2003) Corporate Warriors: the Rise of the Privatized Military Industry. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
179 Jeremy Scahill (2007) Blackwater: The Rise and Fall of the World's Most Powerful Mercenary Army. New York: Nation Books.
180 Scott Burris, Peter Drahos and Clifford Shearing (2005) ‘Nodal Governance’. Australian Journal of Legal Philosophy, 30: 30–58; Clifford Shearing and Jennifer Wood (2003) ‘Nodal Governance, Democracy and the New “Denizens”’. Journal of Law and Society, 30(3): 400–19; Jennifer Wood and Enrique Font (2007) ‘Crafting the Governance of Security in Argentina: Engaging with Global Trends’, in Andrew Goldsmith and James Sheptycki (eds) Crafting Transnational Policing, see fn 7; Jennifer Wood and Michael Kempa (2005) ‘Understanding Global Trends in Policing: Explanatory and Normative Dimensions’, in J. Sheptycki and A. Wardak (eds) Transnational and Comparative Criminology. London: Taylor & Francis, pp287–316.
181 Ben Goold and Liora Lazarus (eds.) Security and Human Rights. Portland, OR: Oxford University Press; Goldsmith and Sheptycki, Crafting Transnational Policing, see fn 7; Nathan Pino and Michael Wiatrowski (eds) (2006) Democratic Policing in Transitional and Developing Countries. Ashgate: Aldershot.
182 Biko Agozino (2004) ‘Crime, Criminology and Post-Colonial Theory: Criminological Reflections on West Africa’, in J. Sheptycki and A. Wardak (eds) Transnational and Comparative Criminology. London: Routledge/Glasshouse, pp117–134; Suzana Sawyer and Edmund Terence Gomez (2008) Transnational Governmentality and Resource Extraction: Indigenous Peoples, Multinational Corporations, Multilateral Institutions and the State. United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, Conflict and Cohesion Paper No. 13; David Szablowski (2007) Transnational Law and Local Struggles: Mining Communities and the World Bank. Oxford: Hart Publishing; Human Rights Watch, Nigeria (May 1999) Crackdown in the Niger Delta, 11(2a); Human Rights Watch (February 2005) Rivers and Blood; Guns, Oil and Power in Nigeria's River State, a Human Rights Briefing Paper.
183 Richard Sennett (1998) The Corrosion of Character: The Personal Consequences of Capitalism. New York: W.W. Norton and Co.; Jock Young (2007) The Vertigo of Late Modernity. London: Sage.
184 Robert Reiner (2007) Law and Order: An Honest Citizen's Guide to Crime Control. Cambridge: Polity Press.
185 Ibid., see fn 100, quote p1007.
186 Fenton Bressler, Interpol, see fn 150, p161.
187 Malcolm Anderson (1989) Policing the World: Interpol and the Politics of International Police Co-operation. Oxford, UK: Clarendon; M. Barnett and L. Coleman (2005) ‘Designing Police: Interpol and the Study of Change in International Organisations’. International Studies Quarterly, 49: 593–619; Fenton Bressler, Interpol, see fn 150; Mathieu Deflem (2002) Policing World Society, see fn 6; Michael Fooner (1989) Interpol: Issues in World Crime and International Criminal Justice. New York: Plenum Press.
188 James Sheptycki, ‘The Accountability of Transnational Policing Institutions’, see fn 123.
189 Ibid., see fn 123, pp119–21.
190 Idib., see fn 123, pp119–21.
[Page 148]191 Interpol General Assembly Resolution (2006) Subject: Statement to Reaffirm the Independence and political neutrality of Interpol, AG_2006-RES-04, p1.
192 Rutsel Silvestre J. Martha (2010) The Legal Foundations of Interpol. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
193 James Sheptycki, ‘The Accountability of Transnational Policing Institutions’, see fn 123, p115.
194 Fenton Bressler, Interpol, see fn 150.
195 US Department of Justice (2009) Audit Report 09–35, The United States National Central Bureau of Interpol. US Department of Justice, Washington, DC: Office of the Inspector General.
196 Cheah Wui Ling (2010) ‘Mapping Interpol's Evolution: Functional Expansion and the Move to Legalization’, Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, 4(1): 28–37.
197 Ethan Nadelmann, Cops Across Borders, see fn 2.
198 Interpol General Assembly Resolution (2006) Subject: Resolution Statement to Reaffirm the Independence and Political Neutrality of Interpol. AG_2006-RES-04, p2.
199 Robert Lloyd, Jeffrey Oatham and Michael Hammer (2007) 2007 Global Accountability Report. London: One World Trust.
200 Ben Bowling, Policing the Caribbean, see fn 12, p290–1.
201 Pravin Gordan (2007) ‘Customs in the 21st Century’, World Customs Journal, 1(1): 49–54.
202 International Convention on the Simplification and Harmonization of Customs Procedures (Kyoto, 18 May 1973) entered into force: 25 September 1974, URL: http://www.unece.org/trade/kyoto/.
203 Pravin Gordan, ‘Customs in the 21st Century’, see fn 201.
204 Ibid., see fn 201.
205 Gareth Lewis (2009) ‘The Impact of ICT on Customs’. World Customs Journal, 3(1): 3–12, p5; Stephen Holloway (2009) ‘The Transition From eCustoms to eBorder Management’. World Customs Journal, 3(1): 13–26, p16.
206 Memorandum of Understanding between the World Customs Organisation and the International Criminal Police Organisation, signed in Lyon, 9 November 1998.
207 Steve Charnovitz (2001) ‘International Law Weekend Proceedings: Economic and Social Actors in the World Trade Organisation’. ILSA Journal of International and Comparative Law, 259, International and Comparative Law Association.
208 Peter Gonzales (2002) ‘CARICOM, the European Union and International Linkages in External Trade Negotiations’. Paper presented at The Symposium on The European Union: A Polity in Transformation and a Model of Transition in the Americas Miami European Union Center and the Jean Monnet Chair, University of Miami.
209 Camillo Gonsalves (5 November 2009) Statement to the United Nations General Assembly, 64th Session, 38th Plenary Meeting on International Drug Control. New York.
210 William Gilmore (1999) Dirty Money: The Evolution of Money Laundering Countermeasures. Strasburg: Council of Europe Publishing.
211 Thirty-four jurisdictions and two regional organisations were members: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, European Commission, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Gulf-Cooperation Council, Hong-Kong (China); Iceland, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kingdom of the Netherlands, Luxembourg; Mexico; New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States.
212 Valsamis Mitsilegas (2003) Money Laundering Counter-Measures in the European Union: A New Security Paradigm Versus Fundamental Legal Principles. The Hague: Kluwer Law [Page 149]International; David Garland (2001) The Culture of Control: Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, p452; Phil Williams and Ernesto Savona (1996) The United Nations and Transnational Organized Crime. London: Frank Cass, p44; James Sheptycki (2000) ‘Policing the Virtual Launderette: Money Laundering, New Technology and Global Governance’, in James Sheptycki (ed.) see fn 7, pp134–76; Peter Grabosky and Russell G. Smith (1998) Crime in the Digital Age: Controlling Telecommunications and Cyberspace Illegalities. Canberra, NSW: Federation Press.
213 URL: http://www.fas.org/irp/agency/ustreas/fincen/ops.htm (accessed 24 January 2011).
214 Mike Levi (2002) ‘Money Laundering and Its Regulation’. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 582(1): 181–94, doi: 10.1177/000271620258200113.
215 Mike Levi and Peter Reuter (2006) ‘Money Laundering’, in Michael Tonry (ed.) Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, 34: 289–375.
216 The UN has had a ‘high policing’ capacity more or less since its inception. The Security and Safety Section of the UN set up in 1946 tasked with protecting UN buildings and the security of UN staff overseas, comprised mainly of US military personnel. This body also had a role in the early days of the civilian police operations, though it is quite separate from the UN Police Division. A suicide truck-bomb attack on the UN Headquarters at the Canal Hotel in Baghdad on 19 August 2003 killing 22 UN staff and visitors and injuring more than 150 persons, exposed the vulnerability of UN missions in the ‘new security’ environment. In a 2004 General Assembly Resolution, the UN merged into a single security framework the security management component of the Office of the United Nations Security Coordinator, the Security and Safety Services (SSS) that secures headquarters and other offices, and the civilian security component of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations headed by an Under-Secretary-General. The only source we have found on this is Cecil T.J Redman (2004) From the Caribbean to the United Nations: International Security Is My Business. Shawville, Quebec: Life Profiles.
217 Beth Greener, The New International Policing, see fn 13; Alice Hills (2009) ‘The Possibility of Transnational Policing’, Policing and Society, 19(3): 300–17.
218 U. Thant, UN Secretary General (13 June 1963) ‘The Forgotten Agenda: Human Rights and Protection in Cold War Peacekeeping’, cited by Katarina Månsson (2005) ‘The Forgotten Agenda: Human Rights Protection and Promotion in Cold War Peacekeeping’. Journal of Conflict & Security Law, 10(3): 379–403; Beth Greener, The New International Policing, see fn 13, p1.
219 Duncan Chappell and John Evans (1997) The Role, Preparation and Performance of Civilian Police in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations. Vancouver: International Centre for Criminal Law Reform and Criminal Justice Policy.
220 UN Police website (accessed 9 February 2011).
221 UN Police Adviser Andrew Hughes (8 October 2008) ‘Organized Crime Threatens Peace Efforts, Top UN Police Official Warns Interpol’, in addressing INTERPOL's 77th General Assembly; ‘Combating Terrorism, Organized Crime Among UN Police Work, Says Top Adviser’, UN Police Division Press Release (12 February 2009).
222 Erwin Schmidl (ed.) (2000) Peace Operations Between War and Peace. London: Frank Cass; Ririn Mobekk (2005) Identifying Lessons in United Nations International Policing Missions. Geneva: DCAF.
223 Frank Gregory (1996) ‘The United Nations Provision of Policing Series (CIVPOL) within the Framework of “Peacekeeping” Operations: An Analysis of the Issues’. Policing and Society, 6(44): 145–61.
[Page 150]224 Elizabeth Wilmshurst (1999) ‘Jurisdiction of the Court’, in R.S. Lee (ed.) The International Criminal Court: The Making of the Rome Statute. The Hague: Kluwer Law International, p136.
225 ICC Assembly of State Parties (17 July 2009) Proposed Programme Budget for 2010 of the International Criminal Court, Eighth Session, 18–26 November 2009. The Hague: ICC-ASP/8/10.
226 Cherif Bassiouni and Christopher Blakesley (1992) ‘The Need for an International Criminal Court in the New World International Order’, Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 151.
227 Han-Ru Zhou, ‘The Enforcement of Arrest’, see fn 17.
228 Ibid., see fn 17.
229 Sherene Razack (2004) Dark Threats and White Knights: The Somalia Affair, Peacekeeping and the New Imperialism. Toronto: University Of Toronto Press, p42.
230 Other regional entities are set out in Table 1.2.
231 Malcolm Anderson et al., Policing the European Union, see fn 2.
232 Ibid., see fn 2, p12–13.
233 Eugene McLaughlin (1992) ‘The Democratic Deficit: European Union and the Accountability of the British Police’. British Journal of Criminology, 32(4): 473–87; Ian Loader (2002) ‘Governing European Policing: Some Problems, and Prospects’. Policing and Society, 12(4): 291–305.
234 Monica den Boer and Willy Bruggeman (2007) ‘Shifting Gear: Europol in the Contemporary Policing Era’. Politique européenne, 3(23): 77–91; Monica den Boer (2002) ‘Towards an Accountability Regime for an Emerging European Policing Governance’. Policing and Society, 12(4): 275–90; James Sheptycki, In Search of Transnational Policing, see fn 90.
235 Björn Müller-Wille (2006) ‘Improving the Democratic Accountability of EU Intelligence’. Intelligence and National Security, 21(1): 100–28.
236 James Sheptycki (2001) ‘Patrolling the New European (In)Security Field: Organisational Dilemmas and Operational Solutions for Policing the Internal Borders of Europe’. European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, 9(2): 144–60.
237 Thomas Mathieson (2000) ‘On the Globalisation of Social Control: Towards an Integrated Surveillance System in Europe’, in P. Green and A. Rutherford (eds) Criminal Policy in Transition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p175.
238 Malcolm Anderson et al., Policing the European Union, see fn 2, p175 and 179; Pete Gill (1994) Policing Politics: Security Intelligence and the Liberal Democratic State. London: Frank Cass.
239 James Sheptycki, ‘Patrolling the New European (In)Security Field’, see fn 236, quote p156–7.
240 M.C. Ricklefs, Bruce Lockhart, Alberrt Lau, Portia Reyes and Maitrii Aung-Thwin (2010) A New History of South East Asia. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
241 Peter Katzenstein (2005) A World of Regions, Asia Europe in the American Imperium. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
242 M.C. Ricklefs et al., A New History of South East Asia, see fn 240.
243 James Findlay (2008) ‘Global Terror and Organised Crime: Symbiotic or Synonymous?’. Asian Journal of Criminology, 3(1): 75–89.
244 Nicholas Dorn and Michael Levi (2008) ‘East Meets West in Anti-Money Laundering and Anti-Terrorist Finance: Policy Dialogue and Differentiation on Security, the Timber Trade and “Alternative” Banking’. Asian Journal of Criminology, 3(1): 91–110.
245 Ko-Lin Chin (2009) The Golden Triangle: Inside Southeast Asia's Drug Trade. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
[Page 151]246 Chin's ethnographic work is verified by the research of others. See for example C. Grundy-Warr, R. King and G. Risser (1996) Cross-Border Migration, Trafficking and the Sex Industry: Thailand and Its Neighbours. Durham: International Boundaries Research Unit IBRU Research Bulletin. More than a decade prior to Chin's field work they observed that trans-border illicit markets represented a growing problem in a part of the world when formerly ideological and alienating borders suddenly became critical crossing-points for businesses and communities.
247 Roderic Broadhurst (2009) ‘Book Review: Ko-Lin Chin The Golden Triangle: Inside Southeast Asia's Drug Trade’. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 42(3): 423–7.
248 David Garland (2001) The Culture of Control: Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
249 James Sheptycki (2009) ‘Transnationalisation, Orientalism and Crime’. Asian Journal of Criminology, 3(1): 13–35; Jonathon Simon (2009) Governing through Crime: How the War on Crime Transformed American Democracy and Created a Culture of Fear. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
250 Ko-Lin Chin (2003) Heijin: Organized Crime, Business, and Politics in Taiwan. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe; James Finckenaeur and Ko-Lin Chin (2007) Asian Transnational Organized Crime. New York: Nova Science Publishers.
251 Monica de Boer and Patrick Doelle (2002) ‘Converge or Not to Converge… That's the Question: A Comparative Analysis of Europeanisation Trends in Criminal Justice Organisations’, in M. den Boer (ed.) Organised Crime: A Catalyst in the Europeanisation of National Police Agencies? Maastricht: European Institute of Public Administration, pp1–71.
252 Ben Bowling and James Ross (2006) ‘The Serious Organised Crime Agency: Should We Be Afraid?’. Criminal Law Review, DEC: 1019–1034, quote taken from p1031.
253 Gregory Treverton, Reorganising US Domestic Intelligence, see fn 174, quotes from pp25–7.
254 Ibid., see fn 174, quotes from pp25–7.
255 Ibid., see fn 174, pp25–7.
256 Kevin Haggerty and Richard Ericson, ‘The Surveillant Assemblage’, see fn 92.
257 US Department of Justice, Audit Report 09–35, see fn 195.
258 James Sheptycki (2004) ‘Organisational Pathologies in Police Intelligence Systems: Some Contributions to the Lexicon of Intellience-led Policing’. European Journal of Criminology, 1(3): 307–32.
259 Robert Reiner, The Politics of the Police, see fn 63.
260 Alice Hills (2009) Policing Post-Conflict Cities. London: Zed Books; M. Hinton (2008) Policing Developing Democracies. London: Routledge; D. Bayley (2006) Changing the Guard: Developing Democratic Police Abroad. Oxford: Oxford University Press; Philip Stenning (2007) ‘Review of The State on the Streets, by Mercedes Hinton and Changing the Guard, by David Bayley’. British Journal of Criminology, 47(2): 346–50.
261 Personal communication to authors.
262 Rita Abrahamsen and Michael Williams, Security Beyond the State, see fn 164; Graham Ellison and Conor O'Reilly, ‘Eye Spy Private High: Reconceptualising High Policing Theory’, see fn 164; Les Johnston and Clifford Shearing (2003) Governing Security: Exploration in Policing and Justice. London: Routledge; Les Johnston (2000) ‘Transnational Private Policing: The Impact of Global Commercial Security’, in James Sheptycki (ed.) see fn 7, p21–42; Conor O'Reilly, Policing Global Risks, see fn 91; Clifford Shearing (1992) ‘The Relations Between Public and Private Policing’, in Michael Tonry and Norval Morris (eds) Modern Policing, see fn 155, pp399–434; [Page 152]Shearing and Stenning, ‘From the Panopticon to Disney World’, see fn 91; Clifford Shearing and David Bayley (1996) ‘The Future of Policing’. Law and Society Review, 30(3): 585–606; Jennifer Wood and Benoît Dupont (eds) (2006) Democracy, Society and the Governance of Security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
263 Rita Abrahamsen and Michael Williams, Security Beyond the State, see fn 164, p19–20.
264 Peter Kraska (2004) Theorizing Criminal Justice. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press, pp14–15.
265 Rita Abrahamsen and Michael Williams, Security Beyond the State, see fn 164, pp82–4; see also Les Johnston and Clifford Shearing, Governing Security, see fn 262; Jennifer Wood and Benoît Dupont (eds), Democracy, Society and the Governance of Security, see fn 262.
266 Graham Ellison and Conor O'Reilly, ‘Eye Spy Private High: Reconceptualising High Policing Theory’, see fn 164.
267 Ian Bannon and Paul Collier (2003) Natural Resources and Violent Conflict: Options and Actions. Washington DC: International Bank for Reconstruction/The Word Bank, pp166–7; C. Kinsey (2006) Corporate Soldiers and International Security: The Rise of Private Military Companies. London: Routledge, pp125–7; S. Sawyer and E.T. Gomez (2008) Transnational Governmentality and Resource Extraction: Indigenous Peoples, Multinational Corporations, Multilateral Institutions and the State. United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, Conflict and Cohesion Paper No. 13; David Szablowski (2007) Transnational Law and Local Struggles: Mining Communities and the World Bank. Oxford: Hart Publishing; Human Rights Watch, Crackdown in the Niger Delta, see fn 182; Human Rights Watch, Rivers and Blood, see fn 182.
268 B. Whitaker (1964) The Police. London: Penguin Books. This author advocated a progression towards regional police forces, suggesting there be nine, as a means of improving police effectiveness and efficiency in an era of increasingly mobile problems of crime and disorder.
269 Tim John and Mike Maguire (2004) The National Intelligence Model: Key Lessons from Early Research. Home Office Online Report 30/04; James Sheptycki (2002) Review of the Influence of Strategic Intelligence on Organized Crime Policy and Practice. Home Office Special Interest Paper No. 14. London: Home Office.
270 R. Evans and P. Lewis, ‘Met Counter-terrorism Chief to Take Over Protest Spy Unit’. Guardian 25 January 2011.
271 James Sheptycki (2007) ‘Police Ethnography in the House of Serious Organized Crime’, in A. Henry and D.J. Smith (eds) Transformations of Policing. Aldershot: Ashgate, pp51–78, esp. pp51–3.
272 James Sheptycki (2003) ‘The Governance of Organised Crime in Canada’, The Canadian Journal of Sociology, 28(3): 489–517, quote p510.
273 Ben Bowling, Policing the Caribbean, see fn 12, pp106–11.
274 Janet Chan (2001) ‘The Technological Game: How Information Technology Is Transforming Police Practice’. Criminal Justice, 1(2): 139–59; Janet Chan (2003) ‘Police and New Technologies’, in Tim Newburn (ed.) The Handbook of Policing. Cullompton: Willan, pp655–79.
275 Clive Harfield (2008) ‘The Organization of “Organized Crime Policing” and its International Context’. Criminology and Criminal Justice, 8(4): 483–507, esp. p500.
276 Katharyne Mitchell and Katherine Beckett (2008) ‘Securing the Global City: Crime, Consulting, Risk, and Ratings in the Production of Urban Space’. Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, 15(1): 75–100.
277 Richard V. Ericson and Clifford Shearing (1986) ‘The Scientification of Police Work’, in G. Böhme and N. Stehr (eds) The Knowledge Society. Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publishing Co.
[Page 153]278 Ben Bowling (1999) ‘The Rise and Fall of New York Murder: Zero Tolerance or Crack's Decline’. British Journal of Criminology, 39(4): 531–54; Andrew Karmen (2000) New York Murder Mystery. New York: NYU Press; Andrew Golub, Bruce Johnson and Eloise Dunlap (2007) ‘The Race/Ethnicity Disparity in Misdemeanour Marijuana Arrests in New York City’. Criminology and Public Policy, 6(1): 131–64; Bernard E. Harcourt and Jens Ludwig (2007) ‘Reefer Madness: Broken Windows Policing and Misdemeanour Marijuana Arrests in New York City, 1989–2000’. Criminology and Public Policy, 6(1): 165–82. Maurice Punch (2007) Zero Tolerance Policing. Bristol: Policy Press.
279 Vincent E. Henry (2002) ‘The Need for a Coordinated and Strategic Local Police Approach to Terrorism: A Practitioner's Perspective’. Police Practice and Research, 3(4): 31–336.
280 Vincent E. Henry (2003) The Compstat Paradigm: Management Accountability in Policing, Business and the Public Sector. New York: Looseleaf Law Publications, esp. ch. 8 ‘Beyond Policing: Applying Compstat in Security Management’.
281 He subsequently left the NYPD to become Chief of the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) where he remained until 2009. At that time he publicly announced that he would be joining a private security firm based in New York City.
282 Diane E. Davis (2008) ‘The Giuliani Factor: Crime, Zero Tolerance Policing and the Transformation of the Public Sphere in Downtown Mexico City’, in Gareth A. Jones (ed.) Public Sphere and Public Space in Mexico. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
283 Letta Tayler, ‘Giuliani's Crime Plan for Mexico City a Work in Progress’. The Seattle Times 11 August 2004.
284 Chris Hawley, ‘Crime Fuels Demand for Security in Mexico’. USA Today 5 August 2007, World Section.
285 F. Mena and Dick Hobbs (2010) ‘Narcophobia: Drugs Prohibition and the Generation of Human Rights Abuses’. Trends in Organised Crime, 13: 60–74; Julia Buxton (2006) The Political Economy of Narcotics: Production, Consumption and Global Markets. London: Zed Books.
286 Kees Koonings and Dirk Kruijt (2007) Fractured Cities: Social Exclusion, Urban Violence in Latin America. London: Zed Books; Alice Hills Policing Post-Conflict Cities, see fn 260; Teresa Caldeira (2000) City of Walls: Crime, Segregation and Citizenship in São Paulo. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press; M. Davis (1992) City of Quartz. London: Vintage.
287 Didier Bigo (2000) ‘Liaison Officers in Europe: New Officers in the European Security Field’, in James Sheptycki (ed.) Issues in Transnational Policing, see fn 7, p67 and 77.
288 James Sheptycki (1998) ‘Police Co-operation in the English Channel Region 1968–1996’. European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, 6(3): 216–36; James Sheptycki, ‘Patrolling the New European (In)Security Field’, see fn 236; Detlef Nogala (2001) ‘Policing Across a Dimorphous Border: Challenge and Innovation at the French–German Border’, European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, 9(2): 130–43.
289 Didier Bigo, ‘Liaison Officers in Europe’, see fn 287, p67.
290 Ibid., see fn 287, p75.
291 Ibid., see fn 287, p75.
292 Ben Bowling, Policing the Caribbean, see fn 12, ch8. NB: the acronym FCO stands for Foreign and Commonwealth Office.
293 BBC; Profile Mark Shields; Omar Anderson, ‘Not Guilty: Adams, Cops Walk Free’. Jamaica Gleaner 21 December 2005.
294 Marc Alain, ‘The Trapeze Artists…’, see fn 173.
295 Robert Reiner, ‘Police and Policing’, see fn 100.
[Page 154]296 David Downes and Paul Rock (2003) Understanding Deviance, 4th edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press; David Downes (1966) The Delinquent Solution. New York: The Free Press; S. Hall, C. Critcher, T. Jefferson, J.N. Clarke and B. Roberts (1978) Policing the Crisis: Mugging, the State and Law and Order. London: Palgrave MacMillan; J. Ferrell, K. Hayward and Jock Young (2008) Cultural Criminology: An Invitation. London: Sage.
297 James Sheptycki (2007) ‘High Policing and the Security Control Society’. Policing, 1(1): 70–9.
298 Peter Andreas and Ethan Nadelmann, Policing the Globe, see fn 127, p232.
299 Robert Reiner, The Politics of the Police, see fn 63, pp118–21.
300 Ethan Nadelmann, Cops Across Borders, see fn 2, p110.
301 Robert Reiner, The Politics of the Police, see fn 63, pp115–38.
302 W.I. Thomas and D.S. Thomas (1928) The Child in America: Behavior Problems and Programs. New York: Knopf, pp571–72, cited by Jock Young (1971) The Drug Takers: The Social Meaning of Drug Use. London: McGibbon and Kee.
303 David Downes (1966) The Delinquent Solution: A Study in Subcultural Theory. London: Collier-Macmillan: Free Press, pp1–10.
304 This general point has been made by many police researchers including James Q. Wilson (1968) Varieties of Police Behavior. Robert Reiner (2010) provides a detailed overview (see fn 63) as does John Kleinig, The Ethics of Policing, see fn 43, pp77–80. See also Monique Marks (2000) ‘Transforming Police Organizations from Within’. British Journal of Criminology, 40(4): 557–73; E. Paes-Machado and C.L. De Albuquerque (2002) ‘Jungle ID: Educational Reform Inside the Brazilian Paramilitary Police’. Policing and Society, 13(1): 59–78; N. Conti (2010) ‘A Visigoth System: Shame, Honor and Police Socialization’. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 39: 187–214.
305 Robert Reiner (2010) The Politics of the Police see fn 63, pp119–20; John Kleinig, The Ethics of Policing, see fn 43, pp77–80.
306 A useful distinction has been drawn between ‘on the job trouble’ – referring to police organisational difficulties – and ‘in the job trouble’, which refers to the fallout from contentious operations. See P. Waddington (2003) ‘Policing Public Order and Political Contention’, in Tim Newburn (ed.) Handbook of Policing. Cullompton: Willan.
307 Jerome Skolnick (1966) Justice Without Trial: Law Enforcement in Democratic Society. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
308 Maurice Punch (2009) Police Corruption: Deviance, Accountability and Reform in Policing. London: Willan.
309 Egon Bittner (1967) ‘Police Discretion in Emergency Apprehension of Mentally Ill Persons’. Social Problems, 14: 279–92; Egon Bittner (1974) ‘Florence Nightingale in Pursuit of Willie Sutton: A Theory of Police’, see fn 34.
310 Egon Bittner (1970) The Functions of Police in Modern Society. Oelgeschlager: Gunn & Hain, p56
311 One interesting take on this literature is P.A.J. Waddington (1999) ‘Police (Canteen) Sub-Culture: An Appreciation’. British Journal of Criminology, 39(2): 287–309; see also Janet Chan (1996) ‘Changing Police Culture’. The British Journal of Criminology, 36(1): 109–34.
312 William Muir (1979) Police; Streetcorner Politicians, see fn 37, p48.
313 Elizabeth Reuss-Ianni (1983) Two Cultures of Policing: Street Cops and Management Cops. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.
314 George Rigakos (2002) The New Parapolice: Risk Markets and the Commodification of Social Control. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
315 Monique Marks (2005) Transforming the Robocops: Changing Police in South Africa. Durban: University of Kwazulu-Natal Press; Laura Huey (2007) Negotiating Demands:[Page 155]The Politics of Skid Row Policing in Edinburgh, San Francisco and Vancouver. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
316 Philip Stenning, Christopher Birkbeck, Otto Adang, David Baker, Thomas Feltes, Luis Gerardo Gabaldón, Maki Haberfeld, Eduardo Paes Machado and P. A. J. Waddington (2009) ‘Researching the Use of Force: The Background to the International Project’. Crime, Law and Social Change, 52(2): 95–110; J. Skolnick and J. Fyfe (1993) Above the Law: Police and Excessive Use of Force. New York: The Free Press.
317 Janet Chan, D. Brereton, M. Legosz and S. Soran (2001) E-Policing: The Impact of Information Technology on Police Practices. Brisbane: Queensland Criminal Justice.
318 Manuel Castells, The Rise of the Network Society, see fn 115, pp164–6.
319 Peter Manning (2008) The Technology of Policing: Crime Mapping, Information Technology and the Rationality of Crime Control. New York: New York University Press.
320 Bridgette Wessels (2007) Inside the Digital Revolution: Policing and Changing Communication with the Police. Aldershot: Ashgate. Chapters 6 and 7 tell the story of a European Union funded project with the London Metropolitan Police Service for the adoption of advanced telematics communications between police and public ‘in the delivery of services, the dissemination of information, and the interactive provision of advice and support’ (p15). This account provides insights into the way ICT is configured within the police occupational culture.
321 Jerry H. Ratcliffe, ‘Intelligence-led Policing…’, see fn 160, pp53–66.
322 Nina Cope (2004) ‘Intelligence-led Policing or Policing-led Intelligence: Integrating Volume Crime Analysis into Policing’. British Journal of Criminology, 44: 188–203.
323 James Sheptycki (2004) ‘Organizational Pathologies in Police Intelligence Systems: Some Contributions to the Lexicon of Intelligence-led Policing’. The European Journal of Criminology, 1(3): 307–32.
324 S. Herbert (2006) ‘Police Subculture Reconsidered’. Criminology, 36(2): 343–70; Narayanan Ganapathy (2005) ‘Theorizing Police Response to Domestic Violence in the Singaporean Context: Police Subculture Revisited’. Journal of Criminal Justice, 33(5): 429–39.
325 E.A. Paoline (2003) ‘Taking Stock: Toward a Richer Understanding of Police Culture’. Journal of Criminal Justice, 31(3): 199–214.
326 Martin Innes and James Sheptycki (2004) ‘From Detection to Disruption: Intelligence and the Changing Logic of Police Crime Control in the United Kingdom’. International Criminal Justice Review, 14: 1–24.
327 Richard Ericson and Kevin Haggerty, Policing the Risk Society, see fn 41.
328 Roger Grimshaw and Tony Jefferson (1984) Interpreting Policework. London: Allen & Unwin.
329 M. Marks (2004) ‘Researching Police Transformation the Ethnographic Imperative’. British Journal of Criminology, 44(6): 866–88.
330 Richard V. Ericson (1994) ‘The Royal Commission on Criminal Justice System Surveillance’, in M. McConville and L. Bridges (eds) Criminal Justice in Crisis. Aldershot: Edward Elgar; Richard V. Ericson (1994) ‘The Division of Expert Knowledge in Policing and Security’. British Journal of Sociology, 5(2): 149–76.
331 Peter K. Manning and John van Maanen (1978) Policing: A View from the Street. New York: Random House; Peter K. Manning, The Narc's Game, see fn 67; Ethan Nadelmann (1987) ‘The DEA in Latin America: Dealing with Institutionalized Corruption’. Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, 29(4): 1–39.
332 Police researchers have also used the dramaturgical metaphor to categorise variations in cop culture. For example, Rober Reiner's (The Politics of the Police, see fn 63, [Page 156]pp132–4) categories include (i) the bobby, (ii) the new centurion, (iii) the uniform carrier, and (iv) the professional. Kleinig's (1996, see fn. 43) categories of role types are (a) the crimefighter, (b) the emergency operator, (c) the social enforcer, and (d) the social peacekeeper.
333 S. Leman-Langlois (2008) Technocrime. Cullompton: Willan.
334 M. Peterson (2005) Intelligence-Led Policing: The New Intelligence Architecture. US Department of Justice: International Associations of Chiefs of Police.
335 Haggety and Ericson, ‘The Surveillant Assemblage’, see fn 92.
336 C. Norris and G. Armstrong (1999) The Maximum Surveillance Society; The Rise of CCTV. Oxford: Berg Publishers.
337 G. Armstrong, C. Norris and J. Moran (eds) (1999) Surveillance, CCTV and Social Control. Aldershot: Ashgate.
338 Mike Maguire and Tim John (2006) ‘Intelligence Led Policing, Managerialism and Community Engagement: Competing Priorities and the Role of the National Intelligence Model in the UK’. Policing and Society, 16(1): 67–85.
339 Martin Innes (2003) Investigative Murder; Detective Work and the Police Response to Criminal Homicide. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
340 A. Henry and D.J. Smith (2007) Transformations of Policing, see fn 271.
341 James Sheptycki (2004) ‘Organizational Pathologies in Police Intelligence Systems: Some Contributions to the Lexicon of Intelligence-led Policing’. The European Journal of Criminology, 1(3): 307–32.
342 Ben Bowling, Amber Marks and Cian Murphy (2009) ‘Crime Control Technologies’, in R. Brownsword and K. Yeung (eds) Regulating Technologies. Oxford: Hart.
343 But see B. McRae and D. Hubert (2001) Human Security and the New Diplomacy: Protecting People, Promoting Peace. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, which looks at policing in weak, failing or failed states from a critical security studies perspective.
344 James Sheptycki, ‘The Global Cops Cometh’, see fn 98, p68.
345 James Sheptycki (1997) ‘Upholding the Boundaries of Order; The Mounties, Serial Sex Crime and the Transnational Pursuit of Serial Killers’. The British Journal of Canadian Studies, 12(2): 257–72.
346 See P.A.J. Waddington (1999) ‘Police (Canteen) Sub-Culture: An Appreciation’. British Journal of Criminology, 39(2): 287–309, esp. p302, and the distinction between ‘in the job’ and ‘on the job’ trouble.
347 Ben Bowling, Policing the Caribbean, see fn 12.
348 Peter K. Manning and John van Maanen, Policing: A View from the Street, see fn 331; Peter K. Manning, The Narc's Game, see fn 67.
349 Bernd Belina and Gesa Helms (2003) ‘Zero Tolerance for the Industrial Past and Other Threats: Policing and Urban Entrepreneurialism in Britain and Germany’. Urban Studies, 40(9): 1845–67.
350 Ari Agut (2004) ‘Scandal as Norm Entrepreneurship Strategy: Corruption and the French Investigating Magistrates’. Theory and Society, 33(5): 529–78.
351 David Musto (1999) The American Disease: Origins of Narcotic Control, 3rd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp210–14.
352 R. Smith (2009) ‘Entrepreneurship, Police Leadership and the Investigation of Crime in Changing Times’. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 5(3): 209–25.
353 Dick Hobbs (1991) ‘A Piece of Business: The Moral Economy of Detective Work in the East-End of London’. The British Journal of Sociology, 42(4): 597–608, quote p597.
354 Aaron Doyle (2003) Arresting Images: Crime and Policing in Front of the Television Camera. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press.
[Page 157]355 Willem De Lint (2002) ‘Autonomy, Regulation and the Police Beat’, Social and Legal Studies: An International Journal, 11: 475–502.
356 V. Packard (1957/2007) The Hidden Persuaders. Brooklyn, NY: IG Publishing.
357 Peter Manning (1992) Organizational Communication. New York: Aldine de Gruyter, p149.
358 Willem De Lint, Sirpa Virta and John Edward Deukmedjian (2007) ‘The Simulation of Crime Control: A Shift in Policing?’. American Behaviour Scientist, 50(12): 1631–47, esp. p1636.
359 Kent Roach (1999) Due Process and Victim's Rights: The New Law and Politics of Criminal Justice. Toronto: University of Toronto Press; M. Beare (2008) Honouring Social Justice. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
360 J. Ransley, J. Anderson and T. Prenzler (2007) ‘Civil Litigation Against Police in Australia: Exploring its Extent, Nature, and Implications for Accountability’. Australia and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 40(2): 143–60.
361 A. Leong (2007) The Disruption of International Organised Crime: An Analysis of Legal and Non-legal Strategies. Aldershot: Ashgate.
362 Anne O'Rourke, Vivek Chaudhri and Chris Nylan (2005) ‘Torture, Slippery Slopes, Intellectual Apologists and Ticking Bombs’. University of San Francisco Law Review, 40(85): 85–105.
363 Doreen McBarnet (1981) Conviction. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press; Conor Gearty (2007) ‘Rethinking Civil Liberties in a Counter-Terrorism World’. European Human Rights Law Review, 2: 111–19.
364 Cyrille Fijnaut and Gary Marx, Undercover: Police Surveillance in Comparative Perspective, see fn 67.
365 Gary Marx (forthcoming) ‘Review: Snitching, Criminal Informants and the Erosion of American Justice’. Theoretical Criminology; Home Office (2002/2007) Covert Human Intelligence Sources; Code of Practice: Pursuant to Section 71 of the Regulations of Investigatory Powers Act 2000. London: The Stationery Office.
366 Roger Billingsley (2009) Covert Human Intelligence: The ‘Unlovely’ Face of Policework. Hampshire, UK: Waterside Press.
367 Tony Bunyan (1977) The History and Practice of the Policing Police in Britain. London: Quartet Books; M. Mazower, The Policing of Politics…, see fn 6.
368 Nick Fyfe and J. Sheptycki (2006) ‘International Trends in the Facilitation of Witness Co-operation in Organized Crime Cases’. The European Journal of Criminology, 3(3): 319–55.
369 James Sheptycki (2010) ‘Book Review: Covert Human Intelligence: A View from the Police, Roger Billingsley (ed.) Covert Human Intelligence Sources: The ‘Unlovely Face of Police Work’, Hampshire, UK: Waterside Press, 2009’. Crime Law and Social Change, 53: 205–6.
370 J.A. Barnes (1994) A Pack of Lies: Towards a Sociology of Lying. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
371 J.-P. Brodeur (1984) ‘Policing Beyond 1984’. The Canadian Journal and Sociology, 9(2): 195–207; Richard V. Ericson (1981) ‘Rules for Police Deviance’, in Clifford D. Shearing (ed.) Organizational Police Deviance: Its Structure and Control. Toronto: Butterworths, pp83–110; Richard V. Ericson (2007) Crime in an Insecure World. Cambridge: Polity.
372 J.-P. Brodeur (2007) ‘High and Low Policing in Post-9/11 Times’. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, 1(1): 25–37.
373 Egon Bittner, ‘The Police on Skid Row’, see fn 71; David Weisburd, Stephen D. Mastrofski, James J. Willis and Rosann Greenspan (2006) ‘Changing Everything So [Page 158]That Everything Can Remain the Same: Compstat and American Policing’, in David Weisburd and Anthony Braga (eds) Prospects and Problems in an Era of Police Innovation: Contrasting Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp284–301.
374 William Muir, Police: Streetcorner Politicians, see fn 37.
375 H. Goldstein (1979) ‘Improving Policing: A Problem-Oriented Approach’. Crime and Delinquency, 25: 236–58; H. Goldstein (1990) Problem-Oriented Policing. New York: McGraw-Hill.
376 Ben Bowling (1998) Policing Violent Racism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, esp. p121.
377 R.J. Chaskin (2001) ‘Building Community Capacity: A Definitional Framework and Case Studies from a Comprehensive Community Initiative. Urban Affairs Review, 36(3): 291–323.
378 G. Berkeley (1969) The Democratic Policeman. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
379 William Muir, Police: Streetcorner Politicians, see fn 37. This role-type is sometimes referred to as the ‘crime fighter’ or ‘new centurion’; Robert Reiner, The Politics of the Police, see fn 63.
380 Quoted in James Sheptycki, ‘The Global Cops Cometh’, see fn 98, p69.
381 James Sheptycki, ‘Book Review: Covert Human Intelligence’, see fn 369, pp298–319.
382 John Kleinig, The Ethics of Policing, see fn 43, pp24–5.
383 Jerome Skolnick and James Fyfe (1993) Above the Law: Police and the Excessive Use of Force. New York: Free Press.
384 John-Paul Brodeur (1998) How to Recognize Good Policing: Problems and Issues. Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum.
385 K. Dowler, T. Fleming and S.L. Muzzatti (2007) ‘Constructing Crime: Media, Crime and Popular Culture’. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 48(6): 837–50.
386 J. Flyghed (2002) ‘Normalizing the Exceptional: The Case of Political Violence’. Policing and Society, 13(1): 23–41; J. Moran (2007) ‘Generating More Heat than Light? Debates on Civil Liberties in the UK’. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, 1(1): 80–93.
387 Janet Chan (1997) Changing Police Culture: Policing in a Multicultural Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; P.A.J. Waddington, ‘Police (Canteen) Subculture’, see fn 346.
388 Robert Reiner, The Politics of the Police, see fn 63, p89; Frances Heidensohn (1992) Women in Control? The Role of Women in Law Enforcement. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
389 Howard Becker (1963) Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance. New York: Free Press; S. Cohen (2002) Folk Devils and Moral Panics: 30th Anniversary Edition. London: Routledge; Stan Cohen and Jock Young (1973) The Manufacture of News: Social Problems, Deviance and the Mass Media. London: Constable; D. Hebdige (1979) Subculture: The Meaning of Style. London: Routledge; Hall et al., Policing the Crisis, see fn 296; Nils Christie, ‘Suitable enemy’, see fn 166; L. Wacquant (1999) ‘“Suitable Enemies”: Foreigners and Immigrants in the Prisons of Europe’. Punishment and Society, 1(2): 215–22; J. Ferrell, K. Hayward and J. Young (2008) Cultural Criminology: An Introduction. London: Sage, p4.
390 Stan Cohen, Folk Devils and Moral Panics, see fn 389; Cohen and Young, The Manufacture of News, see fn 389.
391 Stuart Hall et al., Policing the Crisis, see fn 296.
392 James Q. Wilson (1968) Varieties of Police Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; Doreen McBarnet (1982) ‘Legal Form and Legal Mystification’. International Journal of the Sociology of Law, 10: 409–17.
[Page 159]393 Robert Reiner, The Politics of the Police, see fn 63, p117, S.D. Mastrofski (2004) ‘Controlling Street-Level Discretion’. The Annals, 593: 100–18.
394 M. Beare and T. Murray (2007) Police and Government Relations: Who's Calling the Shots. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
395 Ibid., see fn 394, p18 and pp183–256.
396 Ibid., see fn 394, p18.
397 David Dixon (1997) Law in Policing: Legal Regulation and Police Practices. Oxford: Oxford University Press; Tony Jefferson and Roger Grimshaw (1984) Controlling the Constable. London: Allen & Unwin; Roger Grimshaw and Tony Jefferson (1984) Interpreting Policework. London: Allen & Unwin.
398 Kent Roach (1999) Due Process and Victim's Rights: The New Law and Politics of Criminal Justice. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
399 Ibid., p17.
400 Geoffrey Marshall (1978) ‘Police Accountability Revisited’, in D. Butler and A.H. Halsey (eds) Policy and Politics. London: Macmillan. Reprinted in Tim Newburn (ed.) (2004) Policing: Key Readings. Collumpton: Willan.
401 Clifford Shearing (2002) ‘A Nodal Conception of Governance: Thoughts on a Policing Commission’. Policing and Society, 11(3–4): 259–72; Mike Brogden (2002) ‘The Patten Report: A Unitary Solution to a Multi-dimensional Problem?’ Policing and Society, 11(3–4): 273–95; M. Beirne (2002) ‘Progress or Placebo? The Patten Report and the Future of Policing in Northern Ireland’. Policing and Society, 11(3–4): 297–319.
402 Ian Loader (2000) ‘Plural Policing and Democratic Governance’. Social Legal Studies, 9(3): 323–45; David Bayley and Clifford Shearing (2001) The New Structure of Policing: Description, Conceptualization and Research Agenda, a Research Report. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice; Jennifer Wood and Benoît Dupont (eds) Democracy, Society and the Governance of Security, see fn 262; Phillip Stenning (2009) ‘Governance and Accountability in a Plural Policing Environment – the Story So far’. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, 3(1): 22–33.
403 Clifford Shearing and Les Johnston (2010) ‘Nodal Wars and Network Fallacies: A Genealogical Analysis of Global Insecurities’. Theoretical Criminology, 14(4): 495–514.
404 Sam Walker (2005) The New World of Police Accountability. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage; A. Goldsmith and C. Lewis (2000) Civilian Oversight of Policing: Governance, Democracy and Human Rights. Oxford: Hart.
405 Thomas Mathiesen (1997) ‘The Viewer Society: Foucault's Panopticon Revisited’. Theoretical Criminology, 1(2): 215–34.
406 Sam Walker, The New World of Police Accountability, see fn 404, p42.
407 Didier Bigo, ‘Liaison Officers in Europe’, see fn 287, p85.
408 Malcolm Anderson, Policing the European Union, see fn 2. p. 52.
409 Ibid., p. 66.
410 Marshall, Police Accountability Revisited, see fn 400.
411 Robert Reiner, The Politics of the Police, see fn 63, pp116–18.
412 Suzanne Krasmann argues that an ‘enemy penology’ has developed within theories of criminal law more generally based on a narrative about crime that sees its subject not as criminals but enemies who, rather than being brought to justice, must be ‘combated [and] excluded, if not extinguished’: S. Krasmann (2007) ‘The Enemy on the Border: Critique of a Programme in Favour of a Preventive State’. Punishment and Society, 9(3): 301–18.
413 Katja Franko Aas (2007) ‘Analysing a World in Motion. Global Flows Meet “Criminology of the other”’. Theoretical Criminology, 11(2): 283–303, p292; N. Wonders (2006) ‘Global Flows, Semi-Permeable Borders and New Channels of [Page 160]Inequality’, in Sharon Pickering and Leanne Weber (eds) Borders, Mobility and Technologies of Control. Amsterdam: Springer, pp63–86.
414 Leanne Weber and Ben Bowling (2008) ‘Valiant Beggars and Global Vagabonds: Select, Eject, Immobilize’. Theoretical Criminology, 12(3): 355–75.
415 Karine Côté-Boucher (2008) ‘The Diffuse Border: Intelligence-Sharing, Control and Confinement along Canada's Smart Border’. Surveillance and Society, 5(2): 142–65.
416 Source for Figure 5.1: Leanne Weber and Ben Bowling (2004) ‘Policing Migration: A Framework for Investigating the Regulation of Global Mobility’. Policing & Society, 14(3): 195–212.
417 V. Carty (2004) ‘Transnational Labor Mobilizing in Two Mexican Maquiladoras: The Struggle for Democratic Globalization’. Mobilization: An International Quarterly, 9(3): 295–310; Diana Washington Valdez (2006) The Killing Fields: Harvest of Women. Burbank, California: Peace at the Border; Mark Bowden (2010) Murder City: Ciudad Juarez and the Global Economy's New Killing Fields. New York: Nation Books.
418 Julie Erfani and A. Murphy (2007) ‘Whose Security? Dilemmas of US Border Security in the Arizona-Sonora Borderlands’, in Emmanuel Brunet-Janilly (ed.) Comparing Border Security in North America and Europe. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, pp41–74.
419 Matthew Sparke, James D. Sidaway, Tim Bunnell and Carl Grundy-Warr (2004) ‘Triangulating the Borderless World: Globalisation, Regionalisation and the Geographies of Power in the Indonesia–Malaysia–Singapore Growth Triangle’. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 29(4): 485–98; Tim Bunnell, James D. Sidaway and Carl Grundy-Warr (2006) ‘Introduction: Re-Mapping the Growth Triangle: Singapore's Cross-Border Hinterland’. Asia Pacific Viewpoint, 47(2): 235–40.
420 E.F. Isin and K. Rygiel (2007) ‘Of Other Global Cities: Frontiers, Zones, Camps’, in H. Wimmen (ed.) Cities and Globalization: Challenges for Citizenship. London: Saqi Books, p170–209.
421 D. O'Rourke and J. Sheptycki (2011) ‘Existential Predicaments and Constabulary Ethics’, in R. Lippens and J. Hardie-Bick (eds) Crime, Governance and Existential Predicaments. London: Routledge.
422 Peter Andreas (2009) Border Games: Policing the US–Mexico Divide. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, pxi.
423 I.C.B. Dear and Peter Kemp (2005) Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
424 Peter Singer (2002) One World. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press; A. Boyle (1991) ‘Saving the World? Implementation and Enforcement of International Environmental Law Through International Institutions’. Journal of Environmental Law, 3(2): 229–45.
425 Martin Murphy (2009) Small Boats, Weak States, Dirty Money: Piracy and Maritime Terrorism in the Modern World. London: Hirst & Co.; John S. Barnett (2002) Dangerous Waters: Modern Piracy and Terror on the High Seas. London: Plume/Penguin; William Langewiesche (2007) The Outlaw Sea: Chaos and Crime on the World's Oceans. London: Granta; Jon Vagg (1995) ‘Rough Seas? Contemporary Piracy in South East Asia (Riau Archipelago, Indonesia)’. British Journal of Criminology, 35(1): 63–80; Jon Vagg (1997) ‘Piracy, Corruption and the Rule of Law’, Trends in Organised Crime, 3(4): 72–6.
426 Peter Andreas and Ethan Nadelmann, Policing the Globe, see fn 127, pp26–8.
427 United Nations General Assembly (29 August 2003) Oceans and the Law of the Sea. United Nations General Assembly, Report of the Secretary General, Addendum, Fifty-eighth session, A/58/65/Add.1, paragraph 1.
[Page 161]428 The Convention also created the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), providing jurisdictional rights for nation states to exploit all the resources in the water and on and beneath the seabed for 200 miles from its shore.
429 Article 6(1) of the High Seas Convention requires that ships shall sail ‘under the flag of one State only’ and, apart from exceptional cases, ‘shall be subject to its exclusive jurisdiction on the high seas’.
430 Michael Byers (2004) ‘Policing the High Seas: The Proliferation Security Initiative’. American Journal of International Law, 98(3): 526–45.
431 Ibid., see fn 430.
432 Ibid., see fn 430.
433 Convention between the UK and the US respecting the Regulation of the Liquor Traffic, concluded in Washington on 23 January 1924, cited by John Siddle (1982) ‘Anglo American Co Operation in the Suppression of Drug Smuggling’. International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 31: 726–47; see also, Joseph Kramek (2000) ‘Bilateral Maritime Counter-Drug and Immigrant Interdiction Agreements: Is This the World of the Future’. The University of Miami Inter-American Law Review, 31: 121.
434 24. 19 USC 1401 (i) cited by Siddle, ‘Anglo American Co Operation’, see fn 433.
435 26. 19 USC 1401 (j) cited by Siddle, ‘Anglo American Co Operation’, see fn 433.
436 The Government of the United Kingdom and the Government of the United States Exchange of Notes concerning co-operation in the suppression of the unlawful importation of narcotic drugs into the United States, 13 November 1981, see Appendix I; John Siddle, ‘Anglo American Co Operation’, see fn 433.
437 John Siddle, ‘Anglo American Co Operation’, see fn 433.
438 Reuters, ‘Castro Assails the U.S. for Attack on Vessel’. New York Times 2 February 1990.
439 David Stout, ‘Coast Guard Using Sharpshooters to Stop Boats’. New York Times 14 September 1999.
440 Hilborne Watson (2003) ‘“The Shiprider Solution” and Post-Cold War Imperialism: Beyond Ontologies of State Sovereignty in the Caribbean’, in Cynthia Barrow-Giles and Don Marshall (eds) Living at the Borderlines: Issues in Caribbean Sovereignty and Development. Kingston: Ian Randal Publishing, p232; Ivelaw Griffith (1997) Drugs and Security in the Caribbean: Sovereignty Under Seign. University Park, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
441 The Sun, 3 July 2008; see also Ben Bowling (2008) ‘The Prince, the Iron Duke and the Drugs Barons: Tactical Success and Strategic Failure in the Caribbean Drugs Wars’. Presentation to the World Criminology Congress, Barcelona, July 2008. (Unpublished manuscript.)
442 Hilborne Watson, ‘The Shiprider Solution’, see fn 440.
443 Article 4(3) states that the shiprider ‘has the power to enforce the laws of the United States in U.S. waters, or seaward therefrom, in the exercise of the right of hot pursuit or otherwise in accordance with international Law’ [i.e. on high seas with the permission of the flag state, in the case of piracy or slave trafficking or if the vessel is carrying no flag]; and ‘authorise UK law enforcement vessels on which they are embarked to assist in the enforcement of U.S. law’.
444 ‘Prince William Takes Part in £40m bust’. Times 2 July 2008.
445 ‘Iron Duke Strikes a Blow to Cocaine Smugglers’. Royal Navy Press Release, 2 July 2008.
446 R. Scott Frey (1998) ‘Hazardous Waste Stream in the World-System’, in P.S. Ciccantell and S.G. Bunker (eds) Space and Transport in the World-System. Westport, CT: Greenwood, p84–106; R. White (2008) ‘Toxic Cities: Globalizing the Problem of [Page 162]Toxic Waste. Social Justice, 35(3): 107–13; Jennifer Clapp (2001) Toxic Exports: The Transfer of Hazardous Wastes from Rich Countries to Poor Countries. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press; N. Dorn, Stijn Van Daele and Tom vander Beken (2007) ‘Reducing Vulnerabilities to Crime of the European Waste Management Industry: The Research Base and the Prospects for Policy’. European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, 15(1): 23–36.
447 Colum Lynch, ‘UN Authorizes Land, Air Attacks of Somali Pirates: International Effort to Secure Sea Route May Stumble Amid Political Disarray in East African Nation’. Washington Post 17 December 2008; Xan Rice, ‘US Launches Anti-piracy Navel Force to Combat Hijacking Off Somalia’. Guardian 9 January 2009; George Monbiot, ‘From Toxic Waste to Toxic Assets, the Same People Always Get Dumped On’. Guardian 21 September 2009.
448 Alan Boyle (1991) ‘Saving the World? Implementation and Enforcement of International Environmental Law Through International Institutions’. Journal of Environmental Law, 3(2): 229–45.
449 At which time 157 states had ratified the Convention, but not the US. While the US government promised to respect the treaty's provisions it was never put before the Senate, mainly because it was regarded as compromising US sovereignty. To date the US has yet to ratify the UNCLOS.
450 Quoted in A Global Agenda; Issues Before the United Nations 2009–2010. New York: United Nations Association of the United States of America, 2002, p143.
451 W.G. Carson (1982) The Other Price of Britain's Oil: Safety and Control in the North Sea. Oxford: Martin Robertson; Charles Woolfson and M. Beck (2000) ‘The British Offshore Oil Industry After Piper Alfa’. Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy, 10(1–2): 11–65.
452 Jeffrey Collins, ‘Interior Secretary Ken Salazar Says Effort to Stop Gulf Oil Leak Hits Snag, but Work Continues’. Los Angeles Times 15 May 2010; Susan Goldenberg, ‘Gulf Oil Spill: Firms Ignored Signs Before Blast, Inquiry Hears; Documents Suggest BP, Transocean and Halliburton Ignored Tests Indicating Faulty Safety Equipment, Says Committee’. Guardian 13 May 2010.
453 Peter Manning (2000) ‘Policing New Social Spaces’, in James Sheptycki (ed.) Issues in Transnational Policing, see fn 7, pp177–200.
454 Peter N. Grabosky and Russell G. Smith (1998) Crime in the Digital Age. Canberra: The Australian Institute of Criminology, p10.
455 S. Leman-Langlois (ed.) (2008) Technocrime: Technology, Crime and Social Control. Cullumpton: Willan; D. Wall (2007) Cybercrime: The Transformation of Crime in the Information Age. Cambridge: Polity Press.
456 David L. Altheid (2004) ‘The Control Narrative of the Internet’. Symbolic Interaction, 27(2): 223–45.
457 James Sheptycki (forthcoming) ‘Technocrime, Criminology and Marshall McLuhan,’ in Technocrime: Policing and Surveillance. Stephen Leman-Langlois (ed.) London: Routledge.
458 J. Zitrain (2008) The Future of the Internet – and How to Stop It. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
459 Asher Moses, ‘Leaked Australian Blacklist Reveal Banned Sites’. The Sydney Morning Herald 29 March 2009; Asher Moses, ‘Fatal Flaws in Website Censorship Plan, Says Report’. The Sydney Morning Herald 23 December 2008; Australian Associated Press, ‘Teenager Crack's Governments $84 Million Porn Filter’. The Sydney Morning Herald 25 August 2007; Australian Associated Press, ‘Internet Porn a Sign of the Blues: Study’. Sydney Morning Herald 8 December 2008.
[Page 163]460 Paul Schiff Berman (2002) ‘The Globalization of Jurisdiction’. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 151(2): 311–545, esp. pp529–30; S.J. Kobrin (2004) ‘Safe Harbours are Hard to Find: The Trans-Atlantic Data Privacy Dispute, Territorial Jurisdiction and Global Governance’. Review of International Studies, 30: 111–31.
461 James Sheptycki (2005) ‘Policing Political Protest When Politics Go Global’. Policing and Society, 15(3): 327–52.
462 R.R. Bianchi (2004) Guests of God: Pilgrimage and Politics in the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
463 Phil Boyle and Kevin D. Haggerty (2009) ‘Spectacular Security: Mega-Events and the Security Complex’. International Political Sociology, 3(3): 257–74.
464 Donatella Della Porta, Abby Peterson and Herbert Reiter (eds) (2006) The Policing of Transnational Protest. Aldershot: Ashgate; L. Wood (2009) ‘Taking to the Streets Against Neoliberalism: Global Days of Action and Other Strategies’, in Bruce Podobnik and Thomas Reifer (eds) Transforming Globalization: Challenges and Opportunities in the Post 9/11 Era. Leiden, NL: Brill Academic Press.
465 J.D. McCarthy, C. McPhail and J. Crist (1999) ‘The Diffusion and Adoption of Public Order Management Systems’, in Donatella Della Porta, Hanspeter Kriesi and Dieter Rucht (eds) Social Movements in a Globalising World. London: Macmillan, pp71–94.
466 ‘G20 Probe Is More Smoke and Mirrors from the Liberals’. The Globe and Mail 22 September 2010; ‘Province to Prove “Secret Law”, G20 Police Powers’. The Globe and Mail 22 September 2010; ‘Ontario Ombudsman Wrapping Up Probe into G20 “Secret Law”’. The Globe and Mail 1 December 2010.
467 Phil Boyle (forthcoming) ‘Mobilizing Knowledge: The Olympics and Security Knowledge Networks’, in Colin Bennett and Kevin Haggerty (eds) Security Games: Surveillance and Control at Mega-Events. London: Routledge.
468 Katja Franko Aas, ‘Analysing a World in Motion’, see fn 413.
469 Zygmunt Bauman (2000) Liquid Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press; Manuel Castells (1996) The Rise of the Network Society. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers.
470 Zygmunt Bauman (1998) Globalization: The Human Consequences. Cambridge: Polity Press, p92.
471 J. Torpey (2000) The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p58; Weber and Bowling, ‘Valiant Beggars and Global Vagabonds’, see fn 414; Weber and Bowling, ‘Policing Migration’, see fn 416.
472 Dean Wilson and Leanne Weber (2008) ‘Surveillance, Risk and Preemption on the Australian Border’. Surveillance and Society, 5(2): 124–41.
473 David Lyon (2003) Surveillance as Social Sorting: Privacy, Risk and Digital Discrimination. London: Taylor & Francis, p2.
474 James Sheptycki (1997) ‘Insecurity, Risk Suppression and Segregation: Some Reflections on Policing in the Transnational Age’. Theoretical Criminology, 1(3): 303–16.
475 P. Adey (2009) ‘Facing Airport Security: Affect, Biopolitics, and the Preemptive Securitization of the Mobile Body’. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 27(2): 274–95.
476 Liz Fekete (2005) ‘The Deportation Machine: Europe, Asylum, and Human Rights’. Race and Class, 47(1): 64–91; J.A. Warner (2005) ‘The Social Construction of the Criminal Alien in Immigration Law, Enforcement Practice and Statistical Enumeration: Consequences for Immigrant Stereo-typing’. Journal of Social and Ecological Boundaries, 1(2): 6–80; W. Chan (2005) ‘Crime, Deportation and the Regulation of Immigrants in Canada’. Crime, Law and Social Change, 44(2): 153–80; G. Nicholls (2007) Deported: A History of Forced Departures from Australia. Sydney: New South Wales University Press.
[Page 164]477 Stan Cohen (1984) Visions of Social Control. Cambridge: Polity.
478 T. Huling (1995) ‘Drug Couriers: Sentencing Reform for Prisoners of War’. Criminal Justice, 15: 15–27.
479 E. Bramley-Harker (2001) Sizing the UK Market for Illicit Drugs. Research, Development and Statistics Directorate, Ocassional Paper No. 74. London: Home Office.
480 R.L. Harper, G.C. Harper and J.E. Stockdale (2002) ‘The Role and Sentencing of Women in Drug Trafficking Crime’. Legal and Criminal Psychology, 7(1): 101–14.
481 Julia Sudbury (2005) ‘Mules, Yardies and Other Folk Devils: Mapping Cross-border Imprisonment in Britain’, in Julia Sudbury (ed.) Global Lockdown: Race, Gender and the Prison-Industrial Complex. London: Routledge, p167.
482 R.J. Booker, J.E. Smith and M.P. Rodger (2009) ‘Packers, Pushers and Stuffers – Managing Patients with Concealed Drugs in UK Emergency Departments: A Clinical and Medico-legal Review’. Emergency Medical Journal, 26: 316–20, p316.
483 K. Kempadoo (2005) ‘Victims and Agents of Crime: The New Crusade Against Trafficking’, in Julia Sudbury (ed.) Global Lockdown: Race, Gender and the Prison-Industrial Complex, see fn 481, p35.
484 Rodney Allan (2002) ‘Terrorism and Truth’. Alternative Law Review, 27: 57.
485 P. Sproat (1997) ‘Can the State Commit Acts of Terrorism? An Opinion and Some Qualitative Replies to a Questionnaire’. Terrorism and Political Violence, 9(4): 117–50; J. Moran and M. Pythian (2008) Intelligence, Security and Policing Post-9/11: The UK's Response to the ‘War on Terror’. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan.
486 N. Rogers (2008) ‘The Play(fullness) of Law’. Unpublished PhD dissertation. Lismore, NSW: Southern Cross University, pp39–40.
487 M. Crenshaw (1981) ‘The Causes of Terrorism’. Comparative Politics, 13(4): 379–99.
488 L. Godden (2006) ‘Terrorism: Reinvoking the Barbarian to Secure the Space of Civilisation’. Australian Feminist Law Journal, 24: 69–94.
489 Alpa Parmar (2011) ‘Counter Terrorist or Counterproductive’. Policing and Society, Special Issue on Stop and Search; D. Weisburd, B. Hasisi, T. Jonathan and G. Aviv (2010) ‘Terrorist Threats and Police Performance: A Study of Israeli Communities’. British Journal of Criminology, 50(4): 725–47.
490 H. Petroski (2004) ‘Technology and Architecture in an Age of Terrorism’. Technology and Society, 26(2–3): 161–7.
491 See, for example, Meredith Leigh (undated) ‘Problems in Drafting Anti-terrorism Laws in Australia, a Legal Opinion by M. Leigh, First Assistant Parliamentary Counsel, Australian Office of Parliamentary Counsel’.
492 A. Silke (2004) Research on Terrorism: Trends, Achievements and Failures. London: Frank Cass, p2.
493 Ibid., see fn 492, p2.
494 M. Deflem (2010) The Policing of Terrorism: Organizational and Global Perspectives. London: Routledge.
495 Conor Gearty (2010) Escaping Hobbes: Liberty and Security for Our Democratic (Not Anti-Terrorist) Age. LSE Legal Studies Working Working Paper No 3/2010.
496 Quoted in A. Silke, Research on Terrorism, see fn 492, p7.
497 D. Bigo and A. Tsoukala (2008) Terror, Insecurity and Liberty: Illiberal Practices of Liberal Regimes after 9/11. London: Routledge; C. Walker (2006) ‘Clamping Down on Terrorism in the United Kingdom’. Journal of International Criminal Justice, 4(5): 1137–51.
498 G. Mythen and S. Walklate (2006) ‘Communicating the Terrorist Risk: Harnessing a Culture of Fear?’. Crime, Media and Culture, 2(2): 123–42.
499 N. Rogers, ‘The Play(fullness) of Law’, see fn 486, p43.
[Page 165]500 Conor Gearty, Escaping Hobbes: Liberty and Security for Our Democratic (Not Anti-Terrorist) Age, see fn 495.
501 M. Crenshaw (2001) ‘Why America? The Globalization of Civil War’. Current History, DEC: 425–32.
502 Perry Anderson (1974/1996/2000) Passages from Antiquity to Feudalism. London: Verso.
503 Jock Young (1994) The Exclusive Society: Social Exclusion, Crime and Difference in Late Modernity. London: Sage; J. Young (2007) The Vertigo of Late Modernity. London: Sage.
504 James Sheptycki, ‘The Drug War’, see fn 7; Ivelaw Griffith, Drugs and Security in the Caribbean Basin: Sovereignty Under Siege, see fn 440.
505 David Musto, The American Disease: Origins of Narcotic Control, see fn 351; Peter Andreas and Ethan Nadelmann, Policing the Globe, see fn 127, p247.
506 Ethan Nadelmann (1988) ‘US Drug Policy: A Bad Export’. Foreign Policy, 70: 83–108; Ethan Nadelmann (2007) ‘Think Again: Drugs’. Foreign Policy, 162: 24–30.
507 In 1998, the UN General Assembly Special Session on drugs committed to ‘eliminating or significantly reducing the illicit cultivation of the coca bush, the cannabis plant and the opium poppy by the year 2008’ and to ‘achieving significant and measurable results in the field of demand reduction’.
508 United Nations (2010) World Drug Report. United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime. URL: http://www.unodc.org.
509 C. Aitken, D. Moore, P. Higgs, J. Kelsall and M. Kerger (2002) ‘The Impact of a Police Crackdown on a Street Drug Scene: Evidence from the Street’. International Journal of Drug Policy, 13(3): 193–202; D. Dixon and L. Maher (2002) ‘Anh Hai: Policing, Culture and Social Exclusion in a Street Heroin Market’. Policing and Society, 12(2): 93–118; D. Dixon and L. Maher (2005) ‘Policing, Crime and Public Health’. Criminal Justice, 5(2): 115–43; T. May, A. Harocopos, P.J. Turnbull and M. Hough (2000) Serving Up: The Impact of Low-level Police Enforcement on Drug Markets. Police Research Paper 133. London: Home Office.
510 Jock Young, The Drug Takers, see fn 302.
511 P. Andreas and J. Wallman (2009) ‘Illicit Markets and Violence: What Is the Relationship?’. Crime, Law and Social Change, 52(3): 225–9.
512 M. Glenny (2008) McMafia: A Journey Through the Global Criminal Underworld. New York: Alfred Knopff.
513 S. Sandberg (2011) ‘Street Capital: Ethnicity and Violence on the Streets of Oslo’. Theoretical Criminology, 12(2): 153–71; S. Hallsworth and D. Silverstone (2009) ‘“That's Life Innit”: A British Perspective on Guns, Crime and Social Order’. Criminology and Criminal Justice, 9(2): 359–77; S. Hallsworth and T. Young (2008) ‘Gang Talk and Gang Talkers: A Critique’. Crime, Media and Culture, 4(2): 175–95.
514 G. Newman (ed.) (1999) Global Report on Crime and Justice. Published for the United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention and the Centre for International Crime Prevention. New York: Oxford University Press; Geoff Pearson and Dick Hobbs (2001) Middle Market Drug Distribution. Home Office Research Development Statistics Directorate; S.D. Levitt and S.A. Venkatesh (2000) ‘An Economic Analysis of a Drug-Selling Gang's Finances’. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 115: 755–89.
515 United Nations, World Drug Report, see fn 508.
516 Ben Bowling, ‘Transnational Criminology…’, see fn 42; Jerry Rattcliff and James Sheptycki (2004) ‘Setting the Strategic Agenda’, in Rattcliff (ed.) Strategic Thinking in Criminal Intelligence. Annadale, NSW: The Federation Press, pp194–210; James Sheptycki (2007) ‘Transnational Crime and Transnational Policing’. Sociology Compass, 1: 1; Jock Young, The Drug Takers, see fn 302; Peter Reuter (1997) ‘Why Can't We Make Prohibition Work Better? [Page 166]Some Consequences of Ignoring the Unattractive’. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 141(3): 262–75; Susan S. Everingham and C. Peter Rydell (1994) Modeling the Demand for Cocaine. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Drug Policy Research Centre; Eric L. Jensen, Jurg Gerber and Clayton Mosher (2004) ‘Social Consequences of the War on Drugs: The Legacy of Failed Policy’. Criminal Justice Review, 15(1): 100–21; Carey Goldberg, ‘Wealthy Ally for Dissidents in the Drug War’. New York Times 11 September 1996.
517 Manuel Castells, End of the Millennium…, see fn 115.
518 D. Corva (2008) ‘Neoliberal Globalization and the War on Drugs: Transnationalizing Illiberal Governance in the Americas’. Political Geography, 27(2): 176–93; E. Sheppard and R. Hagar (2004) ‘From East–West to North–South’. Antipode: A Radical Journal of Geography, 36(4): 557–63.
519 Ben Bowling, Policing the Caribbean, see fn 12; B. Agozino, B. Bowling, E. Ward and G. St. Bernard (2009) ‘Guns, Crime and Social Order in the West Indies’. Criminology and Criminal Justice, 9(3): 287–305.
520 Ibid., see fn 519, p294. Agozino et al. see fn 519.
521 See also Ethan Nadelmann (1988) ‘US Drug Policy: A Bad Export’. Foreign Policy, 70: 83–108; R. MacCoun and P. Reuter (2001) Drug War Heresies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. On the challenges of pursuing transnational control of illegal guns see P. Cook, W. Cukier and K. Krause (2009) ‘The Illicit Firearms Trade in North America’. Criminology and Criminal Justice, 9(3): 265–86; K. Krause (2002) ‘Review Essay: Multilateral Diplomacy, Norm Building, and UN Conferences: The Case of Small Arms and Light Weapons’. Global Governance. 8: 247–63.
522 Agozino et al., ‘Guns, Crime and Social Order…’, see fn 519, p299.
523 Ben Bowling, Policing the Caribbean, see fn 12, p82.
524 Manuel Castells, End of the Millennium…, see fn 115, p169; J. Rigg (2007) An Everyday Geography of the Global South. London: Routledge.
525 James Sheptycki, ‘Policing the Virtual Launderette…’, see fn 212, pp135–76.
526 William Gilmore, Dirty Money: The Evolution of Money Laundering Countermeasures, see fn 210.
527 M.-F. Cuellar (2003) ‘Criminal Law: The Tenuous Relationship between the Fight Against Money Laundering and the Disruption of Criminal Finance’. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 93(2–3): 311–466.
528 James Sheptycki (2004) Review of the Influence of Strategic Intelligence on Organised Crime Policy and Practice. Research, Development and Statistics Directorate Special Interest Paper No. 14. London: Home Office, p17.
529 Jack Weatherford (1997) The History of Money. New York: Crown Publishers.
530 M. Levi and W.C. Gilmore (2002) ‘Terrorist Finance and the Rise and Rise of Mutual Evaluation: A New Paradigm Got Crime Control?’, in M. Peith (ed.) Financing Terrorism. The Hague: Kluwer Academic; R.T. Naylor (2006) Satanic Purses: Money, Myth and Misinformation in the War on Terror. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press; P. Sproat (2007) ‘An Evaluation of the UK's Anti-money Laundering and Asset Recovery Regime’. Crime Law and Social Change, 47(3): 169–84; P. Sproat (2007) ‘The New Policing of Assets and the New Assets Of Policing: A Tentative Financial Cost–Benefit Analysis of the UK's Anti-money Laundering and Asset Recovery Regime’. Journal of Money Laundering Control, 10(3): 277–99.
531 M. Levi (1996) ‘Money Laundering: Risks and Countermeasures’, in Adam Graycar and Peter Grabosky (eds) Money Laundering in the 21st Century: Risks and Countermeasures. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology, p1–11.
532 Ibid., see fn 531, quote from p11.
533 M. Levi (1997) ‘“Evaluating the New Policing”: Attacking the Money Trail of Organized Crime’. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 30(1): 1–25.
[Page 167]534 ‘From Prison, Madoff Says Banks “Had to Know” of Fraud’, New York Times 15 February 2011.
535 M. Lewis (2010) The Big Short: Inside the Doomsday Machine. New York: W.W. Norton and Co.; M. Lewis (1989) Liar's Poker; Rising Through the Wreckage on Wall Street. New York: W.W. Norton and Co.
536 An earlier shake-down of this type is the downfall of long-term capital management in 1998. See R. Lowenstein (2000) When Genius Failed: The Rise and Fall of Long-Term Capital Management. New York: Random House.
537 N. Passas (1996) ‘The Genesis of the BCCI Scandal’. Journal of Law and Society, 23(1): 57–72; D. Friedrichs (2004) ‘Eron ET Al: Paradigmatic White Collar Crime Cases for the New Century’. Critical Criminology, 12(2): 113–32; R.T. Naylor (2003) ‘Towards a General Theory of Profit-driven Crimes’. British Journal of Criminology, 43(1): 81–101.
538 See United Nations (2009) The World Financial and Economic Crisis and its Impact on Development. General debate on the world financial and economic crisis and its impact on development, Report of the Secretary-General, 1–3 June, New York.
539 Mike Levi and David Nelken (eds) (1996) The Corruption of Politics and the Politics of Corruption. Oxford: Blackwell; Mike Levi (2008) The Phantom Capitalists, 2nd edn. Andover: Ashgate.
540 R.T. Naylor (2002) Wages of Crime; Black Markets, Illegal Finance and the Underworld Economy. Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press.
541 V. Mitsilegas (2003) Money Laundering Counter-Measures in the European Union: A New Paradigm of Security Governance Versus Fundamental Legal Principles. The Hague: Kluwer Law International.
542 ‘Ashcroft to sell off Belize Bank: Outgoing Tory Treasurer to Dispose of Offshore Finance Operation that Sparked Feud with Government’. Guardian 20 August 2001.
543 Lesley Sklair (2001) The Transnational Capitalist Class. Oxford: Blackwell.
544 ‘Ashcroft's Millions: from Belize Tax Havens to Tories via Southampton’. Guardian 5 March 2010.
545 ‘Lord Ashcroft: New Demands for a Full Tax Inquiry’. Guardian 3 March 2010.
546 Andrew Goldsmith (2009) ‘It Wasn't Like Normal Policing: Voices of Australian Peacekeepers in Operation Serene, Timor-Leste 2006’. Policing and Society, 19(2): 119–33; Andrew Goldsmith and James Sheptycki (2007) Crafting Transnational Policing, see fn 7.
547 Médecins Sans Frontières (2009) Shattered Lives: Immediate Medical Care for Sexual Violence Victims. Brussels: Médecins Sans Frontières Operational Centre. Médecins Sans Frontières is an international humanitarian organisation that brings emergency medical care to populations in over 60 countries. Quotes p14 and p8, respectively.
548 Ibid., see fn 547, quotes p8.
549 James Sheptycki, ‘The Constabulary Ethic Reconsidered, see fn 99; James Sheptycki (2010) ‘The Raft of the Medusa: Further Contributions Towards a Constabulary Ethic’. Cahiers Politiestudies Special Issue, Policing in Europe. No. 16 pp39–56.
550 Alice Hills, Policing Post-Conflict Cities, see fn 260.
551 Sherene Razack, Dark Threats and White Knights, see fn 229, p47. These criticisms are compounded after observing how countries like Australia, Canada and the USA have historically and contemporarily dealt with their own indigenous populations.
552 Spencer S. Hsu, ‘Officials Prevent Haitian Earthquake Refugees From Coming to US’. The Washington Post 9 January 2010.
553 Max Boot reports in his book The Savage Wars of Peace (2002, New York: Basic Books) that the first foreign intervention in Haiti came in 1915 with a landing force of US [Page 168]marines. According to him ‘the more unstable a country, the more likely the U.S. was to intervene. And no country was more unstable than Haiti. Of the 22 rulers between [independence in] 1843 and 1915 only one served out his term of office. During those years there were 102 civil wars, coups d'etat, revolts and other political disorders’ (pp156–7). In Boot's estimation, in the history of Haiti ‘the only thing more unsavoury than US intervention was US non-intervention’, p181.
554 Harvard Law Student Advocates for Human Rights (2005) Keeping the Peace in Haiti? An Assessment of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti Using Compliance with Its Prescribed Mandate as a Barometer for Success. Cambridge, MA: Havard Law Student Advocates for Human Rights and Centro de Justiça Global Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo Brazil, p48.
555 Benedetta Faedi (2008) ‘The Double Weakness of Girls: Discrimination and Sexual Violence In Haiti’. Stanford Journal of International Law 44: 147–99; Sandra Jordan, ‘Haiti's Children Die in UN Crossfire’. Observer 1 April 2007.
556 Stan Cohen, ‘Western Crime Models in the Third World…’, see fn 42.
557 Ben Bowling, ‘Transnational Criminology…’, see fn 42.
558 Robert Reiner, The Politics of the Police, see fn 63.
559 Ian Loader (2002) ‘Governing European Policing: Some Problems, and Prospects’, see fn 233.
560 John Kleinig, The Ethics of Policing, see fn 43.
561 Ibid., see fn 43.
562 Charles Tilley (1985) ‘War-Making and State-Making as Organized Crime’, see fn 50, pp169–86.
563 Geoffrey Marshall, ‘Police Accountability Revisited’, see fn 400.
564 Philippe Sands, Lawless World: America and the Making and Breaking of Global Rules, see fn 159; A. Goldfarb and M. Litvinenko (2007) The Poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko and the Return of the KGB. New York: Simon & Schuster.
565 S.D. Brown (2008) Combating International Crime: The Longer Arm of the Law, see fn 7, p5.
566 ‘Interpol and UN back “Global Policing Doctrine”’. New York Times 11 October 2009.
568 Steven Spitzer, ‘Toward a Marxian Theory of Deviance’, see fn 113.
569 Stan Cohen, ‘Western Crime Models in the Third World…’, see fn 42. Ben Bowling, ‘Transnational Criminology…’, see fn 42.
570 Spitzer, see fn 113.
571 Paul Gilroy, After Empire, see fn 84, p47.
572 M. Deflem, The Policing of Terrorism, see fn 494, p29.
573 Ben Bowling (2008) ‘Fair and Effective Police Methods: Towards ‘Good Enough’ Policing’. Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, 8(1): 17–23.
574 Ben Bowling, Policing the Caribbean, see fn 12, pp311–5.
575 James Sheptycki, ‘The Raft of the Medusa’, see fn 549.
576 Ben Bowling, Coretta Phillips, Alexandra Campbell and Maria Docking (2004) Human Rights and Policing: Eliminating Racism, Discrimination and Xenophobia from Policework. United Nations Institute for Social Research and Development.