Experiencing Fieldwork: An Inside View of Qualitative Research
Fieldwork has often been viewed as a great black hole, untaught and unteachable. While recent years have seen an increase in the number of how-to manuals for doing fieldwork, they never fully convey the complexity of the experience–the loneliness, the uncertainty, the moral dilemmas, the ambiguities. In Experiencing Fieldwork, a group of top ethnographers addresses various issues and challenges of the fieldwork experience. How do you gain entree into a setting? What tricks are there to learning the rules of the community without alienating the people you came to study? How are good relations maintained with informants? What happens after you leave the field? Using examples of research from police departments to schools, from nursing homes to motorcycle gangs, the essays in this absorbing volume ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Chapter 1: Playing Back the Tape: Early Days in the Field
- Chapter 2: Sponsors, Gatekeepers, Members, and Friends: Access in Educational Settings
- Chapter 3: Female Researchers in Male-Dominated Settings: Implications for Short-Term Versus Long-Term Research
- Chapter 4: Experiencing Research on New Religions and Cults: Practical and Ethical Considerations
- Chapter 5: Managing a Convincing Self-Presentation: Some Personal Reflections on Entering the Field
- Chapter 6: A Walk Through the Wilderness: Learning to Find Your Way
- Chapter 7: Secrecy and Disclosure in Fieldwork
- Chapter 8: The Researcher Talks Back: Dealing with Power Relations in Studies of Young People's Entry into the Job Market
- Chapter 9: Encountering the Marketplace: Achieving Intimate Familiarity with Vendor Activity
- Chapter 10: Recognizing and Analyzing Local Cultures
- Chapter 11: Field Relations and the Discourse of the Other: Collaboration in Our Own Ruin
- Chapter 12: Maintaining Relationships in a School for the Deaf
- Chapter 13: Stability and Flexibility: Maintaining Relations Within Organized and Unorganized Groups
- Chapter 14: Field-Workers' Feelings: What We Feel, Who We are, How We Analyze
- Chapter 15: Fragile Ties: Shaping Research Relationships with Women Married to Alcoholics
- Chapter 16: High-Risk Methodology: Reflections on Leaving an Outlaw Society
- Chapter 17: Leaving, Revisiting, and Staying in Touch: Neglected Issues in Field Research
- Chapter 18: Gone Fishing, Be Back Later: Ending and Resuming Research Among Fisherman
- Chapter 19: Leaving the Field: Research, Relationships, and Responsibilities
- Chapter 20: Do We Ever Leave the Field? Notes on Secondary Fieldwork Involvements
Other Recent Volumes in the Sage Focus Editions
8. Controversy (Third Edition)
41. Black Families (Second Edition)
Harriette Pipes McAdoo
64. Family Relationships in Later Life (Second Edition)
Timothy H. Brubaker
89. Popular Music and Communication (Second Edition)
140. Preventing Adolescent Pregnancy
Brent C. Miller, Josefina J. Card, Roberta L. Paikoff, and James L. Peterson.
141. Hidden Conflict in Organizations
Deborah M. Kolb and Jean M. Bartunek
142. Hispanics in the Workplace
Stephen B. Knouse, Paul Rosenfeld, and Amy L. Culbertson
143. Psychotherapy Process Research
Shaké G. Toukmanian and David L. Rennie
144. Educating Homeless Children and Adolescents
James H. Stronge
145. Family Care of the Elderly
Jordan I. Kosberg
146. Growth Management
Jay M. Stein
147. Substance Abuse and Gang Violence
Richard E. Cervantes
148 Third World Cities
John D. Kasarda and Allan M. Parnell
149. Independent Consulting for Evaluators
Alan Vaux, Margaret S. Stockdale, and Michael J. Schwerin
150. Advancing Family Preservation Practice
E. Susan Morton and R. Kevin Grigsby
151. A Future for Religion?
William H. Swatos, Jr.
152. Researching Sensitive Topics
Claire M. Renzetti and Raymond M. Lee
153. Women as National Leaders
Michael A. Genovese
154. Testing Structural Equation Models
Kenneth A. Bollen and J. Scott Long
155. Nonresidential Parenting
Charlene E. Depner and James H. Bray
156. Successful Focus Groups
David L. Morgan
157. Race and Ethnicity in Research Methods
John H. Stanfield II and Rutledge M. Dennis
158. Improving Organizational Surveys
Paul Rosenfeld, Jack E. Edwards, and Marie D. Thomas
159. A History of Race Relations Research
John H. Stanfield II
160. The Elderly Caregiver
Karen A. Roberto
161. Activity and Aging
John R. Kelly
162. Aging in Rural America
C. Neil Bull
163. Corporate Political Agency
Barry M. Mitnick
164. The New Localism
Edward G. Goetz and Susan E. Clarke
165. Providing Community-Based Services to the Rural Elderly
John A. Krout
166. Religion in Aging and Health
Jeffrey S. Levin
167. Clinical Case Management
Robert W. Surber
168. Qualitative Methods in Aging Research
Jaber F. Gubrium and Andrea Sankar
169. Interventions for Adolescent Identity Development
Sally L. Archer
170. Destructive Behavior in Developmental Disabilities
Travis Thompson and David B. Gray
171. Advances in Social Network Analysis
Stanley Wasserman and Joseph Galaskiewicz
172. Identity and Development
Harke A. Bosma, Tobi L. G. Graafsma, Harold D. Grotevant, and David J. de Levita
173. Interpersonal Communication in Older Adulthood
Mary Lee Hummert, John M. Wiemann, and Jon F. Nussbaum
174. Asian Americans
Pyong Gap Min
175. Studying Elites Using Qualitative Methods
Rosanna Hertz and Jonathan B. Imber
Copyright © 1991 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
For information address:
SAGE Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Newbury Park, California 91320
SAGE Publications Ltd.
6 Bonhill Street
London EC2A 4PU
SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
Greater Kailash I
New Delhi 110 048 India
Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Main entry under title:
Experiencing fieldwork: an inside view of qualitative research / edited by William B. Shaffir, Robert A. Stebbins.
p. 000 cm.—(Sage focus editions; v. 124)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-8039-3644-3.—ISBN 0-8039-3645-1 (pbk.)
1. Social sciences—Research—Methodology. 2. Social sciences—Field work. I. Shaffir, William. II. Stebbins, Robert A., 1938-.
99 00 01 02 12 11 10 9 8 7
Sage Production Editor: Astrid Virding
To the memory of my father, M. M. Shaffir.
To Karin.[Page vi]
Reports about field research usually describe the methods and techniques of the research. Less often do they tell of the researchers' social and emotional experiences: anxiety and frustration, as well as exhilaration and pride in achievement. These topics are discussed more often in personal conversations between field researchers than written about in the literature. But in field research the social and emotional side of the endeavor is more problematic than in any other form of inquiry. Frequently the formal rules and canons of research must be bent, twisted, or otherwise abandoned to accommodate the demands of the specific field research situation and the personal characteristics of the investigator.
Learning about the research experiences of others is essential for students because it enables them to anticipate more accurately the trials and rewards of their own research efforts. In this book field researchers discuss their personal experiences and, less prominently, the methodological decisions and choices behind their studies of society.
The present volume is patterned after a previous one—Fieldwork Experience—that we edited in 1980 along with our colleague and friend Allan Turowetz. Based on reactions from colleagues and students, we believe that it was well received and, by focusing on the social and emotional dimensions of field research, contributed toward understanding a neglected dimension of field research. Indeed, the decision to edit the [Page xii]present volume was prompted by several requests from colleagues for permission to photostat the earlier text for their courses because it was no longer available in print. Although we have retained the general format of the Fieldwork Experience volume, each of the contributions in the present work is original, specially solicited for publication here.
The organization of this volume is focused around four dimensions of the field research process that can be distinguished usefully for analytical purposes only: getting in, learning the ropes, maintaining relations, and leaving and keeping in touch. As is well known, these dimensions are interwoven intricately in the actual dynamics of field research. In fact, such interconnectedness is reflected in the majority of the selections, which could just as easily have served to illustrate adjacent sections. Our general introduction discusses the nature of field research and addresses some of the essential issues researchers have to confront; the introductions to each of the sections further discuss specific aspects of field research.
We wish to thank each of the contributors for the promptness, and even enthusiasm, with which he or she responded to our request for the original article as well as suggested revisions. Their response made our task as editors more than bearable. Finally, we appreciate the cooperation and support of Sage Publications.—
References[Page 256]1985). Wheeling and dealing. New York: Columbia University Press.(1987). Membership roles infield research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage., & . (1988). Intense loyalty in organizations: A case study of college athletics. Administrative Science Quarterly, 33, 401–417. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392716, & . (1989). Self-censorship: The politics of presenting ethnographic data. ARENA Review, 13, 37–48., & . (Blackboards and backboards: College athletes and role engulfment. New York: Columbia University Press., & . (in press).1984). The sociologist as celebrity: The role of the media in field research. Qualitative Sociology, 7, 310–326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00987098(1980). The professional stranger. New York: Academic Press.(1986). Speaking of ethnography. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(1980). Leaving the newsroom. In W.Shaffir, R.A.Stebbins, & A.Turowetz (Eds.), Fieldwork experience: Qualitative approaches to social research (pp. 301–310). New York: St. Martin's.(1989). The limits of delight: Robert Ray's postmodern film studies. Strategies, 2, 157–164.(1988). Ambivalence, moral career and ideology: A sociological analysis of the lives of women married to alcoholics. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota.(1984). The making of a moonie: Choice or brainwashing. New York: Basil Blackwell.(1987). Brahmins don't eat mushrooms: Participant observation and the new religions. LSE Quarterly, 1, 127–152.(1963). Some ethical problems in modern fieldwork. British Journal of Sociology, 14, 118–134. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/586774(1963). Outsiders: The sociology of deviance. New York: Free Press.([Page 257]1965a). Review of Sociologists at work. American Sociological Review, 30, 602–603. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2091355(1965b). Whose side are we on?Social Problems, 14, 239–247. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/799147(1970). Sociological work: Method and substance. Chicago: Aldine.(1957). Participant observation and interviewing: A comparison. Human Organization, 16, 28–32., & . (1961). Boys in white. Chicago: University of Chicago Press., , , & (1970). Christianity and symbolic realism. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 9, 89–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1384973(1974). Comment on “The limits of symbolic realism.”Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 13, 487–489. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1384613(1989). Qualitative research methods. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.(1912). An introduction to metaphysics (T.E.Hulme, Trans.). London, UK: G.P. Putnam.(1970). The functions of the police in modern society. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.(1973). Objectivity and realism in sociology. In G.Psathas (Ed.), Phenomenological sociology (pp. 108–125). New York: John Wiley.(1955). The dynamics of bureaucracy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1986). Symbolic interactionism. Berkeley: University of California Press. (Original work published 1969)(1982). Inside out: The social meaning of mental retardation. Toronto: University of Toronto Press., & (1978). Confidentiality and the protection of human subjects in social science research: A report on recent developments. The American Sociologist, 13, 144–152.(1964). Return to laughter. New York: Random House.(1983). The transition from school to work among Asian youth in Leicester. Leicester, UK: Centre for Mass Communication Research, University of Leicester., & . (1984). Comparative youth culture: The sociology of youth culture and youth subcultures in America, Britain and Canada. London, UK: Routledge and Kegan Paul.(1986). Kaptuna daughter. In P.Golde (Ed.), Women in the field (pp. 19–46,(2nd ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press.1987). Introduction: Themes and theses of men's studies. In H.Brod (Ed.), The making of masculinities (pp. 1–17). Boston: Allen & Unwin.(1976). The access casebook. Stockholm, Sweden: THS., , & (1979). Caretakers: Treating emotionally disturbed children. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., & (1980). Comment on “ethics of covert methods.”British Journal of Sociology, 31, 51–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/590063(1983). Experiencing comprehensive education: A study of Bishop McGregor School. London, UK: Methuen.(1984a). In the field: An introduction to field research ((2nd ed.). London, UK: Allen & Unwin. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/97802034181611984b). Headship: Freedom or constraint. In S.J.Ball (Ed.), Comprehensive schooling: A reader. Lewes, UK: Falmer.(1987). Studying and restudying Bishop McGregor School. In G.Walford (Ed.), Doing sociology of education (pp. 67–94). Lewes, UK: Falmer.([Page 258]1989a). Something you learn to live with? Gender and inequality in a comprehensive school. Gender and Education, 1, 155–164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0954025890010205(1989b). Crisis and community. Journal of Community Education, 7, 8–11.(1989c). Grey areas: Ethical dilemmas in education ethnography. In R.G.Burgess (Ed.), The ethics of education research (pp. 60–76). Lewes, UK: Falmer.(1989). Energy education and the curriculum. Coventry, UK: CEDAR., , , & ,. (1989a). Educating the under fives in Salford. Conventry, UK: CEDAR., , & . (1989b). Policy and politics in studying the under fives. Paper presented to Ethnography and Educational Policy Conference, St. Hilda's College, Oxford, UK., , & . (1975). Absurd creation. In The myth of Sisyphus (pp. 86–106). Middlesex, UK: Penguin. (Original work published 1942)(Canadian press release. (1979, September 29). Edmonton Journal.1979). Co-ops, communes and collectives: Experiments in social change in the 1970s. New York: Random House., & (1980). Toward a moral science of human beings. Social Problems, 27, 259–264. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/800244, & (1987). Toward a paradigm shift in the academy and in religious studies. In C.Farnham (Ed.), The impact of feminist research in the academy (pp. 52–67). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.(1964). Method and measurement in sociology. New York: Free Press.(1986). Writing culture: The poetics and politics of ethnography. Berkeley: University of California Press., & (1987). Armed and dangerous: The rise of the survivalist right. New York: Hill & Wang.(1989). Uncommon cultures. London, UK: Routledge.(1989). Text and culture: The politics of interpretation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.(1961). Comment on “Initial interaction of newcomers in Alcoholics Anonymous.”Social Problems, 8, 364–365. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/799346(1969). Establishing field relations. In G.J.McCall & J.L.Simmons (Eds.), Issues inparticipant observation: A text and reader (pp. 68–70). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley., , & (1989). The research act ((3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.1977). Privacy and self-disclosure in social relationships. Journal of Social Issues, 33, 102–115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1977.tb01885.x, & (1965). Words and deeds: Social science and social policy. Social Problems, 13, 233–254.(1964). Nigerian discovery: The politics of fieldwork. In A.J.Viditch, J.Bensman, & M.R.Stein (Eds.), Reflections on community studies (pp. 119–154). New York: Harper & Row.(1976). Investigating social research: Individual and team field research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(1986). Fisher folk. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.(Sociological introspection and emotional experience. Symbolic Interaction.(in press). [Page 259]Emerson, RobertM. (Ed). (1983). Contemporary field research: A collection of readings. Boston: Little, Brown.1981). Making crime: A study of detective work. Toronto, ONT: Butterworths.(1965). A comment on disguised observation in sociology. Social Problems, 14, 366–373. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/798850(1986). Learning to be deaf. Berlin; Mouton de Gruyter., & (1974). The Nuer: A description of the modes of livelihood and political institutions of a Nilotic people. New York: Oxford University Press.(1972). Ameslan: An introduction to American sign language. Silver Springs, MD: National Association of the Deaf.(1956). When prophecy fails. New York: Harper & Row. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10030-000, , & ,. (1987). Ethnographic educational evaluation. In G.D.Spindler (Ed.), Interpretive ethnography of education: At home and abroad. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.(1989). Ethnography: Step by step. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1980). Cracking diamonds: Observer role in little league baseball settings and acquisitions of social competence. In W.Shaffir, R.A.Stebbins, & A.Turowetz (Eds.), Fieldwork experience: Qualitative approaches to social science (pp. 117–132). New York: St. Martin's.(1979). Participant observation with children: Promises and problems. Urban Life, 8, 153–174., & . (1987). Real punks and pretenders. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 16, 344–370. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0891241687163006(1970). Toward a formalization of fieldwork. In M.Freilich (Ed.), Marginal natives. New York: Harper & Row.(1989). Interaction norms as carriers of organizational culture: A study of labour negotiations at International Harvester. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 18, 3–29.(1985). Organizational culture. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., , , , & . (1986). Marxian and literary history. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1987). Dinosaurs and prospects: Toward a sociology of the compressed career. In K.M.Mahmoudi, B.W.Parlin, & M.Zusman (Eds.), Sociological inquiry: A humanistic perspective (pp. 95–103). Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt.(1988). Methodological issues in qualitative sport research: Participant observation among hockey players. Sociological Spectrum, 8, 213–235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02732173.1988.9981855(1962). The urban villagers: Group and class in the life of Italian-Americans. New York: Free Press.(1968). The participant observer as a human being: Observations on the personal aspects of fieldwork. In H.S.Becker, B.Greer, D.Reisman, & R.Weiss (Eds.), Institutions and the person (pp. 300–317). Chicago: Aldine.(1964). First days in the field. In P.Hammond (Ed.), Sociologists at work (pp. 322–344). New York: Basic Books.(1970). Studying a college. In R.W.Habeinstein (Ed.), Pathways to data (pp. 81–98). Chicago: Aldine.(1983). Local knowledge. New York: Basic Books.([Page 260]1982). In a different voice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1988). Schooling and the struggle for public life. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.(1978). Theoretical sensitivity. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology Press.(1967). The discovery of grounded theory. Chicago: Aldine., & (1968). Time for dying. Chicago: Aldine., & (1972). The research adventure: Promise and problems of fieldwork. New York: Random House.(1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.(1961). Asylums: Essays on the social situation of mental patients and other inmates. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.(1963). Stigma. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.(1989). On fieldwork. [Transcribed and edited by Lyn H. Lofland]. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 18, 123–132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089124189018002001(1958). Roles in sociological observations. Social Forces, 36, 217–223. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2573808(1986). Odyssey of encounter. In P.Golde (Ed.), Women in the field: Anthropological experiences (pp. 67–96,(2nd ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press.1987). Getting close by staying distant: Fieldwork with proselytizing groups. Qualitative Sociology, 10, 267–287. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00988990(1984). Small is bountiful: Labour markets and establishment size. American Sociological Review, 49, 323–334. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095277(1985). Typical girls? Young women from school to the job market. London, UK: Routledge and Kegan Paul.(1986). Black and white youth in a declining job market: Unemployment among Asian, Afro-Caribbean and white young people in Leicester. Leicester, UK: Centre for Mass Communication Research, University of Leicester.(1989). I'm not a women's libber, but… : Feminism, consciousness and identity. In S.Skevington & D.Baker (Eds.), The social identity of women. London, UK: Sage.(1975). Living and dying at Murray Manor. New York: St. Martin's.(1980a). Patient exclusion in geriatric staffings. Sociological Quarterly, 21, 335–348. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1980.tb00616.x(1980b). Doing care plans in patient conferences. Social Science and Medicine, 14A, 659–667.(1986). Oldtimers and Alzheimer's: The descriptive organization of senility. Greenwich, CT: JAI.(1987). Structuring and destructuring the course of illness: The Alzheimer's disease experience. Sociology of Health and Illness, 3, 1–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.ep11343397(1988). Gefuhlsarbeit und emotionaler Diskurs beim Erleben der Alzheimer-Krankheit. In G.Gockenjan & H.J.von Kondratowitz (Eds.), Alter und Alltag (pp. 351–369). Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag.(1989). Local cultures and service policy. In J.F.Gubrium & D.Silverman (Eds.), The politics of field research: Sociology beyond enlightenment (pp. 94–112). London, UK: Sage.(1987). Measurement and the interpretation of burden in the Alzheimer's disease experience. Journal of Aging Studies, 1, 265–285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0890-4065%2887%2990018-1, & (1982). Implementing a national crime control program: The case of an economic crime unit. In M.Morash (Ed.), The implementation of key criminal justice policies. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.. ([Page 261]1985a). Factors influencing the decision to prosecute economic crime. Criminology, 23, 609–628. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1985.tb00366.x. (1985). Not one of the guys: The female researcher in a male-dominated setting. Qualitative Sociology, 8, 42–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00987013. (1980). Fieldworker's mistakes at work: Problems in maintaining research and researcher bargains. In W.Shaffir, R.A.Stebbins, & A.Turowetz (Eds.), Fieldwork experience: Qualitative approaches to social research (pp. 244–255). New York: St. Martin's., & . (Habenstein, RobertW. (Ed.). (1970). Pathways to data. Chicago: Aldine.1977). Review symposium: The new religious consciousness. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 16, 305–309.(1983). Ethnography: Principals in practice. London, UK: Tavistock., & . (1989). Skin flicks: Pornography, ethnography, and the discourse of power. Discourse, 11, 65–79., , & . (1972). The Jesus people. Psychology Today, 6, 44ff., , & (1987). Feminism and methodology. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press.(1987). Superstructuralism: The philosophy of structuralism and post-structuralism. London: Methuen.(1981). The primal mind: Vision and reality in Indian America. New York: Harper & Row.(1983). The managed heart. Berkeley: University of California Press.(1980). The ethics of covert methods. British Journal of Sociology, 31, 46–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/590062(1986). Remaining an outsider: Membership as a threat to research rapport. Urban Life, 14, 409–430.(1949). Queries concerning industry and society growing out of a study of ethnic relations in industry. American Sociological Review, 14, 211–220. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2086854(1960). Introduction: The place of fieldwork and social science. In B.H.Junker (Ed.), Fieldwork: An introduction to the social sciences (pp. iii-xiii). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1975). Tearoom trade: Impersonal sex in public places (enlarged edition). Chicago: Aldine.(1989). Psychoanalytic aspects of fieldwork. Sage University Paper Series on Qualitative Research Methods (Vol. 18). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1990). Deja Entendu: The liminal qualities of anthropological fieldnotes. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 19, 8–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089124190019001002(1989). Love and knowledge: Emotion in feminist epistemology. In A.M.Jaggar & S.R.Bordo (Eds.), Gender/body/knowledge: Feminist reconstructions of being and knowing (pp. 145–171). New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.(1975). Doing field research. New York: Free Press.(1981). Research methods in the sociology of sport. Qualitative Sociology, 4, 179–197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00988376, , & . (1960). Fieldwork: An introduction to the social sciences. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1985). Good enough to dream. New York: Doubleday.(1987). Rocking around the clock. New York: Methuen.. ([Page 262]1985). Availability of similar others, frequency of social interaction and community satisfaction. Housing and Society, 12, 123–132.(1988). Women who go to sea: An examination of women in the commercial fishing industry. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 16, 491–514. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0891241688164004(1989). Marketing, ecological, and policy considerations related to the New England conch fisher and Hoploplana. Biological Bulletin, 177, 372. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1541597, , & . (1988). Marine policy implications related to the commercial value and scientific collecting of the whelk Busycon. Biological Bulletin, 175, 312., , & (1982). Reflexivity in fieldwork. In P.F.Secord (Ed.), Explaining human behavior: Consciousness, human action and social structure. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., & (1988). Seduction of crime: Moral and sensual attractions of doing evil.. New York: Basic Books.(1980). Learning the ropes as fieldwork analysis. In W.Shaffir, R.A.Stebbins, & A.Turowetz (Eds.), Fieldwork experience: Qualitative approaches to social research (pp 171–183). New York: St. Martin's.(1983). Collective matters as individual concern: Peer culture among graduate students. Urban Life, 12, 203–225.(1990). Opposing emotions: An alternative health center comes of age. Unpublished manuscript.(1969). On death and dying. New York; Macmillan.(1973). Crime as work. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.(1967). Tally's corner. Boston: Little, Brown.(1982). The production of desire. New York: Free Press.(1974). Compulsive gamblers. New York: Harper & Row.(1971). Analyzing social settings: A guide to qualitative observation and analysis. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.(1976). Doing social life: The qualitative study of human interaction in natural settings. New York: John Wiley.(1977). Doomsday cult. New York: Irvington.(1984). Analyzing social settings: A guide to qualitative observation and analysis (, & . (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.1967). Imaginary friends. New York: Coward-McMann.(1981). The 36-hour day. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press., & (1987). Ain't no making it: Leveled aspirations in a low-income neighborhood. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.(1968). The armies of the night. New York: New American Library.(1980). Leaving the field in ethnographic research: Reflections on the entrance-exit hypothesis. In W.Shaffir, R.A.Stebbins, & A.Turowetz (Eds.), Fieldwork experience: Qualitative approaches to social research (pp. 261–281). New York: St. Martin's., , & . (1922). The argonauts of the western Pacific. London, UK: Routledge.(1972). Observing the police. In J.D.Douglas (Ed.), Research on deviance (pp. 213–268). New York: Random House.(1989). The postmodern turn in anthropology: Cautions for a feminist perspective. Signs, 15, 7–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/494562, , & . ([Page 263]1969). Becoming deviant. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.(1964). Whiz mob. New Haven, CT: College and University Press.(McCall, GeorgeJ., & Simmons, J.L. (Eds.). (1969). Issues in participant observation. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.1985). The rhetoric of economics. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press.(1986). Schooling as a ritual performance: Towards a political economy of educational symbols and gestures. London, UK: Routledge & Kegan Paul.(1989). Schooling the postmodern body: Critical pedagogy and the politics of enfleshment. Journal of Education, 170, 53–83.(1978). Night as frontier. American Sociological Review, 43, 3–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2094758(1989). Interpreting the debt crisis. The Ecumenist, 28, 5–10.(1980). Keeping in touch: Maintaining contact with stigmatized subjects. In W.Shaffir, R.A.Stebbins, & A.Turowetz (Eds.), Fieldwork experience: Qualitative approaches to social research (pp. 212–223). New York: St. Martin's., & . (1952). The participant observer and “over-rapport.”American Sociological Review, 17, 97–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2088368(1959). The sociological imagination. London, UK: Oxford University Press.. (1987). Of other peoples: Beyond the “salvage” paradigm. In H.Foster (Ed.), Discussions in contemporary culture number one (pp. 138–141). Seattle, WA: Bay Press.(1983). Mountain experience: The psychology and sociology of adventure. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1977). In the field: Reflection on the study of Suffolk farm workers. In C.Bell & H.Newby (Eds.), Doing sociological research (pp. 108–129). London, UK: Allen & Unwin.(1962). On the social psychology of the psychological experiment. American Psychologist, 17, 776–783. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0043424(1953). Interview techniques and field relations. In A.L.Kroeber (Ed.), Anthropology today (pp. 430–451). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1984). Odd man out: The participant observer in an absolutist setting. Sociology of Education, 57, 254–264. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2112429(1955). Language in relation to a unified theory of the structure of human relations. The Hague: Mouton.(1988). Danger and rituals of avoidance among New England fishermen. Maritime Anthropological Studies, 1, 66–78., & (1983). The dynamics of inclusion and distance in fieldwork relations. In R.M.Emerson (Ed.), Contemporary field research (pp. 235–252). Boston: Little, Brown., & (1985). Hustlers, beats, and others. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (Original work published 1967)(1966). Stranger and friend: The way of an anthropologist. NewYork: W.W. Norton.(1968). Fieldwork. In D.L.Sills (Ed.), International encyclopedia of the social sciences (Vol. 5, pp. 418–424). New York: Macmillan.(1980). Sociologist as hustler: The dynamics of acquiring information. In W.Shaffir, R.A.Stebbins, & A.Turowetz (Eds.), Fieldwork experience: Qualitative approaches to social research (pp. 132–145). New York: St. Martin's.([Page 264]1987). Generic social processes: Maximizing conceptual development in ethnographic research. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 16, 250–293. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0891241687163002(1980). Hookers, rounders, and desk clerks: The social organization of the hotel community. Toronto, ONT: Gage., & (1977). Road hustler: The career contingencies of professional card and dice hustlers. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books., & (1989a). Making sales: Influence as interpersonal accomplishment. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1989b). Pursuing customers: An ethnography of marketing activity. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1986). The politics and ethics of fieldwork. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(1986). Studying people: A primer in the ethics of social research. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press., & (1979). On becoming a social scientist. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.(1971). The police and the public. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.(1978). Researching a fundamentalist commune. In J.Needleman & G.Baker (Eds.), Understanding the new religions. New York: Seabury., , & (1979). Organized miracles: A study of contemporary, youth, communal, fundamentalist organization. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction., , & (1977). Varieties of opportunistic research. Urban Life, 5, 467–477.(1980). Breaking relationships with research subjects: Some problems and suggestions. In W.Shaffir, R.A.Stebbins, & A.Turowetz (Eds.), Fieldworkexperience: Qualitative approaches to social research (pp. 281–291). New York: St. Martin's.(1973). The limits of symbolic realism: Problems of emphatic field observation in a sectarian context. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 12, 259–272. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1384427, , & (1951). A logical structure of analytic induction. American Sociological Review, 16, 812–818. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2087508(1985). The Hare Krishna in America. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.(1989). Culture and truth: The remaking of social analysis. Boston: Beacon Press.(1975). On being sane in insane places. In D.Brissett & C.Edgley (Eds.), Life as theatre: A dramaturgical sourcebook. Chicago: Aldine.(1970). Interpersonal expectations. In R.Rosenthal & R.Rosnow (Eds.), Sources of artifact in social research (pp. 181–277). New York: Academic Press.(1960). Comments on secret observation. Social Problems, 9, 283–284. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/799240(1979). The collectivist organization. American Sociological Review, 44, 509–521. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2094585(1973). City police. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.(1979). The ethnographic paradigm(s). Administrative Science Quarterly, 24, 482–493. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392359(1980). Rope bums: Impediments to the achievement of basic comfort early in the field research experience. In W.Shaffir, R.A.Stebbins, & A.Turowetz (Eds.), Fieldwork experience: Qualitative approaches to social research (pp. 158–170). New York: St. Martin's.([Page 265]1967). Existentialism and human decision. In F.Tillman, B.Berofsky, & J.O'Conner (Eds.), Introductory philosophy (pp. 694–704). New York: Harper & Row.(1973). Field research: Strategies for a natural sociology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall., & (1970). Sect ideologies and social status. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1979). Qualitative sociology: A method to the madness. New York: Free Press., & . (1955). Problems in participant observation. American Sociological Review, 60, 343–354. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/221566, & . (1983). The magicians: A study of the use of power in a black magic group. New York: Irvington.(1981). The making of blind men. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.(1974). Life in a religious community. Toronto: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.(1985). Some reflections on approaches to fieldwork in hassidic communities. The Jewish Journal of Sociology, 27, 115–134.(1980). Competing commitments: Unanticipated problems of field research. Qualitative Sociology, 2, 56–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02390158, , & . (1967). Demand curves in an experiment on attitude change. Sociometry, 30, 246–261. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2786447(1989). Six rules of qualitative research: A post-romantic argument. Symbolic Interaction, 12, 215–230. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/si.1922.214.171.124(1906). The sociology of secrecy and secret societies. American Journal of Sociology, 11, 441–498. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/211418(1955). Conflict. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.(1988). On critical ethnography. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 17, 195–202., & . (1966). Justice without trial. New York: John Wiley.(1989). Managing emotions in medical school: Students’ contacts with the living and the dead. Social Psychology Quarterly, 52, 56–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2786904, & . (1988). Fisheries risk in the modern context. Maritime Anthropological Studies, 1, 29–48.. (1980). The disengagement process: A neglected problem in participant observation research. Qualitative Sociology, 3, 100–122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00987266(1988). Can there be a feminist ethnography?Women's Studies International Forum, 11, 21–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-5395%2888%2990004-0(1972). The unstructured interview as incipient interpersonal relationship. Sociology and Social Research, 56, 164–179.(1975). Putting people on: Deception of our fellow man in everyday life. Sociology and Social Research, 59, 189–200.(1982). Serious leisure: A conceptual statement. Pacific Sociological Review, 25, 251–272. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1388726(1978). On knowing how we know about the new religions. In J.Needleman & G.Baker (Eds.), Understanding the new religions. New York: Seabury.(1987). Qualitative analysis for social scientists. New York: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511557842(1966). My people is the enemy. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.(1968). The social order of the slum. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.([Page 266]1977). The custodians: Attendants and their work at state institutions for the mentally retarded. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms.(1984). Introduction to qualitative research methods: The search for meaning (, & . (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley.1928). The child in America. New York: Knopf., & (1979). Political activist as participant observer: Conflicts of commitment in a study of the draft resistance movement of the 1960s. Symbolic Interaction, 2, 73–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/si.19126.96.36.199(1970). The outsider's role in field study. In J.O.Filstead (Ed.), Qualitative methodology. Chicago: Markham.(1953). The quest for universals in sociological research. American Sociological Review, 18, 604–611. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2088113(1986). Post-modern ethnography: From document of the occult to occult document. In J.Clifford & G.E.Marcus (Eds.), The poetics and politics of ethnography (pp. 122–140). Berkeley: University of California Press.(1964). The age of mountaineering. Philadelphia: Lippincott.. (1988). Tales of the field. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.. (1984). The professional apprentice. In S.B.Bacharach (Ed.), Perspectives in organizational sociology (pp. 1–33). Greenwich, CT: JAI., & . (1955). Participant observation and the collection and interpretation of data. American Sociological Review, 60, 354–360. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/221567(1987). This idle trade: The occupational patterns of male prostitution. Concord, ONT: VitaSana.(1966). Pitfalls in social research: A case study. American Sociologist, 1, 136–140.(1974). The conduct of educational case studies: Ethics, theory and procedure. In W.B.Dockrell & D.Hamilton (Eds.), Rethinking educational research (pp. 30–63). London, UK: Hodder & Stoughton.(1976). The road to total freedom: A sociological analysis of Scientology. New York: Columbia University Press.(1977). The moral career of a research project. In C.Bell & H.Newby (Eds.), Doing sociological research (pp. 149–167). London, UK: Allen & Unwin.(1970). The new centurions. New York: Norton.(1988). Gender issues infield research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1967). On misunderstanding verstehen: A reply to Abel. Sociology and Social Research, 51, 323–333.(1980). Paradoxes of “consent” to the practice of fieldwork. Social Problems, 27, 272–283. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/800246(1983). On field workers and those exposed to fieldwork: Federal regulations and moral issues. In R.M.Emerson (Ed.), Contemporary field research (pp. 288–299). Boston: Little, Brown.(1952). Field methods and techniques: Reciprocity as a field technique. Human Organization, 11, 34–37.(1971). Doing fieldwork: Warnings and advice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1979). Gender and age in fieldwork and fieldwork education: No good thing is done by any man alone. Social Problems, 26, 509–522. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/800037(1981). Nonreactive measures in the social science (, , , , and (2nd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.1958). Max Weber: Essays in sociology. (H.H.Gerth and C.W.Mills, Trans. and Eds.). New York: Oxford University Press.([Page 267]1968). Economy and society. New York: Bedminster.(1987). Feminist practice and poststructuralist theory. London, UK: Basil Blackwell.(1963). Some dimensions of altercasting. Sociometry, 26, 454–466. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2786148, & . (1976). Sex differences in nonverbal communication. Sex Roles, 2, 175–184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00287250(1980). Access to adolescent deviants and deviance. In W.Shaffir, R.A.Stebbins, & A.Turowetz (Eds.), Fieldwork experience: Qualitative approaches to social research (pp. 31–44). New York: St. Martin's.(1970). Violence and the police. Cambridge: MIT Press.(1987). Establishing shelters for battered women. Qualitative Sociology, 10, 146–163. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00988526(1981). Street corner society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (Original work published 1943)(1984). Learning from the field: A guide from experience (with the collaboration of Kathleen King Whyte). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(1982). The research craft (, , , & (2nd ed). Boston: Little, Brown.1977). Learning to labour: How working class kids get working class jobs. Farnborough, UK: Saxon House.(1990). The Rebels: A brotherhood of outlaw bikers. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.(1965). Experiences with the criminal community. In A.Gouldner & S.M.Miller (Eds.), Applied sociology (pp. 55–73). New York: Free Press.(1977). The diary: Diary-interview method. Urban Life, 5, 479–498., & . (1934). The method of sociology. New York: Farrar & Rinehart.(
About the Authors[Page 268]
Patricia A. Adler (Ph.D., University of California, San Diego) is Assistant Professor of Sociology at the University of Colorado. She has written and taught in the areas of deviance, social theory, and the sociology of children. She has published Wheeling and Dealing (Columbia University Press), The Sociology of Financial Markets (JAI), and “Intense Loyalty in Organizations” in Administrative Science Quarterly.
Peter Adler (Ph.D., University of California, San Diego) is Associate Professor and Chair of Sociology at the University of Denver. His research interests include social psychology, qualitative methods, and the sociology of sport and leisure. Recent publications include Membership Roles in Field Research (Sage), “Everday Life Sociology” in the 1987 Annual Review of Sociology, and “The Gloried Self” in Social Psychology Quarterly. Together, Peter and Patricia Adler edit the Journal of Contemporary Ethnography and Sociological Studies of Child Development. Their most recent book, Blackboards and Backboards, a five-year participant-observation study of college athletes, is in press.
Ramona M. Asher (Ph.D., University of Minnesota), independent scholar and sociology practitioner, develops personal-growth workshops for public and corporate presentation. She currently is researching changing [Page 269]definitions of selves and situations over the life course, continuing her interests in life transformations and constructions of reality that originated in her doctoral study of the moral career of becoming a wife of an alcoholic. She has published works on alcohol studies and codependency. Formerly Assistant Professor of Sociology at the University of Wisconsin–Eau Claire, she now centers her research and practice in Minneapolis, where she occasionally teaches at the University of Minnesota.
Robert G. Burgess is Professor of Sociology and Director of CEDAR (Centre for Educational Development, Appraisal and Research) at the University of Warwick. His main teaching and research interests are in social research methodology; especially qualitative methods and the sociology of education, and particularly the study of schools, classrooms, and curricula. He currently is writing an ethnographic restudy of a comprehensive school on which he already has published several papers. His main publications include: Experiencing Comprehensive Education, In the Field: An Introduction to Field Research, Education, Schools and Schooling, and Sociology, Education and Schools, together with fourteen edited volumes on qualitative methods and education. He is President of the British Sociological Association.
A. Donald Evans (Ph.D., Louisiana State University) has taught sociology and anthropology at Mercer University in Georgia since 1971. His research interests include sociology of language, corrections, and American Indians, in addition to his studies focusing on the language and culture of the deaf. Among his publications are Learning to Be Deaf (coauthored with William Falk) and “Strange Bedfellows: Language, Deafness, and Knowledge” in Symbolic Interaction.
David M. Fetterman is an administrator and a member of the faculty at Stanford University. He is also a Professor of Education at Sierra Nevada College. Dr. Fetterman is the President of the American Anthropological Association's Council on Anthropology and Education. He has received the President's Prize from the Evaluation Research Society, the Praxis Publication Award from the Washington Association of Professional Anthropologists, and the Ethnographic Evaluation Award from the Council on Anthropology and Education. He was recently awarded one of the 1990 Mensa Education and Research Foundation Awards for Excellence. The award was made for his book Excellence and Equality: A[Page 270]Qualitatively Different Perspective on Gifted and Talented Education. Dr. Fetterman is also the author of Ethnography: Step by Step; Qualitative Approaches to Evaluation in Education: The Silent Scientific Revolution; Educational Evaluation: Ethnography in Theory, Practice, and Politics; and Ethnography in Educational Evaluation.
Gary Alan Fine is Professor and Head of Sociology at the University of Georgia. His major research interests include social psychology, collective behavior, qualitative methods, sociological theory, and the sociology of culture. He currently is conducting research on the world of high school debate and is publishing articles on his previous research projects on restaurant cooking and amateur mushroom collecting. He is the author of With the Boys: Little League Baseball and Preadolescent Culture, the winner of the 1988 Opie Prize, and Shared Fantasy: Role-Playing Games as Social Worlds.
Charles P. Gallmeier is an Assistant Professor of Sociology at Valparaiso University. His research interests include sociology of sport, work and occupations, deviance, and qualitative methods. His work has appeared in a number of journals, including Sociological Spectrum and the ARENA Review. He served as a guest editor for the ARENA Review, developing a special issue devoted to ethnographic methods in sport sociology. He is currently the New Ethnographies Editor for the Journal of Contemporary Ethnography.
Christine Griffin teaches social psychology at Birmingham University, England. Her research interests include young people's experiences of the transition to adulthood, sex/gender relations, power relations and everyday experience, and qualitative ethnographic research methods. She has been involved in developing youth work provision for young women since 1979. Between 1979 and 1982 she worked at the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies, Birmingham University, on a study of young women's entry to the job market. From 1983 to 1985 she conducted a survey of young adults' experiences of racial discrimination in the local job market at Leicester University's Centre for Mass Communication Research.
Jaber F. Gubrium is Professor of Sociology at the University of Florida. He has conducted research on the social organization of care in diverse human service settings. Currently, he is engaged in a funded study of [Page 271]institutionalization and life narrative in old age and is continuing to develop a social constructionist approach to the family. He is the editor of the Journal of Aging Studies, author of Living and Dying at Murray Manor, and Oldtimers and Alzheimer's, Analyzing Field Reality, The Mosaic of Care and coauthor of What Is Family? and The Home Care Experience (with Andrea Sankar).
Joan Neff Gurney is presently Associate Professor of Sociology and Associate Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences at the University of Richmond in Virginia. Her research has included studies of community responses to natural and human-made disasters, the prosecution of white-collar crime, and the utilization of diversion programs for juvenile offenders. Professor Gurney's published work also has focused on the role of the female researcher in a male-dominated setting. Currently her research interests center on the decision-making process within the juvenile court system.
Ilene M. Kaplan (Ph.D., Princeton University) is Associate Professor of Sociology at Union College, Schenectady, New York, and directs their Marine Studies Term. She is also a visiting researcher at the Marine Policy Center of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and was appointed as Visiting Scientist to the National Marine Fisheries Service/NOAA. Her research activities and publications include studies of women who fish as well as those who either own or are employed in commercial fishing businesses in New England. She recently has received a grant to examine socioeconomic trends in the New England conch fishery.
Sherryl Kleinman is Associate Professor of Sociology at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. She is author of Equals Before God: Seminarians as Humanistic Professionals and articles on symbolic interaction, qualitative sociology, socialization, and sociology of work. Her current interest is in the sociology of emotions, especially links between culture, emotions, and inequality. She is writing a monograph on a holistic health center that analyzes substantive themes as well as the process of research and writing.
Peter McLaren is Renowned Scholar-in-Residence, School of Education and Allied Professions, Miami University of Ohio. He is also Associate Professor of Educational Leadership and Associate Director of the Center for Education and Cultural Studies. Professor McLaren is the author [Page 272]of a number of books, which include Schooling as a Ritual Performance, Life in Schools, and Critical Pedagogy, the State, and Cultural Struggle (coedited with Henry A. Giroux). He is also coeditor of the forthcoming Paulo Freire: A Critical Encounter (with Peter Leonard) and coauthor of Sociedad, Cultura y Escuela (with Henry A. Giroux). Professor McLaren is the coeditor (with Henry A. Giroux) of the publication series “Teacher Empowerment and School Reform” and is currently coediting a special issue of International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education (with Jim Giarelli) and editing a special issue of Education and Society (Australia). Professor McLaren has lectured in Europe, Latin America, and Canada and currently is serving as Distinguished Visiting Scholar at Brock University in Ontario, Canada.
Richard G. Mitchell, Jr. (Ph.D., University of Southern California) is an Associate Professor in the Department of Sociology at Oregon State University in Corvallis, Oregon. He has conducted extended fieldwork as a participant observer among mountain climbers, survivalists, and right-wing paramilitary groups. Presently he is studying automobile racing. Theoretical interests include existentialism and sociology, the linkages between leisure and culture, the linkages between art and science, professional ethics, and marketplace behavior.
Robert Prus, a sociologist at the University of Waterloo, is intensely interested in how people accomplish their activities on a day-to-day basis. Developing theory by focusing on generic or transsituational social processes, his work has covered a wide range of human lived experience. This includes parole officers working with their clientele, clergy attempting to recruit (and maintain) followings, card and dice hustlers, the people who constitute the hotel community, and people involved in marketing and sales. At present, he is doing research on consumer behavior, the courtship of corporate investors by cities, and the interpretive-quantitative paradigm struggle in the social sciences.
James T. Richardson is Professor of Sociology and Judicial Studies at the University of Nevada, Reno. His interests include sociology of religion, sociology of law, social movements, and social psychology. He has published more than 80 articles and chapters along with more than five books, including ConversionCareers, Money and Power in the New Religions, and The Brainwashing Deprogramming Controversy (with David Bromley). He [Page 273]is also a licensed attorney, and directs the Masters in Judicial Studies offered by UNR and the National Judicial College.
William B. Shaffir is Professor in the Department of Sociology at McMaster University. He is the author of books and journal articles in the areas of professional socialization, Chassidic Jews, and ethnic violence. His current research includes studies of Chassidic communities, the process of defection from Orthodox Judaism, and the relationship between Canadian Jews and Israel. His most recent books include Becoming Doctors: The Adoption of a Cloak of Competence (coauthored with Jack Haas) and The Riot at Christie Pits (coauthored with Cyril Levitt).
Robert A. Stebbins (Ph.D., University of Minnesota) is a Professor in the Department of Sociology at the University of Calgary. He has conducted 12 field studies in the areas of work, leisure, and education and presently is synthesizing into a more comprehensive grounded theory eight of these studies that bear on amateurs and professionals. Professor Stebbins' most recent book is The Laugh-Makers: Stand-Up Comedy as Art, Business, and Life-Style.
Steven J. Taylor is Professor of Special Education at Syracuse University and Director of the Center on Human Policy, a university-based disability research and policy institute. He has published numerous articles in special education, disability, and sociological journals and has authored several major books, including Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods and Inside Out: The Social Meaning of Mental Retardation, both with Robert Bogdan, and Community Integration for People with Severe Disabilities. His current interests include qualitative research, research ethics, social policy and disability, and deinstitutionalization. He currently is conducting a qualitative study of an extended family of people labeled as mentally retarded. In addition to his research interests, Dr. Taylor is involved actively in the disability-rights movement.
John Van Maanen is the Erwin Schell Professor of Organization Studies in the Sloan School of Management at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is the author of numerous books and articles in the areas of occupational sociology and organization theory. His recent work includes Tales of the Field: On Writing Ethnography and editing a special issue of the Journal of Contemporary Ethnography (Volume 19, Number 1, April, 1990) on “The Presentation of Ethnographic Research.”[Page 274]
Daniel R. Wolf (Ph.D., University of Alberta). After riding with the Rebels Motorcycle Club as “Coyote,” Dr. Wolf wrote a thesis that focused on how the club accommodated interpersonal differences and conflict while still maintaining the rigid paramilitary discipline needed in order to beat the odds and survive. The Rebels: A Brotherhood of Outlaw Bikers is a contemporary ethnography based on Dr. Wolfs experiences that describes the psychological dynamics, social mechanics, and political intrigue that make up the world of the outlaw biker. He is currently an Assistant Professor with the Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada. His current research interest is the investigation of contemporary urban culture with a primary focus on subcultural deviance.