Getting the Best Out of Supervision in Counselling and Psychotherapy: A Guide for the Supervisee
Publication Year: 2014
Getting the Best Out of Supervision in Counselling & Psychotherapy does exactly what it says on the tin! Supervision is an essential part of counselling training and ensuring you know exactly how to get the very most out of supervision is important, whatever their level of study. Exploring how to begin, maintain and end a supervisory learning relationship in the context of existing theory and best practice guidelines, the author will introduce your trainees to:
Models and forms of supervision; The skills informing good supervision; What to expect from supervision; Key professional issues in supervision
Written in a lively and engaging style, this book will enable both supervisors and supervisees to get the best they can from the supervisory experience.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: What is the Meaning and Purpose of Supervision?
- Chapter 2: The Supervisory Relationship: A Relationship with a Purpose
- Chapter 3: Supervision Across the Career Lifespan
- Chapter 4: The Learning Landscape: Lifelong Learning in Supervision
- Chapter 5: Models and Frameworks of Supervision
- Chapter 6: Forms and Formats of Supervision
- Chapter 7: Beginning the Learning Relationship
- Chapter 8: How to Prepare for a Supervision Session
- Chapter 9: Ethical and Legal Considerations in Supervision
- Chapter 10: Good and not so Good Supervision
- Chapter 11: Professional Considerations in Supervision
- Chapter 12: Feedback and Evaluation in Supervision
- Chapter 13: Endings in the Learning Relationship and the Opportunities Ahead
- Chapter 14: Developing the Art and Science of Supervision
Editorial Board[Page ii]
SAGE has been part of the global academic community since 1965, supporting high quality research and learning that transforms society and our understanding of individuals, groups and cultures. SAGE is the independent, innovative, natural home for authors, editors and societies who share our commitment and passion for the social sciences.
Find out more at: http://www.sagepublications.com
© Mary Creaner 2014
First published 2014
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
Library of Congress Control Number: 2013940540
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-0-85702-906-5 (pbk)
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Tá mo chroí istigh ionat
Mo chuid den tsaol[Page vi]
List of Figures and Tables[Page viii]Tables
- 5.1 Carroll's (1996) generic tasks of supervision with sample questions for reflection 47
- 10.1 Supervisee attributes contributing to excellent outcomes 84
- 10.2 Overarching principles of ‘lousy supervision’ according to Magnuson and colleagues (2000) 85
- 10.3 General spheres of ‘lousy supervision’ according to Magnuson and colleagues (2000) 86
- 10.4 Spheres related to supervisees’ contributions to ‘lousy supervision’ outcomes according to Wilcoxon and colleagues (2005) 87
- 13.1 Falender et al.'s (2004) supervision competencies framework 113
About the Author
I believe that all writing endeavours are, by their nature, collaborative enquiries. Consequently, there are a number of acknowledgements that I wish to make. First, many thanks to the supervisees and supervisors with whom I have worked for the learning they have facilitated. They continue to inspire my work and my reflections on supervision. Thanks also go to past and present students of the Doctorate in Counselling Psychology and the MSc/Postgraduate Diploma in Clinical Supervision, Trinity College Dublin.
Many thanks go to my colleagues, Dr Ladislav Timulak, Barbara Hannigan and colleagues. Sincere thanks to Dr Rita Honan for the many supervision-related consultations over the years. Many thanks to Dr Anne Davis for the ongoing reflections. A special word of thanks to Eileen Boyle for her continual sharing of her infinite wisdom, for support and for continuing reflective conversations. Also to Marcella Finnerty for her constant encouragement and many offers of help.
Special thanks are also owed for the many learning conversations over the years regarding supervision research and practice, particularly to Prof. Maja O'Brien, Prof. Robert Bor, Dr Alison Strasser and Dr John Sharry.
Heartfelt thanks in appreciation of family, particularly my mother, Nuala, and of friends, who have been constant in their encouragement to begin and end this project!
Thanks also to Alice Oven, who initiated this book, and to Kate Wharton for her vast patience, encouragement and support throughout the process. Many thanks to Laura Walmsley and Rachel Burrows of the editorial and production teams at Sage Publications.
About the Book[Page xi]
Getting the best out of supervision requires both the supervisor and supervisee to invest much time, preparation, reflection, negotiation and active participation. It is a collaborative endeavour. It also means that supervisees are entitled to expect and will, it is hoped, receive the best supervision possible. To that end, this book provides a variety of considerations regarding the supervision experience, whether for the supervisee who is about to embark on a supervision relationship for the first time in their training experience, a continuing trainee or a post-qualification and experienced practitioner. It seeks to review the current landscape of supervision in terms of the benefits, opportunities and challenges that are evident. As supervisors, in the context of counselling and therapy (both terms are used interchangeably throughout the text), are frequently career-long supervisees, the information and reflections provided in each chapter may serve to stimulate critical reflection on how they may also optimally use supervision. It is also relevant for supervisors, particularly beginning supervisors, with respect to facilitating effective supervision from the supervisee's frame of reference.
The aim of this book is to provide information on the key supervision concepts and also to provide opportunities to reflect on these as they pertain to each supervisee's unique supervision situation. The book is not intended as a supervision manual; rather, it has been informed by the current literature and developed from many conversations with supervisees and supervisors regarding the principles of best practice. The themes that are presented have arisen from these conversations, and the book seeks to provide an integrative perspective on the art and science of supervision from my experience as a practitioner-researcher of dwelling in the in-betweens of science and practice. This text draws on current research and professional literature in the area of supervision and on my experience both as a supervisor and as a supervisee.
Considering the multitude of approaches to supervision, individual supervisor styles, theoretical orientations and preferences, together with work contexts, the welfare needs of the client, the learning needs of the supervisee, the variation in supervisor training among supervisors, current evidence in supervision and therapy, it is no wonder that the landscape of supervision, particularly for beginning supervisees, may seem like dragon territory. The following chapters seek to provide a research-informed map of the current landscape of supervision, with the systemic caveat that the map is never the territory! Each supervisory arrangement is a unique, negotiated encounter between supervisor and supervisee within the context of the work.[Page xii]Chapter 1: What is the Meaning and Purpose of Supervision?
This chapter provides an orientation to the landscape of supervision by providing an overview of its historical development within the counselling and psychotherapy tradition. It will also discuss the purpose and functions of supervision as articulated in a number of existing definitions.Chapter 2: The Supervisory Relationship: A Relationship with a Purpose
The supervisory relationship is identified as the central component in supervision and will be discussed with reference to Bordin's (1983) working alliance model. This chapter also outlines some of the phenomena and some of the challenges that may be encountered in the supervisory relationship and reviews how these may be conceptualised.Chapter 3: Supervision across the Career Lifespan
This chapter considers the supervisee experience from a professional and research perspective, and highlights some of the key issues in supervision across the career lifespan. It includes both trainee and experienced practitioner perspectives.Chapter 4: The Learning Landscape: Lifelong Learning in Supervision
This chapter reviews some of the key adult learning concepts as they pertain to learning in supervision. It also considers the means by which learning is best facilitated and the professional knowledge required for supervision practice.Chapter 5: Models and Frameworks of Supervision
This chapter provides an introduction to some of the current supervision models and frameworks, as an example of how a supervisor might view a supervision session, and highlights areas of supervisory enquiry. An example of how a supervision framework may be used by the supervisee to prepare for and reflect upon their supervision session is discussed.Chapter 6: Forms and Formats of Supervision
This chapter presents an overview of group, peer and live supervision, and considers the use of technology in supervision with reference to online supervision.[Page xiii]Chapter 7: Beginning the Learning Relationship
This chapter will develop the perspective of the supervisory relationship as a learning relationship within both a training and post-training context. It considers the professional boundaries that are necessary to establish and maintain a supervision relationship. It provides guidelines for developing a learning agreement with a supervisor with reference to individual supervisee contexts.Chapter 8: How to Prepare for a Supervision Session
This chapter has a practical, ‘how to’ focus, and refers to the process knowledge required of a supervisee. Some strategies are suggested to prepare for and maximise learning in supervision.Chapter 9: Ethical and Legal Considerations in Supervision
This chapter provides an overview of some of the key ethical considerations in supervision, including informed consent, confidentiality, multiple relationships, disclosure and record keeping as they pertain to the supervisee–supervisor relationship. Equality and inclusive practice is reviewed as it relates to supervision, and the well-being of the supervisee is considered.Chapter 10: Good and Not So Good Supervision
This chapter will explore effective and ineffective supervision with reference to the key purposes of supervision: primarily, the well-being of the client and the professional development of the supervisee. With these in mind, the chapter will consider some of the impacts and outcomes that supervision has for clients and supervisees. It also considers how supervisee and supervisor contribute to effective or ineffective supervision as reported in the literature.Chapter 11: Professional Considerations in Supervision
This chapter will focus on issues related to professional practice, including fitness to practise and professional standards in supervision. It provides an example of the accreditation requirements for supervision from the perspective of the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP). It presents some of the current debates regarding the benefits and challenges of professionalisation in the field.[Page xiv]Chapter 12: Feedback and Evaluation in Supervision
Giving and receiving feedback are discussed from the perspective of the supervisee and supervisor and as a strategy to facilitate learning. The evaluation task in supervision is also presented, and key issues regarding this task are considered.Chapter 13: Endings in the Learning Relationship and the Opportunities Ahead
This chapter will reflect on a much-neglected area in the literature: namely the ending of a supervisory relationship and contract. It will also outline continuing professional development with reference to supervision training. Supervision competencies and key areas for consideration in supervision training curricula are also discussed.Chapter 14: Developing the Art and Science of Supervision
This chapter considers some of the current issues regarding the art and science of supervision and proposes some areas for further research and development. It also provides reflection on the practitioner as researcher and what that means in the context of supervision.Appendices
The appendices aim to provide useful resources for supervisees and supervisors:
- Sample supervision learning agreement
- Session pro forma documents
- Codes of ethics and best practice guidelines for supervision
- Supervision conferences
- Sample of supervision training courses
- Key journals for supervision-related articles
- Sample of international organisations
- Supervision resources on the Internet
- Holloway's (1995) process matrix
- Helpful Aspects of Supervision forms
- Sample of professional associations: accreditation/registration organizations
The appendices aim to provide useful resources for supervisees and supervisors:
[Page 122]Appendix 1: Sample Supervision Learning Agreement
- Sample supervision learning agreement
- Session pro forma documents
- Codes of ethics and best practice guidelines for supervision
- Supervision conferences
- Sample of supervision training courses
- Key journals for supervision-related articles
- Sample of international supervision organisations
- Supervision resources on the Internet
- Holloway's (1995) process matrix
- Helpful Aspects of Supervision forms
- Sample of professional associations: accreditation/registration organisations
PRACTICALITIES OF SUPERVISION Introductions and professional background information (qualifications and experience of supervisor/supervisee) Context of supervision (training, pre-accreditation, consultancy) Frequency of supervision sessions Length of session Location Arrangements for cancellations/absences Fee Emergencies arrangements if supervisor is unavailable Length of supervision contract Termination of supervision Professional/training organization/agency requirements Third party contracts Professional indemnity insurance Supervisee informed consent (risks and benefits) Other considerations SUPERVISION RELATIONSHIP [Page 123] What are the supervisees’/supervisors’ expectations of supervision? Role of the supervisee Role of the supervisor Responsibilities of the supervisee Responsibilities of the supervisor Theoretical orientation of supervisee/supervisor Code of professional ethics of supervisor/supervisee Supervisee and client confidentiality and privacy Multiple/dual relationship possibilities Complaints procedures and due process Record keeping procedures (supervision and therapy) How and when will our working relationship be reviewed? How/when will the learning agreement be reviewed? How will difficulties be addressed? THE SUPERVISION SESSION Supervisee current case load Client profile (e.g., adult, adolescent, child) Context of therapeutic work (general, trauma etc.) How will the supervision time be managed? How will client cases be presented? (Audio tapes/transcripts/notes/etc.) Supervision methods (e.g., role-play, IPR, etc.) How will client-informed consent be provided? How will client progress and therapy outcomes be monitored? What are the risk management procedures? Professional and legal issues Diversity and inclusive practice considerations Framework for ethical decision making How will supervisee self-care be supported? [Page 124] Other SUPERVISEE LEARNING NEEDS What are the supervisees’ learning preferences? Immediate developmental goals
- – Knowledge
- – Skill
- – Values/attitudes
- – Professional Identity
Intermediate professional development plan for supervisee Longer term developmental goals
- – Knowledge
- – Skill
- – Values/attitudes
- – Professional identity
How will feedback be given? Supervisee preferences? Other EVALUATION IN SUPERVISION What is the context of evaluation? (Training, accreditation, etc.) When will formal evaluation occur? What evaluation criteria will be used? Who will have access to evaluation reports? How will evaluation of supervisor/supervision experience take place? Other? Signed: Supervisee Signed: Supervisor Date: Review dates:Adapted from Carroll (1996: 98); Hawkins and Shohet (2012: 68); Sutter, McPherson and Geeseman (2002: 497–8); Thomas (2010: 152–61).[Page 125]Appendix 2: Session Pro Forma DocumentsSample Supervisee Case Presentation Pro Forma Document
Therapist: Client ID/Pseudonym:[Page 126][Page 127]Sample Supervision Session Reflection Pro Forma Document[Page 128]Appendix 3: Codes of Ethics and Best Practice Guidelines for Supervision
While the principles of all professional codes of ethics in counselling and psychotherapy apply to the practice of supervision, a number of professional organisations provide dedicated codes of ethics for supervision and/or guidelines for best practice in supervision. Below is a sample of those available.
American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT) (2012) Principle IV: Responsibility to Students and Supervisees. Available from: http://www.aamft.org/imis15/content/legal_ethics/code_of_ethics.aspx
American Association of Pastoral Counselors (AAPC) Code of Ethics (2012). Available from: http://www.aapc.org/policies/code-of-ethics.aspx
American Counseling Association (ACA) Code of Ethics (2005) Section F: Supervision, Training, and Teaching. Available from: http://www.counseling.org/Resources/aca-code-of-ethics.pdf
American Mental Health Counselors Association (AMHCA) Code of Ethics (2010) Section III: Commitment to Students, Supervisees and Employee Relationships. Available from: http://www.amhca.org/assets/content/AMHCA_Code_of_Ethics_2010_update_1-20-13_COVER.pdf
Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES) (2011) Best Practices in Clinical Supervision. Available from: http://www.acesonline.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/ACES-Best-Practices-in-clinical-supervision-document-FINAL.pdf
Center for Credentialing and Education (CCE), the Approved Clinical Supervisor (ACS) Code of Ethics (2008). Available from: http://www.ncblpc.org/Laws_and_Codes/ACS_Code_of_Ethics.pdf
Irish Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy Code of Ethics and Practice for Supervisors (2005). Available from: http://www.irish-counselling.ie/Code-of-Ethics-for-Supervisors[Page 129]Appendix 4: Supervision ConferencesInternational Interdisciplinary Conference on Clinical Supervision
This conference is held in the School of Social Work, Adelphi University, New York, in June each year. The conference is interdisciplinary in nature and focuses on clinical supervision theory, practice and research in the dissemination of new knowledge, research and best practices in the field of clinical supervision.
Further information is available from: http://socialwork.adelphi.edu/news-events/events/international-interdisciplinary-conference-on-clinical-supervision/Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES)
The ACES national conference is held bi-annually. In even years, each region hosts a conference. The 2013 Conference was held in Colorado in October. Further information is available from: http://www.acesonline.net/conference/British Psychological Society
The first BPS Supervision Conference was held in April 2013. According to their website, ‘this conference aims to promote excellence in supervision by providing a continuing professional development opportunity for those who supervise postgraduate psychology trainees’. BPS Divisions also hold regular conferences and a BPS Conference is held annually. Further information is available from: http://www.bps.org.uk/events/conferences[Page 130]UKCP Annual Supervision Conference
For information, see: http://www.psychoanalytic-council.org/main/index.php?page=16203Supervision Conference UK, formerly British Association for Supervision Practice and Research (BASPR)
This annual conference takes place in the UK and is focused on supervision practice and research. It is now organised by Oasis Talking Therapies CIC, Oasis-Talk, and further information may be found from: http://www.oasis-talk.org/professional-training/supervision-conference/Other Established Conferences Accept Papers on Supervision Research and Practice. For ExampleBritish Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) ConferenceSociety for Psychotherapy Research (SPR)Society for the Exploration of Psychotherapy Integration (SEPI)Psychological Society of Ireland (PSI)[Page 131]Appendix 5: Sample of Supervision Training CoursesAcademic Qualification and Professional Training: University-based Courses
Please note: This information is correct at time of writing. Please check directly with the relevant institutions for current information.
University: School of Psychology, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland
Award: MSc/Postgraduate Diploma in Clinical Supervision
The MSc/Postgraduate Diploma in Clinical Supervision is a part-time course aimed at practitioners in the helping professions (e.g., qualified psychologists, psychotherapists, counsellors and mental health professionals) who wish to further their professional development, reflective practice and research capability and train as supervisors. On successful completion of Year 1, students may opt to exit with a Postgraduate Diploma award or, alternatively, proceed to Year 2 for the MSc route.
University: University of Derby
Award: Postgraduate Certificate in Clinical Supervision
This qualification is for people who aim to provide or are providing clinical supervision to counsellors or psychotherapists. This is a one-year, part-time, online course.
University: Teesside University
Award: Certificate in Postgraduate Professional Development: Clinical Supervision for Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Practice
The award prepares you for delivering CBT supervision to trainee or qualified therapists.[Page 132]
Training Institution: WPF Therapy (awards validated by Roehampton University)
Award: Postgraduate Diploma/MA in Supervision of Counselling and Psychotherapy
Training Institution: Institute for Arts in Therapy and Education
Award: Diploma in Child Counselling/Child Therapy/Child Psychotherapy Supervision (level of award according to previous qualifications)
University: Keele University
Award: Postgraduate Certificate in Counselling Supervision
Training Institution: All Hallows College (award validated by Dublin City University)
Award: MA in Supervisory Practice
University: University of Chester, Department of Social Studies and Counselling
Award: Postgraduate Certificate in Counselling Supervision
University: University of Surrey
Award: MSc Supervision and Consultation: Psychotherapeutic and Organisational ApproachesProfessional Training and Continuing Professional Development (CPD) Courses
Many associations and organisations run CPD training workshops for their members. Other training institutes also offer professional training in supervision. Many are endorsed by professional organisations (e.g., meet with BACP criteria for inclusion on the register of supervisors). However, this needs to be verified directly with the training organisation. For example:
Training Institution: Metanoia Institute
Award: Certificate and Diploma in Supervision: An Integrative Relational Approach
Award: Certificate/Diploma in Person Centred Supervision[Page 133]
Award: Certificate/Diploma in clinical supervision for TA (transactional analysis) counsellors, CTAs (certified transactional analysts) and newly qualified PTSTAs (provisional teaching and supervising transactional analysts)
Award: Certificate/Diploma in Supervision: A Gestalt Relational Approach
Training Institution: Iron Mill Institute, Exeter, UK
Award: Diploma in SupervisionBritish Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy
The BACP also runs a number of CPD online supervision modules for supervisor training (e.g., Supporting your supervisee through the accreditation process; Preparing for supervision and getting the most out of it).The British Psychological Society
The BPS has many CPD and supervision training workshops.
Website: http://www.bps.org.ukThe Online Therapy Institute
The Online Therapy Institute currently provides online or in-person supervision training:[Page 134]Appendix 6: Key Journals for Supervision-Related Articles
British Journal of Guidance and Counselling: http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/cbjg20/current
The Clinical Supervisor: http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/wcsu20/current
The Counseling Psychologist: http://www.uk.sagepub.com/journals/Journal200805
Counselling Psychology Quarterly: http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/ccpq20/current
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research: http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/rcpr20/current
European Journal of Psychotherapy and Counselling: http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/rejp20/current
European Journal of Psychotherapy, Counselling and Health: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/routledg/rejp
International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling: http://www.springer.com/psychology/psychotherapy+%26+counseling/journal/10447
Journal of Counseling Psychology: http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/cou/index.aspx
Person-centered and Experiential Psychotherapies: http://www.tandfonline.com/action/aboutThisJournal?show=editorialBoard&journalCode=RPCP
Professional Psychology: Research and Practice: http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/pro/index.aspx
Psychotherapy Research: http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/tpsr20/current
Therapy Today (professional journal of the BACP): http://www.therapytoday.net/article/search/?searchstring=supervision[Page 135]Appendix 7: Sample of International Supervision Organisations
The Association of National Organisations for Supervision in Europe (ANSE), according to their website, promotes and supports the development of quality assurance, training and research in supervision and coaching.
ANSE organises supervision summer universities and International Intervision groups across Europe. For further information, see: http://www.anse.eu
The Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES) is a division of the American Counseling Association (ACA). It promotes ‘quality education and supervision of counselors in all work settings’. For more information, see: http://www.acesonline.net/
The European Association for Supervision and Coaching (EASC) is an association for supervisors and coaches whose objectives are the promotion, application and quality assurance of supervision and coaching. For further information, see: http://www.easc-online.eu/index.php?id=11&L=1Appendix 8[Page 136]
Supervision Resources on the Internet
The Supervision Centre
Prof. Michael Carroll's website provides excellent supervision resources:
Centre for Supervision and Team Development
These websites provide information on professional supervision training courses, conferences and online resources for supervision:
Carol Falender, PhD
This website provides many resources for supervisors and supervisees, including information on supervision books, supervision competencies, supervision measures, sample evaluation forms and supervision contract templates:
UCL Division of Psychology and Language Sciences
British Psychological Society's Centre for Outcomes Research and Effectiveness Details of the Supervision Competences Framework are provided:
Online Therapy Institute
TITL Magazine: Therapeutic Innovations in Light of Technology[Page 137]Appendix 9: Holloway's (1995) Process Matrix[Page 138]Appendix 10: Helpful Aspects of Supervision Forms*Helpful Aspects of Supervision form (HAS) (10/93) Supervisees
Please complete this as soon after supervision as possible, and ideally no later than 24 hours after the supervision session.
Date of last supervision session:
Were you presenting a client today/yesterday? (please circle)Yes/No
Client contact hours to date: _________________
[Page 140]Helpful Aspects of Supervision form (HAS) (10/93) (Copyright Sue Llewelyn) Supervisors
Of the events that occurred in this session, which one do you feel was the most helpful to yourself and/or your work with your client(s)? (By ‘event’ we mean something that happened in the session. It might be something the supervisor or a fellow supervisee said or did.)
Please describe what made this event helpful/important and what you got out of it.
How helpful was this particular event? Rate it on the following scale. (Put an ‘X’ at the appropriate point; half-point ratings are OK; e.g., 7.5.)[Page 139]
About where in the session did this event occur?
About how long did the event last?
Did anything else particularly helpful happen during this session?
Did anything happen during the session which might have been hindering to you personally or to your work with your client(s)?
Please complete this as soon after supervision as possible, and ideally no later than 24 hours after the supervision session.
How many clients were presented today? _________________
How many of your supervisees are seeing clients? _________________
[Page 142]Appendix 11: Sample of Professional Associations: Accreditation/Registration Organisations
Of the events that occurred in this session, which one do you feel was the most helpful to a supervisee, and his or her work with clients? (By ‘event’ we mean something that happened in the session. It might be something you or a supervisee said or did or understood.)
Please describe what made this event helpful/important and what the supervisee got out of it.
How helpful was this particular event? Rate it on the following scale. (Put an ‘X’ at the appropriate point; half-point ratings are OK; e.g., 7.5.)
About where in the session did this event occur?
About how long did the event last?[Page 141]
Did anything else particularly helpful happen during this session?
Did anything happen during the session which might have been hindering to a supervisee and his or her practice?
Association of Child Psychotherapists (ACP): http://www.childpsychotherapy.org.uk
Association for Cognitive Analytic Therapy (ACAT): http://www.acat.me.uk
Association for Counselling and Therapy Online: http://www.acto-uk.org/index.htm
Association for Pastoral and Spiritual Care and Counselling (APSCC): http://www.apscc.org.uk
Association for Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (AREBT): http://www.arebt.net
British Association of Art Therapists (BAAT): http://www.baat.org
British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies (BABCP): http://www.babcp.com
British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP): http://www.bacp.org.uk
British Psychoanalytic Council (BPC): http://www.psychoanalytic-council.org
British Psychological Society (BPS): http://www.bps.org.uk
College of Sexual and Relationship Therapists (COSRT): http://www.cosrt.org.uk
Confederation of Scottish Counselling Agencies (COSCA): http://www.cosca.org.uk
Counsellors and Psychotherapists in Primary Care: http://www.cpc-online.co.uk[Page 143]
Federation of Drug and Alcohol Professionals (FDAP): http://www.fdap.org.uk
Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP): http://www.hpc-uk.org
Irish Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (IACP): http://www.irish-counselling.ie
Psychological Society of Ireland (PSI): http://www.psihq.ie
United Kingdom Association of Humanistic Psychology Practitioners (UKAHPP): http://www.ahpp.org
United Kingdom Council for Psychotherapy (UKPC): http://www.psychotherapy.org.uk
Universities Psychotherapy and Counselling Association (UPCA): http://www.upca.org.uk
*Adapted from Liewelyn (1988) Helpful Aspects of Therapy (HAT) Form
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