Publication Year: 2016
The concept of global health has moved on from focusing on the problems of the developing world to encompass health problems with global impact. Whether health professionals work internationally or work with people from different countries and cultures in their own country, global health issues impact daily on local healthcare delivery and professional practice. Written by an expert author team, this illuminating guide for healthcare students and practitioners introduces the major themes, challenges and debates relevant to global health that will equip the reader with the knowledge and skills required to thrive in this multi-faceted area of practice.
- Front Matter
- Subject Index
Part 1: Providing Care Globally
- Chapter 1: Studying and Working in Global Health
- Chapter 2: Health Systems
- Chapter 3: Human Resources for Health
Part II: Global Health in Context
- Chapter 4: Health Inequalities
- Chapter 5: Human Health and the Global Environment
- Chapter 6: Climate Change, Long-term Conditions and Sustainable Healthcare
Part III: Global Health in Practice
- Chapter 7: Working with Migrants, Refugees and Asylum Seekers
- Chapter 8: Primary Healthcare
- Chapter 9: Communicable Diseases
- Chapter 10: Non-Communicable Diseases, Injuries, Suicide and Self-harm
- Chapter 11: Mental Health, Mental Illness and Disability
- Chapter 12: Maternal Health
- Chapter 13: Child and Adolescent Health
- Chapter 14: Global Surgery
- Chapter 15: Global Emergency Care and Disaster Health
- Chapter 16: Project Planning and Evaluation
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Introduction and editorial arrangement © Brian D. Nicholson, Judy McKimm and Ann K. Allen
Chapter 1 © Michelle McLean and Trevor Gibbs
Chapter 2 © Tolib Mirzoev and Rosemary Morgan
Chapter 3 © Ann K. Allen and Judy McKimm
Chapter 4 © Philippa K. Bird and Kate E. Pickett
Chapter 5 © Stefi Barna, Jason Horsley, Sarah Walpole
Chapter 6 © Stefi Barna and Sarah Walpole
Chapter 7 © Philip Cotton and Andrea Williamson
Chapter 8 © Merlin Willcox, Brian D. Nicholson and David Mant
Chapter 9 © Colin S. Brown and William Newsholme
Chapter 10 © Rhys Williams and Ann John
Chapter 11 © Subodh Dave, Rachel Jenkins and Nisha Dogra
Chapter 12 © Dileep Wijeratne and Alison Fiander
Chapter 13 © Bhanu Williams, Anu Goenka, Dan Magnus and Stephen Allen
Chapter 14 © Chris Lavy, Nyengo Mkandawire and Godfrey Muguti
Chapter 15 © Georgina Phillips, Amy Neilson and Rob Mitchell
Chapter 16 © Ann K. Allen
First published 2016
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers or, in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
Library of Congress Control Number: 2015938117
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-1-4462-8250-2 (pbk)
Editor: Alex Clabburn
Associate Editor: Emma Milman
Production editor: Katie Forsythe
Copyeditor: Michelle Clark
Proofreader: Thea Watson
Indexer: Elske Janssen
Marketing manager: Camille Richmond
Cover design: Wendy Scott
Typeset by: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd, Chennai, India
Printed and bound by CPI Group (UK) Ltd, Croydon, CR0 4YY
About the Editors[Page vii]
Brian D. Nicholson is a GP and Clinical Fellow based at the Nuffield Department for Primary Care Health Sciences at the University of Oxford. He intercalated in International Health as a medical student and worked as a research assistant to Professor John Walley at the Nuffield Centre for International Health and Development. He co-founded almamata.org.uk, a not-for-profit network providing information on training, careers, education and research in global health. His current research focuses on the optimization of systems for cancer diagnosis and understanding differences in cancer outcomes between countries. He has received funding from the National Institute for Health Research and Cancer Research UK. Brian sees cancer control in low- to middle-income countries as a one of the major global health challenges ahead.
Judy McKimm is Director of Strategic Educational Development and Professor of Medical Education at Swansea University, working internationally in health professions education. From 2011–2014, she was Dean of Medical Education at Swansea and, from 2007–2011, worked in New Zealand at the University of Auckland and as Pro-Dean, Health and Social Care, at the Unitec Institute of Technology. She trained as a nurse and worked in medical education from 1994–2004, latterly as Director of Undergraduate Medicine at Imperial College, London, leading the development and implementation of a new undergraduate medical programme. From 2004–2005, as Higher Education Academy Senior Adviser, she was responsible for developing and implementing the accreditation of professional development programmes for teachers in higher education. She has worked on over 60 international health workforce and education reform projects in Central Asia, Portugal, Greece, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Australia, the Pacific and the Middle East. She publishes widely on medical education and leadership.
Ann K. Allen retired from her post as Senior Lecturer at the Institute of Medical Education, Cardiff University, in 2013. Previously she was Director of Cardiff University's Master of Public Health Programme. She holds postgraduate degrees in sociology, anthropology, education and development management and has worked in many developing countries as a consultant for project evaluation, health promotion and curriculum design. Her book Research Skills for Medical Students was published by Sage in 2012. As a consultant with the Open University, she worked with Ethiopian academics from 2013 until 2014 to develop the curriculum and learning materials for a Master of Human Resources for Health course. She continues to contribute (as a member of the leadership group and an online tutor) to the online People's Open Access Education Initiative (Peoples-uni), which aims to offer high-quality and low-cost education in public health to assist with public health capacity-building.
About the Contributors[Page viii]
Stephen Allen Professor of Paediatrics, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK, and International Officer, Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, London, UK.
Stefi Barna Lecturer in Global Health, Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, UK.
Philippa K. Bird Principal Research Fellow, Bradford Institute for Health Research, UK.
Colin S. Brown Academic Clinical Fellow in Infectious Diseases, Centre of Clinical Infection and Diagnostics Research, Department of Infectious Diseases and Infectious Diseases Lead for the King's Sierra Leone Partnership, King's Centre for Global Health, King's College London, UK.
Philip Cotton Principal, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda, Rwanda, Africa.
Subodh Dave Associate Dean, Royal College of Psychiatrists, and Honorary Associate Professor, University of Nottingham, and Consultant Psychiatrist, Derby, UK.
Nisha Dogra Professor of Psychiatry Education and Honorary Consultant in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Greenwood Institute of Child Health, University of Leicester, UK.
Alison Fiander Professor and Honorary Chair in Obstetrics and Gynaecology, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, UK, and Clinical Lead for Leading Safe Choices, a RCOG initiative to improve global women's health.
Trevor Gibbs Independent Professor of Medical Education and Primary Care and WHO Consultant [Page ix]in Medical Education, Adolescent Health and Primary Care.
Anu Goenka Registrar in Paediatrics, Royal Manchester Children's Hospital, UK.
Jason Horsley Consultant in Public Health, Sheffield City Council, and Honorary Senior Lecturer in Public Health, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
Rachel Jenkins Emeritus Professor of Epidemiology and International Mental Health Policy, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, UK.
Ann John Clinical Associate Professor, Swansea University Medical School, Wales, UK and Honorary Consultant in Public Health, Public Health Wales.
Chris Lavy Professor of Orthopaedic and Tropical Surgery, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences (NDORMS), University of Oxford, UK.
Dan Magnus Paediatrician, Bristol Children's Hospital, Bristol, UK.
David Mant Emeritus Professor of General Practice, Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, UK.
Michelle McLean Professor and Associate Dean of External Engagement and International Marketing, Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine, Bond University, Queensland, Australia.
Tolib Mirzoev Associate Professor of International Health Policy and Systems, Nuffield Centre for International Health and Development, University of Leeds, UK.
Nyengo Mkandawire Professor of Orthopaedics and Head of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Malawi, Blantyre, Malawi, Africa.
Rosemary Morgan Research Fellow, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Godfrey Muguti Professorial Chair, Department of Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Africa.
Rob Mitchell Emergency Medicine Registrar, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, [Page x]Australia. Associate Lecturer, School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Australia.
Amy Neilson Medical Doctor, Médecins Sans Frontières, Health Delegate, Australian Red Cross, and General Practitioner and Locum Senior Medical Officer (Emergency Medicine), Australia.
William Newsholme Consultant in Infectious Diseases, General Medicine and Infection Control, Guy's and St Thomas’ Hospital, London, UK. Honorary Senior Lecturer, King's Centre for Global Health, King's College London, UK.
Georgina Phillips Emergency Physician, Coordinator of International Programmes, St Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, and Honorary Lecturer, University of Melbourne, Australia.
Kate E. Pickett Professor of Inequalities in Health, Department of Health Sciences, University of York, UK.
Sarah Walpole NIHR Academic Clinical Fellow in Medical Education at Hull York Medical School and Cardiology Specialist Registrar at Hull Hospitals.
Dileep Wijeratne Senior Registrar in Obstetrics and Gynaecology Registrar, Bradford Royal Infirmary, Yorkshire, UK, and former Resident Obstetrician and Gynaecologist, Bawku Hospital, Northern Ghana, Africa.
Merlin Willcox Clinical Researcher, Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, UK.
Bhanu Williams Consultant Paediatrician, London North West Healthcare NHS Trust, Harrow, UK.
Rhys Williams Emeritus Professor of Clinical Epidemiology, Swansea University Medical School, Wales, UK.
Andrea Williamson Senior Clinical University Teacher, University of Glasgow, Scotland, UK.
List of Acronyms[Page xi]
ADHD attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
AFEM African Federation for Emergency Medicine
AMR antimicrobial resistance
ART antiretroviral therapy
CD4 cluster of differentiation 4 – a glycoprotein found on the surface of immune cells
CHD coronary heart disease
CHE complex humanitarian emergencies
CHN community health nurse
CHPS community-based health and planning services
CHWs community health workers
CO2 carbon dioxide
COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
COSECSA College of Surgeons of East Central and Southern Africa
CSOs civil society organizations
D&C dilatation and curettage
DAH development assistance for health
DALYs disability-adjusted life years
DFID Department for International Development
DOT-HAART directly observed therapy with highly active antiretroviral therapy
DOTS directly observed treatment, short-course
DSM Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
EC emergency care
ECDC European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
ELRHA Enhancing Learning and Research for Humanitarian Assistance
EM emergency medicine
[Page xii]EOC essential obstetric care
EPI Expanded Programme on Immunization
ETAT Emergency Triage Assessment and Treatment
FBOs faith-based organizations
FMTs foreign medical teams
GBD Global Burden of Disease
GDP gross domestic product
GEC global emergency care
GECC Global Emergency Care Collaborative
GHWA Global Health Workforce Alliance
GOBI FFF growth monitoring, oral rehydration, breastfeeding, immunization, family spacing, food supplements and female education
HAI hospital-acquired infection
HCAI healthcare-associated infection
HIC high-income countries
HIV/AIDS human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome
HMIS health management information systems
HRH human resources for health
IASC Inter-Agency Standing Committee
ICD International Classification of Diseases
ICRC International Committee of the Red Cross
ICU intensive care unit
IEM international emergency medicine
IFEM International Federation for Emergency Medicine
IFMSA International Federation of Medical Students’ Associations
IFRC International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
IMCI Integrated Management of Childhood Illness
INGOs international non-governmental organizations
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IPT intermittent preventive therapy
IT information technology
ITNs insecticide-treated bed nets
JFS Joint Funding Scheme
[Page xiii]KEHPCA Kenya Hospices and Palliative Care Association
LICs low-income countries
LMICs low- and middle-income countries
LTCs long-term conditions
MCH maternal and child health
MDGs Millennium Development Goals
MDR multi-drug resistant
MDR-TB multi-drug resistant tuberculosis
MERS-CoV Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus
MMR maternal mortality ratio
MOHSW Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (Tanzania, Ethiopia)
MRSA meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
MSF Médecins Sans Frontières
NCDs non-communicable diseases
NDM1 New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1
NGO non-governmental organization
NHS National Health Service
NSPCC National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children
NTDs neglected tropical diseases
OCHA Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
PCV pneumococcal conjugate vaccines
PEPFAR President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (USA)
PHC primary healthcare
PLWHA people living with HIV or AIDS
PM project management
PMTCT prevention of mother-to-child transmission
PPE personal protective equipment
ProMED Programme for Monitoring Emerging Diseases
RAS refused asylum seekers
RDTs rapid diagnostic tests
SAM severe acute malnutrition
SAP sustainable action planning
SARS severe acute respiratory syndrome
[Page xiv]SDGs Sustainable Development Goals
SSCL surgical safety checklist
START strategic timing of antiretroviral treatment
STAR CHPS Supportive Technical Assistance for Revitalizing Community-based Health Planning and Services
SWAps Sector Wide Approaches
TBAs traditional birth attendants
TDR-TB totally drug resistant tuberculosis
TRPCCC Trent Region Palliative and Continuing Care Centre
UASC unaccompanied asylum-seeking child
UFM under-five mortality
UHC universal health coverage
UK United Kingdom
UN United Nations
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNFPA United Nations Population Fund
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
USAID United States Agency for International Development
VRE vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus
VSO Voluntary Service Overseas
WACS West African College of Surgeons
WHO World Health Organization
WHO-AIMS World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems
WISN workload indicators of staffing need
XDR-TB extensively drug resistant tuberculosis
YLDs years lived with disabilities
YLLs years of life lost
It is appropriate that the publication of this excellent book should coincide with the launch of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The UN has hailed its predecessor, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) ‘the most successful anti-poverty movement in history’. Some might not agree entirely but the MDGs have undoubtedly had a significant impact in reducing extreme poverty, delivering safe water, improving access to health care and increasing the number of children going to school and much more.
The SDGs take a broader view of global well-being but the challenges for the next 15 years will be even greater and the human resources needed to achieve these goals will challenge us all. In addition a growing global population, persistent conflict and warfare and an increasingly unstable climate will add to the barriers to achieving health equity. I am delighted to see a growing interest in global health among students who have grown up in a much more connected and a smaller world. It is our duty to nurture this interest, guide these students with their careers and ensure that their education and professional development is embedded in a socially accountable approach.
Global health is now firmly on undergraduate curricula, yet much still needs to be done to prepare our students for a more ‘local’ world where students not only need to understand global health issues but also need to develop cultural competences required to work in a multifaceted environment. While some students will choose to work in low- and middle-income countries, all will live and work in a multicultural and multiethnic society with diverse problems previously alien to past generations of health care workers. The migration of vast numbers of refugees and displaced people across continents has ensured that other people's health issues have now become everyone's.
Some of the greatest challenges will be in the rural and remote areas. We increasingly view the world from an urban-centric perspective, despite that fact that nearly half the world's population is rural and the greatest concentrations of extreme poverty remain at the periphery of health care in isolated communities. It will be these areas, which will offer the biggest challenges to the goal of Universal Health Coverage (UHC). The WONCA (World Organization of Family Doctors) Working Party on Rural Practice has developed a Rural Medical Education Guidebook; designed for educators to develop appropriate rurally based undergraduate and postgraduate education aimed at promoting rural practice and rural choices for students and doctors in training. It is also committed to developing global student networks as a way of fostering an understanding of global rural health. I was delighted that the needs of rural and isolated communities are highlighted as a challenge in the text.
[Page xvi]I must congratulate the editors and authors for producing a much-needed book, which fills a gap and meets the increasing need for global health educational material. The book provides the ideal introductory text for global health with highlighted key points, contextual references, case studies and guides to further study. I will certainly recommend it to my students as a gateway to global health. The book will also become a resource for postgraduate students and those health care professionals planning to work abroad.
Much success has already been achieved but this book will help consolidate global heath in undergraduate and postgraduate curricula across higher education and professional development.
Dr John Wynn-Jones
Chair WONCA Working Party on Rural Practice
Past President and Founder European Rural and Isolated Practitioners Association
Senior Lecturer in Rural and Global Health, Keele Medical School
Introduction[Page xvii]Background and context
Most healthcare students and professionals spend some time working or studying overseas, whether it is on an elective, a year out, an exchange or a study visit. International agencies, such as the World Bank, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), as well as international non-governmental organizations (INGOs), retain health and population as key development themes that attract graduates from social science and engineering disciplines. For universities and the students who study in them, social accountability is becoming more important, not only at the level of governance and community engagement but also for individuals who are developing their professional identities (Woollard and Boelen, 2012). An understanding of global health issues and health management is therefore essential. It is equally vital that students and professionals understand the impact of global health on medicine and healthcare in the UK and other countries.
Globalization and technological developments are changing both professional and social practices in ways that require graduates to be able to live and work in settings that are culturally diverse and subject to environmental and disease threats arising from industrial and urban growth that can only be managed through international collaboration. Demographic change (the ageing, growth and urbanization of populations) is taking place in circumstances that are resource-constrained. The importance of empowering both individuals and communities to improve conditions that impact health is increasingly recognized. Many health professionals work and travel in countries outside those in which they were born or trained and, with increasing international travel and migration patterns, health issues that were once seen only in certain countries are now encountered by health professionals around the world.
We live and work in a ‘global village’, so students and health professionals need to be aware of the health issues that people around the world face because of poverty, inequalities, climate change, famine, conflict, migration patterns and demographic shifts. They need also to understand how policy decisions relating to trade, land use and energy interact with these to compound deprivation further. Understanding and engaging with global health concerns thus form part of the social accountability, diversity and inclusivity agendas of health and health education organizations worldwide.[Page xviii]Global health is high on the agenda
In professional standards’ frameworks (such as UK General Medical Council, 2009; UK Nursing and Midwifery Council, 2010; UK Public Health Skills and Knowledge Framework, 2014) around the world, graduates are required to demonstrate understanding of and adherence to strategies for addressing global and wider public health issues, including those of indigenous peoples. The presence of global health at the top of the political agenda for high-income countries (such as Crisp, 2007), supported by a stream of documents and resources from the World Health Organization (such as, WHO, 2007; WHO Global Health Observatory www.who.int/gho/en), shows that governments and policymakers recognize moves to address drastic international health and development inequalities are becoming more important for the wider public, too. There is a consequent desire for accessible information about the challenges that really face healthcare provision in low-income countries beyond propaganda and media hysteria, which can obscure important messages, such as those underpinning famine in Africa and swine flu. Health professionals need to understand the perspectives of different countries as they strive to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), for example contrasting the ‘obesity epidemic’ found in many Western countries with extreme poverty, starvation and death through famine and other climate changes in others, understanding differences in access to healthcare or variations in maternal and child health and addressing the chronic disease ‘epidemic’.MDGs and Sustainable Development Goals
The eight MDGs were produced with the aim of eradicating or alleviating key issues for the world's poorest people by 2015 (see www.un.org/millenniumgoals). They were agreed by all the world's countries and leading development institutions and are to:
- eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
- achieve universal primary education
- promote gender equality and empower womenreduce child mortality
- improve maternal health
- combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
- ensure environmental sustainability
- develop a global partnership for development.
In 2015, the United Nations (UN) coordinated efforts to develop Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to take forward the work already done around the MDGs. The primary aims are to end poverty, promote prosperity and well-being for all, protect the environment and address climate change (www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment). As well as human health issues, the SDGs consider a much wider range of interrelated aspects, such as establishing safe, dignified and fairly paid jobs, disaster risk reduction, agricultural production, animal diseases and conflict prevention.[Page xix]Health issues are global
The concept of global health has moved on from focusing solely on the problems of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to encompass health problems with global impact. Problems of non-communicable disease control linked to alcohol, tobacco consumption and obesity, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer, together with mental health, are joining the more familiar communicable diseases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malaria and tuberculosis (TB) at the top of the research agenda. Environmental issues, too, have expanded beyond concern for the provision of clean water supplies, sanitation and promoting hygiene to include the management of risks associated with trade in food and the misuse of pharmaceuticals, as well as the impact of growing global pollution. Variations in the economic status of individuals and communities with respect to access to maternal and child health reflect differences in the social status of women that also may be exacerbated by technological developments, such as ultrasound or IVF. Whether health professionals work internationally or with people from different countries and cultures in their own country, global health issues impact local health care delivery and professional practice daily.
New public–private partnerships, such as the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, a growing awareness of climate change and unpredictable politico-economic environments exert new pressures and influence on global health and its governance. Consequently we observe significant shifts in research and development funding worldwide. Diseases that have recently been neglected (such as hookworm, schistosomiasis, trachoma and leprosy) are moving back up the global agenda and new specialties that require refreshed international collaboration and new expertise appear.Becoming and being a global practitioner
Individuals are increasingly urged to be global citizens and health professionals to be ‘global practitioners’ (McKimm and McLean, 2011). More than ever before, individual health professionals have the means – and, with it, the responsibility – to increase awareness and action through informing colleagues and themselves about global issues, lobbying governments and international actors, forming and supporting global health pressure groups, volunteering and researching global health puzzles (Frenk et al., 2014).
Health professionals and non-health professionals alike take time out of training to study Masters’ and Diploma programmes focused on the challenge of providing equitable healthcare on a global scale. Medical schools have produced hundreds of graduates with additional qualifications in international health, the International Federation of Medical Students’ Associations (IFMSA) and Medsin UK have ensured global health is climbing up the agenda on most undergraduate medical curricula and Alma Mata (www.almamata.org.uk) works with the Royal Colleges, lobbies government and informs members on how best to integrate relevant international experience into postgraduate training. There is still, however, much to do to consolidate global health as a core element of undergraduate and postgraduate health professions programmes.[Page xx]Our approach
The approach in the book highlights throughout why an understanding of international/global health issues is important and relevant to medicine and healthcare students and trainees, as well as practitioners involved in public health programmes in their own practice in local contexts and those working in other countries and cultures. Although the book discusses global issues, it clearly spells out the links to local practice – indeed, the theme and structure of each chapter is ‘local–global–local’ (the ‘act local, think global’ approach).
The book is broken down into three main sections as follows:
Part 1: Providing Care Globally
Chapter 1: Studying and Working in Global Health
Chapter 2: Health Systems
Chapter 3: Human Resources for Health
Part 2: Global Health in Context
Chapter 4: Health Inequalities
Chapter 5: Human Health and the Global Environment
Chapter 6: Climate Change, Long-term Conditions and Sustainable Healthcare
Part 3: Global Health in Practice
Chapter 7: Working with Migrants, Refugees and Asylum Seekers
Chapter 8: Primary Healthcare
Chapter 9: Communicable Diseases
Chapter 10: Non-communicable Diseases, Injuries, Suicide and Self-harm
Chapter 11: Mental Health, Mental Illness and Disability
Chapter 12: Maternal Health
Chapter 13: Child and Adolescent Health
Chapter 14: Global Surgery
Chapter 15: Global Emergency Care and Disaster Health
Chapter 16: Project Planning and EvaluationChapter structure
Each chapter provides a short overview and introduction that sets out the main areas of coverage and context. Case studies are used to illustrate relevant global issues or stories included that refer to both the local and global contexts. ‘What is the evidence?’ boxes highlight key policy, strategy or clinical innovations and movements. Health promotion and preventive medicine is a theme throughout the book [Page xxi](rather than a separate chapter in its own right) so is woven into each chapter. Issues arising from the management of change and the significance of cultural differences for understanding social behaviour are also common threads. The book introduces relevant theory clearly focused on practical applications in public health and clinical practice. Many acronyms are used in global health so a list of these is givesn at the beginning of the book.Finally
As we have described, this book provides an introductory text to the challenges and solutions to a range of global health issues for healthcare professionals and practitioners from any discipline (particularly those new to working in international health) wherever they work in the world. We hope that you find it useful and enjoy working in global health as much as we do.References2007) Global Health Partnerships. The UK Contribution to Health in Developing Countries. Summary and Recommendations. COI. Available at: www.aspeninstitute.org/sites/default/files/content/images/Global%20Health%20Partnerships%20-%20Crisp%20Report_0.pdf (accessed 8 October 2015).(2010) ‘Health professionals for a new century: transforming education to strengthen health systems in an interdependent world’, The Lancet, 376(9756): 1923–58., , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and (General Medical Council (2009) Tomorrow's Doctors. London: General Medical Council.2011) ‘Developing a global practitioner: Time to act? Medical Teacher, 33: 626–631.and (Nursing and Midwifery Council (2010) Standards for Pre-registration Nursing Education. London: Nursing and Midwifery Council.Public Health Skills and Knowledge Framework (2014) London: Skills for Health. Available at: www.skillsforhealth.org.uk/resources (accessed 8 October 2015).2012) ‘Seeking impact of medical schools on health: Meeting the challenges of social accountability’, Medical Education, 46: 21–27.and (World Health Organization (2007) Everybody's Business: Strengthening Health Systems to Improve Health Outcomes: WHO's Framework for Action. Geneva: World Health Organization.[Page xxii]