Fundraising: Principles and Practice

Books

Michael J. Worth

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
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  • Copyright

    Preface

    This book is intended to serve as a core text in courses related to fundraising offered by colleges and universities. Many of these courses are offered as part of the curriculum in degree programs and certificate programs related to the broader fields of nonprofit management, social work, education, museum studies, and others. Many also are offered in schools of professional studies or continuing education that prepare students for careers in the nonprofit sector. It is not intended as a text for courses that take a theoretical approach to the nonprofit sector or philanthropic studies. It is not intended to provide a foundation for the academic study of fundraising or philanthropy but for students who are preparing for careers as nonprofit professionals. But it also is not a how-to manual specifically intended for use in short-term training programs, although instructors in such programs who wish a more academic approach may find it useful. Most students enrolled in courses using this text are likely either to have no experience in fundraising or to be early in their fundraising careers, but ideally some experienced practitioners may find that it adds perspectives on some points. While this book includes a chapter on international fundraising, its focus is on fundraising for nonprofit organizations and institutions in the United States, in which most students studying with this text are likely to pursue their careers.

    Blend of Theory and Practice

    The book assumes that students are preparing for positions of leadership in the nonprofit sector and thus seek both an understanding of relevant theory and research as well as insights on practical applications. Its purpose is to define central terms and concepts of fundraising but also to engage students in thinking critically about issues in philanthropy and fundraising practice. It reflects the author's view that an effective fundraising professional needs a broad understanding of the nonprofit sector and organizations and the concerns of donors and funders as well as fundraising skills. Accordingly, this book emphasizes principles and concepts; it provides references to both academic works and more hands-on material, available in print and on the web, for students who may wish to explore more in either direction. It may be of interest to students studying outside the United States, where organized fundraising is a growing activity, but it is based on the U.S. system and the cases generally relate to American organizations and institutions.

    This text provides a comprehensive overview of topics related to fundraising, but it is selective in the discussion of each. There are entire books devoted to each of the topics represented by individual chapters in this text, and students are encouraged to pursue additional reading. This text thus serves as a menu, on which students may “click” to delve more deeply into any of the topics discussed.

    Consistent with its purpose and intended audience, this text takes a balanced approach, encompassing principles described in the extensive practitioner literature, produced by organizational fundraisers and consultants over the past century, as well as the growing, but still relatively limited, body of academic work specifically focused on fundraising, including dissertations, books, and articles in peer-reviewed journals. It includes insights from some of the pioneers of fundraising who wrote decades ago, as well as new ideas related to contemporary and emerging practices. The author recognizes that this approach runs the risk that some pragmatic readers may find it too academic and that some academics may find it insufficiently grounded. But this balanced approach is intentional, in order to provide a comprehensive and useful overview of a field that is still developing and that remains a mix of art and science.

    Case studies and discussion questions are included with every chapter to enable the application of principles to real-world situations and to encourage students’ analytical thinking. Examples and cases in this text are drawn from various nonprofit subsectors. Differences among types of organizations are highlighted and discussed in terms of how they may affect the application of principles and practices in those environments.

    Overview of Chapters

    The topics covered in this text closely follow those in my graduate course in the Trachtenberg School of Public Policy and Public Administration at The George Washington University, Managing Fundraising and Philanthropy, which I have offered for more than thirteen years. Indeed, I have tried to adopt a conversational, somewhat informal tone in this text, similar to how I might address students in the classroom.

    The Introduction includes my reflections on changes in the fundraising profession over the decades encompassed by my own career. The Conclusion likewise includes some of my views on the role of fundraising professionals in their organizations, now and in the future. Both may be considered optional reading for students.

    Chapters 1 through 5 establish an important foundation for the balance of the book. The first chapter provides an introduction to fundraising and philanthropy as those activities have developed historically in the United States. The second chapter offers an overview of the nonprofit sector and nonprofit organizations, including a summary of theories that explain the sector and the behavior of organizations. This chapter, as well as some other sections of the book, draws on material included in my earlier textbook, Nonprofit Management: Principles and Practice (Worth, 2014). Students who have previously taken a course on general nonprofit management may find this chapter useful as a refresher or may decide to skim it. However, it is essential reading for students who have no such previous experience, since fundraising practice is fundamentally related to the unique nonprofit environment. Chapter 3 provides a survey of the literature regarding donor behavior and motivations, including practitioner wisdom and the findings of research. It also considers the implications for giving of increasing diversity and a multicultural nation. Chapter 4 introduces fundamental fundraising principles, many of which are elaborated on in later chapters where they are most relevant. Chapter 5 discusses organizational preconditions for successful fundraising and actions that organizations take to establish them.

    Chapters 6 through 11 are focused on specific fundraising programs, methods, and strategies, including annual giving, major gifts, planned giving, foundation and corporate support, and campaigns. Much of the material in these chapters is drawn from the practitioner literature, but in keeping with the overall approach of the book, academic research and theories are cited as they may apply, either to confirm or challenge the assumptions of conventional practice.

    Additional chapters discuss the management of fundraising programs and development staff and consider significant legal and ethical principles. These topics are considered later in the book, not because I regard them as unimportant but because I think many students can best understand their implications after establishing a foundation of knowledge in the field. The concluding chapter is focused on international and global fundraising and philanthropy and may be optional reading for students who have an interest in that broader perspective. Excluding optional material, the book provides one chapter per week for a fourteen-week course; of course, reading also can be accelerated to fit a different course calendar.

    This book is for any student who desires an understanding of fundraising. Not all of them will be planning to pursue careers as fundraising professionals. Some may be considering careers in general nonprofit management or expect to engage with nonprofit organizations in other roles. But there is some emphasis on the role of fundraising professionals, that is, development officers. It is my hope that some students who start this book not planning on a fundraising career may be considering one upon its completion.

    The overall philosophy of the book is that fundraising is an honorable and important specialization within the field of nonprofit management, providing the opportunity of fulfilling careers and advancing the vital missions of the important organizations and institutions that philanthropy supports.

    Instructor Teaching Site

    A password-protected site, available at study.sagepub.com/worthfundraising, features resources designed to help instructors plan and teach their course. These resources include exam questions, chapter-specific PowerPoint presentations, an instructor guide, and videos.

    Acknowledgments

    I am grateful to SAGE Publications for undertaking this book, which is the second of my titles that SAGE has published. In particular, I express thanks to my editor, Maggie Stanley, for her support and encouragement.

    I thank the reviewers whose comments have been helpful as this book evolved. They include the following:

    Rick J. Arrowood, Northeastern University

    T. Gregory Barrett, University of Arkansas at Little Rock

    Rosemary Bonacci, Utica College

    Patricia H. Deyton, Simmons College School of Management

    Michael J. Goff, Independent Sector

    Ann Haugland, University of Iowa

    Patrick A. Kelsey, Savannah College of Art and Design

    I offer special thanks to John Kendrick, assistant vice president at The George Washington University for his review and comment on Chapter 8 (Planned Giving).

    My work on this project has been ably supported by my graduate assistants at The George Washington University, including Molly Callaghan (2012–2013), Brittney Seiler (2013–2014), and Gretchen Wieland (2014–2015).

    Finally, I am grateful for the many lessons I have learned from the talented fundraising professionals who have been my colleagues over the years, as well as the insights that academic researchers have added to our body of knowledge. Fundraising is a noble profession, practiced by people whose efforts make the world a better place.

    Michael J. Worth

    Professor of Nonprofit Management The George Washington University Washington, DC

    About the Author

    Michael J. Worth is professor of nonprofit management in the Trachtenberg School of Public Policy and Public Administration at The George Washington University in Washington, DC. He was vice president for development and alumni affairs at George Washington for eighteen years, where he planned and directed two comprehensive campaigns. He previously served as director of development at the University of Maryland College Park. Earlier in his career, he was assistant to the president at Wilkes University and director of development at DeSales University.

    Dr. Worth has served as a member of the Commission on Philanthropy of the Council for Advancement and Support of Education (CASE) and as editor of the CASE International Journal of Educational Advancement. He has written academic and practitioner-oriented books related to fundraising, governing boards, and nonprofit management. Works include Leading the Campaign (2010) and the textbook Nonprofit Management: Principles and Practice (3rd ed., 2014).

    Dr. Worth provides fundraising and management advice to educational institutions, national associations and institutions, and nonprofit organizations. He holds a BA in economics from Wilkes College, an MA in economics from The American University, and a PhD in higher education from the University of Maryland.

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