Fair Trade: Market-Driven Ethical Consumption
Publication Year: 2005
'Today, Fair Trade finds itself at a crucial point in its evolution from alternative trading mechanism to a mainstream economic model. As the only certifier in the largest Fair Trade market in the world, TransFair USA has observed the explosive growth in consumer awareness and business interest in Fair Trade certification. New research into the progress of Fair Trade to date and, crucially, its key future directions is urgently needed. Fair Trade is therefore a valuable and timely contribution.The range and depth of the book is considerable. It is international in outlook and engages with a broad spectrum of theory and thinking. Its style is approachable yet rigorous. I would strongly recommend it to industry, academics, students, policy-makers and the interested reader in general' - ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part One: The Rise of Fair Trade
- Chapter 1: Fair Trade: The Story So Far
- Chapter 2: The Economics of Fair Trade
- Chapter 3: Supply Chain Ethics
Part Two: Fair Trade Operations
- Chapter 4: Fair Trade Industry Structures and Business Strategies
- Chapter 5: Financing Fair Trade
- Chapter 6: Fair Trade Certification
- Chapter 7: The Marketing of Fair Trade
Part Three: The Impact of Fair Trade
© Alex Nicholls and Charlotte Opal, 2005
Chapter 5 © Whitni Thomas, 2005
First published 2004
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
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British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 1 4129 0104 9
ISBN 1 4129 0105 7 (pbk)
Library of Congress Control Number: 20041012345
Typeset by C&M Digitals (P) Ltd., Chennai, India
Printed in Great Britain by The Cromwell Press Ltd, Trowbridge, Wiltshire
Printed on paper from sustainable resources
Let us spread the fragrance of fairness across all aspects of life.
Professor Shyam Sharma, TARA projects (Hanoi, 2004)[Page vi]
About the Authors
There are so many people to offer our thanks to who have materially helped us in the writing and production of this book that space does not allow us to acknowledge them all here. A good number are, or have become, close friends. All are worthy of our sincere appreciation. The brave cohort of interviewees who gave of their time in helping us to research this book have played a huge role in giving this work relevance and deserve a special mention: Hamish Renton; Diana Gayle; Sarah Hoole; Bruce Crowther; Ian Bretman; Alistaire Menzies; Carol Wills; Steve Sellers; Kim Easson; Luuk Zonneveld; Paul Rice; Joe Osman; Pauline Tiffen; Rob Everts; Sophi Tranchell; Jeroen Kroezen; José Luis Zârate; Ben Huyghe; and Terry Hudgton.
Furthermore, many of our colleagues have also been invaluable in providing comments and thoughts on this book while it was in progress and we are greatly indebted to them: Professor David Waller; Dr Andrew Alexander; Peter Cullen; Dr Doug Foster; Dr Steve New; Dr Jesse Rothstein; Dr Tim Jenkinson; Mark Magers; and Katie Feiock. The (certified) award for patience and support goes to our editor, Delia Alfonso.
Particular thanks also go to my academic ‘patrons’ — Jeff Skoll and Professor Anthony Hopwood — without whose material support this book could never have been written. My personal gratitude goes to my mother Catherine Nicholls for repeated investments (emotional and financial) in my academic vocation and to Adele, Sam, and Harriet for their love and support above and beyond the call of duty. This book is dedicated to my father, Peter Nicholls.
I would like to express my admiration for René Ausecha Chaux, Pedro Haslam, and the legions of others who risk life and limb to fight injustice. You are an inspiration and it is an honour to be ‘fighting the good fight’ with you. Many thanks also to Mark Magers, from TransFair USA, for allowing me to take brief breaks from said good fight to finish this book.
It is dedicated to my grandparents, Chet and Zee Opal, in loving memory of my father, Chet Brian Opal.
This book is a celebration of the extraordinary and inspiring work being done by Fair Trade campaigners, retailers, wholesalers, labelling initiatives, other support networks, and, above all, by heroic producers. We owe them our single biggest debt of gratitude.
ATO Alternative Trading Organization EFTA European Fair Trade Association FLO Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International FTO Fair Trade Organization (registered by IFAT) IFAT International Federation of Alternative Trade MNC Multinational Corporation NEWS Network of European World Shops NGO Non-Governmental Organization NI National (Certification) Initiative SME Small or Medium-sized Enterprise US United States of America UK United Kingdom VC Venture Capital(ist)
A Note on Currency Conversions
This book includes figures in US dollars ($), Canadian dollars (CA$) UK pounds (£) and Euros. The exchange rate calculations used at the time of writing (October 2004) are as follows:
Currency Conversation Rate €1 $1.23 €1 £0.69 $1 £0.56 £1 $1.79 CA$1 $0.79 CA$1 £0.44
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Some Useful Websites[Page 270]
http://www.eftafairtrade.org (European Fair Trade Association)
http://www.fairtrade.net (Fair Trade Labelling Organisations International)
http://www.fairtrade.org.uk (UK Fair Trade Foundation)
http://www.fairtradefederation.org (US based Fair Trade Federation)
http://www.ifat.org (International Federation of Alternative Trade)