Fostering Child & Adolescent Mental Health in the Classroom

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Edited by: Raymond J. Waller

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    Acknowledgments

    My sincere thanks are offered for the grace of the eminent researchers and educators who contributed their scholarship, time, expertise, and faith in the importance of this book. Dr. Donna Andrews, my boss, provided an unparalleled level of support. I am not sure that this book could have been completed without the diligent and tireless help of my coworker and voice of reason, Diane Bresson. I am sure that it wouldn't have been completed without the professionalism of the people at Sage, including Diane McDaniel, Marta Peimer, Erica Carroll, and others I don't even know about. I offer my gratitude to the academic reviewers of this text, who provided continuous, salient feedback throughout the process: C. Ann Wentz, Park University; Pam L. Warrick, University of Arkansas at Little Rock; Donna H. Schumacher-Douglas, University of Northern Iowa; Sarah Templin, Purdue University; Dan Schwartz, Saint Louis University; Sue A. Rieg, Indiana University of Pennsylvania; Judith Ableser, University of Michigan-Flint; Laura A. Barwegen, Wheaton College; and Diana Rogers-Adkinson, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater.

    My final and most heartfelt thanks are to my eternal helpers—Katie, Sarah, and Emily.

    Introduction

    Raymond J.WallerJeffrey P.Douglass

    Nine-year-old white male brought to the emergency room by mother, aunt, and female friend of the mother. Patient loudly cursing all three adults. Each adult observed making (different) threats to child. Patient reportedly on several medications. Patient reportedly “messed up” home computer. When scolded by mother, patient ran outside yelling that “ghosts were touching” him.

    Thirteen-year-old black male brought to emergency room by parents for taking an overdose of Celexa. Patient was sent home from school for fighting with another student. Patient has a history of suicide attempts. Patient tested positive for benzodiazepines and cannabis. Patient has been prescribed Risperdal, but patient reports that he is grinding it up and snorting it up his nose rather than swallowing it.

    Fourteen-year-old white female brought to emergency room by mother. Patient reportedly has previous diagnoses of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder. Patient not currently taking medication. Mother states that patient is “out of control” and has been trying to hurt herself. Scratch is visible on arm.

    Fifteen-year-old white male brought to emergency room by guardians. Patient reportedly was “breaking up the house and threatening to hurt himself.” Parents report being highly career oriented. Patient reports wanting parents more involved in his life.

    Fifteen-year-old white female brought to emergency room by police. Patient had run away from home to have sex with boyfriend. Patient apprehended in bed having sex with 19-year-old boyfriend. Boyfriend was arrested. Patient has a history of running away and suicidal ideations. Patient was alert, verbal, and oriented. Patient reports being “very interested in sex” and “getting experience.”

    These brief case studies may initially appear quite different, but they have similarities. First, each of these children was seen in a rural hospital emergency room. Furthermore, each child has a history of emotional and behavioral problems that could be threatening. And finally, each of these children was in school the day after their emergency room visit.

    Nine-year-old multiracial male brought to emergency room by police. Patient has diagnostic history of migraines, Tourette's syndrome, and bipolar disorder. Patient had been apprehended going door-to-door in his neighborhood with a knife, a roll of magnets, a compass, and a level. Patient reported that he was trying to find a time machine. Patient had been sent home from school for being disruptive. Patient was disoriented in emergency room. Patient attempted to bite emergency room staff. Patient placed in restraints. Blood and urine screens negative for alcohol and drugs.

    Fourteen-year-old white female brought to emergency room by law enforcement. Patient had been fighting with sister and pulled a knife. Patient was disarmed by police.

    Twelve-year-old white male brought to the emergency room by police. Patient made suicide threat because he did not want to go back to mental health after-school program (patient had been one time). Patient reports plan to kill himself with a knife. Patient reports uncontrollable anger. Patient taking Prozac and Neurontin. Family reports previous inpatient psychiatric hospitalization.

    These children were also seen in a hospital emergency room, but each of these children was involuntarily committed to treatment in an inpatient psychiatric facility. They were back in school within 2 weeks.

    The demands placed on school personnel have never been greater, and some indications suggest that the needs of children have never been greater. On top of addressing the educational responsibilities that compose the primary expectation placed on them, educators are likely to be the first professionals to confront mental health needs in children and respond appropriately, despite a lack of training or focus for most educators in the area of child and adolescent mental health.

    The purpose of this book is to help address the void created by the lack of training in recognizing and addressing mental health problems in the classroom. It is intended for preservice and currently practicing teachers and confronts some of the most common mental health issues experienced by children. The primary goal is to provide readers with some suggestions regarding how they might be able to help students with mental health issues. In addition, case vignettes are provided to help teachers conceptualize how students with specific problems may present in class and to identify support strategies for these students. The case studies are not necessarily intended to offer advice about how problems should be addressed. Rather, they are intended (a) to demonstrate that teachers actually confront mental health problems in the classroom and are often blindsided by them and (b) to show that teachers have done the best they could do to help students in need. We hope that teachers can learn from their experiences and that this material may help them to be more proactive in their classrooms and schools, implementing strategies that serve the various needs and the best interests of all their students. To maximize its use, the book offers a number of features:

    Expertise

    A variety of nationally known educators and scholars have contributed their knowledge to ensure a high degree of fidelity for the information provided.

    Case Vignettes

    As previously mentioned, case vignettes are provided to discuss clinical situations in the school setting. Readers are encouraged to consider the actions taken, the outcome observed, and brainstorm alternative strategies that they might use in a similar situation.

    Glossary Definitions

    Key terms appear in boldface type in each chapter. These terms are defined in the Glossary at the end of the book.

    Thinking Ahead

    Prereading questions are provided at the beginning of each chapter to facilitate synergy, promote the integration of previous and current learning, and stimulate thinking about readers’ work, internship, practicum, or prospective field activity.

    Discussion Questions

    Discussion questions at the end of each chapter prompt preemptive contingency planning and integrate both shared experiences and freshly assimilated information.

    Teacher Focus

    Although many books on child and adolescent mental health have been written for mental health professionals, few have focused specifically on the needs of educators. This book fills a void by being written for teachers and by providing classroom explicit strategies to support students with a variety of mental health needs.

    For Additional Help

    Finally, each chapter includes Internet resources to assist with further information. While we encourage readers to access mental health professionals in the school system for support, consultation, and collaboration, we know that there will be times that they need immediate information or when they want to learn more about a particular topic. The Web sites provided—many of them award winners—were included to provide ancillary help when teachers need it.

  • Glossary

    acculturation: the process of people adopting behaviors and customs of another culture.

    Anorexia Nervosa: an eating disorder that involves the refusal to maintain body weight at or above a minimally normal weight for age and height, the intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat even though underweight, a disturbance in the way one perceives one's body weight or shape, and the interruption of menstrual cycles.

    antecedent events: events that precede certain actions. Presenting an antecedent stimulus previously correlated with reinforcement will evoke behavior; presenting an antecedent stimulus previously correlated with punishment will suppress behavior.

    applied behavior analysis: the engineering aspect of behaviorology; behavior-change technology derived from well-established experimental analyses of socially significant behavior.

    aversive stimuli: stimuli that are perceived as noxious or unpleasant.

    behavior intervention plan (BIP): a written plan that describes a behavioral intervention designed to correct a problem behavior. The aim of a BIP is to replace problem behavior with equally effective appropriate behavior.

    behavior rating scales: instruments designed to measure behavior. Professionals and parents respond to items that describe specific behaviors of the subject. Some scales have subscales that indicate specific behavioral problem categories (e.g., hyperactivity).

    behaviorology: the natural science of contingent relations between behavior and other events. It excludes accounts of behavior based on notions of a personal inner agency such as ego, self, or similar trait-type psychological concepts.

    best practice: in education, the most current, practical, and evidence-based methods for working with students. Practices are not classified as “best practices” without substantial research support, although the amount of research necessary to be considered “substantial” is a matter of ongoing debate.

    Bipolar Disorder: a mood disorder often characterized by recurrent, alternating episodes of depression and mania. Sometimes referred to as manic depression.

    mood disorder: a category of mood disorders that includes Major Depressive Disorder, Dysthymic Disorder, and Bipolar Disorder. Sometimes referred to as depressive disorders.

    mores: customs or norms of a social group.

    neglect: the most common form of child maltreatment, the failure to meet the basic needs of a child.

    neurotransmitters: chemicals in the brain that transmit messages from one nerve cell to another.

    nonlinguistic communication: the message is delivered between the sender and receiver with symbols other than words. It may be used concurrently with verbal communication.

    obesity: usually defined in terms of the body mass index [BMI]. Some researchers define obesity as having a BMI at or above the 95th percentile. It is also sometimes defined as having a BMI score above 30. Another definition of obesity is weight that is 20% above the ideal based on growth charts.

    operant: a class of actions selected by their common consequent effect. In contrast to reflexlike responses, operant behavior operates on the environment and is said to be emitted, not elicited (i.e., so-called voluntary behavior).

    Oppositional Defiant Disorder: a persistent pattern of negativistic, defiant, disobedient, and antagonistic behavior toward people in authority.

    overweight: usually defined in terms of the body mass index (BMI). Some researchers define overweight as having a BMI at or above the 85th percentile based on an appropriate reference population. Others have defined overweight as having a BMI score between 25 and 30.

    peer-mediated interventions: a system in which students teach other students or classmates; also referred to as peer tutoring.

    physical abuse: the most visible form of child maltreatment, involving deliberate physical injury inflicted on a child.

    postcedent events: events that follow certain actions-including reinforcing consequences, punishing consequences, and events that follow particular actions but are not produced by those actions (i.e., adventitious events, some of which may nonetheless affect subsequent actions).

    prevalence: measure of the proportion of people in a population affected with a particular disorder during a specific time period.

    protective factors: factors that make it less likely that an individual will develop a disorder by enhancing psychological resilience and increasing resistance to risk.

    psychoanalytic theory: theory of the development and treatment of mental health problems that focuses on unconscious and unacceptable fantasies of a sexual or aggressive nature; developed by Sigmund Freud.

    psychological resilience: ability to cope successfully in the face of significant adversity or risk. psychomotor agitation: excessive physical activity associated with feelings of inner tension. psychomotor retardation: visible slowing of physical and emotional reactions.

    psychopathology: the manifestation of a diagnosable mental health problem.

    psychosocial: the acknowledgment of the important interplay between psychological factors and social issues in the determination of overall mental health.

    punishing consequences: consequences that decrease the actions they follow. If the out-of-seat behavior decreases following teacher's reprimands, then the reprimands are punishing consequences (at least temporarily).

    recidivism: recommission or rearrest for subsequent crimes.

    reinforcing consequences: consequences that increase actions they follow. If the out-of-seat behavior increases following teacher's reprimands, then the reprimands are reinforcing consequences.

    risk factors: factors associated with increasing the odds of developing a disorder.

    self-management: engaging in activities that monitor and manage symptoms and signs of a disorder.

    setting events: situational or contextual factors that affect how a student will respond to antecedent and consequent events. “Setting events may be divided into three categories: physiological/biological, physical/environmental, and social/situational” (see Chandler & Dahlquist, 2002, p. 55).

    sexual abuse: any sexual contact between an adult and a child.

    sexual identity: one aspect of an individual's personal identity. Sexual identity refers to the development of an individual's understanding of how to develop close relationships; his or her own sexual orientation; his or her sexual impulses, desires, and needs; and ultimately, his or her sexual role in life.

    sexual orientation: the direction of one's sexual interest toward members of the same, opposite, or both sexes.

    social maladjustment: a term regularly used in educational settings that refers to the behaviors associated with Conduct Disorder. However, federal law has not provided a definition for social maladjustment, so no standard definition exists.

    somatic: related to the body, specifically manifesting physical symptoms as a result of a mental health problem.

    treatment validity: the extent to which a functional behavioral assessment contributes to an effective behavioral intervention program. Did the use of the assessment information result in a plan for behavior intervention that actually produced the desired change in the target behavior?

    body mass index: a statistic used to ascertain if someone's weight is appropriate for his or her height. It is usually calculated by taking one's height in inches, dividing it by weight in pounds squared, and multiplying it by 703.

    Bulimia Nervosa: an eating disorder that involves recurrent episodes of binge eating; recurrent inappropriate compensatory behavior to prevent weight gain, such as self-induced vomiting; misuse of laxatives, diuretics, enemas, and other medications; fasting; excessive exercise; and self-evaluation that is unduly influenced by body shape and weight.

    child maltreatment: an umbrella term that some professionals in the field prefer that includes any form of mistreatment of a child that results in nonaccidental harm. This term could be used interchangeably with the term child abuse.

    child protective services (CPS): the common term applied to state organizations substantiating reports of child maltreatment in adherence to individual state laws and policies.

    coercive exchanges: interactions in which one person attempts to dominate another by force, such as through threatening, yelling, or aggression. Coercive exchanges between children and their parents maintain and exacerbate the development of disruptive and antisocial behaviors.

    communication: the process of exchanging ideas, information, needs, and desires. The exchange requires a sender(s) and a receiver(s).

    comorbid: specifically, occurring simultaneously. For example, conduct disorders are commonly comorbid with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    comorbidity: the existence of two or more illnesses in an individual at the same time.

    consequences:postcedent events produced by one's own actions.

    construct: a complex concept that represents an abstract idea that we accept as a real phenomenon. An example is “intelligence.”

    contingencies: functional relations between actions and other events. Some events are antecedents that set the occasion for certain actions. Other events are postcedents, events that immediately follow certain actions. When the actions produce those postcedent events, they are called consequences; those that affect subsequent behavior are either reinforcing consequences or punishing consequences.

    cooperative learning: teaching strategy designed to promote learning among students by emphasizing structured groups and cooperation.

    developmental disabilities: any severe, chronic disability that has an onset prior to adulthood.

    discriminative stimulus: a stimlus that sets the occasion for a response to be reinforced.

    double depression: a mood condition in which an individual is diagnosed with both major depressive disorder and dysthymic disorder.

    Dysthymic Disorder (dysthymia): a mood disorder characterized by a chronically depressed mood. Other symptoms include feelings of guilt, hopelessness, and inadequacy; low self-esteem; fatigue; indecisiveness; and an inability to enjoy pleasurable activities.

    efficacy: practices that have demonstrated efficacy are those that have been supported by research findings. Contrast with effectiveness, which describes practices supported by compelling, replicated research findings that have a great deal of support within a profession. Researchers are generally very measured in their pronouncement that a practice is effective.

    emotional abuse: in simplest terms, the regular denigration of a child in a manner that can disrupt normal development.

    emotional disorders: a disability group recognized by federal law that indicates the presence of specific emotional problems in children that interfere with academic performance.

    empirical: based on practical research findings rather than theory.

    explanatory fictions: accounts that appear to explain the behavior of concern but in reality explain nothing. For example, “Jack continues to hit other children because he is aggressive” (see folk psychology).

    externalizing disorder: psychosocial problems in which behaviors are directed outward, often toward other people, frequently to a degree that impairs social relationships with other people.

    Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA): commonly referred to as the Buckley Amendment, this law was designed to protect the confidentiality of information regarding families and their children.

    folk psychology: a “commonsense” approach expressed in ordinary talk about putatively causal psychological phenomena. Folk psychology looks at the form but not the function of the behavior (see explanatory fictions).

    functional behavior assessment (FBA): assessment procedures that use interviews, paper-and-pencil measures, and direct observation to identify the function of a target behavior.

    gateway providers: service providers who are often the first legitimate contact for those in need. Our supposition is that educators often serve as the first professionals to confront mental health needs in children.

    gender dysphoria: a persistent discomfort with one's gender identity or a sense of inappro-priateness in the gender role of that sex.

    gender identity: the psychological sense of being male or female.

    Gender Identity Disorder: a mental disorder, outlined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR), characterized by both a strong and persistent desire to be or insistence that one is the other sex and a persistent discomfort about one's assigned sex or a sense of inappropriateness in the gender role of that sex.

    gender role: the public image of being male or female that a person presents to others, including the ways males and females are expected to behave within their society.

    grooming: the behavioral progression by a sexual perpetrator from less intrusive to more intrusive behaviors. Through a methodical progression, the perpetrator tests the victim's readiness and trust of him or her.

    hyperfocus: completely focus on some activity, sometimes prompted by a crisis or approaching deadline.

    hypersomnia: a change in sleep patterns characterized by prolonged sleep or excessive daytime drowsiness.

    incidence: rate of new cases of a given disorder occurring during a specific time period (usually 1 year).

    inclusion: to allow people into a group; in a school setting, inclusion involves educating all children in general classrooms to the maximum extent possible.

    insidious onset: occurs when symptoms of an illness manifest themselves so gradually that it is difficult to pinpoint the exact beginning of the illness.

    internalizing disorder: psychosocial problems that occur “within the self.” Examples of internalizing disorders would include depression and anxiety. Historically, internalizing disorders have been referred to by other names, such as “neuroses.”

    interpersonal space: the amount of space an individual allows between himself or herself and another person for a friendly or intimate conversation. Cultural differences and relationships dictate how close people get to each other when communicating.

    intersexuals: persons having both male and female characteristics, including in varying degrees reproductive organs, secondary sexual characteristics, and sexual behavior. Also included are persons who have ambiguous sex characteristics resulting from hormone abnormalities or atypical genital formation during fetal development.

    juvenile delinquency: criminal behavior committed by a juvenile. It should be noted that some behaviors, called status offenses, are criminal acts for a juvenile but not for an adult. Examples of status offenses include being ungovernable (disobedient to caregivers) and truancy.

    learning disability: any of a variety of disorders that result in a marked discrepancy between overall functioning and one or more specific cognitive domains, such as reading and math.

    Major Depressive Disorder: a mood disorder characterized by depressed mood; feelings of guilt, hopelessness, and worthlessness; fatigue; loss of interest in pleasurable activities; changes in appetite or sleep patterns; and thoughts of death or suicide.

    mania: a mood disturbance characterized by hyperactivity, agitation, rapid and confused thinking and speaking, excessive elation, and inflated self-esteem. Generally seen as a component of Bipolar Disorder.

    mastery learning: teaching approaches based on the idea that all children can learn when provided with the appropriate learning conditions in the classroom.

    mental health problem: loosely defined, any emotional problem severe enough to result in a reduction in school, social, or academic performance. In this book, the term may be used interchangeably with the terms mental disorder, psychiatric disorder, psychopathology, and mental illness.

    mixed state: occurs when the criteria for both a manic episode and Major Depressive Disorder (except duration) are met nearly every day for at least 1 week.

    About the Editor

    Raymond J. Waller is the Coordinator of the Graduate Program in Emotional and Behavior Disorders at Piedmont College and is on the faculty of the School of Social Work at the University of Georgia. He has been an advocate for children and the promotion of children's mental health for years and has worked in support of this cause in a number of settings. He has been a teacher of special education and taught students with a variety of disabilities and mental health needs. He has been an administrator in a psychoeducational facility serving students with severe behavioral problems and has worked with children with mental health needs in the public mental health system, the juvenile justice system, Head Start, foster care, and the school system.

    About the Contributors

    Dawn Anderson-Butcher, MSW, PhD, is Associate Professor in the College of Social Work at Ohio State University (OSU). Her primary research interests include school-family-community partnerships, youth development, after-school programming, and interprofessional collaboration. She is the lead principal investigator for the Ohio Department of Education's Ohio Community Collaboration Model for School Improvement project, an expanded school improvement model focused on addressing nonacademic barriers to learning through school-family-community partnerships. She oversees the College of Social Work's school social work licensure program and is actively involved in the OSU P-12 Project. Her work is published in key journals such as Social Work, Children & Schools, Social Work in Education, and Journal of Community Psychology. She also is a member of the Society for Social Work Research, the National Association of Social Workers, and the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. She received her BA, BS, and MS degrees from Miami University and her MSW and PhD from the University of Utah.

    Diane J. Bresson is a second-grade teacher at J. H. House Elementary School in Conyers, Georgia. She is currently obtaining her graduate degree in elementary education from Piedmont College and will graduate in May of 2006.

    Jeffrey P. Douglass has 32 years experience in mental retardation/developmental disabilities services with the state of Georgia. He has been a CARF (Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities) surveyor since 1998, evaluating mental health and mental retardation facilities for compliance with accreditation standards. In addition, he has served as an emergency services team clinician doing crisis mental health assessment and disposition for more than 10 years. He received a BS in sociology from Georgia College in 1973 and an MSA from Georgia College in 1981.

    Daniel J. Fischer, MSW, is Clinical Assistant Professor and Associate Director of the Pediatric Anxiety and Tic Disorders Program at the University of Michigan, Department of Psychiatry, Child/Adolescent Section. An active clinician, teacher, and researcher in the area of anxiety disorders and cognitive-behavioral therapies, he is also the Chief of Social Work in Psychiatry and Director of Graduate Education at the University of Michigan Health Systems Department of Social Work and an Adjunct Lecturer at the University of Michigan School of Social Work. He completed his MSW at the University of Michigan in 1984.

    Denise M. Green, LCSW, PhD, teaches and conducts research at the School of Social Work at the University of Georgia. For the past 20 years, she has maintained a focus on the effects of mental illness on individuals, their families, and the systems that serve them. She is particularly interested in the outcomes of programs that serve disabled individuals. She obtained her master's in social work at UNC Chapel Hill and her doctorate at the University of Georgia, Athens.

    Sarah Hamel is currently a graduate student in the School of Education at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. She is pursuing an MEd in school psychology. She is also a research assistant at the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute. Her professional interests include prereferral intervention teams, crisis intervention, and curriculum-based assessment. After graduating, she hopes to work as a school psychologist in a public school district. She received her BA in psychology and educational studies from Denison University.

    Eric Hardiman is Assistant Professor of Social Welfare at the State University of New York, Albany. He conducts research with a focus on mental health service delivery and use for adults facing psychiatric disabilities. His primary areas of scholarly focus are peer support and mutual aid, consumer and peer-provided services, homelessness and housing, and psychiatric recovery. He has also conducted research in the delivery of peer-provided mental health services following large-scale mass disasters such as the September 11, 2001, World Trade Center attack and the December 2004 tsunami in Indonesia. His current research continues to focus on peer support, the consumer-delivered mental health services, psychiatric recovery, supportive housing models for homeless individuals, and collaboration between consumer-run and traditional provider-based organizations. He teaches courses in social work practice methods, the evaluation of clinical practice, and advanced social work practice in mental health settings.

    Joseph A. Himle, PhD, is Assistant Professor at the University of Michigan School of Social Work and Department of Psychiatry. An active clinician, teacher, and researcher in the area of anxiety disorders, he is also Associate Director of the Anxiety Disorders Program at the University of Michigan Department of Psychiatry. He completed his doctorate in social work and psychology at the University of Michigan in August of 1995.

    Miriam Johnson is currently completing her master of arts in teaching from Piedmont College in special education. She is employed in the Department of Special Education at Piedmont College and gives private lessons in piano. She received a BA in psychology and German from Guilford College in 2001.

    Michael Kelly is a doctoral student in social work at the University of Illinois-Chicago. He also teaches in the Family & School Partnerships Program at the University of Chicago's Center for Family Health and is a school social worker in Oak Park's District 97, where he has instituted numerous counseling and community-building projects, including a service project for New York Disaster Relief that was featured in Time magazine. He received his BA in social science at the University of Michigan and his MSW at the Jane Addams College of Social Work at the University of Illinois at Chicago.

    Steve Knotek is Assistant Professor in the Human Development and Professional Studies Department in the School of Education at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He has been a practicing school psychologist and therapist specializing in crisis intervention and therapy for students with mood and anxiety disorders. His research focus is on the use of consultation to enhance the ability of teachers and administrators to respond to students’ mental health needs in school settings.

    S. Thomas Kordinak, PhD, is Professor of Psychology at Sam Houston State University, in Huntsville, Texas. He is a licensed psychologist and health service provider by the Texas State Board of Examiners of Psychologists, and is licensed by the Texas Board of Examiners of Marriage and Family Therapists. He is also certified by the Council of the National Register of Health Service Providers in psychology and as a family life educator by the National Council on Family Relations. He has a teaching and research interest in families, family dynamics, divorce and divorce adjustment, as well as behavioral therapy. His practice has focused on these areas.

    Hal A. Lawson is Professor of Social Welfare and Professor of Educational Administration and Policy Studies at the University at Albany, State University of New York. He served previously on the faculties of the University of Washington, the University of British Columbia, Miami University, and the University of Utah. School-family-community-higher education partnerships make up his primary specialty. Over the past 35 years, he has focused on the most vulnerable schools, families, and neighborhood communities. He is a noted international expert in various forms of collaboration and in interprofessional education and training aimed at preparing people to collaborate. His extensive experience includes work in several nations and has resulted in books, monographs, and journal articles; consultations with schools, universities, community organizations, and state agencies; and grants from governments and charitable foundations. Beginning in 1992, his work encompassed public child welfare agencies, their relationships with other service systems, and workforce recruitment, retention, and optimization for public child welfare systems. He has degrees from Oberlin College and the University of Michigan.

    Michelle Van Etten Lee is Training Director for the Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Program at the University of Michigan Psychological Clinic and Adjunct Assistant Professor of Psychology and Psychiatry at the University of Michigan. An active clinician, teacher, and researcher in the area of anxiety disorders, she completed her doctorate in clinical psychology at the University of Vermont in 1996, and completed postdoctoral fellowships at Johns Hopkins University and the University of Michigan Anxiety Disorders Program.

    Robert L. Miller, Jr., LMSW, MPhil, PhD, is a social work researcher and Professor at the State University of New York, Albany. He explores the intersection of spirituality, social welfare, and public health. He has examined spirituality in the lives of African Americans affected by AIDS, decision-making processes of African American clergy in HIV prevention efforts within their congregations, coping strategies for African American women over 50 living with AIDS, and community health collaborations between federally qualified health centers and urban churches.

    Jordana R. Muroff, MSW, PhD, is a postdoctoral fellow at the VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System Center for Practice Management and Outcomes Research and the University of Michigan Center for Behavioral and Decision Sciences in Medicine. Her practice experience, teaching, and research are in the areas of mental health assessment and cognitive behavioral interventions with a particular focus on anxiety disorders, and the influence of culture on clinical decision making. She completed her doctorate in social work and psychology at the University of Michigan, Fall 2004.

    Laura L. Myers, PhD, MSW, is Assistant Professor for the Division of Social Work at Thomas University in Thomasville, Georgia. Her main research interests include human diversity and social discrimination, eating disorders and healthy eating habits, and child foster care and adoption. She has written several articles and chapters on eating disorders and is currently concerned with discrimination issues involving obesity and the increase in obesity and eating disorders among children and young adolescents. She lives in Tallahassee, Florida, with her husband, Dr. Bruce Thyer, and their four children.

    W. Sean Newsome, PhD, is Assistant Professor at Miami (Ohio) University and teaches social welfare and its impact on diverse groups and social work practice. His current research interests include the use of solution focused brief therapy (SFBT) with at-risk K-12 populations, risk and protective factors associated with school truancy, bullying behavior and school violence, and the impact of grandparents raising grandchildren in K-12 settings. Before pursuing his doctorate in social work, he practiced as a treatment coordinator for Boysville of Michigan and as a school social worker in Birmingham, Michigan. He received his doctorate in social work from Ohio State University.

    Ramona M. Noland, PhD, is a licensed psychologist and licensed specialist in school psychology, with 9 years of experience working as a psychologist and consultant for both school personnel and parents. She is also Assistant Professor in the Department of Psychology and Philosophy at Sam Houston State University, where she teaches courses in Human Sexuality, Psychological Assessment, and School Consultation. Her current research interests include various topics related to sexuality and behavior, assessment of autism spectrum disorders, and the provision of psychological services in the school setting.

    Julie Sarno Owens, PhD, is Assistant Professor of Psychology in the Department of Psychology at Ohio University. She works collaboratively with community agencies and elementary schools in the design and implementation of school-based mental health programming for elementary school children and is the director of the Youth Experiencing Success in School (Y.E.S.S.) Program (http://www.yessprogram.com). Her applied research examines the effectiveness of school-based mental health programming that incorporates evidence-based services and the extent to which such services can be disseminated through university-community partnerships. Her laboratory-based research examines self-perceptions and attributions in children with ADHD. Her work can be found in journals such as Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Journal of Attention Disorders, and Journal of Clinical Child Psychology. She obtained a PhD in clinical psychology from Purdue University in 2001.

    Julie Roberts Palmour, PhD, is Associate Professor of Education at Piedmont College in Demorest, Georgia, teaching in the graduate education program offering the EdS degree in Curriculum and Instruction. Her background includes work in the field of marriage and family therapy and drug and alcohol rehabilitation. Early teaching responsibilities included work with mild and moderate special needs children in Grades K-12 and regular classroom teaching at the pre-K and elementary levels. Her administrative responsibilities have included supervision of district special needs early childhood programs and administration of a K-5 private school. She has received specialized training and is well versed in the reporting and prevention of child abuse. In addition to her current faculty responsibilities, she is a course author for an established e-learning service company, writing courses for a variety of educational topics. She received a BS from Georgia State University, an MS from Butler University, and a PhD from Bowling Green State University.

    Kevin P. Quinn, EdD, is Associate Professor of Special Education in the School of Education at the State University of New York (SUNY), Albany. He has extensive experience working with children and youths with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBDs) including teaching at and administering Rose School, an award-winning interagency, alternative school for children and youths with EBDs living in Washington, D.C. Also, as a project manager and research associate at a nationally recognized research institute, he implemented several federally funded projects to develop and examine various interventions for children and youths with EBDs and their families. He continues to collaborate with several schools and communities in developing and evaluating interventions for children and youths with EBDs and has had his research in this area published in major professional journals.

    Lauren Richerson is a doctoral student in the Department of Psychology at Ohio University. She has worked as a clinician in the Youth Experiencing Success in Schools (Y.E.S.S.) Program, a school-based mental health program for children with disruptive behavior problems, for over 2 years. She also has worked with a number of children referred for mental health treatment at the university's psychological clinic. Her research interests include the study of factors associated with children's outcomes in the context of school-based interventions as well as factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of children's conduct problems. She obtained an MS in clinical psychology from Ohio University in 2004.

    Rachel Schoolman, a school psychology student in the School of Education at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, is currently doing her school psychology internship with Stafford County Schools in Virginia. Her interests lie in the areas of early intervention and prevention in school systems. In addition, her research focuses on the application and utility of positive behavior support. She earned her BA in psychology from the State University of New York College at Geneseo.

    Michelle Madden Schramm is currently obtaining a master's degree in emotional and behavior disorders from Piedmont College in Athens, Georgia. After graduating from Auburn University with a BA in 1990, she pursued a career path working with children of all ages and is currently working with high school students with emotional disabilities. In addition to working with children, she and her husband, Mark, enjoy spending time with their three young boys.

    Natalie Siegel is currently a doctoral student in the school psychology program at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Her research interests are in student victimization and bullying, peer relationships, PTSD, and anxiety. After graduation, Natalie hopes to practice as a school psychologist in a school or clinical setting and conduct research. Originally from Philadelphia, she graduated from Temple University with a BA in psychology and a minor in anthropology.

    Amy C. Traylor, MSW, is working toward a doctorate in social work at the University of Georgia. Her clinical experience includes work with severely emotionally disturbed children in Southeast Wyoming Mental Health Center's treatment foster care program in Cheyenne, Wyoming, and at Southwest Education Center in Phoenix, Arizona. She received her master's in social work from the University of Alabama.

    Jerome D. Ulman is Professor of Special Education at Ball State University, where he has taught courses in the areas of applied behavior analysis and behavior disorders since 1974. He received bachelor's and master's degrees in psychology from the University of South Florida in 1965 and 1968 and a doctoral degree in educational psychology from Southern Illinois University in 1972. Before joining the Ball State faculty, he was employed as a school psychologist in Florida, a research scientist at Choate Mental Health and Development Center in Illinois, and a behavioral consultant in Indianapolis, Indiana. His research interests include behavioral research methodology, behaviorological technology in special education, the operant analysis of verbal behavior, and the sociocultural implications of behaviorology. He serves on the editorial board of Behavior and Social Issues and is the current secretary-treasurer of the International Society for Behaviorology.

    Susan Mortweet VanScoyoc, PhD, ABPP, is Associate Professor of Pediatrics at the University of Missouri at Kansas City School of Medicine. She is also a staff psychologist at the Children's Mercy Hospitals and Clinics in Kansas City. In her role as staff psychologist, she serves children with behavioral and emotional disorders. She also is the primary psychologist for children with diabetes and other endocrine disorders. Her publications have been in the areas of parenting and empirically supported treatments for children. She received her PhD in developmental and child psychology from the University of Kansas and is also board certified in behavioral psychology.

    M. Elizabeth Vonk is Associate Professor and the Director of the Doctoral Program at the School of Social Work, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia. She teaches advanced-practice classes in the MSW program. Her research interests include social work practice evaluation, treatment of depression and trauma, and parent education for transracial adoptive parents. She has published numerous articles and book chapters in these areas. Prior to receiving her doctoral degree, she practiced clinical social work with children, adolescents, and young adults in a variety of settings. She completed her MSW degree in 1980 from Florida State University and her doctoral degree in social work in 1996 from the University of Georgia.

    Katherine S. Waller, MEd, is an instructor of Education at Piedmont College and a veteran schoolteacher. She began her work in general education, but her focus changed to special education early in her career. She has taught children across many disability areas and with many mental health needs. She regularly volunteers her time to community agencies and activities that foster the positive mental health needs of children.

    Thomas A. Wood, BS, MEd, EdD, is Professor of Psychology and Education at Sam Houston State University (SHSU) in Huntsville, Texas. He also served as Dean of the College of Education and Applied Science at SHSU. Prior to his current position, he served as Department Chair and Associate Dean at the University of Texas at El Paso. He also has held faculty positions at Auburn University and Murray State University. He has been interested in families of children with disabilities or chronic illness for much of his career and has worked in clinical settings and conducted research. He has held leadership positions in organizations at the local, state, and national levels and is the author or coauthor of numerous grants and referreed articles. He received his doctor of education degree from George Peabody College of Vanderbilt University in special education and school psychology and completed a postdoctoral fellowship in pediatric psychology at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston, Texas.

    Nina Yssel, PhD, is Associate Professor in the Department of Special Education at Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana, where she teaches undergraduate and graduate classes in high-incidence disabilities. She also serves on the editorial board of Behavior and Social Issues and is the current secretary-treasurer of the International Society for Behaviorology. Her research interests have included students with disabilities in higher education, paraprofessionals in special education, and professional development schools. Currently, she focuses on exceptional children and serves as director of a residential summer camp for learning disabled and gifted middle school students. Born and raised in South Africa, she values international collaboration in research and teaching. She received her bachelor's and master's degrees in psychology from the University of South Florida in 1965 and 1968 and her doctorate in educational psychology from Southern Illinois University in 1972.


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