Feminist Perspectives on Family Care: Policies for Gender Justice

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Nancy R. Hooyman & Judith Gonyea

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  • Part I: The Changing Societal Context for Caregiving

    Part II: The Context, Extent, and Nature of Caregiving for Dependents

    Part III: A Feminist Critique of Current Policies and Programs

    Part IV: Toward a Feminist Agenda for Family Caregivers

  • Family Caregiver Applications Series

    Series Editors

    David E. Biegei, Case Western Reserve University

    Richard Schulz, University of Pittsburgh

    Advisory Board Members

    • Oscar A. Barbarin, Ph.D. University of Michigan
    • Delores Gallagher-Thompson, Ph.D. Stanford University
    • Barbara Given, R.N., Ph.D. Michigan State University
    • Lisa Gwyther, M.S.W. Duke University
    • Agnes B. Hatfield, Ph.D. University of Maryland
    • Eva Kahana, Ph.D. Case Western Reserve University
    • Barry Lebowitz, Ph.D. National Institute of Mental Health
    • William R. McFarlane, M.D. New York State Psychiatric Institute
    • Spero M. Manson, Ph.D. University of Colorado
    • Rhonda Montgomery, Ph.D. Wayne State University
    • Linda S. Noelker, Ph.D. The Benjamin Rose Institute
    • Peter V. Rabins, M.D. Johns Hopkins University
    • Esther Sales, Ph.D. University of Pittsburgh
    • May L. Wykle, Ph.D., FAAN Case Western Reserve University

    Volumes in This Series:

    • Family Caregiving in Chronic Illness: Alzheimer's Disease, Cancer, Heart Disease, Mental Illness, and Stroke

      David E. Biegei, Esther Sales, and Richard Schulz

    • Grandmothers as Caregivers: Raising Children of the Crack Cocaine Epidemic

      Meredith Minkler and Kathleen M. Roe

    • Balancing Work and Caregiving for Children, Adults, and Elders

      Margaret B. Neal, Nancy J. Chapman, Berit Ingersoll-Dayton, and Arthur C. Emlen

    • Family Caregiving Across the Lifespan

      edited by Eva Kahana, David E. Biegei, and May L. Wykle

    • Family Caregiving in an Aging Society: Policy Perspectives

      edited by Rosalie A. Kane and Joan D. Penrod

    • Feminist Perspectives on Family Care: Policies for Gender Justice

      Nancy R. Hooyman and Judith Gonyea

    Copyright

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    Dedication

    To Naomi Ruth Gottlieb 1925–1995

    Pioneer on Women's Issues and Feminist Practice

    Series Editor's Foreword

    Caregiving has traditionally been defined as women's work, but should it be? And, what are the consequences of this value stance on social policy? These are the provocative questions posed by the authors of this volume.

    It is well-established that most caregiving to family members with chronic illness, about 75%, is provided by women. Yet, equally important, the nature of care varies by gender. Women perform more direct, hands-on care, while men provide more care management. Not surprisingly, women are more likely than men to express feeling burdened by their care responsibilities.

    In many cases, women are simultaneously providing care to more than one dependent family member. Women care for their children, for their husbands, for their parents, and even for their parents-in-law. Men typically take on the caregiving role only when there is no woman to relieve them of this responsibility. For doing this task, men often receive considerable praise for providing “extraordinary service,” while women's caregiving work is rarely lauded because it is considered a normative role for them.

    What are the implications for social policy of defining caregiving as a woman's role? Nancy Hooyman and Judith Gonyea offer a feminist critique of existing public policy in caregiving, arguing that current policies are unfair and oppressive to women and that substantial changes are needed to help eliminate gender-based inequities in this area. In the authors' view, caregiving is work and should be so recognized and rewarded through public policy.

    Although there have been other feminist critiques of caregiving, this volume is unique in its comprehensiveness and scope. Caregiving is discussed from a broad perspective with a focus on analyses across three dependent adult populations—persons with developmental disabilities, mental illness, and the frail elderly. This broad perspective makes clear that caregiving is not restricted to any one chronological age, but rather occurs across the life span. The authors make a significant contribution with their rich discussion of the feminist perspective, and the importance of bringing this framework to the analysis of caregiving. They place caregiving in the context of broad societal changes—in family roles and lifestyles, in the economy and the workplace, and in health and long-term care. Also offered is an extensive review of the literature on the nature, extent, and consequences of caregiving.

    The authors not only critique existing policies, but also present a number of thoughtful, provocative recommendations for comprehensive changes in both private and public domains, including health and long-term care policy, workplace supports, and in the provision of economic and social supports for caregivers.

    The recommendations offered by Hooyman and Gonyea affect not only women but society as a whole. At a time of government retrenchment in human services, they are sure to engender considerable discussion and debate. The authors have done a great service by bringing this issue to the fore.

    DavidE.Biegei
    RichardSchulz

    Acknowledgments

    This book grew out of our personal and professional experiences as feminists who have worked in a variety of ways with women caring for persons with chronic disabilities. We have learned from their strengths as well as the burdens that they have faced. Their voices motivated us to seek to bring a feminist perspective to the public and corporate policies that intimately affect their lives and to propose alternative policies for gender justice.

    We wish to extend our appreciation to:

    David Biegei and Richard Schulz, Series Co-Editors, who encouraged us to articulate our feminist perspective on family care issues and patiently waited for the final version.

    The Dean's office staff at the University of Washington, School of Social Work—Valerie Higgins, Christa Wells, E. Asantewa DeFreitas—for their ongoing support along with their tireless, behind-the-scenes assistance with production details. Special thanks to Valerie Higgins for her word processing skills, her humor, and her encouragement through the endless revisions; and to Fred Cox, our “retired” volunteer who shared his years of wisdom and experience as an author and assisted with tracking down the inevitable missing references.

    To Naomi Gottlieb, colleague and friend, who was killed in a tram accident in Prague, The Czech Republic, May 1995. Naomi provided insightful feedback on the first draft; validated the importance of the work—even when we questioned whether we would ever finish it; and assited with the care of Gnanamani (Mani) Hooyman, who came from a crowded orphanage in India to join our busy family shortly before the book was due.

    To Gary Gonyea, who shared in the many months of the book's creation, Judith's thanks and love for his good-humored encouragement and constant support. And to Gene, Kevin, Christopher, and Mani Hooyman, who patiently lived with Nancy's preoccupation and long absences during the final stages of completing the book.

    To all those whose lives were touched by our hectic schedules in completing this book, our thanks.

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    Name Index

    About the Authors

    Nancy R. Hooyman is Professor and Dean at the University of Washington School of Social Work in Seattle. She holds a BA from Denison University in Ohio, an MA in Sociology from the University of Pennsylvania, and an MSW and PhD in Sociology and Social Work from the University of Michigan. Nationally recognized for her scholarship related to aging, family caregiving of dependents, feminist social work practice and administration, and community organization, she has coauthored or edited seven books, one of which is the text for the first national telecourse on aging. Her book Taking Care of Aging Family Members (coauthored with Wendy Lustbader) is widely used by both professionals and families. She is a Fellow of the Gerontological Society of America. Highly regarded for her national leadership regarding social work education, she was selected by the Washington State Chapter of the National Association of Social Workers as Social Work Educator of the Year in 1992, was a board member of the Council on Social Work Education, and chaired that council's national Commission on Women. She serves on numerous local and national boards related to social work education, gerontology, and women's interests, and is a frequently requested speaker in these areas, nationally and internationally.

    Judith G. Gonyea is Associate Professor and Chair of the Social Research Department at the Boston University School of Social Work. She is also a Fellow at the Boston University Center on Work and Family. She received her MSW and PhD in Social Welfare from the University of Washington in Seattle. Her research interests are in aging, family, and gender studies. She is especially interested in the phenomena of family care, the intersection of family and work roles, and the effect of social policies on women's lives. Her recent publications include: “Linking the Worlds of Work and Family: Beyond the Productivity Trap,” Human Resource Management Journal; “An Agenda for Work and Elder Care Research: Methodological Challenges and Future Directions,” Research on Aging; “The Paradox of the Advantaged Elder and Feminization of Poverty,” Social Work; and “Making Gender Visible in Public Policy,” Older Men's Lives. She was the guest editor for a special issue of Research on Aging (March 1994) devoted to the topic of work and elder care. She is a Fellow of the Gerontological Society of America and currently serves on the editorial boards of Research on Aging, Journal of Gerontological Social Work, Health Care in Later Life, and the National Academy on Aging's Public Policy and Aging Report.


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