Publication Year: 1996
This readable, sociologically interpretive book focuses through the lens of stratification and inequality, the authors examine a wide variety of topics - from global economic trends to ethnic conflicts - in four regions: Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas. They use academic models and theories to help make sense of current events and help place them in an appropriate context; these are enhanced by the use of lively stories and examples from the press.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: The Reality of Inequality: Stories from around the World
- A Global Village?
- A Few of the Players
- Using Sociology to Study Global Inequalities
- Questioning Assumptions
- How this Book is Organized
- Chapter 2: An Unequal World
- The Death of Children
- Other Forms of Inequality
- Contemporary Global Trends: A World of Changes and Contradictions
- Chapter 3: Constructing a Model of Global Inequalities
- Two Traditional Explanations for Global Inequality
- Modernization Theory: Blaming the Victim
- World-System Theory: Blaming outside Actors
- Combining External and Internal Explanations of Global Inequality
- Application to World Regions
- Chapter 4: Africa: A Continued Decline?
- A Land of Contradictions
- Africa's History: A Brief Look
- Contemporary Life in Africa
- Strong Societies and Weak States
- The Persistence of Grinding Poverty
- Battles for the Body
- “Presidents for Life,” Sort Of
- Becoming Irrelevant to Others
- Reduced to Symbols
- Africa in Theoretical Perspective
- Chapter 5: Asia: An Emerging Giant
- Bats, Balls, and Whips
- Magic Dragons?
- Late Industrialization
- Economic Growth and a High Level of Equality? the Japanese Case
- Inequality in South Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Singapore
- China: From Mao Jackets to Calvin Klein Jeans
- A Land of Paradox
- Moving beyond the Graveyard of Vietnam
- Asia in Theoretical Perspective
- Chapter 6: Europe: United or Divided?
- Crumbling Walls
- Why 1989?
- The Rhetoric is Unity; what is the Reality?
- Welfare States: Benevolent or Burdensome?
- The Dark Side of Europe
- Lessons Unlearned: The Return of “Little Hitlers”
- The Roller Coaster of War
- Europe in Theoretical Perspective
- Chapter 7: The Americas: Reinventing Ourselves
- The Road to Rio: Environmental Apocalypse Now?
- The Lessons of Rio: Is Sustainable Growth Possible?
- A Question of Sovereignty
- Economic Consolidation in the Americas
- The Americas in Theoretical Perspective
- Chapter 8: Creating a Better World
- Summarizing Trends and Changes
- Creating Positive Changes
- Forcing Change from the Outside: What is Justified?
- Creating Positive Social Changes: What Individuals can do
Sociology for a New Century[Page ii]
A PINE FORGE PRESS SERIES
Edited by Charles Ragin, Wendy Griswold, and Larry Griffin
Sociology for a New Century brings the best current scholarship to today's students in a series of short texts authored by leaders of a new generation of social scientists. Each book addresses its subject from a comparative, historical, and global perspective and, in doing so, connects social science to the wider concerns of students seeking to make sense of our dramatically changing world.
- Global Inequalities York W. Bradshaw and Michael Wallace
- How Societies Change Daniel Chirot
- Cultures and Societies in a Changing World Wendy Griswold
- Crime and Disrepute John Hagan
- Gods in the Global Village: The World's Religions in Sociological Perspective Lester R. Kurtz
- Waves of Democracy: Social Movements and Political Change John Markoff
- Development and Social Change: A Global Perspective Philip McMichael
- Constructing Social Research Charles C. Ragin
- Women and Men at Work Barbara Reskin and Irene Padavic
- Cities in a World Economy Saskia Sassen
- Social Psychology and Social Institutions Denise and William Bielby
- Schools and Societies Steven Brint
- The Social Ecology of Natural Resources and Development Stephen G. Bunker
- Ethnic Dynamics in the Modern World Stephen Cornell
- The Sociology of Childhood William A. Corsaro
- Economy and Society Mark Granovetter
- People and Populations: Demography and the Human Experience Dennis P. Hogan
- Racism in the Modern World Wilmot G. James
- Health and Societies Bernice Pescosolido
- Organizations in a World Economy Walter W. Powell
Copyright © 1996 by Pine Forge Press
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
For information, address:
Pine Forge Press
A Sage Publications Company
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
Sage Publications Ltd.
6 Bonhill Street
London EC2A 4PU
Sage Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
Greater Kailash I
New Delhi 110 048 India
Production: Scratchgravel Publishing Services
Designer: Lisa S. Mirski
Typesetter: Scratchgravel Publishing Services
Cover: Lisa S. Mirski
Production Manager: Rebecca Holland
Printed in the United States of America
05 06 07 08 09 10 13 12 11 10 09 08
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Bradshaw, York W., 1960-.
Global inequalities/York W. Bradshaw, Michael Wallace.
p. cm.—(Sociology for a new century)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-8039-9060-X (pbk.: alk. paper)
1. Economic history—1945-. 2. Regional economic disparities. I. Wallace, Michael, 1954-. II. Title. III. Series.
About the Authors
About the Publisher
Pine Forge Press is a new educational publisher, dedicated to publishing innovative books and software throughout the social sciences. On this and any other of our publications, we welcome your comments, ideas, and suggestions. Please call or write to:
Pine Forge Press
A Sage Publications Company
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
Fax (805) 499-7881
- MAP 1.1 Mercator Projection of the World 12
- MAP 1.2 Peters Projection of the World 13
- MAP 2.1 Under Age Five Mortality Rate, 1993 19
- MAP 2.2 Map of Freedom, 1994 25
- MAP 3.1 The World in the Early Twentieth Century at the Height of European Power 47
- MAP 4.1 Africa 58
- MAP 4.2 European Control of Africa, 1950 62
- MAP 4.3 European Control of Africa, 1878 63
- MAP 5.1 Asia 90
- MAP 6.1 Europe 120
- MAP 6.2 Yugoslavia, 1990 145
- MAP 6.3 Former Yugoslavia, 1995 148
- MAP 7.1 The Americas 156
- FIGURE 2.1 The Six Leading Diseases That Kill Children, 1983, 1992 16
- FIGURE 2.2 Percent Immunized Against Measles, Worldwide, 1984–1993 17
- FIGURE 2.3 Number of Children Dying Before Age Five per 1,000 Births, 1992 18
- FIGURE 2.4 GNP per Capita (Average Income) in U.S. Dollars, 1992 20
- FIGURE 2.5 Fertility Rate, 1992 21
- FIGURE 2.6 Life Expectancy, 1992 22
- FIGURE 2.7 Percent of Secondary-Age Youth Enrolled in Secondary School, 1992 23
- FIGURE 2.8 Percent of College-Age Persons Enrolled in College, 1992 23 [Page x]
- FIGURE 4.1 Number of Kenyan Children Dying Before Age Five per 1,000 Births, 1960, 1989, and 1999 70
- FIGURE 4.2 Debt Burden: Total Debt as Percentage of GNP, 1980–1992 80
- FIGURE 6.1 Percent of Women in National Legislatures, 1993 139
- FIGURE 6.2 Foreign Aid as a Percentage of GNP, 1993 141
- FIGURE 7.1 Percent of Exports to the United States from Countries in the Americas 170
- FIGURE 7.2 Global 500 Corporations by Region, 1962–1993 181
- FIGURE 7.3 Percent of Population in Each Social Class, 1994 186
- TABLE 2.1 Minority Populations at Risk, 1990 36
- TABLE 3.1 The Fifty Richest Economic Entities in the World, Excluding Core and Strong Semiperipheral Countries 49
- TABLE 4.1 Development Indicators for Selected African Countries and the United States, 1992–1993 65
- TABLE 5.1 Descriptive Data for Selected Asian Countries, 1992–1993 95
- TABLE 5.2 Percent of National Income Held by Poorest 40% and Richest 20% of the Population, 1992 101
- TABLE 5.3 Percent of National Income Held by Poorest 40% and Richest 20% of the Population, 1992 105
- TABLE 6.1 Descriptive Data for European Countries, 1993–1994 123
- TABLE 6.2 Government Expenditures in European Welfare States and the United States, 1992 137
- TABLE 6.3 Percent of National Income Held by Poorest 40% and Richest 20% of Population, 1992 137
- TABLE 6.4 The Gap Between Rich and Poor Children, 1991 138
- TABLE 6.5 Paid Maternity Leave, 1991–1992 140
- TABLE 7.1 Megacities Projected to Have More Than 10 Million People by 2010 166
Sociology for a New Century offers the best of current sociological thinking to today's students. The goal of the series is to prepare students, and—in the long run—the informed public, for a world that has changed dramatically in the last three decades and one that continues to astonish.
This goal reflects important changes that have taken place in sociology. The discipline has become broader in orientation, with an evergrowing interest in research that is comparative, historical, or transnational in orientation. Sociologists are less focused on “American”society as the pinnacle of human achievement and more sensitive to global processes and trends. They also have become less insulated from surrounding social forces. In the 1970s and 1980s sociologists were so obsessed with constructing a science of society that they saw impenetrability as a sign of success. Today, there is a greater effort to connect sociology to the ongoing concerns and experiences of the informed public.
Each book in this series offers in some way a comparative, historical, transnational, or global perspective to help broaden students' vision. Students need to comprehend the diversity in today's world and to understand the sources of diversity. This knowledge can challenge the limitations of conventional ways of thinking about social life. At the same time, students need to understand that issues that may seem specifically “American”(for example, the women's movement, an aging population bringing a strained social security and health care system, racial conflict, national chauvinism, and so on) are shared by many other countries. Awareness of commonalities undercuts the tendency to view social issues and questions in narrowly American terms and encourages students to seek out the experiences of others for the lessons they offer. Finally, students need to grasp phenomena that transcend national boundaries—trends and processes that are supranational (for example, environmental degradation). Recognition of global processes stimulates student awareness of causal forces that transcend national boundaries, economies, and politics.[Page xii]
Global Inequalities, by York W. Bradshaw and Michael Wallace, provides a comprehensive introduction to global inequalities between and within major world regions. The book presents general theoretical arguments and then applies them to four areas: Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas. The strength of the book is that it mixes academic material with lively stories and examples from around the globe. Bradshaw and Wallace discuss global success stories as well as criticize needless patterns of inequality. In the final chapter the authors present suggestions for creating positive social changes throughout the world. Bradshaw and Wallace have given us a comprehensive, rigorous, and eminently readable treatment of an issue of global significance.
Forty years ago, there would have been little demand for this book in the United States. Colleges offered few courses on international studies, and the general public did not know or care very much about global issues. Aside from concerns over communism and war, few people were even interested in what happened around the world. And there was virtually no interest in poor countries and where they fit into the global puzzle.
The situation is much different today. Savvy college students can select from a variety of courses in international economics, politics, and cultures, and they may learn a foreign language or two. Students can take specialized courses in Asia, Africa, Europe, or Latin America, and they may even volunteer for the Peace Corps upon graduation. Business students, and businesspeople in general, are also taking a greater interest in global issues as financial markets stretch far beyond U.S. borders. Moreover, students, businesspeople, and the general public are traveling more today than ever before, generating considerable interest in other cultures and countries. Without broad knowledge of global issues, people will miss out on a wide array of career, educational, and travel opportunities.
This book offers a general introduction to important issues throughout today's world. We examine a wide variety of topics, from global economic trends to ethnic conflicts, in four major regions: Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas. Our primary goal is to introduce people to these areas, providing a theoretical framework that helps readers understand the regions better. Every region has its unique features, but each also exhibits features that are common across regions, countries, and cultures. By studying all of these characteristics, people can learn more about other countries while also learning more about their own nations.
Our principal focus throughout the book is on inequality at several different levels. Two points are important in considering inequality. First, there are substantial economic and political inequalities between and within different regions and countries. For instance, Asia is widely viewed as an emerging economic giant, certainly more powerful than Africa and [Page xiv]threatening to surpass both Europe and the Americas. Such inequalities have implications for each region as well as for the countries and individuals within the regions. Second, inequalities change over time, reshuffling the economic and political fortunes of regions, countries, and communities. Brutally racist regimes turn democratic (for example, South Africa), leading global powers lose strength (Britain), superpowers break up and face economic crisis (the Soviet Union), and communist giants open their markets to capitalist development (China). Change is an enduring feature of the world, and it is a constant theme throughout this book.
This book presents a combination of academic works, lively stories and examples, and reports from newspapers and other popular press outlets. An understanding of current events is essential for anyone interested in global issues. At the same time, academic models and theories help us make sense of current events and place them in an appropriate context. Stories and examples not only illustrate major points, they are also fun to read and fun to tell. We enjoy relating the many examples and stories that we have gathered in years of research around the world.
Although this book covers a lot of territory, we do not try to cover every country, every issue, or every theoretical model. To the contrary, we are selective in each respect, trying to present a variety of major issues and topics. Readers can use our presentation as a starting point and then focus on additional countries, issues, and theories that interest them. The world is so dynamic and diverse that we will never run out of topics to investigate and ponder.
We have benefited enormously from the assistance of many people while writing this book. Bruce Heilman and Julie Kmec were the primary research assistants throughout the project, and they did a truly outstanding job. We are very grateful for their efforts. Ophra Leyser, David Brady, John Gnida, Suzanne Goodney, and Carla Shirley also provided able research assistance at different points in the project. Stephen Ndegwa (College of William and Mary), Jie Huang (Ohio State University), Cynthia Woolever (Midway College), Jeanne Hurlbert (Louisiana State University), and Craig Jenkins (Ohio State University) read the manuscript and offered superb suggestions for revision/The book would not be nearly as coherent without their insightful comments. A group of wonderful graduate students also read and commented on the book draft, including Claudia Buchmann, Njeri Gikonyo, Rita Noonan, Sabine Rieble, and Agostino Zamberia. Their excellent suggestions made us rethink, revise, and reconsider our arguments. One of the true pleasures of being a professor is to work closely with graduate students and to watch the students become the teachers. Faculty and student participants in Indiana [Page xv]University's Program in Comparative International Studies also provided an enthusiastic and critical audience for many of our early ideas.
Where would international researchers and teachers be without maps? Many maps in this book were drawn by John Hollingsworth. His precision, careful attention to detail, and overall dedication are much appreciated.
Special thanks are reserved for a few people. Larry Griffin read several versions of our manuscript and provided his “usual”set of comments, which, quite frankly, were nothing short of extraordinary. Larry has commented on much of our work through the years, and it is always a privilege to learn from him. He has the rare ability to make unusually incisive comments in a very constructive and supportive manner. Victoria Nelson offered excellent suggestions about how to reorganize an early draft and to make the overall manuscript more readable. Steve Rutter of Pine Forge Press is the best publisher that one could possibly hope to encounter. He has read several versions of the manuscript and done a superb job of synthesizing comments from other reviewers and then offering his own suggestions. Moreover, Steve has shown great patience and encouragement throughout the project, as we tried to finish this book amid too many other deadlines. We are extraordinarily grateful for his efforts. Finally, we express our gratitude to Charles Ragin and Wendy Griswold for editing the Pine Forge series along with Larry Griffin.
In Chapter 1 we discuss an African proverb: “It takes a whole village to raise a single child.” Reflecting on the generous support and assistance that we have received while writing this book, we might paraphrase that statement as “It takes a whole village of scholars to write a single book.” Using the most widely spoken language in Africa, Swahili, we say Asante sana. (Thank you very much.)
References[Page 205]1990. “Giving Children a Future.” In World Summit for Children, edited by UNICEF (pp. 1–5). New York: United Nations..Africa Demos. 1994. A Bulletin of the African Governance Program. Vol. III, No. 3. September. Atlanta: The Carter Center.Allen, Thomas (Ed.) 1995. Offerings at the Wall. Atlanta: Turner Publishing, Inc.1995. “Japan's Job Market Shocks Collegians.”New York Times, September 5, p. C2..Annenberg/CPB Project. 1993a. “Fire in the Mind.”Americas: Part 9 (video).Annenberg/CPB Project. 1993b. “Get Up, Stand Up.”Americas: Part 8 (video).1993. “The New Free Trade Heel: Nike's Profits Jump on the Backs of Asian Workers.” In Global Issues 93/94, edited by RobertJackson (pp. 46–47). Sluice Dock, Guilford, CT: The Dushkin Publishing Group..1987. China's Changing Population. Stanford: Stanford University Press..1993. “China: The Emerging Economic Powerhouse of the 21st Century.”Business Week, May 17, pp. 54–65..1994. “China: Is Prosperity Creating a Freer Society?” Business Week, June 6, pp. 94–99..1992. “Is It Apocalypse Now?” Newsweek, June 1, pp. 36–43..1990. Dragons in Distress: Asia's Miracle Economies in Crisis. San Francisco: Institute for Food and Development Policy., and .1994. Voices of Diversity. New York: American Management Association., and .1989. “Democracy, Stability, and Dichotomies.”American Sociological Review54, 612–621. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095882, and .1995. “The Business Week 1000.”Business Week, March 27, pp. 96–165..1995. “The Serbs' Caravan of Fear.”New York Times, Week in Review, August 13, p. 3..1985. Transnational Corporations and Underdevelopment. New York: Praeger., and .1990. “Dependency and Rebellion: A Cross-National Analysis.”American Sociological Review55, 540–559. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095806, and . [Page 206]1993. “State Limitations, Self-Help Secondary Schooling, and Development in Kenya.”Social Forces72, 347–378..1994. “A Threatened Generation: Impediments to Children's Quality of Life in Kenya.” In Troubling Children: Studies of Children and Social Problems, edited by JoelBest (pp. 23–45). Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter., , and .1989. “City Size, Economic Development, and Quality of Life in China: New Empirical Evidence.”American Sociological Review54, 986–1003. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095719, and .1996. “Policy Action and School Demand in Kenya: When a Strong State Grows Fragile.”International Journal of Comparative Sociology (Forthcoming)., and .1995. “Rethinking Theoretical and Methodological Approaches to the Study of African Development.”African Studies Review38, 39–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/525317, , and .1993. “Transnational Economic Linkages, the State, and Dependent Development in South Korea, 1966–1988: A Time-Series Analysis.”Social Forces72, 315–345., , and .1993. “Borrowing Against the Future: Children and Third World Indebtedness.”Social Forces71, 629–656., , , and .1995. “Low Ranking for Poor American Children.”New York Times, August 14, p. A7..1989. “The Politics of Government-NGO Relations in Africa.”World Development17, 569–587. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0305-750X%2889%2990263-5.1995. “China's Economic Role in Asia Is Burgeoning.”Wall Street Journal, July 24, p. A1..1995. “Watch Out, Investors: Asia's Hot Spots Are Flaring.”Wall Street Journal, August 18, p. A6., and .1993. Women and the Economic Miracle: Gender and Work in Postwar Japan. Berkeley: University of California Press..1992. “U.N. Chief Closes Summit with an Appeal for Action.”New York Times, June 15, p. A12..1990. State of the World 1990. New York: Norton. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0034412500021971et al.1996. “The Debt Crisis, Structural Adjustment and Women's Education: Implications for Status and Social Development.”International Journal of Comparative Sociology (Forthcoming)..1985. Underdeveloping the Amazon: Extraction, Unequal Exchange, and the Failure of the Modern State. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/ae.1987.14.3.02a00300.1994. “Why Yugoslavia Fell Apart.” In Russia, The Eurasian Republics, and Central/Eastern Europe, edited by MintonGoldman (pp. 291–297). Sluice Dock, Guilford, CT: The Dushkin Publishing Group..1995. “Vietnam's Next Crusade.”U.S. News and World Report, May 1, pp. 55–62.. [Page 207]1991. “The Flap over Executive Pay: Investors, Employees, and Academics Are Asking How Much Is Enough?” Business Week, May 6, pp. 90–110..1994. “That Eye-Popping Executive Pay.”Business Week, April 25, pp. 52–101..1995. “CEO Pay: Ready for Takeoff.”Business Week, April 24, pp. 88–116..1994. Sociology., , and .6th ed.New York: McGraw-Hill.1993. Talking Peace: A Vision for the Next Generation. New York: Dutton Children's Books..1994. “Maastricht: Before, During, After.”Daedalus (Spring), 53–80., and .Center for National Security Studies. 1995. Recent Trends in Domestic and International Terrorism. Public Report, Washington DC, April 26.Central Intelligence Agency. 1995. The World Factbook. Washington, DC: CIA.1989. Global Formation: Structures of the World-Economy. Cambridge: B. Blackwell. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0010836712443168.China International Economic Consultants. 1985. The China Investment Guide. Hong Kong: Longman.1977. Social Change in the Twentieth Century. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich..1986. Social Change in the Modern Era. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich..1991. “What Happened in Eastern Europe in 1989?” In The Crisis of Leninism and the Decline of the Left: The Revolutions of 1989, edited by DanielChirot (pp. 3–32). Seattle: University of Washington Press..1994a. How Societies Change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press..1994b. Modern Tyrants: The Power and Prevalence of Evil in Our Age. New York: The Free Press..1995. “Jet Makers, Once Keen for a Giant Aircraft, Are Drawn to a Fast One.”Wall Street Journal, June 12, pp. A1, A9..Cornia, Giovanni Andrea, RichardJolly, and FrancesStewart (Eds.). 1987. Adjustment with a Human Face. 2 vols. New York: Clarendon Press.Daily Nation (Nairobi newspaper). 1993. “Time to Focus on the Dying Child.” Editorial. June 16, p. 6.1978. “Modernizing Institutions, Mobilization, and Third World Development: A Cross-National Study.”American Journal of Sociology84, 123–150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/226743, and .1992. Global Shift: The Internationalization of Economic Activity..2d ed.New York: Guilford Press.1991. “Fat of the Land.”World Watch, May/June, pp. 11–17.[Page 208]The Economist. 1994. ‘The Rise of the Outside Right.” October 15, pp. 68–70.The Economist. 1994/1995. “Colombia's Drug Business.” December 24/January 6, pp. 21–24.The Economist. 1995. “Southern Africa Dreams of Unity.” September 2, p. 35.1992. “Rich vs. Poor.”Time, June 1, pp. 40–65..1993. “Asia's Wealth: It's Creating a Massive Shift in Global Economic Power.”Business Week, November 29, pp. 100–108..1994. “Rising from the Ashes: Can Free Markets Turn Vietnam into a Tiger?” Business Week, May 23, pp. 44–48..1995. “Quebec Separatists Split on Timing and Terms of Referendum.”New York Times, April 18, p. A7..1993. “Jeux Sans Frontieres: It's a Lock-Out.”New Statesman & Society, November 5, pp. 23–26..1992. “Growth Effects of Foreign and Domestic Investment.”American Journal of Sociology98, 105–130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/229970.1994. “Does Economic Growth Benefit the Masses? Growth, Dependence, and Welfare in the Third World.”American Sociological Review59, 631–653. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2096441, and .1995a. “Mobutu, Zaire's ‘Guide,’ Leads Nation into Chaos.”New York Times, June 10, pp. A1, A6..1995b. “Out of South Africa, Progress.”New York Times, July 6, pp. C1, C5..1991. Growing-up Modern: The Western State Builds Third-World Schools. New York: Routledge..1994a. “Why? The Killing Fields of Rwanda.”Time, May 16, pp. 57–63..1994b. “Cry the Forsaken Country.”Time, August 1, pp. 28–37..1995. “The Plague Year.”The New Republic, July 17, pp. 24, 38–46..1995. “For South Korea Firms, Speaking Too Freely May Carry Steep Price.”Wall Street Journal, August 18, pp. A1, A10..1992. “Sweeping Political Changes Leave Latin Poor Still Poor.”New York Times, May 30, pp. 1, 5..1995. “In Mexico, Both Army and Rebels Say They're in Control.”New York Times, February 24, p. A3..1988. The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe..2d ed.Sluice Dock, Guilford, CT: The Dushkin Publishing Group.1994. Russia, the Eurasian Republics, and Central/Eastern Europe..5th ed.Sluice Dock, Guilford, CT: The Dushkin Publishing Group.1991. Revolution and Rebellion in the Early Modern World. Berkeley: University of California Press..Government of Kenya and UNICEF. 1992. Children and Women in Kenya: A Situation Analysis 1992. Nairobi: Regal Press.[Page 209]1993. The Atlas of African Affairs..2d ed.London: Routledge.1988. “Overurbanization Reconsidered.” In The Urbanization of the Third World, edited by JosefGugler (pp. 74–92). New York: Oxford University Press..1993. Minorities at Risk: A Global View of Ethnopolitical Conflicts. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/762099.1991. “Gorbachev: The Last True Leninist Believer?” In The Crisis of Leninism and the Decline of the Left: The Revolutions of 1989, edited by DanielChirot (pp. 33–59). Seattle: University of Washington Press..1994. “What Has NAFTA Wrought? Plenty of Trade.”Business Week, November 21, pp. 48–49..1990. Africa: Dispatches from a Fragile Continent. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1369681032000169221.1991. Managing Cultural Differences. Houston: Gulf Publishing., and .1995. “Johnny Ipil-Seed.”Ohio, August, pp. 15–16..1983. No Shortcuts to Progress: African Development Management in Perspective. Berkeley: University of California Press..1991. “Debate on the Economy of Affection: Is It a Useful Tool for Gender Analysis?” In Structural Adjustment and African Women Farmers, edited by ChristinaGladwin (pp. 301–335). Gainesville: University of Florida Press., and .1974. Becoming Modern: Individual Change in Six Developing Countries. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/eth.1975.3.2.02a00160, and .International Labour Office. 1994. Yearbook of Labour Statistics, 1994.53rd ed.Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Organisation.1994. “Europe: Unification for the Favored Few.”Business Week, September 19, p. 54..1990. “Explaining Military Coups D'état: Black Africa, 1957–1984.”American Sociological Review55, 861–875. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095751, and .1996. Culture, Transnationalism and Civil Society in Africa: A Study of the Aga Khan and His Followers in Tanzania. Boulder, CO: Greenwood Press..1995. “In Prosperous Singapore, Even the Elite Are Nervous about Speaking Out.”New York Times, August 13, p. A6..1993. Balkan Ghosts: A Journey Through History. New York: Vintage Books..1993. “Push Comes to Shove: Western Europe Is Ailing, Angry and Afraid of the Future.”U.S. News and World Report, June 14, pp. 53–64..1995a. “Japan's Schools: Safe, Clean, Not Much Fun.”New York Times, July 18, pp. A1, A4..1995b. “Where a Culture Clash Lurks Even in the Noodles.”New York Times, September 4, p. A4.. [Page 210]1985. The Africans. Rev. ed. New York: Random House..1988. The Arabs: Journeys Beyond the Mirage. New York: Vintage Books..1991. “Women, Structural Adjustment, and Transformation: Some Lessons and Questions from the African Experience.” In Structural Adjustment and African Women Farmers, edited by ChristinaGladwin (pp. 46–80). Gainesville: University of Florida Press..1992. “The Ozone Vanishes.”Time, February 17, pp. 60–63.1991. Human Societies: An Introduction to Macrosociology. New York: McGraw-Hill. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1318310, , and .1986. African Politics: Crises and Challenges. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.2979/AFT.2010.57.1.2.1993. “Megacities.”Time, January 11, pp. 28–38..1992. “The Growing Influence of NGOs in the Developing World.”Environment, June, pp. 12–20, 41–43..1987. “Structural Determinants of Third World Urban Change: An Ecological and Political Economic Analysis.”American Sociological Review52, 28–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095390.1990. “Multinational Corporate Penetration, Protest, and Basic Needs Provision in Non-Core Nations: A Cross-National Analysis.”Social Forces66, 747–773., and .1995. “Look, Out, NAFTA! Latin Trade Bloc Is Growing.”Los Angeles Times, January 24, p. H2.1994. “Colombia: Democracy, Development, and Drugs.”Current History, March, pp. 134–137.1986. The Africans: A Triple Heritage. Boston: Little, Brown. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/524653.1993. “Blast Hits Trade Center, Bomb Suspected; 5 Killed, Thousands Flee Smoke in Towers.”New York Times, February 27, pp. A1, A22..1992. Beyond the Limits: Confronting Global Collapse, Envisioning a Sustainable Future. Mills, VT: Chelsea Green. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/027046769301300102, , and .1990. “The Tumult of the Tomb.”Newsweek, June 26, p. 45..1988. Strong Societies and Weak States: State-Society Relations and State Capabilities in the Third World. Princeton: Princeton University Press..1995. “Will Unified Europe Put Mules in Diapers and Ban Mini-Pizza?” Wall Street Journal, June 22, pp. A1, A9..1994. “Europe: The Push East.”Business Week, November 7, pp. 48–49..1992. “People in Glass Houses Throwing Stones.”Forbes, May 25, pp. 84–94..1983. A Wealth of Wild Species: Storehouse for Human Welfare. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.1995. “Out of a Crisis, an Opportunity.”New York Times, September 26, pp. C1, C4.[Page 211]1994. Global Paradox. New York: William Morrow..1983. Women, Men, and the International Division of Labor. Albany: State University of New York Press., and .1992. “Army Unrest Stirs Bolivia, the Land of Coups.”New York Times, June 3, p. A12..1996. The Two Faces of Civil Society: NGOs and Politics in Africa. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press..1995. “Japan's New Identity.”Business Week, April 10, pp. 108–112..The New Republic. 1995a. “It Has Not Been a Good Day.” July 31, p. 7.The New Republic. 1995b. “Accomplices to Genocide.” August 7, p. 7.New York Times. 1994. “Movement for Sovereignty Is Growing in Hawaii.” June 5, Section 1, p. 36.1995. “Women Against the State: Political Opportunities and Collective Action Frames in Chile's Transition to Democracy.”Sociological Forum10, 81–111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02098565.Ojwang, J. B., and J. N. K.Mugambi (Eds.). 1989. The S. M. Otieno Case: Death and Burial in Modern Kenya. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press.1991. “Intellectuals and Tiananmen: Historical Perspective of an Aborted Revolution.” In The Crisis of Leninism and the Decline of the Left: The Revolutions of 1989, edited by DanielChirot (pp. 129–146). Seattle: University of Washington Press..1994. The Hot Zone. New York: Random House..1992. “German Companies Finding Low-Cost Locations in U.S.”New York Times, May 26, pp. D1, D3..1994. Women and Men at Work. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089124388002001005, and .1960. The Stages of Economic Growth: A Noncommunist Manifesto. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.1991. “Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union: A Technological Time Warp.” In The Crisis of Leninism and the Decline of the Left: The Revolutions of 1989, edited by DanielChirot (pp. 60–73). Seattle: University of Washington Press.1991. “Different Methods, Contradictory Results? Research on Development and Democracy.”International Journal of Comparative Sociology32, 9–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002071529103200102.1992. Capitalist Development and Democracy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press., , and .1994. Cities in a World Economy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press..1995. “Birth of the Baby Cartels.”Newsweek, August 21, p. 37..1992. “Brazil's Two Faces.”Time, June 8, pp. 74–77.[Page 212]1988. “Trends and Differences in China's Fertility Rate.” In New China's Population, edited by China Financial and Economic Publishing House (pp. 15–31). New York: Macmillan..1994. “Hunt in Forests of Borneo Aims to Track Down Natural Drugs.”New York Times, December 6, p. B9..1979. States and Social Revolutions: A Comparative Analysis of France, Russia, and China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press..1991. “Method and Theory in Comparative Urban Studies.”International Journal of Comparative Sociology32, 39–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002071529103200103.1992. “The New World's Newest Trade Bloc.”Business Week, May 4, pp. 50–51..1994. “Why Wait for NAFTA?” Business Week, December 5, pp. 52–54..1995a. “The 25th Anniversary of Earth Day: How Has the Environment Fared?” New York Times, April 18, pp. B5-B6..1995b. “Scientists Say Earth Warming Could Set Off Wide Disruptions.”New York Times, September 18, pp. A1, A5..1965. The River Between. London: Heinemann..1983. “Economic Dependence, Over-urbanization and Economic Growth: A Study of Less Developed Countries.”Sociological Quarterly24, 489–507. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1983.tb00715.x, and .Time. 1994. “Birth of a ‘Narcodemocracy.’” April 11, p. 19.1994. Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Diversity in Global Business. Burr Ridge, IL: Irwin Professional Publishing..1985. Africa: The People and Politics of an Emerging Continent. New York: Simon & Schuster. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002716285478001027.United Nations. 1993. World Urbanization Prospects: The 1992 Revision. New York: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis.United Nations. 1994. 1993 International Trade Statistics. New York: United Nations.United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF). 1990. The State of the World's Children 1990. New York: Oxford University Press.United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF). 1991. The State of the World's Children 1991. New York: Oxford University Press.United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF). 1992. The State of the World's Children 1992. New York: Oxford University Press.United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF). 1993. The State of the World's Children 1993. New York: Oxford University Press.United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF). 1994a. The State of the World's Children 1994. New York: Oxford University Press.United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF). 1994b. The Progress of Nations. New York: UNICEF.United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF). 1995. The State of the World's Children 1995. New York: Oxford University Press.[Page 213]1995. “The Dashed Dreams of Generation X.”Business Week, August 7, pp. 38–39..U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1993. Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1993. 113th ed. Washington, DC.U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1994. Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1994. 114th ed. Washington, DC.U.S. Committee for Refugees. 1994. World Refugee Survey 1994. Washington, DC: U.S. Committee for Refugees.U.S. Department of Transportation. 1993. Highway Statistics 1992. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.U.S. Government Printing Office. 1964. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: John F. Kennedy. January 1 to November 22, 1963. Washington, DC.U.S. Government Printing Office. 1989. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Ronald Reagan. January 1 to July 3, 1987. Washington, DC.1991. The Four Little Dragons: The Spread of Industrialization in East Asia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press..1995. “The Global Middle Class.”American Demographics, September, pp. 40–46..1974. The Modern World System I. New York: Academic Press..1984. Reluctant Rebels: Comparative Studies of Revolution and Underdevelopment. New York: Columbia University Press..1990. “Global and National Sources of Political Protest: Third World Responses to the Debt Crisis.”American Sociological Review55, 876–890. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095752, and .Ward, Kathryn (Ed.). 1990. Women Workers and Global Restructuring. Ithaca: Industrial and Labor Relations Press, Cornell University.1995. Western Europe..4th ed.Sluice Dock, Guilford, CT: Dushkin Publishing Group.Washington Post. 1995. “Tears and Tributes for a Fallen Envoy.” August 23, p. A15.1990. “The Last Days.”Newsweek, January 8, pp. 16–23..1995. “South Africa Lags in Foreign Investment.”Wall Street Journal, August 21, p. A6..1990. You Gotta Have Wa. New York: Macmillan..1995. “Jobless Legions Rattle Europe's Welfare States.”New York Times, June 14, p. A3..1984. Urban Life in Contemporary China. Chicago: University of Chicago Press., and .1995. “Japan's Slow Response to Bank Crisis Shows Its Big, Basic Problems.”Wall Street Journal, June 14, pp. A1, A8., and .1990. “Investment Dependence and Alternative Explanations of Third World Mortality: A Cross-National Study.”American Sociological Review55, 75–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095704. [Page 214]World Bank. 1993. World Development Report 1993. New York: Oxford University Press.World Bank. 1994. World Development Report 1994. New York: Oxford University Press.World Bank. 1995a. World Development Report 1995. New York: Oxford University Press.World Bank. 1995b. World Bank Atlas. Washington, DC: World Bank.World Trade. 1995. “China: People Patterns.” May, p. 12.1995. The Universal Almanac 1995. Kansas City, MO: Andrews and McMeel.1995. “Erosion in Japan's Foundation: Real Estate Crash Threatens the Entire Economy.”New York Times, October 4, pp. C1, C3..