Gender, Peace and Conflict
Publication Year: 2001
- What impact does gender difference make to political decision-making? - Will the political empowerment of women contribute to a more peaceful world? The role of gender has been increasingly recognized as central to the study and analysis of the traditionally male domains of war and international relations. This book explores the key role of gender in peace research, conflict resolution and international politics. Rather than simply 'add gender' the aim is to transcend different disciplinary boundaries and conceptual approaches to provide a more integrated basis for future study. To this end it uniquely combines theoretical chapters alongside empirical case studies to demonstrate the i
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Women, Peace and the United Nations: Beyond Beijing
- Chapter 2: The Problem of Essentialism
- Chapter 3: Is Femininity Inherently Peaceful?: The Construction of Femininity in the War
- Chapter 4: Women & War, Men & Pacifism
- Chapter 5: Gender, Power and Politics: An Alternative Perspective
- Chapter 6: Women in Political Decisionmaking: From Critical Mass to Critical Acts in Scandinavia
- Chapter 7: Promoting Peace, Security and Conflict Resolution: Gender Balance in Decisionmaking
- Chapter 8: Integrating a Gender Perspective in Conflict Resolution: The Colombian Case
- Chapter 9: The Use of Women and the Role of Women in the Yugoslav War
- Chapter 10: Gender Difference in Conflict Resolution: The Case of Sri Lanka
International Peace Research Institute[Page ii]
International Peace Research Institute, Oslo
Fuglehauggata 11, N-0260 Oslo, Norway
Telephone: (47) 22 54 77 00
Telefax: (47) 22 54 77 01
The International Peace Research Institute, Oslo (PRIO) is an independent international institute of peace and conflict research, founded in 1959. It is governed by an international Governing Board of seven individuals, and its main source of income is the Norwegian Research Council. The results of all PRIO research are available to the public.
PRIO's publications include the Journal of Peace Research (1964–) published six times a year and the quarterly Security Dialogue (formerly Bulletin of Peace Proposals) (1969–) and books. Recent titles include:
Kumar Rupesinghe & Khawar Mumtaz, eds: Internal Conflicts in South Asia (1996)
Jørn Gjelstad & Olav Njølstad, eds: Nuclear Rivalry and International Order (1996)
Johan Galtung: Peace by Peaceful Means: Peace and Conflict, Development and Civilization (1996)
Pavel K. Baev: The Russian Army in a Time of Troubles: From the Taiga to the British Seas (1996)
Valery Tishkov: Ethnicity Nationalism and Conflict in and after the Soviet Union: The Mind Aflame (1997)
Ola Tunander, Pavel Baev & Victoria Ingrid Einagel, eds: Geopolitics in Post-Wall Europe: Security Territory and Identity (1997)
John Markakis: Resource Conflict in the Horn of Africa (1998)
Clive Archer and Ingrid Sogner: Norway European Integration and Atlantic Security (1998)
© Editorial arrangement and Introduction Inger Skjelsbæk and Dan Smith 2001
Foreword © A. V. King 2001
Chapter 1 © Dorota Gierycz 2001
Chapter 2 © Dan Smith 2001
Chapter 3 © Inger Skjelsbæk 2001
Chapter 4 © Michael Salla 2001
Chapter 5 © Errol Miller 2001
Chapter 6 © Drude Dahlerup 2001
Chapter 7 Anuradha Mitra Chenoy and Achin Vanaik 2001
Chapter 8 © Eva Irene Ruft 2001
Chapter 9 Svetlana Slapsak 2001
Chapter 10 © Kumudini Samuel 2001
First published 2001
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Inquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
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This book on the role of gender difference in conflict resolution and political decisionmaking resulted from the Expert Group Meeting organized jointly by the United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW) and the International Peace Research Institute, Oslo (PRIO) at the United Nations Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW), in Santo Domingo, in 1996. The Expert Group Meeting explored further the application of a gender perspective to conflict resolution and decisionmaking.
One of the most important outcomes of the 1995 Beijing Conference was to reach agreement of the concepts of gender and gender mainstreaming. The latter is the process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies, programmes and research in all areas, and at all levels. This agreement was reflected in the Platform for Action which was adopted. Further elaboration by the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC agreed conclusions 1997/2 and 1998/2) implied that the gender perspective should become an integral part of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of all policies and programmes in all spheres, at national and international levels, so women and men can benefit equally. It also implied that the consistent inclusion of women's views and experiences in all policies would inevitably lead to changes in their content and priorities, making them better tailored to the realities of our times, and to the needs of all members of society.
By applying a gender perspective to conflict resolution, the Santo Domingo meeting recognized that women and men were differently involved in armed conflicts but that policies and research have reflected a ‘gender blind’ approach. In practice, this means that men and male norms have been taken to represent the norm for all human beings. To bring a truly gender perspective to conflict resolution therefore means to develop a fuller understanding of women's roles and the changes that might come about with greater participation of women in conflict resolution, including decisionmaking.
[Page viii]There is evidence that women can make a visible difference to political decisions and agenda, political culture and styles of decisionmaking when they constitute a sufficient proportion of a decisionmaking group – a ‘critical mass’ of perhaps 30–35%. Although women have been involved in conflict resolution in different arenas and in various roles, they have never achieved a ‘critical mass’ as decisionmakers. Many women have made important contributions as peacemakers, crossing lines of conflict that men were unable to cross; working with the other side of a conflict on new peaceful solutions; networking with women and other actors in civil society and encouraging women at the grassroots level to get actively involved. These contributions, however, are not recorded and have not had decisive long-term implications.
Most women appear to have a somewhat different understanding of peace, security and violence than most men. This has led to the assumption that if women were involved in a sufficient number in peace, security and conflict resolutions, these definitions would be transformed and so would all related policies, activities and institutional arrangements. Broadening both these concepts and participation in conflict resolution would open new opportunities for dialogue. It would replace the traditional model of negotiations aimed at ceasefire or crisis management by a real conflict resolution model, where the root causes of conflict are addressed, all aspects of human security are taken into consideration, and the process of negotiation is inclusive, involving representatives of civil society, including women's organizations.
The results of the Santo Domingo meeting clearly indicate that, indeed, the incorporation of gender is essential for the better understanding of ongoing conflicts and their root causes and, subsequently, for the elaboration of more relevant means and policies for their peaceful resolution. The meeting also provided an opportunity for cooperation by the two institutions with the distinct but interrelated mandates: the Division for the Advancement of Women, a focal point on women's issues and gender mainstreaming in the United Nations Secretariat and the International Peace Research Institute, Oslo, an institute specializing in conflict resolution. This partnership by itself constitutes a step towards gender mainstreaming in practice and the much-needed collaboration of a policy-oriented, intergovernmental organization with a research institution. More of this type of cooperation is needed.
It is critically important that more research be done to demonstrate how essential the incorporation of gender is in all aspects and at all stages of conflict resolution. This book and the Expert Group Meeting from which it resulted are first steps in that direction.Angela E. V.King Assistant Secretary-General, Special Adviser on Gender Issues and Advancement of Women
This anthology is a product of co-operation between the International Peace Research Institute, Oslo (PRIO) and the United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women (UN DAW). The first major activity of the cooperation was a UN Expert Group Meeting, jointly organized by UN DAW and PRIO, with the support of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), and hosted by the United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW) in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, on 6–11 October 1996. The chapters of this book are based on papers presented at that meeting. The United Nations published the report of the meeting and its conclusions on 7 November 1996 (reference: EGM/PRDC/1996/REP.1).
We would like to thank Angela King, UN Assistant Secretary-General, Special Adviser on Gender Issues and Advancement of Women, for her support of this project throughout. We also want to thank John Mathiason, then Deputy Director of the UN Division for the Advancement of Women, whose support for the project at the outset was crucial to raising funds for it, and whose participation at the Expert Group Meeting was fundamental to its success. Special thanks are due to Dorota Gierycz, author of one of the chapters in this anthology and Chief of the Gender Analysis Section of UN DAW; she was the one who initially brought PRIO and the Division together and proposed this co-operative enterprise.
Our thanks also go to Martha Dueñas Loza, Director of the United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW) in Santo Domingo, together with her administrative staff, who did everything necessary to make the Expert Group Meeting run efficiently and pleasantly. Eva Irene Tuft, one of the authors in this anthology, was at that time Research Consultant at INSTRAW, and was particularly helpful in arranging the co-operation and ensuring it worked smoothly. We were also fortunate to have the intellectual and practical support of UNESCO, whom we also wish to thank, especially Ingeborg Breines, Director of the UNESCO programme on Women and a Culture of Peace.
[Page x]This anthology is shaped and inspired by the presentations and discussion at that Expert Group Meeting at INSTRAW in 1996. For various reasons not all of the presentations could be included in this anthology so we would like to thank the ones who are not included among the authors of chapters in this book: Rukia Said Ali, Eugenia Piza Lopez, Carolyn Stephenson and Sandra Whitworth. Observers at the meeting also participated fully in the discussion of the issues and the shaping of the report, and our thanks go to them too: Georgina Ashworth, Berit Kyllingstad Collet, Claire Fulcher, Martha Olga Garcia, Elise Judith Kant, Maja Mischke, Maria Cristina Nogufra, Mary Power, Lucero Quiroga, Maria Cristina Sara-Serrano, Eleni Stamris, Maj Britt Theorin, Cora Weiss and June Willenz.
We also want to take this opportunity to record our gratitude for the financial support that this project has received. The UN Division for the Advancement of Women, UNESCO, and the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs provided funding for the Expert Group Meeting. In addition, the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs provided the further financial support necessary for the preparation of this book.
During the extended process of organizing this anthology, we received essential assistance in compiling the bibliography from PRIO's librarian Synnøve Eifring, with further help from Jon Arild Olsen. The editorial assistance of first Susan Høivik and then of Lesley Hauge was invaluable. And Karen Hostens efficiently carried out the chores involved in answering copy-editing queries and tying the last bits and pieces together to take us over the final hurdle and into production and publication. We are extremely grateful to all five of these colleagues for their help, their cheerfulness and their good nature.IngerSkjelsbækDanSmith Oslo
Notes on Contributors[Page 205]
Anuradha Mitra Chenoy is Associate Professor at the School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. She has written extensively on gender and international relations and is currently working on a book to be entitled Russia in Transition (Macmillan, forthcoming).
Drude Dahlerup is Professor at Statsvetenskapliga institutionen, University of Stockholm. She is Vice-Chair of the Danish Government's Council for European Politics and a board member of the Danish Center for Information on Women and Gender. Her most recent publication is The Redstockings. The Rise and Fall, the Ideas and the Impact of the Danish Redstockings Movement, 1970–85, vols I–II (Gyldendal, 1998).
Dorota Gierycz is Chief, Gender Analysis Section, Division for the Advancement of Women, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations Secretariat, New York. Her recent publications include ‘Education on the Human Rights of Women as a Vehicle for Change’ in Human Rights Education for the Twenty-first Century, George J. Andreopoulos & Richard Pierre Claude, eds (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997) and ‘Women in Decision-making: Can We Change the Status Quo?’ in Towards A Women's Agenda for a Culture of Peace, Ingeborg Breines, Dorota Gierycz & Betty Reardon, eds (Cultures of Peace Series, UNESCO, 1999).
Errol Miller is Professor of Teacher Education at the Institute of Education, University of the West Indies. He is Editor of Education Reform in the Commonwealth Carribbean and his recent publications include ‘Gender and the Family: Some Theoretical Considerations’ in Gender and the Family in the Caribbean, Wilma Bailey, ed. (Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of the West Indies Mona, 1998) and Jamaican Primary Education: Policy Relevant Studies (Green Lizard Press, 1997).
[Page 206]Michael Emin Salla is Assistant Professor in the Peace and Conflict Resolution Program, School of International Service at the Australian National University. He has conducted research and fieldwork in the ethnic conflicts in East Timor, Kosovo, Macedonia and Sri Lanka. He is the author of America's Seventh Hero's Journey and the Second American Century (forthcoming 2000).
Kumudini Samuel is Joint Coordinator, The Women and Media Collective, Sri Lanka, and Editor of Women's Rights Watch. Her most recent publications include Women's Rights Watch Year Report 1999 (The Women and Media Collective, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 1999), Women's Rights Watch Quarterly Report 1997/1998/1999 (The Women and Media Collective, Colombo, Sri Lanka) and ‘Straining Consensus: Government Strategies for War and Peace in Sri Lanka 1994–1998’ in Demanding Sacrifice: War and Negotiation in Sri Lanka, Jeremy Armon & Liz Philipson, eds, Accord: An International Review of Peace Initiatives, Issue 4, August 1998, London.
Inger Skjelsbæk is a researcher at the International Peace Research Institute, Oslo (PRIO). Her most recent publication is Sexual Violence in Times of War: An Annotated Bibliography (PRIO Report 4/99).
Svetlana Slapsak is Professor of Anthropology of Ancient Worlds and Anthropology of Gender at Institutum Studiorum Humanitatis, Ljubljana Graduate School of Humanities, Slovenia, and is presently a Fellow at the Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study in the Humanities and Social Sciences. Her most recent publications include For the Anthropology of the Ancient Worlds (ISH, 2000) and Women Icons of the 20th Century (Urad za zensko politiko, 2000).
Dan Smith is Director of the International Peace Research Institute, Oslo (PRIO). His most recent publication is The State of War and Peace Atlas, 6th edition (Penguin, 1999).
Eva Irene Tuft is Resident Representative, Save the Children Norway, Guatemala Office. Her most recent publications include ‘Monitoring the Human Rights of Women’ in Manual on Human Rights Monitoring: An Introduction for Human Rights Field Officers, Araldsen & Thiis, eds (NORDEM, 1997) and Democracy and Violence – The Colombian Paradox (Christian Michelsen Institute Report R., 1996).
Achin Vanaik holds the Honorary Academic Chair in Geo-politics and International Relations at the Naval War College, Mumbai. His most recent publication [with Praful Bidwai] is South Asia on a Short Fuse: Nuclear Politics and the Future of Global Disarmament (Oxford University Press, India, 1999).
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