Gender & Sexuality: Critical Theories, Critical Thinkers

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Chris Beasley

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    Dedication

    To my colleagues in trying times, Carol Bacchi, Heather Brook, Jean Duruz, Carol Johnson, David Hollinsworth and Doug McEachern; to Peter Hall for his immensely generous provision of childcare and design input; and to my darling girl, Perry.

    In memory of Paul Thewlis and James Falkenberg Thewlis.

    We remember you with love and laughter.

  • Conclusion

    In this ‘epilogue’ I will attempt to pull together succinctly some significant features of what we have examined in the book. This book has been arranged in the style of an analytical survey or smorgasbord. I have tried to present a compendium (or reasonably comprehensive summary and analysis) which would give a fair sense of the whole field of gender/sexuality theory. You have been invited to sample a wide range of theories and theorists, and see if any of them take your fancy. Perhaps several have been of interest, perhaps none. Indeed, given this invitation to sample, the analogy to bring to mind might not be so much about consumption – the tasting of various theory dishes – but rather, seduction. In this sense you have been invited to try out the ‘text appeal’ of theories and theorists. The life of the mind has its seductive charms after all.

    Theory can indeed be sexy. When Michel Foucault lectured in the 1970s it was not unusual to see him surrounded by a troop of admirers. In the USA students started a fanzine devoted to fantasies about feminist academic, Judith Butler. You don't need to go this far to see that sometimes theories cause a stir in the frontal lobes which is distinctly seductive (Ffytche, 1994: 30). On this basis a compendium like this one might be better considered not in terms of smorgasbord but rather a dance club. The question then is, will you pick anyone up and give them a whirl on the dance floor or even consider taking them home? Will you choose more than one, or none? And if you do, what will your friends or parents think about your new companion? Will you ‘come out’, for example, as ‘Liberal Feminist and Proud!’ or will your choice be a guilty and solitary pleasure? Of course what you may now consider attractive doesn't necessarily mean a permanent affiliation. Stoltenberg may take your eye today but soon be forgotten. What you say today, like this book, is a snapshot of what is on offer at the moment and probably will change as theories and theorists change too. That said, let us investigate the possibilities on the dance floor.

    In discussing the gender/sexuality field I covered five main theoretical trajectories in Feminist, Sexuality and Masculinity Studies (Figure C.1).

    Figure C.1 Map of the gender/sexuality field: continuum and directions1

    In terms of theories and theorists this meant a list in three parts.

    • Liberal feminism: Wolf, Nussbaum
    • Gender Difference feminisms: Rich, Daly, and Flax, Grosz
    • REI feminism: hooks and Spivak
    • Postmodern/Queer(ing) feminism: Butler, Whittle
    • Liberationist sexuality: Altman
    • Social Constructionist (SC) sexuality: Jackson, Weeks
    • Transgender: Califia
    • Queer Theory: Jagose, Seidman
    • Gender Difference (GD) masculinity: Stoltenberg
    • Gay/REI masculinities: Dowsett, Carbado
    • Social Constructionist (SC) masculinity: Connell
    • Queer(ing) masculinity: Halberstam

    These possibilities may be laid out on the grid of gender/sexuality directions (outlined in Figure C. 2) to better illustrate the spread of the perspectives that have been discussed, always remembering that these frameworks are not as distinct as such an image may suggest. Moreover, certain theorists and theories are decidedly ambiguously located (for example, Stoltenberg's Radical pro-feminism and Califia's Transgender sexuality theorising).

    Figure C.2 The gender/sexuality field: detailed directions

    There are, necessarily, weaknesses in the selection presented to you in this book. I did not and, indeed, could not (given constraints of one volume) invite everyone of interest to this dance club. In my view some of the most important missing or barely discussed themes are disability, class, environment, and international relations/globalisation. Every dance club is a partial selection. We must remember the other possibilities outside the door queuing up. If you didn't find your Ms/Mr/Trans Right-for-the-Moment, maybe they are waiting elsewhere and you'll have to read yet another book.

    Nevertheless, even if this book could not invite all the possible contenders for your attention, there are, I think, a number of benefits in attending this dance party. First of all, if we look at the theorists/theories in terms of ‘text appeal’, after reading this book hopefully you too can now engage in ‘textual healing’ and offer it to others. Hopefully, you too can ‘talk the talk’. One commentator has noted that the gender/sexuality field offers the pleasures of being able to debate with all sorts of people you broadly agree with. While there are undoubtedly many benefits attached to debating with people who believe women and/or queers are inferior folk; for myself the intellect and heart flutters when we start from justice for all and the notion of social life as a shared endeavour, when we try to re-imagine and even practise a new way of life. This compendium offers that rare opportunity of prioritising, of focusing on discussions that presume justice and equality but argue passionately about how to achieve it.

    In reading the book you gain entry to, if you weren't already a signed-up member, a slightly masochistic (given the sometimes treacly prose) but nevertheless excitable and vigorous dance club. But what do you get for the entry fee? The chance, as I said, of a stranger who surprises perhaps, or even an old mate who looks better now you've seen the others. To those of you who now feel less sure than ever of what theoretical choice(s) you do fancy, I suggest playing the field a while longer. Uncertainty has its uses. And finally what you get is not just potentially new ways to discuss issues, consider political alternatives, and even have intellectual fun but, perhaps most of all, another way of looking at the world. This book is intended to enable, or further develop, your ability to look at ordinary everyday matters and think of several ways of understanding them. In other words, the aim is to assist you in developing at least double vision – that is, both a normative vision and at least one critical perspective of the everyday and the unusual. And once you've got this multiple vision, it doesn't really go away. It's yours for life. As those various theoretical dance partners approach you, I suspect, if you ever did, you'll never see straight again.

    Note

    1. This figure was initially presented in Chapter 1 (Figure 1.1).

    Appendix: Methodological Issues

    I stated in the Introduction that the intention of this book is to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of gender/sexuality theory through an analytical survey. I also noted that the main methodological tools used in the book are a theoretical continuum, major directions, and an interrogatory accessible style. The continuum and directions are contextualised by reference to specific approaches, thinkers and debates, sometimes involving a closer focus on individual texts and/or particular issues.

    With regard to the methodological device of a continuum within gender/sexuality theory, ranging from strongly Modernist to strongly Postmodern thinking, the intention is to demonstrate flows and interactions along the continuum. Weaker Modernist approaches may overlap with weaker Postmodern ones, and even those apparently most far apart may share more than is initially evident. References to the ‘borderlands’ of the continuum, positioned on the cusp between Modernist and Postmodern thinking, are meant to convey the potentially permeable division between these frames of reference.1

    The thematic use of the Modernist/Postmodern continuum as an overview map is, however, by no means regarded as the ultimate methodological technique to reveal the array of gender/sexuality approaches. Instead, it is viewed as a pragmatic means of capturing in time – after the fashion of a snapshot – the contemporary state of the sub-fields and debates. This method of highlighting broad frames of reference will no doubt in time be viewed as itself a function of theoretical preoccupations at a particular historical moment.

    The ‘directions’ methodology employed in the book shares much in common with the metaphor of ‘lenses’ employed by Jaggar and Rothenberg (1993: xvii), as well as supporting a notion of the gender/sexuality field as a many hued tapestry (Anzaldúa, 1990: xxv). It refuses any account of the field as a singular unity or as a set of incommensurable types of framework between which one must decide (Young, 1997a: 17). Rather, my concern in using this methodology is to present a ‘perspectivism’ in which different problems and historical periods may produce a number of theoretical trajectories, all of which are open to debate and question.

    Nevertheless, this methodology does not escape the many criticisms of overview books with a typological or key authors and/or key texts orientation. Overview books that outline ‘types’ of theory are frequently accused of not being closely enough tied to specific practical political problems, setting in concrete a static canon, imposing too neat an order upon the content of different approaches in a theoretical field, and underestimating cross-overs between approaches. Overview books attending to key writers and/or key texts are similarly viewed as promulgating a canon of ‘classics’, which inevitably produces exclusions and polices theoretical boundaries with the added disadvantage of promoting an individualist orientation and ignoring collective effort (Kensinger, 1997; Stacey, 1993: 49–73; Kemp and Squires, 1997: 9; Maynard, 1995). While the methodology I have adopted is not strictly focused on ‘type’, ‘character’ or ‘major text’, its concern with ‘directions’ in or ways of seeing the gender/sexuality field does retain an explanatory, systemic agenda that has a typological orientation.

    There is no doubt that use of the typological methodology in overview books is not problem-free. I remain persuaded, however, that the typological method is one important technique for clarifying the gender/sexuality field. In the first instance, it allows readers to make comparisons and connections between this book and existing overviews of the subfields since it is the most common technique employed in such texts. Secondly, the criticism that a typological method insufficiently links theory to practical, concrete political issues may be somewhat offset in this book by attention to particular writers and/or texts and issues. For instance, discussion of transgender theorising in Sexuality Studies leads to an analysis of the work of Pat Califia and to the question of sexual reassignment surgery. The more abstract and broadly typological mode gives way to example and illustration.

    Thirdly, the most frequent and most telling criticism of the typological method – that it amounts to asserting a static eternal canon of Great Ideas and assuming that a field of thought like gender/sexuality is made up of discrete fixed types of thinking – should be weighed against the issue of accessibility. While this criticism is certainly powerful, I am less certain that typological categorisation methods should be entirely abandoned because I suspect that only those with very specialised knowledge can afford the luxury of discussing gender/sexuality theory without reference to some typological labels. In this context, I suggest that genuine concerns regarding the potential of a typological (or key writers and/or texts) orientation to diminish the contingency and complexity of the gender/sexuality field must be balanced against the danger of reducing its availability to a broader readership. The typological mode allows underlying assumptions to be made explicit and hence accessible to the widest possible audience. Like a great number of other writers of overview books, the issue of broadening participatory engagement with ideas in the field of gender/sexuality matters to me sufficiently to risk some loss of subtlety or fluidity.

    For the uninitiated reader, the field of gender/sexuality theory can seem extremely confusing at first. In my experience with tertiary students, some guidelines about general patterns are seen as a considerable help. Once new learners have a grasp of these situating patterns they can then begin to recognise legitimate concerns about the limits of categorisation raised by commentators (Stacey, 1993). Similarly, readers new to the field will need to know what might be regarded as ‘classics’, if only to reject them later. If these readers are not aware of approaches, writers and works which are usually seen as influential, they may well find it difficult to understand debates which almost invariably rest on such assumed knowledge. Indeed, it can be argued that issues raised by established scholars, regarding the ways in which overview texts may promote a canon, rest heavily upon their own existing ‘cultural capital’, upon their own specialised knowledge. Such scholars have no need of a typological/author ‘canon’ – a map of major directions in the field – and see its limits, precisely because they already have a sufficient knowledge of influential approaches, writers and works in the field and are aware of how maps simplify the terrain.

    Commentators who emphasise the dangers associated with typological approaches sometimes suggest that there are alternative methodologies that involve no losses or that the problems of categorisation can be entirely avoided. In this context, some writers have indicated a preference for discussions of theory to be undertaken by using topics or debates, but these alternatives are not necessarily any less prescriptive. Such methods also involve a ‘canon’ of topics or debates, references to favoured individuals and/or texts, an account of general patterns and labels, and must exclude something. Indeed, all forms of characterisation of a field involve some categorisation. The point is not whether to categorise but how to do so in ways that are explicit and that enable readers both to enter into debate with the approaches discussed and consider alternative choices. This book attempts to encourage such critical readings. While the book does contain an incremental aspect2 – intended to outline a broad map of gender/sexuality theory which can indicate continuities, overlapping connections and echoes that currently exist in the field – it can also be read discontinuously and its stress on the variety of theoretical positions undercuts authorial omnipotence.3 Furthermore, though I provide an overview account of the gender/sexuality field, I also continually direct readers to examine a range of perspectives. For instance, in relation to accounts of Sexuality Studies I refer readers to different approaches outlined by Stephen Whittle, Stevi Jackson and Steven Seidman.

    Critics of typological overview books may, in any case, overstate the dangers of any form of systemic characterisation of a field since they tend to equate characterisation with pinning a field down, with the closure of debate and diversity. In alerting us to the dangers of writings which insist there is a fixed canon in the gender/sexuality field, some commentators may well have overly presumed the fixing effects of such commentaries. In my view, this underestimates the processual aspect of these texts in terms of how they are written and read. As McDermott (1998: 403) notes, overview texts ‘are often analysed as though they were static documents, but … [these] texts are more usefully approached as products of a long-term dynamic process’. Moreover, the equation of characterisation of a field with closure rather prejudges the task of characterisation. This task is not always conceived as concerned with revealing the central essence of the field (finding its truth or core identity). Instead, characterisation may be viewed as a relatively modest enterprise, as a clarifying device.4 Rather than producing an outcome or answer which captures an already existent meaning, the characterisation undertaken in an overview text like this one might be better seen in terms of an activity generating a range of possible meanings for different readers.

    Certainly, the aim of this book is to balance ‘informative’ and overview/systemic with ‘interrogative’ and perspectival elements (Parker, 2001). In other words, I wish to draw attention to the usefulness of developing and maintaining a critical unease towards rather than a ready acceptance of all views, including my own characterisation of the field. Even if I had not adopted such an approach, I am sure that you, the reader, will interpret and use the content of the book in myriad ways that I cannot prescribe or foresee.

    Notes

    1. What I am drawing attention to here is work at the ‘borderlands’ which operates at the intersections of Modernist and Postmodern assumptions and perhaps engages with both. For instance, psychoanalytic feminist work influenced by Jacques Lacan clearly owes a debt to the Modernist universal explanatory claims of psychoanalysis and yet employs a stress on meaning and language associated with Postmodernism. Jeffrey Weeks' writings are Socialist and pro-feminist, by no means uncritical of Foucault and yet show the influence of Postmodern agendas. Similarly, bell hooks moves between Modernist and Postmodern engagements with identity politics. (For other points concerning the continuum, see Chapter 1 notes 9 and 11, and Chapter 2 note 6.)

    2. For example, the characterisation of Postmodernism is gradually built up over several chapters in Part 1 in particular, and then expanded in Part 2 and to a lesser extent in Part 3. This incremental aspect of the book does not, however, prevent readers from employing the index to dip into the book at several points, or from reading individual chapters or parts in any order.

    3. I am attracted here to Foucault's concern with outlining both connections between different viewpoints and his rejection of any all-encompassing theoretical vantage point in his consideration of discursive fields, as well as his interest in mixing methodologies. See Best and Kellner, 1991: 39–40, 43–4.

    4. For a lengthier analysis of the task of characterising or defining fields of thinking, see Beasley, 2001: 203–5, or, for an earlier assessment (though published later), see Beasley, 2005.

    Glossary of Key Terms

    (Compiled by Angelique Bletsas, with assistance from Chris Beasley)

    • Androcentric A view or theory that is male-centred.
    • Assimilation Usually intended as a critical, even pejorative, term; a policy or political stance that is assimilationist and advocates an excluded group becoming integrated into the social whole without actually questioning or challenging the nature of social organisation itself. The politics of assimilation are generally identified with broader liberal agendas.
    • Binary pair Considered to be a central organisational principle within much Western intellectual thought, which involves depicting social phenomena in matched pairs. Generally, the phenomena paired in this way are attributed different values, even being construed as oppositional. The two categories of a binary pair, such as men and women, are not merely regarded as distinct and opposed; they are also put into a hierarchy in which one is typically cast as positive and the other negative.
    • Biological reductionism Arguments that seek to explain unequal and unjust social arrangements by reference to biological ‘facts’.
    • Collectivism The focus on group resistance as a political strategy.
    • Cosmopolitan The view that political citizenship should not be viewed narrowly in terms of the nation state but should be considered in global terms.
    • Cultural relativism The view that ideas about what it means to be human are culturally, rather than biologically, determined. Ideas of the human are conceived in such a view as specific to, or relative to, their cultural and historical context, rather than as eternal or self-evident. In this way cultural relativism stands in opposition to universal accounts of humanity (Humanism), of which it is often critical. (See alsoUniversalism, Humanism)
    • Deconstruction A central concept in the work of Postmodern thinker, Jacques Derrida, it is concerned with a critique of foundationalism (that is, notions of founding or underlying ‘truths’ which have large-scale, usually universal explanatory scope). Deconstruction is a technique of dismantling foundationalist systems of thought in order to reveal their assumptions about what is important and what is not. Deconstruction questions the ability of foundationalist thinking to make large-scale or universal claims on behalf of objectively eternal truths by delineating its connections with specific relations of power. More loosely, the term deconstruction may simply refer to the critical analysis of ‘texts’ in order to uncover messages and meanings that may not at first seem apparent. (See alsoFoundationalism)
    • (Singular) Difference In Gender and Sexuality Studies, this refers to the way in which particular marginalised and oppressed social groups are conceptualised as against dominant social groups. Singular understandings of Difference involve focusing solely on one axis of power between social groups (for example, gender difference – in particular women's gendered difference from men) such that other axes of power (like race) recede. Notions of (singular) Difference are usually strongly linked to Modernist identity politics. Attention to (singular) Difference in this case produces a concern with the common subordination of those marginalised by one form of power relations, which is seen as creating a shared identity and political agenda. Differences among those identified with such a shared identity and political positioning are de-emphasised or suppressed.
    • For this reason, a focus on (singular) Difference associated with Modernist identity politics may be expressed in terms of an ‘ethnic minority’ model. For example, the marginalised social category of homosexuality may be seen as marked by particular, easily identifiable, characteristics and a distinct community. This conception of identity politics understands power relations as being about the separation of already clearly distinguishable groups. Power relations between groups arise when what is already different is placed in a social hierarchy and thereby rendered both different and differently valued.
    • By contrast, the (multiple) Differences approach disputes this focus on a singular axis of power relations and at the very least complicates distinctions between social groups. The (multiple) Differences approach questions notions of a singular common subordination creating a discrete marginalised community by referring to at least two axes of power. Postmodern-influenced analyses go further and reject any notion of already existent and clearly separable social groups. For example, such analyses may represent homosexuality as a diffuse possibility available to all.
    • While the terms Difference and Differences are used in this book to register recognisably distinctive approaches, the former is widely used in the gender/sexuality field to cover both singular Difference and multiple Differences approaches. (See also(Multiple) Differences, Identity politics)
    • (Multiple) Differences In Gender and Sexuality Studies, this refers to the way in which marginalised and oppressed social groups are conceptualised as against dominant social groups. A (multiple) Difference(s) framework raises doubts concerning singular identity models, focusing on plural identities as well as differences within identity categories. For example, the category ‘women’ is considered in terms of class, sexuality, ‘race’ and ethnic differences. (See also(Singular) Difference)
    • Emancipatory politicsSeeLiberationist politics
    • Enlightenment The seventeenth- and eighteenth-century European movement where science and reason were positioned as superior to religion and culture in intellectual thinking. Within the intellectual traditions of the Enlightenment project the ideas of individualism and universalism were established as fundamental to political claims. Science and reason were positioned as necessarily representing the route to social progress, an idea which was itself conceived as inevitable. (See alsoIndividualism, Universalism)
    • Essentialism Largely intended as a critical, even pejorative term, essentialism constitutes a particular way of understanding the Human Self as having a timeless, universal and often natural/biological inner core or foundation. This account can be considered against Postmodern or Social Constructionist theories, for example, which argue that there is no such thing as a self that exists beyond the bounds of socially constructed life. (See alsoFoundationalism)
    • Foundationalism Usually identified with Modernist social theories, which are concerned to explain all of social life by revealing some account of its basic foundation. Foundationalism often refers to the idea, for example, that there are certain constant features of what constitutes a human being that govern or underlie all of human existence. (See alsoDeconstruction, Essentialism, Humanism, Modernist)
    • Gay Liberation A social movement emerging in the 1960s and 1970s as a response to the restricted rights and opportunities available to gay men and lesbians. Gay Liberation as a movement advanced the ideal of a liberated sexuality for all people and homosexuals in particular. It aimed to overthrow established social attitudes towards sexuality, which were considered repressive of natural feelings of desire and as such damaging to individuals. As a theoretical viewpoint, Gay Liberation may be summarised as sexual freedom providing the means to overthrowing power.
    • Grand TheorySeeMacro theories
    • Gynocentrism A view or theory that is female-centred.
    • Hegemonic masculinity From the work of Bob Connell, hegemonic masculinity refers to the most valued and most rewarded form of masculinity, which provides a widely accepted model legitimating masculine social dominance. (See alsoHegemony)
    • Hegemony From the work of Marxist scholar Antonio Gramsci, hegemony refers to the establishment, through gaining the consent of the masses, of the values and beliefs of an elite as a compulsory norm for all. (See alsoHegemonic masculinity)
    • Heteronormativity Expresses the view that within social life heterosexuality is constructed as a compulsory norm and non-heterosexualities are constructed as deviant.
    • Humanism A key idea, as well as outcome, of Enlightenment thinking in which humans rather than God or the divine became the central fact against which social life was explained and understood. This repositioning of the explanatory basis of social life away from the religious to the secular was an expressly political investment in the liberationist potential of rationalism. Humanism is a term describing those theories that hold the human subject as foundational in explanations of social life and usually propose a fundamental core essence to the human in their definitions of the human subject. Humanism frequently describes the core of what is specifically human as rationality. (See alsoEnlightenment, Essentialism, Universalism)
    • Identity politics Emerges from social movements which mobilise around a particular ‘identity’ as marking the basis of inclusion into the movement. Identity politics reflect the idea that certain characteristics (for example, characteristics derived from one's gender, ‘race’, sexuality and so on) produce a shared experience and a related commonality. In contemporary societies marked by social hierarchy, these supposedly pre-existent characteristics may also be the basis upon which one is categorised as belonging to a subordinate social group. Individuals, then, not only share characteristics, but additionally develop a common worldview and political positioning derived from their socially marginalised identity. Identity produces insight into society's oppressive structures and, by this means, marginalised social groups develop resistance to its dominant ideas. In some analyses (for example, standpoint theory) marginalised identity is seen as producing greater insight than other social positionings and hence is constituted as having a central, even unquestionably knowledgeable, role in progressive political struggle for social change. (See alsoDifference, Essentialism, Standpoint theory)
    • Individualism Emerging with the rise of Enlightenment thinking, individualism involves the privileging of the individual as an autonomous, rational subject in considering political claims and social explanations. In social theories and politics which take an individualist stance, individuals – rather than social groups, processes or structures – are privileged as the ultimate unit in explanations of social life.
    • Liberalism The political philosophy of Liberalism emerged during the Enlightenment and is the dominant political philosophy in the West today. Liberalism, at least in principle, asserts the rights of the individual against the intervention of the state. However, Liberalism has, in practice, also been associated with the subjugation of such rights in relation to those deemed, at various historical moments, to not be fully human and hence not capable of full human individuality. (See alsoIndividualism)
    • Liberationist politics Identified with several Modernist political projects, liberation involves overthrowing power to reveal a ‘true’ shared and universal humanity that is free of repressive power. This can be achieved through group or collective struggle, which usually takes the form of an identity politics. (See alsoPower, Identity politics)
    • Libertarianism A political philosophy which holds that all people have certain inalienable rights which can never be taken away in the name or interests of the collective. Libertarianism involves a zealous attachment to individualism and maintains a deep distrust and opposition to social or government intervention. (See alsoIndividualism)
    • Macro theories Are often associated with Modernist theories which forward accounts of social life presuming to explain all of its variations by reference to one aspect of human existence which is posited as foundational or fundamental. Macro theories can be considered against Postmodern arguments that social theories should be fluid, context-specific and localised. (See alsoUniversalism, Modernist)
    • Marxism Broadly refers to the works of theorists who are explicitly influenced by the works of Karl Marx and to the privileging of concern about economic systems in analyses of social organisation. Marxist analyses commonly maintain a focus on criticisms of capitalism and class distinction as an organising mode of society and social relations.
    • MetanarrativeSeeMacro theories
    • Modernist Describes social and political theories, which are based upon key Enlightenment principles. Modernist theories assert knowledge systems based on principles of universalism and scientific reason. However, following the seminal work of Michel Foucault, Modernist theories are typically the subject of criticism in Postmodern theories. Postmodern criticisms of Modernist thinking arise on the grounds that the latter – far from delineating universally applicable and rational (objectively neutral and valid) explanations of the human and social – in fact represents the dominant views of a particular historical period in European thought. Critiques of Modernism forwarded by Post-colonial and Postmodern scholars have been keen to draw attention to the way in which Modernist theories implicitly ascribe value judgements that often reproduce systems of dominance and subordination. (See alsoEnlightenment)
    • Multiculturalism Advocates a cultural pluralism, which establishes ethnicity and ‘race’ as significant in rethinking progressive forms of social organisation. Such a viewpoint may ironically tend towards the institutionalisation of set notions of ‘race’/ethnicity – that is, it may institutionalise set notions of distinct difference. (See alsoDifference, Other)
    • Other In psychoanalytic theory ‘the other’ and otherness are central to the development of the self. The self requires ‘difference’ – the other – to become a formed presence, indeed to become a (social) human being. The other (that which is not-self) must be differentiated and cast out from the self for the infant to become a distinct person. In psychoanalysis, the other (not-self) is suppressed in the unconscious and represents the continuing uncertain boundaries of the self. The other is both not entirely separate from the self and rejected by the self. This psychoanalytic theory of the individual self is strongly linked in Gender and Sexuality Studies with the individual's incorporation into the hierarchically organised social realm. ‘Others’ (those supposedly different from oneself or one's social group) in social life are once again not entirely separate (they shape one's social self-definition) and at the same time are often demonised and rejected. The other represents ambiguity and anxiety in the self and society, at least in current social contexts. Gender and Sexuality Studies consider ways in which the self/other distinction may be unsettled and re-imagined within the individual and within society. (See alsoDifference, Othering)
    • Othering In Post-colonial theory the process, central to the imperialist political enterprise, whereby the colonising cultural group is privileged as the norm whereas the oppressed cultural group is constructed as aberrant, as less than human. (See alsoOther, Liberalism)
    • Patriarchy In Feminism, systemic and trans-historical male domination over women.
    • Performativity Deriving in large part from the work of Judith Butler, in Queer Theory and in Feminism, performativity refers to the profoundly socially constructed character of gender and sexuality. Gender and sexuality are conceived as the product of endless citation and reiteration of certain normative categories (such as man or heterosexual), rather than as formed out of an already existent biological basis. Subordinated categories (including woman, lesbian, homosexual) are no less socially framed and hence do not inevitably amount to resistance to normative categories or categorisation. There is no ‘real’ underlying source or essence of gender and sexuality in notions of performativity. (See alsoQueer theory, Essentialism)
    • Post-colonial In Feminism and more broadly, theories which engage and critique imperialist practices. This includes writings which directly address the experiences of colonial oppression, as well as those which speak about imperialism more generally as the political project of Othering specific cultural groups while privileging Whiteness in particular. (See alsoOther, Othering)
    • Postmodern Theories and theorists expressly positioned as rejecting and critiquing the fundamental premises and ideas of Modernist theories of social life. Postmodern theories argue in common that there is no special, objective vantage point outside the social context from which social life can be accessed or explained. They focus instead on local, fragmented ideas of social life. Postmodern theories of the self, for example, stress the fluidity, internal instability and performative quality of identity as a creative process of signification. In Postmodern work social life is inflected by power, which itself is understood as a creative, constituting force. (See alsoFoundationalism, Modernist, Power)
    • Power The concept of power has a series of competing interpretations within contemporary social theory. Traditionally, power has been understood as a negative force, as functioning in a hierarchical, top-down model to repress behaviours and individuals. Following the work of Michel Foucault, in Postmodern theory, power is understood as a creative, constituting force, which functions in a diffuse way across the social whole. For example, Foucault's historical studies of the emergence of sexual categories demonstrate that marginalised sexual identities are not merely victims of power – a natural form of self repressed by power – but produced by power. These marginalised identities, no matter how socially excluded they might be, are not outside, but are part of, the organisation of societies. (See alsoIdentity politics, Liberationist politics, Postmodern)
    • Psychoanalytic theories Following the prototypical work of Sigmund Freud, these are concerned with explaining the unconscious psychic processes involved in the development of the self.
    • Queer Theory Is typically focused upon the question of individual identity, and upon cultural/symbolic and literary/textual issues. Queer Theory aims to destabilise identity through the construction of a supposedly ‘inclusive’, non-normative (almost invariably non-heterosexual) sexuality and a simultaneous dismantling of gender roles. Queer Theory sees identity as thoroughly socially constructed and as internally unstable and incoherent. (See alsoIdentity politics, Liberationist politics, Postmodern, Social Constructionism)
    • Reason A central precept of Enlightenment politics and thought, where the ability of individuals to reason came to be regarded as a defining characteristic of human beings. In this way, reason was deployed as a fundamental premise in arguments for universal suffrage. Reason was strongly identified with the secular, rational project of progress as opposed to ‘traditional’ religious and cultural views. (See alsoEnlightenment)
    • Reformism Political interventions that seek to improve conditions for a particular marginalised group in contrast to radical political interventions which seek to transform social organisation itself.
    • Second-wave feminism The popular designation for the feminist movement in the West during the 1960s, 1970s and even 1980s, to distinguish it from feminist thinking and politics developed in earlier times (first-wave feminism). Popular renderings of ‘Feminism’ often presuppose the politics of Liberal feminism during this second wave. However, in feminist writings the second wave refers to at least four main directions: Liberal, Radical, Marxist and Socialist feminisms. (See alsoThird-wave feminism)
    • Social Constructionism The rejection of universalist, biological accounts of human being in favour of cultural or social accounts. Social Constructionist theories resist the idea of any set or fixed content (essence) to identities, but also refuse the Postmodern antagonism to identity. Social constructionists stress culturally and historically specific variations and complexity in relation to identity rather than broad, often more abstract notions of fluidity/instability. For example, gender and sexuality are not, within this framework, a matter of in-built, pre-existent identity differences but of particular forms of identity constituted through hierarchical social relations analogous to class relations and founded upon concrete material oppression in social life. (See alsoEssentialism, Postmodern)
    • Social hierarchy The view that social identities are constructed along a continuum of power and privilege.
    • Social transformation In radical politics, social transformation is the pursuit of significant structural change to existing unjust social institutions.
    • Socialism A political ideology emerging in the nineteenth century which advocates collectivism, the redistribution of unequal wealth, and frequently collective ownership of the technological means of production, in order to eradicate poverty and establish norms of altruism and co-operation in society. In more recent times, democratic socialism represents a more politically reformist agenda marked by a concern to ameliorate the worst effects of capitalism and class distinction through the development of an extensive welfare state. (See alsoReformism)
    • Standpoint theory Arising from Marx's concern with the positive political possibilities associated with the marginal class category, the working class. Standpoint theory holds that political resistance arises from those groups most exploited within the existing social structure. In Marx's work, as in broader examples of standpoint theories, social transformation is itself tied to the actions of the most subordinated groups in society who thus become privileged in political analysis. In this way standpoint theories assume that identity locations, for example ‘woman’, equate to generalised understandings of the social world and that those groups that experience subordination and oppression are able to better gauge the ‘true reality’ of social organisation due to their subordinate location within it. Political analyses that are informed by standpoint theory focus upon the shared characteristics of subordinated groupings, their shared subversive political potentiality, and the greater access their marginal status affords them to a true/better understanding of reality. (See alsoDifference, Identity politics, Marxism)
    • Third-wave feminism The popular designation for the largely liberal but sometimes Postmodern-inflected feminist movement in the West during the 1990s. This movement frequently promotes the idea that Western societies have reached an era of ‘post Feminism’, suggesting that the goals of second-wave feminism have been achieved and/or that this older form of feminism is now outmoded because it is overly focused on women's victimised status. In this way, third-wave feminism often positions itself in antagonism to more established feminist projects and displays doubts about the concept of women as a broad social grouping, arguing that this category is unhelpful. Sometimes, however, the term third-wave feminism merely refers to recent feminist thinkers who are attuned to differences between women and are dubious about collective political action.
    • Trans politics As an articulated position Trans politics has involved the self-help orientation of the 1960s and 1970s, assimilationist transsexualism and, more recently in the late 1990s, ‘transgender’ Queer politics. Trans theorising has shown a similar path to Queer Theory, increasingly critiquing and rejecting notions of fixed identity. The term ‘Transgender’ is sometimes substituted as the coverall term to denote the whole field of Trans theorising. However, Transgender is perhaps more usefully employed as a particular direction in the latter, closely associated with Queer Theory, which represents the specific avowal of gender and sexual ambiguity (the avowal of a positioning as, for example, neither man nor woman).
    • Trans theorySeeTrans politics
    • Tyranny In political philosophy any form of rule which is not recognised as legitimate constitutes a tyranny over those ruled.
    • Women's Liberation Liberationist feminists in the 1960s and 1970s developed a critique of patriarchal societies and heterosexuality. In the process of examining men's power over women, they drew attention to power within sexuality, conceiving sexuality as reflecting existing unequal social relations rather than having an innocent or ‘natural’ beneficent status. Unlike Gay Liberation thinkers, these feminists perceived sexuality as intimately tied to normative power. (See alsoPatriarchy)
    • Universalism Central to Enlightenment thinking, and crucial to Modernist social theories, universalism can refer generally to any theory that asserts a single underlying explanation for large-scale social phenomena. It often appears in the idea that there exists a fixed basis for the Human shared by all people across all time. (See alsoEnlightenment, Foundationalism, Macro theories, Modernist)

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