Exploring the Sociology of Europe: An Analysis of the European Social Complex


Maurice Roche

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    For my son and daughter, Stephen Roche and Helen Roche, and for the Europe I hope you get to live in.

    List of Acronyms

    AUAfrican Union
    ASEANAssociation of South East Asian Nations
    CAPCommon Agricultural Policy
    DGDirectorate General (of the European Commission)
    ECEuropean Commission
    ECBEuropean Central Bank
    ECJEuropean Court of Justice
    EECEuropean Economic Community
    EMUEconomic and Monetary Union
    ESRCEconomic and Social Research Council, UK
    EUEuropean Union
    GAFGlobal Adjustment Fund
    GATTGeneral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
    GDPgross domestic product
    GNIgross national income
    ICTinformation and communication technologies
    IGCintergovernmental conference (EU)
    MERCOSURThe Common Market of the South (the Latin American trade organisation)
    NAFTANorth American Free Trade Association
    NATONorth Atlantic Treaty Organisation
    NRPNational Reform Programme
    OMCopen method of coordination (EU)
    SEASingle European Act
    TEUTreaty on European Union
    UNUnited Nations
    UNECEUN Economic Commission for Europe
    UNESCOUN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
    USSRUnion of Soviet Socialist Republics
    WTOWorld Trade Organisation


    This book represents an attempt to outline some key elements of a sociology of Europe relevant to the contemporary period. It has been a long time brewing, too long indeed, but certainly time enough for a large number of people, whether wittingly or not, to have provided me with input and/or support. I would like to put my debts to them on record here. En passant, hopefully, some of the main contexts and interests which have generated and informed the book will be indicated.

    The book is grounded in an historical and internationalist view of sociology, which I wouldn't have developed if it hadn't been for the period I spent learning, researching and teaching at the LSE in the 1960s and early 1970s. The intellectual climate formed there at that time by the mix of continental European émigrés, American exiles and British pragmatists was very special. My doctoral supervisor, Ernest Gellner, was the main influence, but other influences included teachers such as the philosophers of science Karl Popper and Imre Lakatos, the political theorists Michael Oakeshott and Maurice Cranston, the critical social analysts Ralph Miliband and Leslie Sklair, and departmental colleagues such as John Westergaard, Alan Swingewood, and the classicist Keith Hopkins. I was grateful for the support of Jürgen Habermas and Hans-Georg Gadamer for the work that came out of this stage of my career. Since that time people in and around British sociology who have been interested in and helpful to my work on various writing projects, including this one, include Gerard Delanty, Tony Giddens, Bob Jessop, Philip Schlesinger, Bryan Turner and John Urry, together with cultural analysts Franco Bianchini, Ian Henry and Mike Robinson, and of course my Sage editor Chris Rojek.

    After moving to Sheffield University I worked for some years on the sociology and social policy aspects of citizenship. By the mid-1990s I began to develop an explicit interest in Europe, both as a context of diverse versions of national citizenship and also, in the form of the European Union, as potentially offering a new transnational dimension to the development of modern citizenship. This interest happened to coincide with an increased profile for citizenship as a policy theme on the part of the European Union. My view of the potential theoretical and practical importance of European aspects of citizenship was confirmed and encouraged by participation in seminars involving the European Commission in Brussels and the Federal Trust in London, which involved meeting, among others, the academics François Duchene and Elizabeth Meehan and the politicians and administrators ex-Irish Taoiseach Garret Fitzgerald, Andrew Duff MEP, and Giuseppe Callovi of the European Commission, Directorate General Justice and Home Affairs.

    On the basis of this and with the support of Peter Leisink and particularly Rik van Berkel at Utrecht University and also the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) I created a European network in 1995 to study the potential relevance of citizenship theories and practices for social policy in a European context. We gained support from the European Union for two projects in 1998–2000 under the Research Framework 4 programme and, among other things, we worked on a comparative study of social inclusion, work and citizenship policies. This and related work generated various publications, including Roche and van Berkel (eds) (1997a), Roche and Annesley (eds) (2004), and van Berkel and Moller (eds) (2002). It also provided a rapid and focused introduction to a range of European cities and countries I might otherwise have taken much longer to get to know.

    The network gave me the privilege and pleasure of getting to know and exchange ideas with many interesting colleagues from around Europe. These included our leading partners Thomas Faist (Bremen), Laurent Fraisse (Paris), Marisol Garcia (Barcelona), Liana Giorgi (Vienna), Matti Heikila (Helsinki), Pedro Hespanha (Coimbra), Enzo Mingione (Milan), Iver Moller (Copenhagen), Tapio Salonen (Lund), and Jacques Vilrokx (Brussels). They also included other members of the network and participants in our cycle of seminars, such as Alberta Andreotti, Sabine Dreher, Aitor Gomez, Henning Hansen, Haka Johansson, Yuri Kazepov, Elsa Keskitalo, Angelika Kofler, Jens Lind, Carlos Machado, Ana Matos, Ilya Mertens, Ronald Pohoryles, Sylvia Portugal, Jan de Schampheliere, David Smith, Cyril Tholen, Ben Valkenberg, and Enid Wistrich. Vital support was provided by our Sheffield coordinating group, Claire Annesley, Joanne Cook, Colin Williams and Jan Windebank, and the project benefited greatly from the interest and support of Ronan O'Brien in DG Research at the European Commission. The conferences with which we concluded our network projects, and at which we disseminated their reports, enabled us to hear from and exchange views with Duncan Gallie, Anton Hemerijk, Siofra O'Leary and Ruud Muffels, among others.

    Although our social policy network was extensive, it did not include Eastern Europe and the 2004/07 enlargement of the EU underscored this omission. In relation to this in recent years I have worked with the Soros Foundation's higher education programme and also the European Cultural Foundation, particularly in southeastern Europe and particularly in the fields of general sociology, the sociology of culture and cultural policy. I have been privileged to meet colleagues and students in the Balkan and Black Sea countries of Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Serbia and Ukraine, who have stimulated and supported my interest in understanding European society and culture. These include Alexander Kiossev and Valentina Gueorgieva, my good hosts at St Kliment university in Sofia, Bulgaria and their colleagues Boyan Knepolski and Martin Ossikowski, among many others, together with Predrag Cveticanin and his colleagues at the University of Nis, Serbia.

    Our social policy network also had not addressed European cultural and cultural policy issues. So in addition to my southeastern European work and inquiries, I organised an international conference on the European Public Sphere with a group of Sheffield colleagues in 2004. This provided an opportunity to meet some of the community of researchers and scholars in this field. These included, among others, Florian Oberhuber (Vienna), Barbara Pfetsch (Hohenheim), Karen Rosenwerth (Dortmund), Slavko Splichal (Ljubljana), Marianne van der Steeg (Florence), and Renee van Os (Nijmegen), along with British-based researchers including, among others, Barrie Axford, Richard Huggins, Peter Humphreys, Anthony King, Donald McNeill, Peter Millward, Katherine Sarikakis, Cornell Sandvoss, Damien Tambini, and Mark Wheeler. Some of the papers have been developed for publication in Harrison and Wessels (eds) (2009 forthcoming).

    This and other related activities in the field of European social and cultural studies have been supported by a range of people in Sheffield University in recent years. These include, among others, Sir Ian Kershaw, Peter Ainsworth, Harvey Armstrong, Ian Bache, Micheline Beaulieu, Max Craglia, Matt Flinders, Andrew Gamble, Andrew Geddes, Stephen George, Mike Kenny, Edmund King, Bill Leatherbarrow, David Luscombe, Jon Nixon, Dominic Shellard, Martin Smith, David Shepherd, Paul White and Yorick Wilks. On the administrative front they include Helen Rana, Lada Trifanova-Price, and Steph Davy-Jow, who worked on our European Social and Cultural Studies Centre project, the staff of the University's South East Europe Research Centre in Thessaloniki, and Gill Wells from the University's European research office. From my own department and related units they include particularly Bob Deacon, Dave Phillips, Alan Walker, Tony Warnes and also Richard Jenkins, and my much-missed ex-colleagues Alan France, Sharon Macdonald and Nick Stevenson. I would like to thank my department and its current head Clive Norris for sustaining study leave, research travel resourcing, research time in staff workloads and other such supports. These are absolutely necessary for long-term projects of research and scholarship to be undertaken in British universities these days. They need to be defended against the threats posed by the long-term disease of under-funding, which has afflicted the UK's higher education system for the last decade or more.

    On a lighter note, unlike the British, continental Europeans discovered many years ago the benefits of ‘café culture’ to counter-balance and compensate the monasticism required by writing. A number of people have helped keep café culture alive for me in Sheffield over the years. These are particularly my ex-doctoral students Jackie Harrison, Neil Sellors and Chris Fiddler, and my departmental colleague Bridgette Wessels. Their views, reading suggestions, company and encouragement have helped me greatly on this project, and thanks to them for that. Of course none of them, nor any of the other people mentioned above, is in any way responsible for the accuracy of the book's information or the adequacy of the views expressed in it.

    Finally, thanks to Jan Roche, Stephen Roche and Helen Roche for their patience and support for me over the years on this and other European projects.

    Table 4.1 from Europe: A History by N. Davies, Random House reprinted with permission and C. Tilly, ‘European states in modernity: the birth and death of states 1500–2000’ in Coercion, Capital and European States, 990–1990, Wiley-Blackwell reprinted with permission.

    Table 4.2 from T. Janoski, Citizenship and Civil Society, 1998, reprinted with permission from Cambridge University Press and the author.

    Table 5.1 from C. Tilly, ‘European war and peace in the process of modernization: ‘Great Power’ battle deaths and peace treaties 1600–1950’ in Coercion, Capital and European States, 990–1990, Wiley-Blackwell reprinted with permission.

    Table 6.2 European populations in the 21st century: socio-demographic differences and projected changes 2000–2050 © European Communities, 2006.

    Table 7.3 reprinted with permission from the Centre for European Reform.

    Table 8.1 The European service economy in the 21st century: growth sectors in the EU © European Communities, 2006.

    List of Tables

    • 3.1 Pre-modern European ‘common ground’: Main cross-continental communications and habitats 51
    • 3.2 Pre-modern European historical development: Main periods, events, and dynamics factors 53
    • 3.3 Early modern Europe: The transition period 1300–1550 and the ‘long’ 15th Century 67
    • 4.1 European states in modernity: The birth and death of states 1500–2000 89
    • 4.2 European national citizenship in modernity: The growth of rights 1700–1950 97
    • 5.1 European war and peace in the process of modernisation: ‘Great Power’ battle deaths and peace treaties 1600–1950 108
    • 6.1 European societies in the 21st Century: Socio-economic differences and commonalities 2005 134
    • 6.2 European populations in the 21st Century: Socio-demographic differences and projected changes 2000–2050 135
    • 7.1 European socio-demographic trends and projections 1960–2050 163
    • 7.2 European socio-economic change and restructuring 1: 1960–2006 - Economic growth and the shift to a post-industrial economy 165
    • 7.3 The EU in the global economy 170
    • 7.4 European socio-economic change and restructuring 2: 1960–2006 - Labour market changes and problems 180
    • 7.5 New social risks and poverty in 21st Century European societies 184
    • 8.1 The European service economy in the 21st Century: Growth sectors in the EU 209
    • 8.2 The European cultural economy in the 21st Century 211
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    Author and Name Index

    (Note: excludes most names in the set of Tables)

    • Abrahamson, P., 155
    • Abu-Lughod, J., 73, 74, 128
    • Addonino Report (see
      • EC 1985
    • Adelantado, J. and Calderon, E., 191
    • Aho Report (see
      • EC 2006
      ), 189, 206, 217
    • Aiginger, K., 216
    • Albrow, M., 24
    • Alexander (the Great, Macedonian emperor), 58, 90
    • Alexander, J., 239, 240
    • Ambler, J., 157
    • Amin, S., 23
    • Anderson, B., 83
    • Anderson, K., 156
    • Anderson, P., 99, 128, 156
    • Anderson, P. and Weymouth, A., 23
    • Andreski, S., 126
    • Annesley, C., 216
    • Ansell, C., 36, 42
    • Armstrong, J., 83, 100
    • Aron, R., 126
    • Arts, W. and Gelissen, J., 155
    • Axford, B., 42
    • Axford, B. and Huggins, R., 42, 188
    • Axtmann, R., 24, 42
    • Baban, F. and Keyman, F., 237
    • Bache, I., 42
    • Bache, I. and Flinders, M., 32, 41, 42
    • Baldock, J., 156
    • Balibar, E., 23, 42, 239
    • Bambra, C., 155, 191
    • Barbalet, J., 100, 155
    • Barney, D., 42
    • Barroso, J. M., 172, 189
    • Bartlett, R., 73
    • Barysch, K., 189, 217
    • Barysch, K., Tilford, S., Whyte, P., 191, 217, 218
    • Bauman, Z., 23, 25, 190
    • Bay, A-H. and Pedersen, A., 99, 191
    • Baylis, J. and Smith, S.
    • Bayly, C., 98, 99, 127
    • Beck, U., 24, 190, 237
    • Beck, U. and Grande, E., 23, 24, 35, 36, 37, 42, 155, 237, 238, 240, 220
    • Begg, I., Draxler, J., and Mortensen, J., 189, 191, 217, 218
    • Bell, D., 173, 189
    • Bellier, I. and Wilson,T., 24
    • Bendix, R., 100
    • Benkler, Y., 42, 188, 189, 190
    • Benko, G. and Strohmayer, U., 42
    • Beveridge, W., 212
    • Biedenkopf, K., Geremek, B., Michalski, K., 239
    • Bismarck, Otto von, (German Chancellor), 149
    • Blaut, J., 23
    • Bloom, J. and Blair, S., 73
    • Bobbitt, P., 126, 127, 129, 157
    • Bode, I., 155
    • Bolivar, S., 99
    • Bondeberg, I. and Golding, P., 42
    • Boon, V. and Delanty, G., 237, 238
    • Borneman, J. and Fowler, N., 23, 24
    • Bosco, A. and Chassard, Y., 217, 218
    • Braudel, F., 73, 74
    • Brenner, N., 25, 42, 190
    • Bretherton, C. and Vogler, J., 43, 188, 189
    • Briant, P., 73
    • Brinkley, I., 211, 218
    • Brinkley, I. and Lee, N., 189, 211, 217, 218
    • Bromley, S., 216
    • Brotton, J., 73, 74
    • Brubaker, R., 155, 157
    • Bryman, A., 188, 189, 217
    • Burgess, M. and Vollaard, H., 43
    • Burke, P., 25
    • Bush, George. W. (US President), 171
    • Calhoun, C., 23, 237, 238, 240
    • Cameron, E., 74
    • Caporaso, J. and Jupille, J., 23
    • Castellani, B. and Hafferty, F., 24
    • Castells, M., 24, 25, 32, 42, 188, 189, 190
    • Castles, F., 191
    • Castles, F. and Pierson, C., 191
    • Catherine (the Great), 79
    • Cederman, L-E., 23
    • Chamberlayne, P., Cooper, A., Freeman, R., and Rustin, M., 156
    • Charlemagne (Frankish emperor), 56, 58, 60
    • Cheah, P. and Robbins, B., 237, 238
    • Checkel, J. and Katzenstein, P., 239
    • Chesters, G., 24
    • Chesters and Welsh, I., 24
    • Christiansen, T., Jorgensen, K.,and Wiener A., 23
    • Chrysochoou, D., 24, 41
    • Clovis (Frankish king), 50
    • Cohen, J. and Arato, A., 239
    • Colley, L., 99
    • Commander, S., Heitmueller, A., and Tyson, L., 191
    • Constantine (Roman emperor), 59
    • Corvisier, A., 126
    • Cowles, M., Caporaso, J. and Risse, T., 23
    • Cram, L., Dinan, D., and Nugent, N., 24
    • Crang, M. and Thrift, N., 42
    • Cromwell, O., 123
    • Crossley, N., 42
    • Crouch, C., 74, 156, 163, 165, 180
    • Cunliffe, B., 73, 99
    • Daly, M., 217, 218
    • Davies, N., 73, 74, 80, 89, 99, 127, 157
    • De la Porte, C. and Pochet, P., 217
    • De Vreese, C., 42
    • Deacon, B., 156, 188, 191, 240
    • Deacon, B, Hulse, M. and Stubbs, P., 191
    • Deacon, B. and Stubbs, P., 156
    • Delanty, G., 43, 155
    • Delanty, G. and He, B., 237
    • Delanty, G. and Kumar, K., 98
    • Delanty, G. and Rumford, C., 23, 25, 42, 73, 220, 238, 240
    • Delors, J., 2, 42, 168, 188, 196, 197, 198, 216
    • Delors White paper, 197–8, 210
    • Dinan, D., 24, 216, 217
    • Dobb, M., 74
    • Downing, B., 73, 74, 123, 127, 129, 156, 157
    • Doyal, L. and Gough, I., 240
    • Duff, A., 218
    • Dunkerley, D., Hodgson, L., Konopacki, S., Spybey, T. and Tompson, A. Dutton, P., 23
    • Durkheim, E., 10, 190, 238
    • Dutton, P., 157
    • Dwyer, P., 155
    • Dyson, K., 23
    • Eardley, T., Bradshaw, J., Ditch,J., Gough, I., and Whiteford, P., 191
    • Eder, K., 42
    • Eder, K. and Giesen, B., 42, 239
    • Ehrenreich, B., 240
    • Eisenhower, D.W. (US President), 128
    • Eisenstein, E., 74
    • Elias, N., 25, 73, 74, 98, 127, 239
    • Elizabeth I (English monarch), 86
    • Eluere, C., 73
    • Eriksen, E., 42
    • Esping-Andersen, G., 132, 137, 138, 150, 155, 156, 157, 184, 189, 190, 191, 218
    • Esping-Andersen, G. and Regini, M., 155
    • Esping-Andersen, G., Gallie, D., Hemerijk, A., and Myles, J., 155, 191
    • European Commission (EC, EU), 222
      • EC (1993a) ‘Growth, Competitiveness, Employment’ (The Delors White Paper), 216
      • EC (1993b) ‘European Social Policy: Options for the Union. The Green Paper’, 217
      • EC (1995b) ‘European Social Policy: The Medium Term Action Plan’, 217
      • EC (1996b), For a Europe of Civic and Social Rights, 218, 239
      • EC (1999) ‘Implementing the European employment strategy’, 217
      • EC (2001) ‘European Governance: A White Paper’, 237
      • EC (2004) ‘Report of the High level Group on the Future of Social Policy in an Enlarged Union’, 189, 217, 218
      • EC (2005b) ‘The Future of Creative Industries.’ (Report by C. Marcus), 189, 190, 217, 218
      • EC (2005c) ‘Joint Report on Social Protection and Social Inclusion’, 217
      • EC (2005e) ‘The Daphne experience 1997–2003: Europe against violence towards children and women’, 238
      • EC (2006a) ‘Creating an innovative Europe.’ (The Aho Report), 189, 190, 218
      • EC (2006c) ‘The Economy of Culture in Europe’ (Report by KEA, Berlin), 189, 190, 218
      • EC (2007b) Towards Common Principles of Flexicurity: More and better jobs through flexibility and security’, 218
      • EC (2007c) ‘Flexicurity in Europe: Modernising the European labour market in the 21stC’, 218
      • EC (2007e) ‘Integrated guidelines for growth and jobs (2008–2010)’, 217
      • EC (2008a) ‘Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the application of patients’ rights in cross-border healthcare’, 218
      • EC (2008b) ‘Report on implementation of the Hague programme for 2007’, 239
    • European Union (EU) passim
      • EU (2000a) ‘Lisbon European Council, Presidency Conclusions’, 217
      • EU (2004) ‘Facing the Challenge: The Lisbon strategy for growth and employment’ (The Kok Report), 217, 218
      • EU (2006b) ‘Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Services in the Internal Market’, 217
      • EU (2007a) The Reform Treaty (or Lisbon Treaty), 218
      • EU (2007b) ‘Joint Employment Report 2006/7’, 217
    • Eurostat, 134, 135, 163, 180
    • Faist, T., 155
    • Faist, T. and Kivisto, P., 155
    • Fajth, G., 156
    • Farrell, M., Fella, S. and Newman, M., 24
    • Favell, A., 23, 42, 190, 220
    • Featherstone, K. and Radaelli, C., 23, 42
    • Ferge, Z., 156
    • Ferguson, N., 127
    • Fernandez-Armesto, F., 73
    • Ferrera, M., 43, 98, 155, 156, 157, 188, 216, 218
    • Ferrera, M., Hemerijk, A., and Rhodes, M., 218
    • Fiddler, C., 23
    • Fine, R., 237, 238, 225
    • Fligstein, N. 23, 25, 42, 188, 190, 220, 237, 239
    • Flora, P., 98, 128, 129
    • Flora, P., Alber, J., Eichenberg, R., Kohl, J., Kraus, F., Pfenning, W., Seebohm, K., 129
    • Flora, P., Kuhnle, S. and Urwin, D., 128, 129
    • Florida, R., 189, 211, 218
    • Florida, R. and Tinagli, I., 189, 211, 218
    • Ford, Henry, 173
    • Fossum, J. and Schlesinger, P., 42
    • Foucault, M., 105
    • Francis (of Assisi), 71
    • Freeman, C. and Soete, L., 25, 128, 189
    • Freeman, R. and Rustin, M., 156
    • Friedrichs, J., 43
    • Fulbrook, M., 73, 127, 239
    • Gallie, D. and Paugam, S., 155, 190, 191
    • Gamble, A., 43, 188
    • Gamble, A. and Payne, A., 25, 43
    • Garcia, B., 42
    • Garcia, S., 23, 239
    • Geary, P., 73, 80, 99
    • Geddes, A., 42,
    • Gellner, E., 25, 73, 83, 84, 98, 99, 100
    • George, S., 42
    • Geyer, R., 216
    • Giddens, A., 24, 25, 42, 98, 126, 127, 129, 155, 156, 190, 216, 217, 218
    • Giddens, A., Diamond, P., and Liddle, R., 42
    • Ginsburg, N., 155
    • Goldstein, J., 126, 128
    • Goodin, R., Headey, B., Muffels, R., Dirven, H-J., 138, 155
    • Goodwin, J., 73
    • Goody, J., 73
    • Goody, J. and Watt, I., 74
    • Gorski, P., 100
    • Gough, I., 156
    • Gough, I., Eardley, T., Bradshaw, J., Ditch, J., and Whiteford, P., 191
    • Gould, A., 155
    • Grant, C. and Barysch, K., 25, 43, 170, 189
    • Gray, A., 191
    • Green, K. et al, 25, 128
    • Greenfeld, L., 84, 85, 99, 100, 128
    • Gripsrud, J., 42
    • Guibernau, M. and Hutchinson, J., 98
    • Guillen, A. and Alvarez, S., 155
    • Gutenberg, J., 71, 86
    • Guthrie, D., 189
    • Habermas, J., 25, 42, 100, 237, 240
    • Hacker, B., 126
    • Hacker, B. and Vining, M., 126
    • Hall, J., 100
    • Halsall, G., 73
    • Handler, J., 157, 216
    • Hantrais, L., 216
    • Harcourt, A., 217, 237
    • Hardt, M. and Negri, A., 43
    • Harrison, J. and Wessels, B., 42, 217
    • Harrison, J. and Woods, L., 42, 217
    • Harvey, D., 237, 238
    • Hastings, A., 83, 85, 86, 98, 100, 128
    • Hawkwood, J., 128
    • Heater, D., 100, 155
    • Hegel, G., 236, 240
    • Heikkila, M., 217
    • Heinemann, F., 157
    • Held, D., 189, 237, 238
    • Held, D., McGrew, A., Goldblatt, D., and Perraton, J., 189
    • Henry VIII (English monarch), 86
    • Hesmondhalgh, D., 189, 217
    • Hirst, P. and Thompson, G., 24, 188
    • Hix, S., 24, 41
    • Hobden, S. and Hobson, J., 24, 45
    • Hobsbawm, E., 83, 98, 99, 127
    • Hobsbawm, E. and Ranger, T., 99
    • Hobson, J., 23, 24, 73, 74
    • Holland, T., 73
    • Hooghe, L., and Marks, G., 41
    • Hornsby-Smith, M., 156
    • Hull, R., Walsh, V., Green, K, McKeekin, A., 25, 128
    • Huntington, S.
    • Hus, J., 71
    • Huws, U., 191
    • Isin, E. and Turner, B., 100, 155
    • Isin, E. and Wood, P., 100, 155
    • Jacobsson, K., 217
    • James, C.L.R., 99
    • James, S., 73
    • Janoski, T., 96, 97, 100, 155, 157, 239
    • Janowitz, M., 126
    • Jensen, O. and Richardson, T., 24, 42
    • Jenson, J., 218
    • Jepsen, M. and Pascual, A., 216
    • Jessop, B., 41, 42, 189
    • Jochem, S., 157
    • Jones, P., 238
    • Jonsson, C., Tagil S. and Tornqvist, G., 24, 42
    • Jordan, W., 73
    • Judt, T., 157, 189
    • Kaldor, M., 237, 238
    • Kant, I., 238, 240
    • Kaspersen, L., 128, 156, 157
    • Katzenstein, P., 25, 43
    • Kaufman, R., 156
    • Kautto, M., Hekkila, M., Hvinden, B., Marklund, S., Ploug, N., 157
    • Keane, J., 237, 238, 239
    • Kemmerling, A., 157
    • Kennedy, H., 73
    • Kennedy, P., 110, 126, 127, 128, 129, 157
    • Keohane, R. and Hoffman, S., 32
    • Khanna, P., 25, 37
    • King, A., 237
    • Klausen, J., 126, 127, 156, 157
    • Kleinman, M., 216
    • Koenigsberger, H., 73
    • Kofman, E, Phizacklea, A., Raghuram, P., Sales, R., 191
    • Kok, W., (and Kok Report), 205, 217
    • Kolsto, P., 99
    • Koopmans, R. and Erbe, J., 42, 156
    • Kornai, J. Haggard, S. and Kaufman, R., 156
    • Korpi, W., 156, 157
    • Kristiansen, K., 73
    • Kvist, J. and Saari, J., 191, 218
    • Laffan, B., O'Donnell, R., Smith, M., 25
    • Lamy, P., 171
    • Larner, W. and Walters, W., 25
    • Larsen, T., Taylor-Gooby, P., Kanane, J., 191
    • Law, J., 42
    • Lazzarato, M., 189
    • Le Goff, J., 73
    • Lechner, F. and Boli, J., 24, 188
    • Lefebvre, H., 42
    • Leisering, L. and Leibfried, S., 218
    • Leibfried, S. and Pierson, C., 201, 216
    • Lendvai, N., 156
    • Leonard, M., 42
    • Levack, B., 128
    • Lewis, B., 73
    • Lewis, J., 155, 158, 191
    • Lind, J. and Moller, I., 157, 191
    • Lindbeck, A., 158
    • Lindert, P., 156, 158
    • Lintner, V., 216
    • Loader, B. and Burrows, R., 189
    • Lodemal, I and Trickey, H., 157, 191
    • Lorentzen, L. and Turpin, J., 126
    • Lukes, S., 238
    • Luther, M., 71
    • Lyotard, F., 238
    • MacCullough, D., 74
    • MacDonald, S., 23
    • Mahoney, J. and Rueschemeyer, D., 24
    • Man, J., 73
    • Mann, M., 23, 25, 73, 74, 98, 99, 126, 127, 128, 129, 155, 239
    • Manning, N. and Shaw, I., 190
    • Manow, P. and van Kersbergen,K., 156
    • Mansell, R. and Steinmuller, E., 42, 188
    • Marcus, C. (Marcus Report), 211
    • Marie Antoinette, 79
    • Marks, G., 32
    • Marks, G. and Hooghe, L., 41, 42
    • Marozzi, J., 73
    • Marshall, T. H., 96, 100, 132, 149, 150, 155
    • Martiniello, M., 155, 218
    • Marx, Karl, 10, 176, 178, 190, 238
    • Massey, D., 25
    • May, J. and Thrift, N., 25
    • Mazower, M., 104, 126, 189, 230, 239
    • McCormick, M., 73
    • McCormick, P., 39, 43, 127, 189, 238
    • McIntosh, P., 99
    • McNeill, D., 24, 42
    • McNeill, W., 73, 74, 100, 126, 127, 129
    • Medrano, J., 23, 220
    • Meehan, E., 155, 218
    • Michaelangelo (Buonarroti), 71
    • Michalski, K., 73, 239
    • Mills, C. W., 6, 27, 28, 29, 42, 128
    • Milward, A., 41, 156, 157, 237
    • Millward, P. and Levermore, R., 237
    • Mishel, L, Berenson, and Allegretto, S., 184
    • Modood, T. and Werbner, P., 238
    • Moore, B., 128, 129
    • Morgan, K., 156
    • Morley, D., 42
    • Morley, D. and Robins, K., 42
    • Morissens, A. and Sainsbury, D., 155
    • Mosher, J. and Trubek, D., 217
    • Mosse, G., 99
    • Mouffe, C., 43, 237
    • Moxon-Browne, E., 23, 239
    • Muhammad (Islamic prophet), 55
    • Munkler, H., 34, 35, 36, 39, 43
    • Myles, J., 218
    • Napoleon Bonaparte, 147
    • Navarro, V., Schmitt, J., and Astudillo, J., 191
    • Nelsen, B. and Stubbs, A., 216
    • Norwich, J., 73
    • Nugent, N., 24, 155
    • Nussbaum, M., 237, 238
    • Oesch, D., 237
    • O'Leary, S. and Tiilikainen, I., 155
    • O'Shea, S., 73
    • Oppenheimer, S., 73, 99
    • Orloff, A., 155, 191
    • Ostner, I. and Lewis, J.
    • Outhwaite, W., 23, 24, 25, 156, 239
    • Pagden, A., 23
    • Palier, B. and Sykes, R., 155, 191
    • Palmer, R., 42
    • Parker, G., 74, 113, 126, 127
    • Parker, P., Clark,C., Moore, T.
    • Parsons, T., 25, 27, 99, 129, 156
    • Peters, B. and Sifft,S., 42
    • Peters, B., Sifft, S., Bruggeman, M., Kleinen-v.Konigslow, K., and Wimmel, A., 42
    • Pfau-Effinger, B., 156
    • Picard, D. and Robinson, M., 240
    • Pierson, C., 156
    • Piore, M. and Sabel, C., 189
    • Polanyi, K., 99, 156
    • Popper, K., 238
    • Prior, P. and Sykes, R., 155
    • Putnam, H., 190
    • Rees, T., 204
    • Rifkin, J., 43, 238
    • Rimlinger, G., 99, 156
    • Risse, T., 23, 42
    • Ritzer, G., 188, 189, 217
    • Roberts, J., 73, 74
    • Roberts, M., 74, 126, 127
    • Robertson, R., 24, 25
    • Roche, M., 23, 24, 25, 42, 99, 100, 155, 157, 188, 189, 190, 191, 216, 217, 218, 228, 237, 238, 240
    • Roche, M. and van Berkel, R., 155, 191, 216, 218
    • Roche, M. and Annesley, C., 155, 157, 191, 216, 217, 218, 238
    • Rodrigues, M., 42, 188, 190
    • Rodriguez-Pose, A., 23
    • Rokkan, S., 98, 129, 156
    • Rosas, A. and Antola, E., 155, 218
    • Rosamund, B., 24, 41
    • Rossiter, N., 42
    • Roudemetof, V. and Haller, W., 237
    • Rovisco, M., 43
    • Roxburgh, D., 73
    • Rumford, C., 23, 42, 43, 220, 237, 238
    • Ruttan, V., 128
    • Sainsbury, D., 155, 158, 191
    • Sakwa, R. and Stevens, A., 23
    • Sandholtz, W. and Sweet, A., 23
    • Sapir, A., 216
    • Sapir Report, 217
    • Saunders, F., 100, 128
    • Schimmelfennig, F. and Sedelmeier, U., 24
    • Schirm S., 25
    • Schlesinger, P., 42, 237, 239
    • Schmidt, V., 23, 156, 216
    • Scholte, J., 24, 25, 43, 188
    • Schneider, G. and Aspinwall, M., 23, 237
    • Schopflin, G., 99, 157
    • Schumpeter, J., 128
    • Schutz, A. and Luckmann, T., 24
    • Scott, A., 189, 218
    • Shaw, M., 126, 129
    • Shaw, G. and Williams, A., 42, 218
    • Sherlock, P. and Bennett, H., 99, 127, 128
    • Shore, C., 23, 42, 239
    • Silverstone, R., 42, 240
    • Sinn, H-W., 191
    • Sklair, L., 24, 190
    • Skocpol, T., 24, 25, 126, 156, 157
    • Smismans, S., 239
    • Smith, A., 83, 98, 99, 100
    • Sombart, W., 126
    • Sorensen, A., 156
    • Sotiropoulos, D., 156
    • Sotiropoulos, D. and Pop, L., 156
    • Sotiropoulou, V. and Sotiripoulos, D., 156
    • Spybey, T., 24
    • Standing, G., 191
    • Steinmetz, G., 157
    • Stevenson, N., 100, 155, 237, 238
    • Strath, B., 23, 239
    • Streeck, W., 216
    • Strathern, P., 74
    • Sunstein, C., 42
    • Sutton, I., 73, 99
    • Sykes, R., Palier, B., and Prior, P., 155, 191
    • Taylor-Gooby, P., 190
    • Telo, M., 25, 39, 40, 43, 127, 238
    • Therborn, G., 23, 24, 74, 127, 128
    • Thompson, G., 23, 216
    • Threlfall, M., 216
    • Thrift, N., 24, 42
    • Tilley, C., 42
    • Tilly, C., 73, 74, 89, 98, 99, 108, 126, 127, 128, 129
    • Titmuss, R., 155
    • Toffler, A., 189
    • Twine, F., 155, 157
    • Turner, B., 100, 155, 190, 240
    • Urry, J., 10, 24, 30, 42, 188, 190, 218
    • van Berkel, R. and Moller, I., 157, 191
    • van de Steeg, M., 42
    • van der Veer, P., 237, 238
    • van Kersbergen, K., 128, 156
    • van Kersbergen, K. and Manow, P., 128, 156
    • van Dijk, J., 42
    • van Oorschott, W., 156
    • van Steenbergen, B., 100, 238
    • Vertovec, S. and Cohen, R., 237
    • Victoria (British monarch), 79
    • Walby, S., 24
    • Wallerstein, I., 73, 99, 127, 128
    • Warleigh, A., 41
    • Weber, M., 10, 105, 116, 118, 119, 126, 128
    • Wessels, B., 189, 240
    • Wheatcroft, A., 73, 74
    • White, H., 42
    • Wiener, A., 155
    • Wiener, A. and Diez, T., 24, 41
    • Wilensky, H., 156
    • Williams, C. and Windebank, J., 157, 191
    • Williams, K., 42
    • Williams, R., 17, 25
    • Willner, A., 127
    • Wilson, K. and van der Dussen, J., 23
    • Wincott, D., 216
    • World Bank, 134
    • Wrench, J. and Solomos, J., 238
    • Wycliffe, J. 71
    • Zielonka, J., 35, 37, 41, 43
    • Zimmer, O., 98

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