Getting the Best Out of Supervision in Counselling and Psychotherapy: A Guide for the Supervisee


Mary Creaner

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    To Stephen

    Tá mo chroí istigh ionat

    Mo chuid den tsaol

    List of Figures and Tables

    About the Author

    Mary Creaner is an Assistant Professor and Research Coordinator with the Doctorate in Counselling Psychology and Course Director for the MSc/Postgraduate Diploma in Clinical Supervision at Trinity College Dublin. She began her career in education, and subsequently qualified as a psychotherapist and clinical supervisor. Mary has been involved in developing and delivering a variety of postgraduate, professional development training and adult education programmes in this area for over 25 years. Mary is an accredited therapist and supervisor with the Irish Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (IACP) and a member of the American Psychological Association (APA) Division 17 (Counselling Psychology) and APA Supervision and Training Special Section. Mary has a particular interest in clinical supervision theory, practice and research, which was the subject of her doctoral enquiry. She has written a number of publications and has presented her work nationally and internationally.


    I believe that all writing endeavours are, by their nature, collaborative enquiries. Consequently, there are a number of acknowledgements that I wish to make. First, many thanks to the supervisees and supervisors with whom I have worked for the learning they have facilitated. They continue to inspire my work and my reflections on supervision. Thanks also go to past and present students of the Doctorate in Counselling Psychology and the MSc/Postgraduate Diploma in Clinical Supervision, Trinity College Dublin.

    Many thanks go to my colleagues, Dr Ladislav Timulak, Barbara Hannigan and colleagues. Sincere thanks to Dr Rita Honan for the many supervision-related consultations over the years. Many thanks to Dr Anne Davis for the ongoing reflections. A special word of thanks to Eileen Boyle for her continual sharing of her infinite wisdom, for support and for continuing reflective conversations. Also to Marcella Finnerty for her constant encouragement and many offers of help.

    Special thanks are also owed for the many learning conversations over the years regarding supervision research and practice, particularly to Prof. Maja O'Brien, Prof. Robert Bor, Dr Alison Strasser and Dr John Sharry.

    Heartfelt thanks in appreciation of family, particularly my mother, Nuala, and of friends, who have been constant in their encouragement to begin and end this project!

    Thanks also to Alice Oven, who initiated this book, and to Kate Wharton for her vast patience, encouragement and support throughout the process. Many thanks to Laura Walmsley and Rachel Burrows of the editorial and production teams at Sage Publications.

    About the Book

    Getting the best out of supervision requires both the supervisor and supervisee to invest much time, preparation, reflection, negotiation and active participation. It is a collaborative endeavour. It also means that supervisees are entitled to expect and will, it is hoped, receive the best supervision possible. To that end, this book provides a variety of considerations regarding the supervision experience, whether for the supervisee who is about to embark on a supervision relationship for the first time in their training experience, a continuing trainee or a post-qualification and experienced practitioner. It seeks to review the current landscape of supervision in terms of the benefits, opportunities and challenges that are evident. As supervisors, in the context of counselling and therapy (both terms are used interchangeably throughout the text), are frequently career-long supervisees, the information and reflections provided in each chapter may serve to stimulate critical reflection on how they may also optimally use supervision. It is also relevant for supervisors, particularly beginning supervisors, with respect to facilitating effective supervision from the supervisee's frame of reference.

    The aim of this book is to provide information on the key supervision concepts and also to provide opportunities to reflect on these as they pertain to each supervisee's unique supervision situation. The book is not intended as a supervision manual; rather, it has been informed by the current literature and developed from many conversations with supervisees and supervisors regarding the principles of best practice. The themes that are presented have arisen from these conversations, and the book seeks to provide an integrative perspective on the art and science of supervision from my experience as a practitioner-researcher of dwelling in the in-betweens of science and practice. This text draws on current research and professional literature in the area of supervision and on my experience both as a supervisor and as a supervisee.

    Considering the multitude of approaches to supervision, individual supervisor styles, theoretical orientations and preferences, together with work contexts, the welfare needs of the client, the learning needs of the supervisee, the variation in supervisor training among supervisors, current evidence in supervision and therapy, it is no wonder that the landscape of supervision, particularly for beginning supervisees, may seem like dragon territory. The following chapters seek to provide a research-informed map of the current landscape of supervision, with the systemic caveat that the map is never the territory! Each supervisory arrangement is a unique, negotiated encounter between supervisor and supervisee within the context of the work.

    Chapter 1: What is the Meaning and Purpose of Supervision?

    This chapter provides an orientation to the landscape of supervision by providing an overview of its historical development within the counselling and psychotherapy tradition. It will also discuss the purpose and functions of supervision as articulated in a number of existing definitions.

    Chapter 2: The Supervisory Relationship: A Relationship with a Purpose

    The supervisory relationship is identified as the central component in supervision and will be discussed with reference to Bordin's (1983) working alliance model. This chapter also outlines some of the phenomena and some of the challenges that may be encountered in the supervisory relationship and reviews how these may be conceptualised.

    Chapter 3: Supervision across the Career Lifespan

    This chapter considers the supervisee experience from a professional and research perspective, and highlights some of the key issues in supervision across the career lifespan. It includes both trainee and experienced practitioner perspectives.

    Chapter 4: The Learning Landscape: Lifelong Learning in Supervision

    This chapter reviews some of the key adult learning concepts as they pertain to learning in supervision. It also considers the means by which learning is best facilitated and the professional knowledge required for supervision practice.

    Chapter 5: Models and Frameworks of Supervision

    This chapter provides an introduction to some of the current supervision models and frameworks, as an example of how a supervisor might view a supervision session, and highlights areas of supervisory enquiry. An example of how a supervision framework may be used by the supervisee to prepare for and reflect upon their supervision session is discussed.

    Chapter 6: Forms and Formats of Supervision

    This chapter presents an overview of group, peer and live supervision, and considers the use of technology in supervision with reference to online supervision.

    Chapter 7: Beginning the Learning Relationship

    This chapter will develop the perspective of the supervisory relationship as a learning relationship within both a training and post-training context. It considers the professional boundaries that are necessary to establish and maintain a supervision relationship. It provides guidelines for developing a learning agreement with a supervisor with reference to individual supervisee contexts.

    Chapter 8: How to Prepare for a Supervision Session

    This chapter has a practical, ‘how to’ focus, and refers to the process knowledge required of a supervisee. Some strategies are suggested to prepare for and maximise learning in supervision.

    Chapter 9: Ethical and Legal Considerations in Supervision

    This chapter provides an overview of some of the key ethical considerations in supervision, including informed consent, confidentiality, multiple relationships, disclosure and record keeping as they pertain to the supervisee–supervisor relationship. Equality and inclusive practice is reviewed as it relates to supervision, and the well-being of the supervisee is considered.

    Chapter 10: Good and Not So Good Supervision

    This chapter will explore effective and ineffective supervision with reference to the key purposes of supervision: primarily, the well-being of the client and the professional development of the supervisee. With these in mind, the chapter will consider some of the impacts and outcomes that supervision has for clients and supervisees. It also considers how supervisee and supervisor contribute to effective or ineffective supervision as reported in the literature.

    Chapter 11: Professional Considerations in Supervision

    This chapter will focus on issues related to professional practice, including fitness to practise and professional standards in supervision. It provides an example of the accreditation requirements for supervision from the perspective of the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP). It presents some of the current debates regarding the benefits and challenges of professionalisation in the field.

    Chapter 12: Feedback and Evaluation in Supervision

    Giving and receiving feedback are discussed from the perspective of the supervisee and supervisor and as a strategy to facilitate learning. The evaluation task in supervision is also presented, and key issues regarding this task are considered.

    Chapter 13: Endings in the Learning Relationship and the Opportunities Ahead

    This chapter will reflect on a much-neglected area in the literature: namely the ending of a supervisory relationship and contract. It will also outline continuing professional development with reference to supervision training. Supervision competencies and key areas for consideration in supervision training curricula are also discussed.

    Chapter 14: Developing the Art and Science of Supervision

    This chapter considers some of the current issues regarding the art and science of supervision and proposes some areas for further research and development. It also provides reflection on the practitioner as researcher and what that means in the context of supervision.


    The appendices aim to provide useful resources for supervisees and supervisors:

    • Sample supervision learning agreement
    • Session pro forma documents
    • Codes of ethics and best practice guidelines for supervision
    • Supervision conferences
    • Sample of supervision training courses
    • Key journals for supervision-related articles
    • Sample of international organisations
    • Supervision resources on the Internet
    • Holloway's (1995) process matrix
    • Helpful Aspects of Supervision forms
    • Sample of professional associations: accreditation/registration organizations
  • Appendices

    The appendices aim to provide useful resources for supervisees and supervisors:

    • Sample supervision learning agreement
    • Session pro forma documents
    • Codes of ethics and best practice guidelines for supervision
    • Supervision conferences
    • Sample of supervision training courses
    • Key journals for supervision-related articles
    • Sample of international supervision organisations
    • Supervision resources on the Internet
    • Holloway's (1995) process matrix
    • Helpful Aspects of Supervision forms
    • Sample of professional associations: accreditation/registration organisations
    Appendix 1: Sample Supervision Learning Agreement
    Introductions and professional background information (qualifications and experience of supervisor/supervisee)
    Context of supervision (training, pre-accreditation, consultancy)
    Frequency of supervision sessions
    Length of session
    Arrangements for cancellations/absences
    Emergencies arrangements if supervisor is unavailable
    Length of supervision contract
    Termination of supervision
    Professional/training organization/agency requirements
    Third party contracts
    Professional indemnity insurance
    Supervisee informed consent (risks and benefits)
    Other considerations
    What are the supervisees’/supervisors’ expectations of supervision?
    Role of the supervisee
    Role of the supervisor
    Responsibilities of the supervisee
    Responsibilities of the supervisor
    Theoretical orientation of supervisee/supervisor
    Code of professional ethics of supervisor/supervisee
    Supervisee and client confidentiality and privacy
    Multiple/dual relationship possibilities
    Complaints procedures and due process
    Record keeping procedures (supervision and therapy)
    How and when will our working relationship be reviewed?
    How/when will the learning agreement be reviewed?
    How will difficulties be addressed?
    Supervisee current case load
    Client profile (e.g., adult, adolescent, child)
    Context of therapeutic work (general, trauma etc.)
    How will the supervision time be managed?
    How will client cases be presented? (Audio tapes/transcripts/notes/etc.)
    Supervision methods (e.g., role-play, IPR, etc.)
    How will client-informed consent be provided?
    How will client progress and therapy outcomes be monitored?
    What are the risk management procedures?
    Professional and legal issues
    Diversity and inclusive practice considerations
    Framework for ethical decision making
    How will supervisee self-care be supported?
    What are the supervisees’ learning preferences?
    Immediate developmental goals
    • – Knowledge
    • – Skill
    • – Values/attitudes
    • – Professional Identity
    Intermediate professional development plan for supervisee
    Longer term developmental goals
    • – Knowledge
    • – Skill
    • – Values/attitudes
    • – Professional identity
    How will feedback be given? Supervisee preferences?
    What is the context of evaluation? (Training, accreditation, etc.)
    When will formal evaluation occur?
    What evaluation criteria will be used?
    Who will have access to evaluation reports?
    How will evaluation of supervisor/supervision experience take place?
    Signed: Supervisee
    Signed: Supervisor
    Date:Review dates:
    Adapted from Carroll (1996: 98); Hawkins and Shohet (2012: 68); Sutter, McPherson and Geeseman (2002: 497–8); Thomas (2010: 152–61).
    Appendix 2: Session Pro Forma Documents
    Sample Supervisee Case Presentation Pro Forma Document

    Therapist: Client ID/Pseudonym:

    Sample Supervision Session Reflection Pro Forma Document

    Appendix 3: Codes of Ethics and Best Practice Guidelines for Supervision

    While the principles of all professional codes of ethics in counselling and psychotherapy apply to the practice of supervision, a number of professional organisations provide dedicated codes of ethics for supervision and/or guidelines for best practice in supervision. Below is a sample of those available.

    American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT) (2012) Principle IV: Responsibility to Students and Supervisees. Available from:

    American Association of Pastoral Counselors (AAPC) Code of Ethics (2012). Available from:

    American Counseling Association (ACA) Code of Ethics (2005) Section F: Supervision, Training, and Teaching. Available from:

    American Mental Health Counselors Association (AMHCA) Code of Ethics (2010) Section III: Commitment to Students, Supervisees and Employee Relationships. Available from:

    Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES) (2011) Best Practices in Clinical Supervision. Available from:

    Center for Credentialing and Education (CCE), the Approved Clinical Supervisor (ACS) Code of Ethics (2008). Available from:

    Irish Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy Code of Ethics and Practice for Supervisors (2005). Available from:

    Appendix 4: Supervision Conferences
    International Interdisciplinary Conference on Clinical Supervision

    This conference is held in the School of Social Work, Adelphi University, New York, in June each year. The conference is interdisciplinary in nature and focuses on clinical supervision theory, practice and research in the dissemination of new knowledge, research and best practices in the field of clinical supervision.

    Further information is available from:

    Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES)

    The ACES national conference is held bi-annually. In even years, each region hosts a conference. The 2013 Conference was held in Colorado in October. Further information is available from:

    British Psychological Society

    The first BPS Supervision Conference was held in April 2013. According to their website, ‘this conference aims to promote excellence in supervision by providing a continuing professional development opportunity for those who supervise postgraduate psychology trainees’. BPS Divisions also hold regular conferences and a BPS Conference is held annually. Further information is available from:

    UKCP Annual Supervision Conference

    For information, see:

    Supervision Conference UK, formerly British Association for Supervision Practice and Research (BASPR)

    This annual conference takes place in the UK and is focused on supervision practice and research. It is now organised by Oasis Talking Therapies CIC, Oasis-Talk, and further information may be found from:

    Other Established Conferences Accept Papers on Supervision Research and Practice. For Example
    British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP) Conference

    Society for Psychotherapy Research (SPR)

    Society for the Exploration of Psychotherapy Integration (SEPI)

    Psychological Society of Ireland (PSI)

    Appendix 5: Sample of Supervision Training Courses
    Academic Qualification and Professional Training: University-based Courses

    Please note: This information is correct at time of writing. Please check directly with the relevant institutions for current information.

    University: School of Psychology, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland

    Award: MSc/Postgraduate Diploma in Clinical Supervision

    The MSc/Postgraduate Diploma in Clinical Supervision is a part-time course aimed at practitioners in the helping professions (e.g., qualified psychologists, psychotherapists, counsellors and mental health professionals) who wish to further their professional development, reflective practice and research capability and train as supervisors. On successful completion of Year 1, students may opt to exit with a Postgraduate Diploma award or, alternatively, proceed to Year 2 for the MSc route.


    University: University of Derby

    Award: Postgraduate Certificate in Clinical Supervision

    This qualification is for people who aim to provide or are providing clinical supervision to counsellors or psychotherapists. This is a one-year, part-time, online course.


    University: Teesside University

    Award: Certificate in Postgraduate Professional Development: Clinical Supervision for Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Practice

    The award prepares you for delivering CBT supervision to trainee or qualified therapists.


    Training Institution: WPF Therapy (awards validated by Roehampton University)

    Award: Postgraduate Diploma/MA in Supervision of Counselling and Psychotherapy


    Training Institution: Institute for Arts in Therapy and Education

    Award: Diploma in Child Counselling/Child Therapy/Child Psychotherapy Supervision (level of award according to previous qualifications)


    University: Keele University

    Award: Postgraduate Certificate in Counselling Supervision


    Training Institution: All Hallows College (award validated by Dublin City University)

    Award: MA in Supervisory Practice


    University: University of Chester, Department of Social Studies and Counselling

    Award: Postgraduate Certificate in Counselling Supervision


    University: University of Surrey

    Award: MSc Supervision and Consultation: Psychotherapeutic and Organisational Approaches


    Professional Training and Continuing Professional Development (CPD) Courses

    Many associations and organisations run CPD training workshops for their members. Other training institutes also offer professional training in supervision. Many are endorsed by professional organisations (e.g., meet with BACP criteria for inclusion on the register of supervisors). However, this needs to be verified directly with the training organisation. For example:

    Training Institution: Metanoia Institute

    Award: Certificate and Diploma in Supervision: An Integrative Relational Approach


    Award: Certificate/Diploma in Person Centred Supervision


    Award: Certificate/Diploma in clinical supervision for TA (transactional analysis) counsellors, CTAs (certified transactional analysts) and newly qualified PTSTAs (provisional teaching and supervising transactional analysts)


    Award: Certificate/Diploma in Supervision: A Gestalt Relational Approach


    Training Institution: Iron Mill Institute, Exeter, UK

    Award: Diploma in Supervision


    British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy

    The BACP also runs a number of CPD online supervision modules for supervisor training (e.g., Supporting your supervisee through the accreditation process; Preparing for supervision and getting the most out of it).


    The British Psychological Society

    The BPS has many CPD and supervision training workshops.


    The Online Therapy Institute

    The Online Therapy Institute currently provides online or in-person supervision training:


    Appendix 6: Key Journals for Supervision-Related Articles

    British Journal of Guidance and Counselling:

    The Clinical Supervisor:

    The Counseling Psychologist:

    Counselling Psychology Quarterly:

    Counselling and Psychotherapy Research:

    European Journal of Psychotherapy and Counselling:

    European Journal of Psychotherapy, Counselling and Health:

    International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling:

    Journal of Counseling Psychology:

    Person-centered and Experiential Psychotherapies:

    Professional Psychology: Research and Practice:

    Psychotherapy Research:

    Therapy Today (professional journal of the BACP):

    Appendix 7: Sample of International Supervision Organisations

    The Association of National Organisations for Supervision in Europe (ANSE), according to their website, promotes and supports the development of quality assurance, training and research in supervision and coaching.

    ANSE organises supervision summer universities and International Intervision groups across Europe. For further information, see:

    The Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES) is a division of the American Counseling Association (ACA). It promotes ‘quality education and supervision of counselors in all work settings’. For more information, see:

    The European Association for Supervision and Coaching (EASC) is an association for supervisors and coaches whose objectives are the promotion, application and quality assurance of supervision and coaching. For further information, see:

    Appendix 8

    Supervision Resources on the Internet

    The Supervision Centre

    Prof. Michael Carroll's website provides excellent supervision resources:

    Centre for Supervision and Team Development

    These websites provide information on professional supervision training courses, conferences and online resources for supervision:

    Carol Falender, PhD

    This website provides many resources for supervisors and supervisees, including information on supervision books, supervision competencies, supervision measures, sample evaluation forms and supervision contract templates:

    UCL Division of Psychology and Language Sciences

    British Psychological Society's Centre for Outcomes Research and Effectiveness Details of the Supervision Competences Framework are provided:

    Online Therapy Institute

    TITL Magazine: Therapeutic Innovations in Light of Technology

    Appendix 9: Holloway's (1995) Process Matrix

    Appendix 10: Helpful Aspects of Supervision Forms*
    Helpful Aspects of Supervision form (HAS) (10/93) Supervisees

    Please complete this as soon after supervision as possible, and ideally no later than 24 hours after the supervision session.


    Date of last supervision session:

    Were you presenting a client today/yesterday? (please circle)Yes/No

    Client contact hours to date: _________________

    • Of the events that occurred in this session, which one do you feel was the most helpful to yourself and/or your work with your client(s)? (By ‘event’ we mean something that happened in the session. It might be something the supervisor or a fellow supervisee said or did.)

    • Please describe what made this event helpful/important and what you got out of it.

    • How helpful was this particular event? Rate it on the following scale. (Put an ‘X’ at the appropriate point; half-point ratings are OK; e.g., 7.5.)

    • About where in the session did this event occur?

    • About how long did the event last?

    • Did anything else particularly helpful happen during this session?

    • Did anything happen during the session which might have been hindering to you personally or to your work with your client(s)?


    Helpful Aspects of Supervision form (HAS) (10/93) (Copyright Sue Llewelyn) Supervisors

    Please complete this as soon after supervision as possible, and ideally no later than 24 hours after the supervision session.


    How many clients were presented today? _________________

    How many of your supervisees are seeing clients? _________________

    • Of the events that occurred in this session, which one do you feel was the most helpful to a supervisee, and his or her work with clients? (By ‘event’ we mean something that happened in the session. It might be something you or a supervisee said or did or understood.)

    • Please describe what made this event helpful/important and what the supervisee got out of it.

    • How helpful was this particular event? Rate it on the following scale. (Put an ‘X’ at the appropriate point; half-point ratings are OK; e.g., 7.5.)

    • About where in the session did this event occur?

    • About how long did the event last?

    • Did anything else particularly helpful happen during this session?


    • Did anything happen during the session which might have been hindering to a supervisee and his or her practice?


    Appendix 11: Sample of Professional Associations: Accreditation/Registration Organisations

    Association of Child Psychotherapists (ACP):

    Association for Cognitive Analytic Therapy (ACAT):

    Association for Counselling and Therapy Online:

    Association for Pastoral and Spiritual Care and Counselling (APSCC):

    Association for Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (AREBT):

    British Association of Art Therapists (BAAT):

    British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies (BABCP):

    British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP):

    British Psychoanalytic Council (BPC):

    British Psychological Society (BPS):

    College of Sexual and Relationship Therapists (COSRT):

    Confederation of Scottish Counselling Agencies (COSCA):

    Counsellors and Psychotherapists in Primary Care:

    Federation of Drug and Alcohol Professionals (FDAP):

    Health and Care Professions Council (HPCP):

    Irish Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (IACP):

    Psychological Society of Ireland (PSI):

    United Kingdom Association of Humanistic Psychology Practitioners (UKAHPP):

    United Kingdom Council for Psychotherapy (UKPC):

    Universities Psychotherapy and Counselling Association (UPCA):

    *Adapted from Liewelyn (1988) Helpful Aspects of Therapy (HAT) Form


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