Gender Images in Public Administration: Legitimacy and the Administrative State
Publication Year: 2002
Extensively updated to reflect recent research and new theoretical literature, this much-anticipated Second Edition applies a gender lens to the field of public administration, looking at issues of status, power, leadership, legitimacy and change. The author examines the extent of women’s historical progress as public employees, their current status in federal, state, and local governments, the peculiar nature of the organizational reality they experience, and women’s place in society at large as it is shaped by government.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Gender and Public Administration
- Chapter 2: “On Tap but Not on Top”: Women in the Administrative State
- Women in Public Service
- Women's Organizational Reality
- Glass Ceilings, Glass Walls
- Who's Minding the Kids?
- Women and the Administrative State
- Chapter 3: “Sharpening a Knife Cleverly”: The Dilemma of Expertise
- Objective Expertise
- Professional Autonomy
- The Hierarchy of Expertise
- Professionalism and Women
- Chapter 4: “Look like a Lady, Act like a Man”: The Dilemma of Leadership
- A Portrait of the Leader
- Women Leaders
- Leadership and Public Administration
- Chapter 5: The Hero Factory: The Dilemma of Virtue
- The Guardian
- The Seeker after Fame and Honor
- The Hero
- The Citizen
- Chapter 6: From the Ground(s) Up: Women Reformers and the Rise of the Administrative State
- True Womanhood
- Becoming Businesslike
- Shaping the Administrative State
- The Gender of Reform
- Chapter 7: Paths toward Change
- Toward a Feminist Theory of Public Administration
- New Images in Public Administration
- Feminist Practical Wisdom
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
Sage Publications Ltd.
6 Bonhill Street
London EC2A 4PU
Sage Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
Greater Kailash I
New Delhi 110 048 India
Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Gender images in public administration Legitimacy and the administrative state / by Camilla Stivers.–2nd ed.
ISBN 0-7619-2173-7 (c)–ISBN 0-7619-2174-5 (p)
1. Women in public life–United States. 2. Women in the civil service–United States. 3. Sex role–United States. 4. Public administration–United States. I. Title.
HQ1391U5 S75 2002
02 03 04 05 06 07 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquisitions Editor: Marquita Flemming
Editorial Assistant: MaryAnn Vail
Production Editor: Diana E. Axelsen
Copy Editor: Joyce Kuhn
Typesetter: Siva Math Setters, Chennai, India
Indexer: Jeanne Busemeyer
Cover Designer: Sandra Ng
Quite often, when I talk to classes of public administration students about gender, someone—woman or man—says, “Well, I'm sure it was like that in the bad old days, but things have changed.” More than any other single factor, this comment (heard over and over) led me to produce a second edition of Gender Images. The first edition was written in 1991 and came out in print in late 1992, so it has been nearly a decade since I did the supporting research. Perhaps, I thought, things had changed; at least I owed it to the students, and to other readers of the book, to find out. The result is this new edition, which incorporates data, research studies, and theoretical literature from the past 10 years.
Unhappily, although there are signs of progress in such indicators as the proportions of women at upper levels of federal, state, and local governments, in my judgment the big picture as seen in the field's writings looks pretty much the way it did 10 years ago. Public administration scholarship continues to rely on images that conform to widely accepted (though varied) notions of masculinity, and women are still struggling to manage their gender images (not too feminine, not too masculine) and to balance competing demands of work and family. And even more unhappily, with a few exceptions, by and large the literature in the field still neglects the issue of gender. If for no other reason, since it is common for a majority of the students in an MPA class to be women, we still seem to need a book that considers gender as a factor in public administration—and of course, there are lots of other reasons, as this book tries to show.
A few readers of the first edition responded to it by calling Gender Images a “polemic.” (A roughly equal number told me I was too timid.) My dictionary defines a polemic as “a controversy or argument, esp. one that is a refutation of or an attack upon a specified opinion or doctrine,” so I suppose in the main these critics are right, since my intent is certainly to make an argument and to stimulate controversy. The purpose of my [Page viii]project has never been to attack in an intemperate way, however, but rather to engage in a dialogue. I do accept what my experience tells me, that raising the issue of gender (let alone the topic of feminist theory) is liable to be viewed as an act of aggression in some quarters.
Some have characterized the work of a number of feminist critics of organizations, including mine, as arbitrary and biased—that is, that we “read in masculinities whenever [we] feel like it,” ignore the factors that promote equality between the sexes, and in general “oversensitize” the issue of gender (Alvesson & Billing, 1997, pp. 7, 12, 86). Readers of this new edition must judge for themselves whether this is the case. It seems to me that broaching the subject of gender in a field where it has been virtually absent can only be seen as oversensitivity by those who would rather the topic not be discussed at all. I have tried to make my argument judiciously and in a spirit of self-criticism. Gender analysis is neither self-evident nor the most important framework within which to approach the study of public administration. I do insist that a feminist perspective on gender in organizations makes it possible to see certain aspects that other perspectives do not reveal. The significance of the feminist perspective in comparison with others, I leave for readers to decide for themselves.
Reaching the finish line of this edition, like the previous one, was made possible only with the help and support of many colleagues and friends. My husband, Ralph Hummel, not only makes my world but sometimes finds himself offering feminist perspectives. He is my best critic and best friend. Colleagues and students at Cleveland State University, the University of Akron, and the Evergreen State College took on the earlier edition in lively discussions, as did classes at a number of universities where I was lucky enough to have the opportunity to talk. Many scholars in the field have helped me sharpen and refine my arguments, whether they considered themselves fellow travelers or unbelievers. My thanks to (in no particular order) Mary Ellen Guy, David Farmer, Suzanne Mettler, Chuck Fox and Hugh Miller, Jay White, Celia Davies, David Carnevale, Mary Timney, Cynthia McSwain and Orion White, Ken Dolbeare, Cheryl Simrell King, Matthew Holden, Dolores Foley, David Rosenbloom, Jennifer Alexander, Guy Adams, Richard Box, April Hejka-Ekins, Larry Terry, Cindy Rosenthal, Dick Pratt, J. J. Hendricks, Joyce Outshoorn, Petra Schreurs, and an anonymous reviewer. Conversations at the 1994 conference on women and public policy, cosponsored by Erasmus University, Rotterdam, and the University of Leiden, were extraordinarily stimulating and helpful. A [Page ix]special thanks to Renee Nank, colleague and friend, whose help and support anchor and guide me in so many ways. Ruth-Ellen Joeres continues to be my home away from home. The book is better for the criticism and appreciation it has received; its deficiencies remain my responsibility.[Page x]
References[Page 148][Page 164](1999, July 14). Women and minorities not getting to the top. New York Times p. C4.(1996). Privacy, publicity, and power: A feminist rethinking of the public-private distinction. In N. J.Hirschmann & C.Di Stefano (Eds.), Revisioning the political: Feminist reconstructions of traditional concepts in Western political theory (pp. 213–233). Boulder, CO: Westview., &(1974). Fame and the founding fathers (T.Colbourn, Ed.). New York: Norton.(1935). My friend Julia Lathrop. New York: Macmillan.(1987). Professionalism, occupational segregation by gender, and control of nursing. Women and Politics, 7, 1–24.(1983). Reluctant reformers: Racism and social reform movements in the United States. Washington, DC: Howard University Press.(1907). Efficient democracy. New York: Dodd, Mead.(1913). Women's part in government whether she votes or not. New York: Dodd, Mead.(1997). Understanding gender and organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., &(1986). “Daughters of Jefferson, daughters of bootblacks”: Racism and American feminism. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press.(1958). The human condition. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.(1957). Personality and organization. New York: Harper.Aristotle. (1976). The Nichomachean ethics (J. A. K.Thompson, Trans.). Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.Aristotle. (1981). The politics (T. A.Sinclair, Trans.). Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.(1987). Ladies and gentlemen of the civil service: Middle class workers in Victorian America. New York: Oxford University Press.(1991). Women of influence, women of vision: A cross-generational study of leaders and social change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass., & [Page 149](1990). The domestication of politics: Women and American political society, 1780–1920. In L.Gordon (Ed.), Women, the state, and welfare (pp. 55–91). Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.(1968). Woodrow Wilson: Life and letters. Vol. 4: President, 1913–1914. New York: Greenwood. (Original work published 1931)(1938). The functions of the executive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1948). Organization and management: Selected papers. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1992). Indicators and correlates of American states’ administrative characteristics. State and Local Government Review, 24(1), 12–18., , &(2001, July 15). The lost privacy of Gary Condit. New York Times, Sec. 4, p. 3.(1916, March). Training for efficient public service. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 64, 215–226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000271621606400124(1915, April). Woman's work for the city. National Municipal Review, 4, 204–210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ncr.4110040203(1998). What right do public managers have to lead?Public Administration Review, 58(3), 209–230. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/976561(1986, Fall). The organization of leadership. The Bureaucrat pp. 13–16.(1991). The public administrator as hero. Administration & Society, 23(2), 155–185. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009539979102300201(1994, August 17). In a male-centered world, female differences are transformed into female disadvantages. The Chronicle of Higher Education pp. B1–B3.(2001, January 14). CEO-USA. New York Times Magazine pp. 24–28, 49, 54, 57, 59–60.(1985). Leaders: The strategy for taking charge. New York: Harper & Row., &(1991). Sharing of home responsibilities between professionally employed women and their husbands. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(6), 844–860. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.114, &(1967). Woodrow Wilson: The academic years. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.(1991). Measuring the division of household labor: Gender segregation of housework among American couples. Journal of Family Issues, 12(1), 91–113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019251391012001007, &(1976). The culture of professionalism: The middle class and the development of higher education in America. New York: Norton.[Page 150](1987). The gendered meanings of virtue in revolutionary America. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 13(1), 37–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/494385(1988). Moral exemplars: Reflections on Schindler, the Trocmes, and others. Midwest Studies in Philosophy, 12, 196–221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4975.1988.tb00122.x(1990). Love or greatness: Max Weber and masculine thinking—a feminist inquiry. London: Unwin Hyman.(1987). The Cartesian masculinization of thought. In S.Harding & J. F.O'Barr (Eds.), Sex and scientific inquiry (pp. 247–264). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1998). Change and continuity in state administration: Administrative leadership across four decades. Public Administration Review, 58(5), 429–444. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/977552, &(1912, June). Woman's home-making function applied to the municipality. American City, 6, 863–869.(1986). The frenzy of renown: Fame and its history. New York: Oxford University Press.Breckinridge, S. P. (Ed.). (1927). Public welfare administration in the United States: Selected documents. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1989). The problem of race in women's history. In E.Weed (Ed.), Coming to terms: Feminism, theory, politics (pp. 122–133). New York: Routledge.(1993). Righteous discontent: The women's movement in the black Baptist church, 1880–1920. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1988). Manhood and politics: A feminist reading in political theory. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Littlefield.(1912). The new city government: A discussion of municipal administration based on a survey of ten commission-governed cities. New York and London: D. Appleton.(1978). Early liberal roots of feminism: John Locke and the attack on patriarchy. American Political Science Review, 72, 135–150. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1953604(1988). The administrative theories of Hamilton and Jefferson: Their contribution to thought on public administration (2nd ed.). New York: Holmes & Meier.(1986). On the threshold of the women's era: Lynching, empire, and sexuality in black feminist theory. In H. L.Gates, Jr. (Ed.), Race, writing and difference (pp. 301–316). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1999). Gender effects on social influence and emergent leadership. In G. N.Powell (Ed.), Handbook of gender and work (pp. 203–222). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452231365, &(1978). The reproduction of mothering: Psychoanalysis and the sociology of gender. Berkeley: University of California Press.[Page 151](1990). Public administration and the paradox of professionalism. Public Administration Review, 50(6), 637–653. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/976975(1979). Women and Locke: Who owns the apple in the garden of Eden? In L. M. G.Clark & L.Lange (Eds.), The sexism of social and political theory: Women and reproduction from Plato to Nietzsche (pp. 16–40). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Clarke, L. M. G., & Lange, L. (Eds.). (1979). The sexism of social and political theory: Women and reproduction from Plato to Nietzsche. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.(1909). Chapters on municipal administration and accounting. New York: Longmans, Green.(1913). Organized democracy. New York: Longmans, Green.(1984). The other civil war: American women in the nineteenth century. New York: Hill & Wang.(1989). The oppositional imagination: Feminism, critique, and political theory. London: Routledge.(1993). The terms of political discourse (3rd ed.). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.(1998). Politics, political leadership, and public management. Public Administration Review, 58(3), 225–230. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/976562Cooke, J. E. (Ed.). (1961). The federalist. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.(1984a). Citizenship and professionalism in public administration [Special issue] (H. G.Frederickson & R. C.Chandler, Eds.), Public Administration Review, 44, 143–149. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/975554(1984b). Public administration in an age of scarcity: A citizenship role for public administrators. In J.Rabin & J. S.Bowman (Eds.), Politics and administration: Woodrow Wilson and American public administration (pp. 297–314). New York: Marcel Dekker.(1991). A ethic of citizenship for public administration. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.(1992). On virtue. In T. L.Cooper & N. D.Wright (Eds.), Exemplary public administrators: Character and leadership in government (pp. 1–8). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Cooper, T. L., & Wright, N. D. (Eds.). (1992). Exemplary public administrators: Character and leadership in government. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.(1977). The bonds of womanhood: Women's sphere in New England, 1780–1830. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.(1975). The federal machine: Beginnings of bureaucracy in Jacksonian America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.(1963). The promise of American life. New York: E. P. Dutton. (Original work published 1909).[Page 152](1984). Spearheads for reform: The social settlement and the Progressive movement, 1880–1914 (2nd ed.). New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.(1914, November). Women in municipal activities. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 56, 71–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000271621405600109(1961). The second sex (H. M.Parshley, Trans.). New York: Bantam.(1993). Professional leadership in local government. International Journal of Public Administration, 16(12), 2033–2049. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01900699308524885, &(1983). Managing professionals: Ideological proletarianization and post-industrial labor. Theory and Society, 12, 309–341. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00171555(1995, November 23). Job bias cited for minorities and women. New York Times p. B14.(1998). Judging the private lives of public officials. Administration & Society, 30, 115–142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0095399798302001(1996, February 28). Gaps and barriers, and women's careers. New York Times p. C2.(1988). Leadership and innovation in the administrative state. Paper presented at the Minnowbrook II meeting, Minnowbrook, NY.Doig, J. W., & Hargrove, E. C. (Eds.). (1987). Leadership and innovation: A biographical perspective on entrepreneurs in government. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.(2000). The Senior Executive Service: Gender, attitudes, and representative bureaucracy. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 10(3), 513–530. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.jpart.a024279(1996). Fencing in the inherently governmental debate. In G.Wamsley & J.Wolf (Eds.), Refounding democratic public administration: Modern paradoxes, postmodern challenges (pp. 68–91). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452233505(1984). Psyche as hero: Female heroism and fictional form. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.(1997). Angels in the machinery: Gender in American party politics from the Civil War to the Progressive era. New York: Oxford University Press.(1988). Deceptive distinctions: Sex, gender and the social order. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.(1969). The semi-professions and their organizations. New York: Free Press.(1984). The feminist case against bureaucracy. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Few women found in top public jobs. (1992, January 3). New York Times p. A8.(1990, July). Why women still don't hit the top. Fortune pp. 30, 40–42, 50, 54, 58, 62.[Page 153](1940). Administrative responsibility in democratic government. In C.Friedrich (Ed.), Public policy (pp. 247–275). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1965). The world of Odysseus (Rev. ed.). New York: Viking.(1988). Wandering in the wilderness: The search for women role models. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 13(2), 211–233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/494403(1990). Endless crusade: Women social scientists and Progressive reform. New York: Oxford University Press.(1999). Disappearing acts: Gender, power and relational practice. Cambridge: MIT Press.(1918). The new state. London: Longmans, Green.(1924). Creative experience. New York and London: Longmans, Green.(1997). Feminization unveiled: Management qualities in contemporary writings. Academy of Management Review, 22(1), 257–282.(1990). Discretionary public administration: Toward a Platonic guardian class. In H.Kass & B.Catron (Eds.), Images and identities in public administration (pp. 87–112). Newbury Park, CA: Sage., &(1989). Staking a claim: Feminism, bureaucracy, and the state. Sydney: Allen & Unwin., , &(1990). Talking about needs: Interpretive contests as political conflicts. In C. R.Sunstein (Ed.), Feminism and political theory (pp. 159–181). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1985). The public service and the patriotism of benevolence. Public Administration Review, 45(5), 547–554. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3109929, &(1940). Public power and the nature of administrative responsibility. In C.Friedrich (Ed.), Public policy (pp. 221–245). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1996). The possibility of feminist theory. In A.Garry & M.Pearsall (Eds.), Women, knowledge, and reality: Explorations in feminist philosophy (pp. 34–47). New York and London: Routledge.(1984). Civis, civitas, and civilitas: A new focus for the year 2000. [Special issue] (H. G.Frederickson & R. C.Chandler (Eds.), Public Administration Review, 44, 101–107. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/975549(1985). When and where I enter: The impact of black women on race and sex in America. New York: Bantam.(1982). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women's development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1990). Women and the work of benevolence: Morality, politics, and class in the 19th century United States. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.[Page 154](1987). Unequal colleagues: The entrance of women into the professions, 1890–1940. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press., &(1900). Politics and administration. New York: Macmillan.Gordon, L. (Ed.). (1990). Women, the state, and welfare. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.(1998). Targeted community initiative: “Putting citizens first!” In C.King, C.Stivers, & Collaborators, Government is us: Public administration in an anti-government era (pp. 175–194). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., &(1993). Reconstituting a profession for American public administration. Public Administration Review, 53(6), 516–524. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/977361, , &(1988). The Hamiltonian image of the public administrator: Public administrators as prudent constitutionalists. Dialogue: The Public Administration Theory Network, 10(3), 25–53.(1988). Inhuman relations: Quality circles and anti-unionism in American industry. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.(1990). Jacques Lacan: A feminist introduction. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203330029(1991, Winter). The quiet revolution of Bev Forbes. Seattle University News pp. 18–19.(1937). Notes on the theory of organization. In L.Gulick & L.Urwick (Eds.), Papers on the science of administration. New York: Institute of Public Administration.(1989). Sexuality in the workplace: Key issues in social research and organizational practice. In J.Hearn, D. L.Sheppard, P.Tancred-Sheriff, & G.Burrell (Eds.), The sexuality of organization (pp. 56–70). London: Sage.(1964). Efficiency and uplift: Scientific management in the Progressive era, 1890–1920. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Hale, M. M., & Kelly, R. M. (Eds.). (1989). Gender, bureaucracy, and democracy: Careers and equal opportunity in the public sector. Westport, CT: Greenwood.(1986). The science question in feminism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.(1990). For the good of family and race: Gender, work and domestic roles in the black community, 1880–1930. In M. R.Malson, E.Mudimbe-Boyi, J. F.O'Barr, & M.Wyer (Eds.), Black women in America: Social science perspectives (pp. 159–172). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1981). Games mother never taught you. New York: Warner.(1985). Making the connections: Essays in feminist social ethics (C. S.Robb, Ed.). Boston: Beacon.[Page 155](1996). Objective reality, male reality, and social construction. In A.Garry & M.Pearsall (Eds.), Women, knowledge, and reality: Explorations in feminist philosophy (pp. 84–107). New York and London: Routledge.(1988). Women, men, and leadership: A critical review of assumptions, practice and change in the industrialized nations. In N. J.Adler & D. N.Israeli (Eds.), Women in management worldwide (pp. 17–40). Armonk, NY: Sharpe., &(1990). The female advantage: Women's ways of leadership. New York: Doubleday.(1982). Women and men as leaders: In business, educational and social service organizations. New York: Praeger.(1992). Women-centered reality and rational legalism. Administration & Society, 23(4), 455–470. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009539979202300403(1990). Mind of a manager, soul of a leader. New York: John Wiley.(1989). The second shift: Working parents and the revolution at home. New York: Viking.(1999, June 30). How Rocky Jones got her fire captain's bars, after years of smoke and mirrors. New York Times p. A22.(1963). Anti-intellectualism in American life. New York: Knopf.(1996). Continuity and disruption: Essays in public administration. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.(1993). Political theory and the displacement of politics. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.(1991, May 5). Grace Pastiak's “web of inclusion.”New York Times, Sec. 3, pp. 1, 6.Hudson Institute. (1988). Civil service 2000. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.Immediate work. (1912). The Survey, 29(7), 189.“Iron Lady” attacks sexual political double standard. (1990, September 14). The Olympian p. A1.(1996). Manufacturing the employee: Management knowledge from the 19th to the 21st centuries. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221938(1983). Feminist politics and human nature. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Allenheld.(1995). Beyond the double bind: Women and leadership. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1987). A world of difference. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.(1960). The complete poems of Emily Dickinson. Boston: Little, Brown.[Page 156](1977). Men and women of the corporation. New York: Basic Books.(1980). Women and the structure of organizations: Explorations in theory and behavior. In C. W.Konek, S. L.Kitch, & G. E.Hammond (Eds.), Design for equity: Women and leadership in higher education (pp. 49–63). Newton, MA: Educational Development Center.(1990). Stewardship as a fundamental element in images of public administration. In H. D.Kass & B. L.Catron (Eds.), Images and identities in public administration (pp. 113–131). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1988). Professionalism and bureaucratic responsiveness: Conflict or compatibility. Public Administration Review, 48(1), 571–579. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/975521, &(1985). Reflections on gender and science. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.(1983). The mind's eye. In S.Harding & M. B.Hintikka (Eds.), Discovering reality (pp. 207–224). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Reidel., &(1988). A heritage from Rome: The administrator as doer. Dialogue: The Public Administration Theory Network, 10(2), 49–75.(1989). In praise of followers. In W. E.Rosenbach & R. L.Taylor (Eds.), Contemporary issues in leadership (2nd ed., pp. 124–134). Boulder, CO: Westview.(1980). Women of the republic: Intellect and ideology in revolutionary America. New York: Norton.(1996). “The best is yet to come?”: The quest for embodiment in managerial work. In D. L.Collinson & J.Hearn (Eds.), Men as managers, managers as men: Critical perspectives on men, masculinities and managements (pp. 78–98). London: Sage., &(1989). Prisons of leadership. New York: John Wiley.(1995, March 16). Women and minorities still face “glass ceiling.”New York Times p. C22.(1992). Gender and management: Men, women and decision making in public organizations. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Colorado, Denver.(1998). Government is us: Public administration in an anti-government era. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452243221, , & Collaborators.(1990, May-June). What leaders really do. Harvard Business Review pp. 103–111.(1968). Up from the pedestal: Selected writing in the history of American feminism. Chicago: Quadrangle Books.(1974). Representative bureaucracy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.[Page 157](1988). Women and the public sphere in the age of the French revolution. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.(1990). The human resources crisis in the public sector: Rebuilding the capacity to govern. Westport, CT: Quorum Books., &(1979). Rousseau and the general will. In L. M. G.Clark & L.Lange (Eds.), The sexism of social and political theory: Women and reproduction from Plato to Nietzsche (pp. 41–52). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.(1976). Work aspirations of women: False leads and new starts. In M.Blaxall & B.Reagan (Eds.), Women and the workplace: The implications of occupational segregation (pp. 33–50). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1980). True love and perfect union: The feminist reform of sex and society. New York: Basic Books.(1990). The woman citizen: Social feminism in the 1920s. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press. (Original work published 1973).(1994). Relative fairness and the division of housework: The importance of options. American Journal of Sociology, 100(2), 506–531. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/230545, &(1979). The majority finds its past: Placing women in history. New York: Oxford University Press.(1986). The creation of patriarchy. New York: Oxford University Press.(1994, October 15). Working women say bias persists. New York Times p. 8.(1980). Public entrepreneurship: Toward a theory of bureaucratic political power. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.(1981). The S.E.S. and the public interest. Public Administration Review, 41(3), 305–311. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/975790(1965). Professional altruism: The emergence of social work as a career, 1880–1930. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1996). Public management as art, science and profession. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House.(1988). Why work? Motivating and leading the new generation. New York: Simon & Schuster.(1964, January). Honor in bureaucratic life. Review of Politics, 26, 70–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S003467050000677X(1993). Gender, entitlement, and the distribution of family labor. Journal of Social Issues, 49(3), 141–159. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1993.tb01173.x(1989). Leadership skills for women: Achieving impact as a manager (with P. Haddock). Los Altos, CA: Crisp.(1987). Women, success and civil society: Submission to, or subversion of, the achievement principle. In S.Benhabib & D.Cornell (Eds.), Feminism as critique (pp. 96–109). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.[Page 158](1997). Legitimacy in public administration: A discourse analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(1980). The death of nature: Women, ecology, and the scientific revolution. San Francisco: Harper & Row.(2001, January 8–14). The Vice President as prime minister. Washington Post Weekly pp. 6–9.(1999). A national study of gender-based occupational segregation in municipal bureaucracies: Persistence of glass walls?Public Administration Review, 59(3), 218–230. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3109950, , &(1990). Working with men: Professional women talk about power, sexuality, and ethics. Hillsboro, OR: Beyond Words Publishing.(1973). The nature of managerial work. New York: Harper & Row.(1991). The limits of the state: Beyond statist approaches and their critics. American Political Science Review, 85(1), 79–96.(1987). Leadership failures, the distrusting public, and prospects of the administrative state. Public Administration Review, 47(6), 445–452. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/975885, &(1985). Sexual/textual politics: Feminist literary theory. London: Routledge.(1990). Administrative phronesis: Discretion and the problem of administrative legitimacy in our constitutional system. In H. D.Kass & B. L.Catron (Eds.), Images and identities in public administration (pp. 67–86). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1991). Constitutional stewardship, phronesis, and the American administrative ethos. Dialogue: The Public Administration Theory Network, 12(1), 17–60., &(1997). Revealing the feminist in Mary Parker Follett. Administration & Society, 29(3), 348–371. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009539979702900305, &(1968). Democracy and the public service. New York: Oxford University Press.(1991). Creating a female dominion in American reform, 1890–1935. New York: Oxford University Press.(1990). Tenets of contemporary professionalism in local government. Public Administration Review, 50(6), 654–662. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/976976(1989). Afro-American women of the South and the advancement of the race, 1895–1925. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.(1993, August 15). The debate over la différence. New York Times Current Events Edition p. 36.(1992). A world without women: The Christian clerical culture of Western science. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.[Page 159](1994). A woman of valor: Clara Barton and the Civil War. New York: Macmillan.(1989). Reproducing the world: Essays in feminist theory. Boulder, CO: Westview.(1979). Women in Western political thought. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.(1989). Justice, gender and the family. New York: Basic Books.(1991). Public managers, judges, and legislators: Redefining the new partnership. Public Administration Review, 51(4), 316–327. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/976747, &(1992). Reinventing government: How the entrepreneurial spirit is transforming the public sector. New York: Penguin Books., &(1989). The disorder of women: Democracy, feminism, and political theory. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.(2001). Introduction [to Symposium—Reinventing the public body]. Administrative Theory & Praxis, 23(2), 175–186.(1926). Basic principles of administration and of management: Scientific management. In H. C.Metcalf (Ed.), Scientific foundations of business administration (pp. 204–217). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.(1992, February 2). These data, the enumerator always wrings twice. New York Times p. E3.(1984). Fortune is a woman: Gender and politics in the thought of Niccolo Machiavelli. Berkeley: University of California Press.(1978). The development of the modern state: A sociological introduction. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.(1990). The state: Its nature, development and prospects. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.(1987). The leading edge: CEOs who turned their companies around: What they did and how they did it. New York: McGrawHill., &(1993). Women and men in management (2nd ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1999). Reflections on the glass ceiling: Recent trends and future prospects. In G. N.Powell (Ed.), Handbook of gender and organizations (pp. 325–345). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(1989). Bureaucracy, rationality, and sexuality: The case of secretaries. In J.Hearn, D. L.Sheppard, P.Tancred-Sheriff, & G.Burrell (Eds.), The sexuality of organization (pp. 158–177). London: Sage.(1989). Professionalism in public administration: Problems, perspectives and the role of ASPA. Public Administration Review, 49(1), 1–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/977223(1988). Perspectives on professional women. Stanford Law Review, 40, 1163–1207. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1228865[Page 160](1997). Understanding ethics through literature: Character, honor, and the corruption of body and soul in King Rat. Administration & Society, 29(2), 201–221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009539979702900204, &(1995, April 27). Women's work: What's new, what isn't. New York Times p. A12.(1986). To run a constitution: The legitimacy of the American administrative state. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.(1989). Public administration, executive power and constitutional confusion. Public Administration Review, 49(2), 108–114. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/977329(1999). The gender gap in earnings: Trends, explanations, and prospects. In G. N.Powell (Ed.), Handbook of gender and work (pp. 95–123). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452231365, &(1987). Public administration and the judiciary: The “new partnership.”Public Administration Review, 49(2), 108–114.(1990, November-December). Ways women lead. Harvard Business Review pp. 119–125.Rossi, A. S. (Ed.). (1973). The feminist papers: From Adams to de Beauvoir. New York: Columbia University Press.(1992). Responsiveness and neutral competence in American bureaucracy. Public Administration Review, 52(6), 539–546. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/977164(1989). Maternal thinking: Toward a politics of peace. Boston: Beacon.(1985). Women in the history of political thought. New York: Praeger.(2000). Enchanting rationality: An analysis of rationality in the Anglo-American discourse on public organization. Delft, The Netherlands: Uitgeverij Eburon.(1989). Gender: a useful category of historical analysis. In E.Weed (Ed.), Coming to terms: Feminism, theory, politics (pp. 81–100). New York: Routledge.(1957). Leadership in administration: A sociological interpretation. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson.Settlement pioneers in city government. (1914, February 21). Charities and the Commons pp. 638–639.(1989). Organizations, power and sexuality: The image and self-image of women managers. In J.Hearn, D. L.Sheppard, P.Tancred-Sheriff, & G.Burrell (Eds.), The sexuality of organization (pp. 139–157). London: Sage.(1989). The fabric of character: Aristotle's theory of virtue. Oxford, UK: Clarendon.(1997). Responding to the decline in public service professionalism. Public Administration Review, 59(3), 21–27.(1991). American citizenship: The quest for inclusion. London: Harvard University Press.[Page 161](1906, September 1). Settlement organization. Charities and the Commons pp. 566–569.(1938). Neighborhood: My story of Greenwich House. New York: Norton.(1982). Building a new American state: The expansion of national administrative capacities, 1877–1920. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511665080Sterling, D. (Ed.). (1984). We are your sisters: Black women in the nineteenth century. New York: Norton.(1988). The end of public administration: Problems of the profession in the post-Progressive era. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Transnational.(1990a). Active citizenship and public administration. In G.Wamsley, R.Bacher, C.Goodsell, P.Kronenberg, J.Rohr, C.Stivers, O.White, & J.Wolf, Refounding public administration (pp. 246–273). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1990b). Toward a feminist theory of public administration. Women and Politics, 10(4), 49–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1554477X.1990.9970587(1991). Why can't a woman be less like a man? Women's leadership dilemma. Journal of Nursing Administration, 21(5), 47–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005110-199105000-00011(1992a). Beverlee A. Myers: Power, virtue and womanhood in public administration. In T. L.Cooper & N. D.Wright (Eds.), Exemplary public administrators: Character and leadership in government (pp. 166–172). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.(1992b). A wild patience: A feminist critique of ameliorative public administration. In M. T.Bailey & R. T.Mayer (Eds.), Public management in an interconnected world: Essays in the Minnowbrook tradition (pp. 53–74). Westport, CT: Greenwood.(1994). The listening bureaucrat: Responsiveness in public administration. Public Administration Review, 53(4), 364–369. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/977384(1996a). Mary Parker Follett and the question of gender. Organization, 3(1), 161–166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/135050849631010(1996b). Refusing to get it right: Citizenship, difference, and the Refounding project. In G.Wamsley & J.Wolf (Eds.), Refounding democratic public administration (pp. 260–278). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452233505(2000a). Bureau men, settlement women: Constructing public administration in the Progressive era. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.(2000b). Citizenship ethics in public administration. In T. L.Cooper (Ed.), Handbook of administrative ethics (2nd ed., pp. 435–456). New York: Marcel Dekker.(1992). All the right stuff: A comparison of female and male managers’ career progression. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77(3), 251–160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.77.3.251, , & [Page 162](1999). Gender and careers: Present experiences and emerging trends. In G. N.Powell (Ed.), Handbook of gender and work (pp. 307–324). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452231365, &(1911). The principles of scientific management. New York: Harper.(1990). Leadership in the administrative state: The concept of administrative conservatorship. Administration and Society, 21(4), 395–412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009539979002100401(1991). The public administrator as hero: All that glitters is not gold: Rejoinder to Christopher Bellavita's “The public administrator as hero.”Administration & Society, 23(2), 186–193. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009539979102300202(1985). The credibility of institutions, policies and leadership, Vol. 18: Essays on leadership. Comparative insights. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.(1984). Revitalizing organizations: The leadership role. In J. R.Kimberly & R. E.Quinn (Eds.), New futures: The challenge of managing corporate transitions (pp. 240–265). Homewood, IL: Dow Jones Irwin., &Trained social workers take charge of New York City government. (1914, January 10). The Survey pp. 430–433.(1991). Racism American style: A corporate gift. Chicago: Urban Research Press.U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1940). Statistical abstract of the United States. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1960). Statistical abstract of the United States. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1990). Statistical abstract of the United States. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1999). Statistical abstract of the United States. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.U.S. Glass Ceiling Commission. (1995). Good for business: Making full use of the nation's human capital. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.U.S. Office of Personnel Management. (1998). Central personnel data file (CPDF). Available: http://www.opm.gov/feddata/demograp/1998U.S. Office of Personnel Management. (2000). Central personnel data file (CPDF). Available: http://www.opm.gov/feddata/demograp.htm(1998). Why so slow? The advancement of women. Cambridge, MA and London: MIT Press.(1983). The American administrative state: Wilson and the founders—an unorthodox view. Public Administration Review, 43(6), 477–490. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/975915Vollmer, H. M., & Mills, D. L. (Eds.). (1966). Professionalization. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.(1996). Desperately seeking differences: Is management style gendered?British Journal of Industrial Relations, 34(3), 333–349. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8543.1996.tb00478.x[Page 163](1948). The administrative state. New York: Ronald Press.(1990). The agency perspective: Public administrators as agential leaders. In G. L.Wamsley, R. N.Bacher, C. T.Goodsell, P. S.Kronenberg, J. A.Rohr, C. M.Stivers, O. F.White, & J. A.Wolf, Refounding public administration (pp. 114–162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1990). Refounding public administration. Newbury Park, CA: Sage., , , , , , , &(1981). Joan of Arc: The image of female heroism. New York: Knopf.(1973, Summer). The covert power of gender in organizations. Journal of Contemporary Business pp. 53–68.(1976). The cult of true womanhood, 1820–1860. In B.Welter, Dimity convictions: The American woman in the 19th century (pp. 21–41). Athens: Ohio University Press.(1948). The federalists. New York: Macmillan.(1951). The Jeffersonians. New York: Macmillan.(1967). The search for order, 1877–1920. New York: Hill & Wang.(1990). Administration with hierarchy? Bureaucracy without authority? In N. B.Lynn & A.Wildavsky (Eds.), Public administration: The state of the discipline (pp. xiii–xix). Chatham, NJ: Chatham House.(1984). Cincinnatus: George Washington and the enlightenment. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.(1989). Bureaucracy: What government agencies do and why they do it. New York: Basic Books.(1887). The study of administration. Political Science Quarterly, 2(2), 197–222. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2139277(1906, January 16). Social work: A new profession. Charities and the Commons, 15: pp. 469–476.(1970). The settlement horizon: A national estimate. New York: Arno Press. (Original work published 1922)., &(1987). The politics of art: Nancy Hanks and the National Endowment for the Arts. In J. W.Doig & E. C.Hargrove (Eds.), Leadership and innovation: A biographical perspective on entrepreneurs in government (pp. 207–245). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.(1987). Impartiality and the civic public. In S.Benhabib & D.Cornell (Eds.), Feminism as critique (pp. 57–76). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
About the Author