Focus Group Interviews in Education and Psychology

Books

Sharon Vaughn, Jeanne Shay Schumm & Jane Sinagub

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    List of Tables

    • TABLE 1.1: Procedures for Focus Groups as Provided in the Original Descriptive Article 4
    • TABLE 1.2: Assumptions Underlying the Focus Group Interview 7
    • TABLE 3.1: Sample Research Questions in Education Addressed Through Focus Groups 34
    • TABLE 3.2: Sample Research Questions in Psychology Addressed Through Focus Groups 34
    • TABLE 4.1: Overview of the Sections in the Moderator's Guide 43
    • TABLE 4.2: Questions to Address Prior to Implementing a Focus Group Interview 49
    • TABLE 4.3: Location and Facility Considerations Prior to Focus Group Interview 53
    • TABLE 5.1: Pitfalls and Suggestions for Recruiting Subjects From School and Clinical Settings 66
    • TABLE 5.2: Sample Dialogue for Recruiting Participants for Focus Group Interviews 67
    • TABLE 5.3: Sample Follow-Up Letter for Recruiting Participants for Focus Group Interviews 68
    • TABLE 5.4: Sample Permission Form 70
    • TABLE 5.5: Guidelines for Encouraging Attendance and Participant Preparation 73
    • TABLE 6.1: Contents for the Moderator's Opening Remarks 80
    • TABLE 6.2: Excerpts From a Focus Group Interview 86
    • TABLE 6.3: Moderator Characteristics/Skills 88
    • TABLE 6.4: Questions to Ask of a Prospective Moderator 89
    • TABLE 6.5: Moderator Pitfalls 91
    • TABLE 6.6: Possible Responsibilities of a Moderator Aide 93
    • TABLE 7.1: An Example of Subject Description Based on Multiple Focus Group Interviews 100
    • TABLE 7.2: Pointers for Analyzing Focus Group Interview Data 111
    • TABLE 7.3 Software Program Characteristics 115
    • TABLE 7.4: Names, Addresses, and Numbers for The Software Distributors From TABLE 7.3 116–117
    • TABLE 8.1: Checklist for Focus Group Interviews 126
    • TABLE 9.1: Sample Research Questions for Child and Adolescent Participants 130
    • TABLE 9.2: A Sample Moderator's Guide for a Focus Group With Child Participants 136–137
    • TABLE 9.3: Sample Informed Consent Form for Children 141
    • TABLE 10.1: Questions Inappropriate for Investigations Using Focus Group Interviews as the Sole Research Method 147
    • TABLE 10.2: Potential Budget Items for Focus Groups 149
  • References

    Antonucci, F. J. (1989). Maine state plan: Assuring access to education for homeless children and youths (Report No. UD-027-667). Augusta, MA: Office of Education of Homeless Children and Youth. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 326 591)
    A step-by-step way to conduct worthwhile focus groups. (1978). Training, 15(12), 50, 55.
    Baca, P. (1989). Focusing on re: learning (Report No. EA-021-909). Denver, CO: Education Commission of the States. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 320 256)
    Baker, P. N. (1985). Focus group interviewing: The real constituency. Journal of Data Collection, 25(2), 14–23.
    Basch, C. E. (1987). Focus group interview: An underutilized research technique for improving theory and practice in health education. Health Education Quarterly, 14(4), 411–448. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019818701400404
    Bauman, L. J., & Adair, E. G. (1992). The use of ethnographic interviewing to inform questionnaire construction. Health Education Quarterly, 19(1), 9–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819201900102
    Beck, L. C., Trombetta, W. L., & Share, S. (1986). Using focus group sessions before decisions are made. North Carolina Medical Journal, 47(2), 73–74.
    Bellenger, D. N., Bernhardt, K. L., & Goldstucker, J. L. (1976). Qualitative research techniques: Focus group interviews. In J. B. Higginbotham & K. K. Cox (Eds.), Focus group interviews: A reader (pp. 13–28). Chicago: American Marketing Association.
    Bennett, A. (1986, June 3). Once a tool of retail marketers, focus groups gain wider usage. Wall Street Journal, p. 31.
    Bers, T. H. (1987). Exploring institutional images through focus group interviews. New Directions for Institutional Research, No. 54 (Designing and Using Marketing Research), 14(2), 19–29.
    Bers, T. H. (1989). The popularity and problems of focus-group research. College and University, 64, 260–268.
    Bertrand, J. T., Brown, J. E., & Ward, V. M. (1992). Techniques for analyzing focus group data. Evaluation Review, 16, 198–209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0193841X9201600206
    Bertrand, J. T., Ward, V. M., & Pauc, F. (1992). Sexual practices among the Quiche-speaking Mayan population of Guatemala. International Quarterly of Community Health Education, 12, 265–282. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/FJH0-H8TN-YWF5-4557
    Birnie, B. F. (1988). Profiles and practices: An investigation of senior high school English teachers selected as Teacher of the Year in Dade County, Florida, 1983–1988. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Miami.
    Black, G. S. (1989). The lack of confidence in public education in Wisconsin (Report No. UD-027-233). Milwaukee: Wisconsin Policy Research Institution. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 315 472)
    Bloch, D. P. (1992). The application of group interviews to the planning and evaluation of career development programs. Career Development Quarterly, 40, 340–350. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-0045.1992.tb00341.x
    Bogdan, R., & Biklen, S. K. (1992). Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theory and methods (
    2nd ed.
    ). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Borg, W. R., Gall, J. P., & Gall, M. D. (1993). Applying educational research: A practical guide. White Plains, NY: Longman.
    Bortree, W. H. (1986). Focus groups reduce innovation risks. Bank Marketing, 18(11), 18–24.
    Brodigan, D. L. (1992). Focus group interviews: Applications for institutional research (Report No. HE-025-299). Carleton, MN: Carleton College, Institutional Research. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 342 325)
    Brotherson, M. J. (1994). Interactive focus group interviewing: A qualitative research method in early intervention. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 14, 101–118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/027112149401400110
    Buncher, M. M. (1982, September 17). Focus groups seem easy to do and use, but they're easier to misuse and abuse. Marketing News, pp. 14–15.
    Buttram, J. L. (1990). Focus groups: A starting point for needs assessment (Report No. EA-022-151). Philadelphia: Research for Better Schools, Inc. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 322 628)
    Buttram, J. L. (1991). Conversations on school restructuring in the mid-Atlantic region (Report No. EA-023-399). Philadelphia: Research for Better Schools, Inc. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 337 874)
    Byers, P. Y., & Wilcox, J. R. (1988). Focus groups: An alternative method of gathering qualitative data in communication research (Report No. CS-506-291). New Orleans, LA: Speech Communication Association. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 297 393)
    Byers, P. Y., & Wilcox, J. R. (1991). Focus groups: A qualitative opportunity for researchers. Journal of Business Communication, 28, 63–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002194369102800105
    Calder, B. J. (1977). Focus groups and the nature of qualitative marketing research. Journal of Marketing Research, 14, 353–364. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3150774
    Calder, B. J. (1978, October 20). Surveys' objective: To improve focus group studies. Marketing News, pp. 1, 5.
    Cannon, A. (1994, April 18). Clinton's love of polls shows he can't stop campaigning, critics say. Miami Herald, p. 4A.
    Chaubey, N. P. (1974). Effect of age on expectancy of success on risk-taking behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 249, 774–778. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0036178
    Cohen, M. C., & Engleberg, I. N. (1989). Focus group research: Procedures and pitfalls (Report No. JC-890-247). Ocean City, MD: Eastern Communication Association. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 307 001)
    Collins, C., Stommel, M., King, S., & Given, C. W. (1991). Assessment of the attitudes of family caregivers toward community services. The Gerontologist, 31(6), 756–761. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/31.6.756
    Connors, L. (1991). Building community support (Report No. PS-020-315). Boston: Massachusetts State Department of Education, Bureau of Early Childhood Programs. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 341 516)
    Cox, K. K., Higgenbotham, J. B., & Burton, J. (1976). Applications of focus group interviews in marketing. Journal of Marketing, 40, 77–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1250683
    Dellens, M. (1979). Math anxiety: What can a learning center do about it? (Report No. SE-028-640). Waikiki, HI: Western College Reading Association. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 176 963)
    Durgee, J. (1986, December). Point of view: Using creative writing techniques in focus groups. Journal of Advertising Research, 57–65.
    Dyson, J. W., Godwin, P. H. B., & Hazelwood, L. A. (1976). Group composition, leadership, orientation, and decisional outcomes. Small Group Behavior, 7, 114–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/104649647600700110
    Egbert, H. A. (1983, March). Focus groups: A basic tool to probe buyers' attitudes. Industrial Marketing, pp. 82, 84.
    Elliott, D. B. (1989). Community college faculty behaviors impacting transfer student success: A qualitative study (Report No. JC-890-172). San Francisco: American Educational Research Association. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 305 952)
    Elrod, J. M. (1981). Improving employee relations with focus groups. Business, 31 (6), 36–38.
    Erkut, S., & Fields, J. P. (1987). Focus groups to the rescue. Training and Development Journal, 4(10), 74–76.
    Fedder, C. J. (1990, January 8). Biz-to-biz focus groups require a special touch: Three factors affect research outcome. Marketing News, p. 46.
    Fern, E. F. (1982). The use of focus groups for idea generation: The effects of group size, acquaintanceship, and moderator on response quantity and quality. Journal of Marketing Research, 19, 1–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3151525
    Folch-Lyon, E., & Trost, J. F. (1981). Conducting focus group sessions. Studies in Family Planning, 12(12), 443–449. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1965656
    Fry, C. L. (1965). Personality and acquisition factors in the development of coordination strategy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2, 403–407. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0022282
    Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory strategy for qualitative research. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine.
    Glesne, C., & Peshkin, A. (1992). Becoming qualitative researchers: An introduction. White Plains, NY: Longman.
    Gold, R. S., & Kelly, M. A. (1991). Cultural sensitivity in AIDS education: A misunderstood concept. Evaluation and Program Planning, 14, 221–231. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0149-7189%2891%2990003-Y
    Goldman, A. E., & McDonald, S. S. (1987). The group depth interview: Principles and practice. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Goodman, R. I. (1984). Focus group interviews in media product testing. Educational Technology, 24(8), 39–44.
    Gordon, W. (1990, January 8). Ask the right questions, ye shall receive the right moderator. Marketing News, pp. 42, 43.
    Greenbaum, T. L. (1988). The practical handbook and guide to focus group research. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
    Greenbaum, T. L. (1991a, May 27). Answer to moderator problems starts with asking the right questions. Marketing News, pp. 8, 9.
    Greenbaum, T. L. (1991b). Outside moderators maximize focus group results. Public Relations Journal, 9(2), 31–32.
    Hammond, M. (1986). Creative focus groups: Uses and misuses. Marketing and Media Decisions, 21(8), 154, 156.
    Hamon, R. R., & Thiessen, J. D. (1990). Coping with the dissolution of an adult child's marriage (Report No. CG-023-311). Seattle, WA: National Council on Family Relations. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 330 968)
    Hanson, M. (1991). Written communication and the marketing of public schools (Report No. EA-022-942). Chicago: American Educational Research Association. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 331 180)
    Hess, J. M. (1968). Group interviewing. In R. L. King (Ed.), New science of planning (pp. 51–84). Chicago: American Marketing Association.
    Hillebrandt, I. S. (1979). Focus group research: Behind the one-way mirror. Public Relations Journal, 35(2), 17, 33.
    Hisrich, R. D., & Peters, M. P. (1982). Focus groups: An innovative marketing research technique. Hospital and Health Services Administration, 27(4), 8–21.
    Hughes, M. T., Schumm, J. S., & Vaughn, S. (1994, December). Hispanic parents' perceptions and practices with respect to home literacy instruction. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Reading Conference, San Diego, CA.
    Hyland, M. E., Finnis, S., & Irvine, S. H. (1990). A scale for assessing quality of life in adult asthma sufferers. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 35, 99–110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3999%2891%2990011-C
    Johnston, K., & Crawford, P. (1989). Student perceptions of the Role of the Reader Project (Report No. CS-009-927). Willowdale, Ontario: North York Board of Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 332 146)
    Karger, T. (1987, August 28). Focus groups are for focusing, and for little else. Marketing News, 52–55.
    Kleiner, R. E. (1991). Assessing the holding power and attractiveness of a school system for at-risk students. Longmeadow, MA: Dr. Kleiner, consulting psychologist. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 319 752)
    Krueger, R. A. (1986). Focus group interviewing: A helpful technique for agricultural educators. The Visitor, 73(7), 1–4.
    Krueger, R. A. (1988). Focus groups: A practical guide for applied research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Langer, J. (1992, January 6). 18 Ways to say “shut up!” Marketing News, pp. FG–2, FG–15.
    Lederman, L. C. (1990). Accessing educational effectiveness: The focus group interview as a technique for data collection. Communication Education, 38(2), 117–127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03634529009378794
    Lengua, L. J., Roosa, M. W., Schupak-Neuberg, E., Michaels, M. L., Berg, C. N., & Weschler, L. F. (1992). Using focus groups to guide the development of a parenting program for difficult-to-reach, high-risk families. Family Relations, 41, 163–168. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/584828
    Lewis, R. B., Kitano, M. K., & Lynch, E. W. (1992). Psychological intensities in gifted adults. Roeper Review, 15(1), 25–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02783199209553452
    Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Lindgren, J. H., & Kehoe, W. J. (1981). Focus groups: Approaches, procedures and implications. Journal of Retail Banking, 3(4), 16–22.
    Lyons, L. (1991). The integration of qualitative and quantitative research in a longitudinal retention study (Report No. HE-024-854). Jersey City, NJ: Jersey City State College, Institutional Research. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 336 034)
    Marsiglia, F. F., & Halasa, O. (1992). Ethnic identity and school achievement as perceived by a group of selected mainland Puerto Rican students (Report No. UD-028-824). San Francisco: American Educational Research Association. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 348 453)
    Mates, D., & Allison, R. (1992). Sources of stress and coping responses of high school students. Adolescence, 27(105), 461–474.
    Maxwell, J. (1992). Understanding and validity in qualitative research. Harvard Educational Review, 62(3), 279–300.
    Mays, V. M., Cochran, S. D., & Bellinger, G. (1992). The language of black gay men's sexual behavior: Implications for AIDS risk reduction. Journal of Sex Research, 29(3), 425–434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224499209551657
    McCormick, W. (1987). Delaware's report on early childhood education 1987: Findings and recommendations of the Governor's early childhood education study committee (Report No. PS-017-844). Dover: Delaware State Department of Public Instruction. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 304 239)
    McDonald, W. J., & Topper, G. E. (1988). Focus-group research with children: A structural approach. Applied Marketing Research, 28, 3–11.
    McQuarrie, E. F., & McIntyre, S. H. (1987). What focus groups can and cannot do: A reply to Seymour. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 4, 55–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1540-5885.410055
    Mehrabian, A., & Diamond, S. G. (1971). Effects of furniture arrangement, props, and personality on social interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 20, 18–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0031687
    Merton, R. K. (1987). The focused interview and focus groups: Continuities and discontinuities. Public Opinion Quarterly, 51(4), 550–556. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/269057
    Merton, R. K., & Kendall, P. L. (1946). The focused interview. American Journal of Sociology, 51, 541–557. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/219886
    Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook (
    2nd ed.
    ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Miller, W. J. (1987). Focus group study of teachers' perceptions of the instructional program for reading language arts and instruction in mathematics curricula (Report No. TM-012-031). Rockville, MD: Montgomery County Public Schools, Department of Educational Accountability. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 300 369)
    Morgan, D. L. (1988). Focus groups as qualitative research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Morgan, D. L., & Krueger, R. A. (1993). When to use focus groups and why. In D. L. Morgan (Ed.), Successful focus groups: Advancing the state of the art (pp. 3–19). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Morgan, D. L., & Spanish, M. T. (1984). Focus groups: A new tool for qualitative research. Qualitative Sociology, 7(3), 253–270. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00987314
    National Association for Independent Colleges and Universities. (1991). Thank you for asking? Using focus groups to improve minority participation (Report No. UD-028-570). Washington, DC: National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 342 862)
    Nelson, J. E., & Frontczak, N. T. (1988). How acquaintanceship and analyst can influence focus group results. Journal of Advertising, 17, 41–48.
    Nolan, M. J., & Petersen, K. K. (1992). Gender differences in parent-child communication about sexuality: An exploratory study. Journal of Adolescent Research, 7(1), 59–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/074355489271005
    Packard, F. D., & Dereshiwsky, M. I. (1990). Evaluation research: Assessment of a rural Arizona school district using a case study model for single-setting, embedded focus group interview & analysis procedures (Report No. TM-015-545). Flagstaff: Northern Arizona University, Center for Excellence in Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 324 332)
    Patterson, L., Santa, C. M., Short, K. G., & Smith, K. H. (Eds.). (1993). Teachers are researchers: Reflection and action. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
    Patton, M. Q. (1980). Qualitative evaluation methods. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation methods (
    2nd ed.
    ). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Quiriconi, R. J., & Dorgan, R. E. (1985). Respondent personalities: Insight for better focus groups. Journal of Data Collection, 25(2), 20–23.
    Redfield, D. L., & Craig, J. R. (1988). Parents and students as stakeholders in the teacher evaluation process (Report No. TM-011-425). New Orleans, LA: American Educational Research Association. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 293 859)
    Reitan, H. T., & Shaw, M. E. (1964). Group membership, sex-composition of the group, and conformity behavior. Journal of Social Psychology, 64, 45–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1964.9919541
    Reynolds, F. D., & Johnson, D. K. (1978). Validity of focus-group findings. Advertising Research, 18(3), 21–24.
    Ringo, S. A. (1992, January 6). Only a real pro has skills to be a moderator. Marketing News, pp. FG–1, FG–2.
    Rosenstein, A. J. (1976, May 21). Quantitative-yes, quantitative-applications for the focus group, or what do you mean you never heard of “multivariate focus groups?” Marketing News, p. 8.
    Ruhe, J. A. (1978, May). Effect of leader sex and leader behavior on group problem solving. Proceedings of the American Institute for Decision Sciences, 1, (Northeast Division), 123–127.
    Sapolsky, A. (1960). Effect of interpersonal relationships upon verbal conditioning. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 60, 241–246. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0041031
    Schoenfeld, G. (1988, May 23). Unfocus and learn more. Advertising Age, p. 20.
    Schumm, J. S., Leavell, A. G., Gordon, J., & Murfin, P. (1993). Literacy episodes: What we have learned from undergraduate tutors and at-risk elementary students. Florida Reading Quarterly, 29(3), 11–19.
    Schumm, J. S., & Vaughn, S. (1991). Making adaptations for mainstreamed students: General classroom teachers' perspectives. Remedial and Special Education, 12(4), 18–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/074193259101200404
    Schumm, J. S., Vaughn, S., Elbaum, B., & Moody, S. (1995, April). Teachers' perceptions of grouping practices for reading instruction. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco.
    Schumm, J. S., Vaughn, S., Haager, D., McDowell, J. A., Rothlein, L., & Saumell, L. (1995). General education teacher planning: What can students with learning disabilities expect? Exceptional Children, 61, 335–352.
    Schumm, J. S., Vaughn, S., & Leavell, A. G. (1995). Curricular planning for inclusive classrooms: Three teachers' journeys. Manuscript submitted for publication.
    Schumm, J. S., Vaughn, S., & Saumell, L. (1992). What teachers do when the textbook is tough: Students speak out. Journal of Reading Behavior, 24 (4), 481–503.
    Schuster, C. S., & Ashburn, S. S. (1992). The process of human development: A holistic approach (
    3rd ed.
    ). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott.
    Smelser, W. T. (1961). Dominance as a factor in achievement and perception in cooperative problem solving interactions. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 62, 535–542. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0049303
    Smith, K. H. (1977). Small group interaction at various ages: Simultaneous talking and interruption of others. Small Group Behavior, 8, 65–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/104649647700800104
    Spethmann, B. (1992, February 10). Focus groups key to reaching kids. Advertising Age, pp. S–1, S–24.
    Stewart, D. W., & Shamdasani, P. N. (1990). Focus groups: Theory and practice. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Strother, R. D. (1984, July 2). Voters' bias shuts door on female leaders. Minneapolis Star and Tribune, p. 9A.
    Stycos, J. M. (1981). A critique of focus group and survey research: The machismo case. Studies in Family Planning, 12 (12), 450–456. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1965657
    Vaughn, S., Klingner, J., & Schumm, J. S. (1994, March). Comprehension strategy instruction for heterogeneous classrooms. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA.
    Vaughn, S., Schumm, J. S., Jallad, B., Slusher, J., & Saumell, L. (in press). Teachers' views of inclusion. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice.
    Vaughn, S., Schumm, J. S., & Kouzekanani, K. (1993). What do students with learning disabilities think when their general education teachers make adaptations? Journal of Learning Disabilites, 26(8), 545–555. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002221949302600808
    Vaughn, S., Schumm, J. S., Niarhos, F. J., & Gordon, J. (1993). Students' perceptions of two hypothetical teachers' instructional adaptations for low achievers. Elementary School Journal, 94, 87–102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/461752
    Wells, W. D. (1974). Group interviewing. In J. B. Higginbotham & K. K. Cox (Eds.), Focus group interviews: A reader (pp. 2–12). Chicago: American Marketing Association.
    Wolf, K. P. (1991). Research design for investigating the effects of student portfolios on teaching and learning (Report No. TM-017-336). San Francisco: Far West Laboratory for Educational Research and Development. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 337 495)
    Yin, R. K. (1989). Case study research: Design and methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Yoell, W. A. (1974). How useful is focus group interviewing? Not very … post-interviews reveal. Marketing Review, 29, 15–19.
    Yuhas, P. L. (1986). Romantic marital jealousy: An exploratory analysis. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Bowling Green State University, Ohio.
    Zeller, R. A. (1986). The focus group: Sociological applications. Unpublished manuscript, Bowling Green State University, Ohio.

    Author Index

    • Adair, E. G., 26, 28
    • Allison, R., 27
    • Antonucci, F. J., 30
    • Ashburn, S. S., 132
    • Baca, P., 24
    • Baker, P. N., 2
    • Basch, C. E., 9, 27, 59, 71, 101, 151
    • Bauman, L. J., 26, 28
    • Beck, L. C., 4, 7, 8, 19, 53, 72
    • Bellenger, D. N., 2, 84
    • Bellinger, G., 24
    • Bennett, A., 69
    • Bernhardt, K. L., 2
    • Bers, T. H., 32, 72, 83, 103, 149, 150, 155
    • Bertrand, J. T., 29, 104, 107
    • Biklen, S. K., 98
    • Birnie, B. F., 86, 93
    • Black, G. S., 31
    • Bloch, D. P., 148
    • Bogdan, R., 98
    • Borg, W. R., 58
    • Bortree, W. H., 48, 64
    • Brodigan, D. L., 18, 24, 30, 101, 102
    • Brotherson, M. J., 15, 155
    • Brown, J. E., 104, 107
    • Buncher, M. M., 48
    • Burton, J., 8
    • Buttram, J. L., 30
    • Byers, P. Y., 4, 7, 14, 18, 19, 152, 154
    • Calder, B. J., 8, 20, 24, 25, 26, 27, 49, 151
    • Cannon, A., 2
    • Chaubey, N. P., 63
    • Cochran, S. D., 24
    • Cohen, M. C., 30, 74, 92
    • Collins, C., 34
    • Connors, L., 31, 34
    • Cox, K. K., 8
    • Craig, J. R., 31
    • Crawford, P., 71
    • Dellens, M., 34
    • Dereshiwsky, M. I., 20
    • Diamond, S. G., 52
    • Dorgan, R. E., 61
    • Durgee, J., 25
    • Dyson, J. W., 63
    • Egbert, H. A., 103
    • Elbaum, B., 26
    • Elliott, D. B., 30
    • Elrod, J. M., 59, 69, 71
    • Engleberg, I. N., 30, 74, 92
    • Erkut, S., 7
    • Fedder, C. J., 66
    • Fern, E. F., 64
    • Fields, J. P., 7
    • Finnis, S., 34
    • Folch-Lyon, E., 5, 9, 19, 50, 64, 105
    • Frontczak, N. T., 103, 113
    • Fry, C. L., 62
    • Gall, J. P., 58
    • Gall, M. D., 58
    • Given, C. W., 34
    • Glaser, B. G., 104
    • Glesne, C., 98
    • Godwin, P. H. B., 63
    • Gold, R. S., 30
    • Goldman, A. E., 2
    • Goldstucker, J. L., 2
    • Goodman, R. I., 8, 27, 49
    • Gordon, J., 130
    • Gordon, W., 74, 89
    • Greenbaum, T. L., 9, 87, 89
    • Guba, E. G., 104, 114
    • Haager, D., 29, 77
    • Halasa, O., 34
    • Hammond, M., 28
    • Hamon, R. R., 34
    • Hanson, M., 31
    • Hazelwood, L. A., 63
    • Hess, J. M., 14
    • Higgenbotham, J. B., 8
    • Hillebrandt, I. S., 19, 20
    • Hisrich, R. D., 19, 24, 27
    • Huberman, A. M., 114, 115
    • Hughes, M. T., 16
    • Hyland, M. E., 34
    • Irvine, S. H., 34
    • Jallad, B., 33, 100
    • Johnson, D. K., 98
    • Johnston, K., 71
    • Karger, T., 20, 101
    • Kehoe, W. J., 25
    • Kelly, M. A., 30
    • Kendall, P. L., 4, 6
    • King, S., 34
    • Kitano, M. K., 112
    • Kleiner, R. E., 128
    • Klingner, J., 28
    • Kouzekanani, K., 130
    • Krueger, R. A., 2, 4, 9, 20, 30, 72, 102, 105
    • Langer, J., 84
    • Leavell, A. G., 31, 130
    • Lederman, L. C., 7, 17, 19, 64, 104
    • Lengua, L. J., 34, 62
    • Lewis, R. B., 112
    • Lincoln, Y. S., 104, 114
    • Lindgren, J. H., 25
    • Lynch, E. W., 112
    • Lyons, L., 49, 69
    • Marsigila, F. F., 34
    • Mates, D., 27
    • Maxwell, J., 98
    • Mays, V. M., 24
    • McCormick, W., 30
    • McDonald, S. S., 2
    • McDonald, W. J., 131, 138
    • McIntyre, S. H., 49, 146, 152, 154
    • McQuarrie, E. F., 49, 146, 152, 154
    • Mehrabian, A., 52
    • Merton, R. K., 3, 4, 6
    • Miles, M. B., 114, 115
    • Miller, W. J., 30
    • Moody, S., 26
    • Morgan, D. L., 2, 15, 18, 27, 96, 152
    • Murfin, P., 130
    • National Association for Independent Colleges and Universities, 81
    • Nelson, J. E., 103, 113
    • Niarhos, F. J., 130
    • Nolan, M. J., 34
    • Packard, F. D., 20
    • Patterson, L., 32
    • Patton, M. Q., 59, 98
    • Pauc, F., 29
    • Peshkin, A., 98
    • Peters, M. P., 19, 24, 27
    • Petersen, K. K., 34
    • Quiriconi, R. J., 61
    • Redfield, D. L., 31
    • Reitan, H. T., 63
    • Reynolds, F. D., 98
    • Ringo, S. A., 74
    • Rosenstein, A. J., 27
    • Ruhe, J. A., 63
    • Santa, C. M., 32
    • Sapolsky, A., 62
    • Saumell, L., 33, 130
    • Schoenfeld, G., 19
    • Schumm, J. S., 16, 26, 28, 29, 31, 33, 34, 77, 100, 130
    • Schuster, C. S., 132
    • Shamdasani, P. N., 10, 53, 146
    • Share, S., 4
    • Shaw, M. E., 63
    • Short, K. G., 32
    • Slusher, J., 33
    • Smelser, W. T., 62
    • Smith, K. H., 32, 63
    • Spanish, M. T., 15, 18, 27, 152
    • Spethmann, B., 132, 133, 135
    • Stewart, D. W., 10, 53, 146
    • Stommel, M., 34
    • Strauss, A. L., 104
    • Strother, R. D., 17
    • Stycos, J. M., 2, 27
    • Thiessen, J. D., 34
    • Topper, G. E., 131, 138
    • Trombetta, W. L., 4
    • Trost, J. F., 5, 9, 19, 50, 64, 105
    • Vaughn, S., 16, 26, 28, 29, 31, 33, 34, 77, 100, 130
    • Ward, V. M., 29, 104
    • Wells, W. D., 16, 50, 83, 144
    • Wilcox, J. R., 4, 7, 14, 18, 19, 152, 154
    • Wolf, K. P., 34
    • Yin, R. K., 60, 98, 113
    • Yoell, W. A., 50
    • Yuhas, P. L., 27, 28
    • Zeller, R. A., 18

    About the Authors

    Sharon Vaughn is a Professor in the Department of Teaching and Learning and the Department of Psychology at the University of Miami. Her primary research interests are social functioning of youngsters with learning disabilities and teachers' adaptations for students with learning disabilities. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Arizona.

    Jeanne Shay Schumm is an Associate Professor in the Department of Teaching and Learning at the University of Miami. Her primary research interests include general education teachers' planning and adaptations for reading instruction for students with learning disabilities. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Miami.

    Jane M. Sinagub, M.S.Ed., is a doctoral student in counseling psychology at the University of Miami. She serves as a research assistant in the School of Education Office of School-Based Research. Her interest is in human development and specifically the impact societal influences have on the maturation of females and males. Her research areas include methods for enhancing self-concept in school and obstacles to female participation in elementary and secondary classrooms.


    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website