Every Child Can Learn: Using Learning Tools and Play to Help Children with Developmental Delay
Publication Year: 2008
Based on their clinical practice and extensive experience in the field, the authors provide a creative and flexible guide to helping young children with learning difficulties. Their accessible and positive approach focuses on children's potential and what they can—rather than cannot—do, and can be carried out at home, in school, or in therapy sessions. The approach, applicable to all students, including those of diverse backgrounds, can be extended to all aspects of the child's life, and enables them to participate in everyday activities at home and school.Fully illustrated, the book offers techniques and activities to help children develop their learning, with a focus on:Developing learning toolsWorking with parentsLanguage and communicationBehavior and emotional developmentIntegrating learning into everyday lifeThe book includes a CD-ROM/DVD with printable material for ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Section I: Functional Learning Theory and Practice
- Chapter 1: Historical Background
- The Need
- A Place to Meet the Need
- Developing Ideas
- Putting Theory into Practice
- Functional Learning
- Chapter 2: Play and Learning
- Play in Early Childhood
- Observing Early Play in Infants
- Links with Learning and the Learning Tools
- Social Play of the Older Child
- Play, Learning and the Development of Understanding
- Play and Learning of Children with Developmental Delay
- Providing an Appropriate Environment
- Chapter 3: Functional Learning
- Functional Learning Defined
- Learning, Emotions and Neuroscience
- Facilitation of the Learning Tools
- Secondary Defensive Behaviour
- How to Set up Functional Learning Sessions
- The Emotional Dimension
- Frequency of the Learning Sessions
- Use of Video
- Adapting Functional Learning to Different Children
- Functional Learning and Educational Initiatives
- Chapter 4: Assessment
- Traditional Assessment
- Diagnostic Labels
- Initial Assessment
- Assessment as an Integral Part of Intervention
- Section II: Development of the Learning Tools
- Chapter 5: The Placing Tool
- What is Placing?
- Body Awareness and Sense of Self
- Placing and Children with Developmental Delay
- Use of the Guiding Hand
- Materials Used for Placing
- Simple Placing
- Intermediate Placing
- Mature Placing
- Placing in Everyday Life
- Chapter 6: The Piling Tool
- What is Piling?
- Piling and Placing Compared
- Piling and Children with Developmental Delay
- Materials Used for Piling
- Piling Activity
- Piling in Everyday Life
- Chapter 7: The Banging Tool and the Drawing Tool
- What is Banging?
- Banging and Children with Developmental Delay
- Materials Used for Banging
- Introducing Banging Activities
- Scraping – An Extension of Banging
- Banging and Drawing in Everyday Life
- Chapter 8: The Pairing Tool
- What is Pairing?
- The Pointing Finger
- Materials Used for Pairing
- Introducing Pairing
- Simple Pairing
- Intermediate Pairing
- Mature Pairing
- Extension of Pairing into Everyday Activities
- Chapter 9: The Matching Tool
- What is Matching?
- Materials Used for Matching
- Introducing Matching
- Simple Matching
- Intermediate Matching
- Mature Matching
- Extension of Matching Activities
- Chapter 10: The Sorting Tool
- What is Sorting?
- Links with Pairing and Matching
- Materials Used for Sorting
- Simple Sorting
- Intermediate Sorting
- Mature Sorting
- The Use of Language in Sorting Activities
- Sorting in Everyday Life
- Chapter 11: The Sequencing Tool
- What is Sequencing?
- Sequencing and Children with Developmental Delay
- Using the Pointing Finger
- Materials Used for Sequencing
- Simple Sequencing
- Intermediate Sequencing
- Mature Sequencing
- Sequencing in Everyday Life
- Chapter 12: The Brick Building Tool
- What is Brick Building?
- Brick Building and Children with Developmental Delay
- Materials Used for Brick Building
- Introduction to Brick Building
- Brick Building from a Model
- Link with Drawing
- Everyday Play Activities Related to Brick Building
- Section III: Extending the Learning Activities
- Chapter 13: Coding
- What is Coding?
- Coding in Reading, Writing and Number
- Coding and Children with Developmental Delay
- Materials for Coding
- Simple Coding
- Intermediate Coding
- Mature Coding
- Chapter 14: Intersectional Sorting
- What is Intersectional Sorting?
- Materials for Intersectional Sorting
- Simple Intersectional Sorting
- Intermediate Intersectional Sorting
- Mature Intersectional Sorting
- Extension of Intersectional Sorting
- Learning to Think
- Chapter 15: Worksheets
- An Educational Tool
- Introducing Worksheets
- Organizing the Information
- Working Independently
- Worksheets to Extend the Learning Tools
- Section IV: Communication, Emotional Growth and the Family
- Chapter 16: Language and Communication
- Early Communication
- Communication and the Child with Developmental Delay
- Some Early Intervention Strategies
- The Staircase Routine
- Body Language and Protective Behaviour
- Therapeutic Language
- Integration of Language and Learning: Case Study
- Chapter 17: Therapeutic Work with Parents
- A Different Parenting Experience
- Responding to Parents' Needs
- Initial Meeting with the Family
- Collaborative Work with Parents
- The Role of Fathers
- Working with Siblings
- The Reluctant Parent
- Helping Parents Respond to Common Problems
- Chapter 18: Feeding and Eating in Young Children with Developmental Delay
- Feeding as a Therapeutic Tool
- Early Infant Feeding
- Feeding as a Diagnostic Tool
- Primary and Secondary Feeding Problems
- Establishing a Good Feeding Experience
- Feeding Can Be Part of Therapeutic Intervention: A Case Study
- Section V: Functional Learning in Different Settings
- Chapter 19: A Class in a Residential Unit
- The Learning Tools – Into Normal Education
- Integration of Learning Tools
- Other Learning Activities
- Chapter 20: Functional Learning and Inclusion in Mainstream Education
- Policy of Inclusion
- Supporting a Child in Nursery and School
- How Functional Learning Can Facilitate Learning in the Classroom: A Case Study
- Chapter 21: International Links
- Learning Tools are Cross-Cultural
- Hanover, Germany – Special Education Unit
- Nicosia, Cyprus – Individual Functional Learning Programmes
- Slovenia – Functional Learning Training Programmes
- A Functional Learning Workshop Programme
- The Rewards
Assessment Tools[Page ii]
© Katrin Stroh, Thelma Robinson and Alan Proctor 2008
First published 2008
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
The CD-ROM may not reproduced for use by others without prior written permission from SAGE. The CD-ROM may not be distributed or sold separately from the book without the prior written permission of SAGE. All material is ©Katrin Stroh, Thelma Robinson and Alan Proctor, 2008
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
33 Pekin Street #02-01
Far East Square
Library of Congress Control Number: 2007940171
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-1-4129-4795-4 (pbk)
Typeset by C&M Digitals (P) Ltd, Chennai, India
Printed in Great Britain by The Cromwell Press, Trowbridge, Wiltshire
Printed on paper from sustainable resources
We would like to dedicate this book to the many children and families who have shared their pain and their joy and from whom we have learned so much.
Comments about Functional Learning[Page vi]
‘I never considered just how important curiosity is in learning. The ability to be curious – that is what all children must be given.’Father, Essex
‘I am now aware of the many possibilities for learning situations at home that can be devised from simple principles.’Mother, Essex
‘We obviously have a long way to go with Matthew, but I feel that Functional Learning can help him reach his full potential and no one else has offered him that.’Mother, Yorkshire
‘I'm needed here!’4-year-old boy after a Functional Learning session with Geoffrey Waldon
‘Why do I find it so easy now [to learn] when I used to find it so difficult?’8-year-old boy working with Functional LearningComments about the Video: Learning and Communication
‘I have nothing but praise for your video, it was so wonderfully clear and simple. Anyone would be able to understand it and it seems a perfect way to promote your ideas.’Robin Skynner, Family therapist
‘The emphasis is on learning in the broadest sense – therapists and others will be immediately struck by the [quiet] learning environment … often found when very young children play intently by themselves’Professor David Crystal
‘Your approach [Functional Learning] ought to be part of the repertoire of any therapist when working with children with delayed development.’Dr John Richer, Clinical Psychologist
‘The theoretical framework and the practical guidance for implementation will offer parents and professionals much to emulate … it makes a valuable contribution to our understanding of how young children learn … using detailed observations of what children do in their spontaneous play.’Dorothy Rouse, National Children's Bureau
Contents of CD[Page xiii]
VideoLearning and Communication1
- A typical 2-year-old playing and talking
- Examples of children with developmental delay
- Introduction of the term ‘Learning Tools’
- How to use Learning Tools to help children with developmental delay
Materials and Equipment for Functional Learning Activities 4
- Introduction 5
- Use of Objects 6
- The Placing Tool (Chapter 5) 7
- The Piling Tool (Chapter 6) 16
- The Banging Tool and the Drawing Tool (Chapter 7) 17
- The Pairing Tool (Chapter 8) 19
- The Matching Tool (Chapter 9) 24
- The Sorting Tool (Chapter 10) 27
- The Sequencing Tool (Chapter 11) 37
- The Brick Building Tool (Chapter 12) 41
- Intersectional Sorting (Chapter 14) 42
- Use of hand-held tools (Chapter 5. The Placing Tool, Chapter 7. The Banging Tool and the Drawing Tool) 44
- Use of Special Equipment Bought/Made 47
- Use of Cards 55
- The Pairing Tool (Chapter 8) 56
- The Matching Tool (Chapter 9) 59
- The Sorting Tool (Chapter 10) 63
- The Sequencing Tool (Chapter 11) 67
- Coding (Chapter 13) 75
- Intersectional Sorting (Chapter 14) 76
- Use of Worksheets 79
- Pencil manipulation 80
- The Pairing Tool (Chapter 8) 82
- The Matching Tool (Chapter 9) 86
- The Sorting Tool (Chapter 10) 89[Page xiv]
- The Sequencing Tool (Chapter 11) 92
- The Brick Building Tool (Chapter 12) 98
- Coding (Chapter 13) 102
- Intersectional Sorting (Chapter 14) 105
- Expanding ideas 108
- Basic worksheets ‘templates’ 112
We would like to express our gratitude to the late Dr Geoffrey Waldon, neurologist and pioneering educator, who we first met in 1976. He introduced us to his ideas on the development of play, learning and the Learning Tools in the young child. His generosity in sharing his knowledge helped to shape our own practice. Functional Learning, our integrative approach, incorporates Waldon's basic learning ideas and techniques. Over the years, we have extended and developed these ideas and techniques, standardizing and simplifying them, informed by our own work with children and families.
The gestation of this book has taken many years. We have been helped, guided, supported and encouraged by many friends and colleagues. Katrin Stroh would like to thank the following: the late Nancy Raphael and her Educational Trust which sponsored the original video, Learning and Communication; Annette Lawson and The Judith Trust who gave generous funding for the book illustrations; Caroline Raphael who also contributed to the illustrations; enthusiastic colleagues from Slovenia who have been working with Functional Learning for 12 years, and particularly Ana Filipic Dolnicar, Barbara Somen, Nena Vovk and Slavica Lencek; Mijana Durovic and Save the Children Fund which sponsored Functional Learning workshops in Montenegro; Ilse Dittrich, colleague and close friend for over 30 years, who supported the introduction of Functional Learning to the Bonhoeffer House day centre in Hanover, Germany; Margie Wagner of Child Development Media, Inc. in California, who has always been enthusiastic about introducing Functional Learning resources to the USA. There have been thoughtful and stimulating discussions with many people over the years and particularly: Professor Lionel Hersov and Zoe Hersov who have always given encouragement; Stephen Scott MD; Richard Brooks who has been positive and supportive; Anita Hughes; Jane Blatt and Toby Stroh; Sophie Laws; Sophie Levitt; Elaine Leader from Teen Line USA; Howard Sharron; Peter Hobson; and Professor Mike Rutter, a friend and constant supporter.
We are extremely grateful to Mary Proctor whose skill and creativity in preparing the CD material have been absolutely invaluable.
To Marianne Lagrange whose belief, trust and guidance enabled this book to be published, our thanks are boundless. Thank you to Matthew Waters for practical advice and suggestions during the preparation of the manuscript and CD, [Page xvi]and to Bob McCormick who generously shared his knowledge which set us on the right path at the beginning.
Finally, this work would not have been possible without the insight and experience of George Stroh, whose unique blend of applied psychodynamics and humanity laid the foundation for Functional Learning.Case Studies
We would like to thank the parents of Tony (not his real name), his school, and support teacher for giving their permission to include the information in Chapter 18. The other descriptions of children and families included in this book are composite examples based on children and families seen in our clinical practice, apart from Eleanor, Helen and Christopher who appear in the video on the CD and Jonathan (not his real name) who was the subject of a previous journal article (Stroh and Robinson, 1991).
About the Authors[Page xvii]
The authors all worked in the 1970s at High Wick Hospital, a specialist children's unit with an international reputation for its research and innovative treatment programmes, where they were involved in the development of Functional Learning as an integrated therapeutic approach.
Katrin Stroh is a Speech and Language Therapist, Social Worker and Developmental Therapist with over 40 years experience. Since 1982 she has worked in her own practice in London specializing in Functional Learning programmes for young children with developmental delay and their families, also running training workshops in the UK and in Europe, the United States and Australia.
Thelma Robinson is a Clinical Psychologist, Montessori teacher and Developmental Therapist. She has experience of many different settings including child psychiatry and a speech and language centre. In 1986 she joined Katrin Stroh in her London practice, working with children and parents, and collaborating with publishing papers, producing a video and running workshops to introduce Functional Learning.
Alan Proctor is a teacher, qualified to work with emotionally disturbed children, as well as a Counsellor and Developmental Therapist. He has over 30 years experience working with children and families, which gave rise to teaching in Further Education and running workshops in the UK and abroad. His work with adults mainly deals with childhood abuse and bereavement.
[Page xviii]Thank goodness there is now a clear and practical guide to this groundbreaking technique. The unique teaching approach described in this book helps children – even those with severe learning difficulties – to learn how to be ready to learn, spontaneously, from all their daily experiences. It is so well presented and explained here that I'm determined to recommend it to all the professionals and parents I meet. The originality of the approach is startling and the results fascinating both for students and teachers. This is the ultimate way to teach open-ended thinking and problem-solving skills to children whose emotional and developmental difficulties make it hard for them to learn., Advanced Practitioner Oxfordshire Service for Autism
This glossary is intended as a guide to the most frequently used terms referred to in the book.
- A-Social or Non-Social Describes the learning conditions of the Functional Learning sessions, similar to those experienced by the young child when they are playing and learning by themselves. The adult is there in the background to make sure the child feels safe and secure, but there is little or no social interaction between them at this time. There are no social rewards – the satisfaction comes from the activity itself.
- Continuant Behaviour A term used by Geoffrey Waldon (1980) to refer to the way young children move objects continuously from one place to another, gaining experience about the qualities of objects – appearance, size, shape, weight, texture and position in space.
- Cross-Cultural The exploratory play and learning of the young child, common to all cultures. Functional Learning, based on this early activity, can easily be adapted to suit different cultural environments.
- Developmental Delay A general term to refer to children whose development has not kept pace with the norm. It looks at the child from a more holistic developmental perspective in preference to using specific diagnostic labels.
- Functional Learning An integrated therapeutic approach based on the growth and development of the normal child. The central focus is the development of Learning Tools, but it also recognizes the important connection between emotions and learning.
- Guiding Hand Used in the Functional Learning sessions, when the adult guides the child's hands by holding their hands over the child's hands to help them with the activities. [Page xx]
- Innate Present from birth. Children have an innate capacity for play which takes place without instruction.
- Integrated Therapeutic Approach A comprehensive approach that involves all aspects of the child's development – learning, language and communication, and emotional growth. It tries to meet the needs of each child and family by crossing professional boundaries and working collaboratively with parents and carers.
- Learning Tools What Geoffrey Waldon (1980) referred to as the learning-how-to-learn tools, mental tools which all children use to learn about the world around them:
- Placing – picking things up and putting them down
- Piling – moving a variety of objects in a continuous way to make a pile or heap
- Banging – holding an object, bringing it into contact with another object or surface
- Pairing – putting together two objects or images that are the same
- Matching – comparing or contrasting one object or image with another
- Sorting – recognizing that objects or images can be grouped together in sets
- Sequencing – arranging things one following another
- Brick Building – placing bricks in different positions in relation to one another
- Pointing Finger The pointing gesture that infants develop during the last part of the first year. It is one of the earliest pre-verbal communications. The pointing finger is used extensively in many of the learning activities.
- Potential The capacity for growth and development. Every child has the potential for learning through the development of Learning Tools.
- Secondary Defensive Behaviour Responses used by the developmentally delayed child to overcome anxiety, fear and displeasure. They are ways of keeping to the familiar and avoiding change which means they interfere with normal learning. They can include physical [Page xxi]withdrawal, noisy protest, throwing and the more extreme headbanging, rocking, or spinning objects.
- Seeding Placing one or more objects in a container or cards on a board as a model during sorting activities, minimizing the need for verbal instructions and enabling the child to work out for themselves what to do.
- Separating A way of sorting a pile or container of objects by choosing from the same set each time, rather than spontaneously picking up objects at random.
- Social Learning Learning influenced by other people, which may involve rewards or praise, reflecting the culture the child lives in and the kind of skills that are important in that culture.
References[Page 199]Baratta-Lorton, Mary (ed.) (1998) Mathematics Their Way: An Activity-centred Mathematics Programme for Early Childhood.New edn. Boston: Addison Wesley Longman.2004) The Developing Child.and (10th edn. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.2001) Commentary on Patrick Bolton, ‘Developmental assessment’, Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 7: 40–2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/apt.7.1.40(1993) The Transition from Infancy to Language: Acquiring the Power of Expression. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511752797(‘A description of an asocial lesson’, in Waldon approach to education. Online at: http://www.waldonassociation.org.uk (accessed 19 May 2007).(no date)2001) Learning Through Play: Babies, Toddlers and the Foundation Years. London: Hodder and Stoughton.(2003) ‘“At the boundary between chaos and order”: what psychotherapy and neuroscience have in common’, in JennyCorrigall and HewardWilkinson (eds), Revolutionary Connections: Psychotherapy and Neuroscience. London: Karnac. pp. 191–213.(1992) Learning About Writing. Oxford: Blackwell.(1998) ‘Emotion in the perspective of an integrated nervous system’, Brain Research Reviews, 26: 83–6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0165-0173%2897%2900064-7(Department for Children, Schools and Families (2002) ‘Birth to Three Matters: A Framework to Support Children in Their Earliest Years’. Online at: http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/primary/publications/foundation_stage/940463/ (accessed 14 September 2007).Department for Education and Skills (2005) ‘Excellence and Enjoyment: Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning Guidance’. Online at: http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/primary/publications/banda/seal/ (accessed 16 September 2007).Department for Education and Skills (2007) ‘Practice Guidance for the Early Years Foundation Stage’. Online at: http://www.standards/dfes.gov.uk/primary/publications/foundation_stage/eyfs/ (accessed 15 September 2007).2007) Personal communication.(2006) Personal communication., , and (2004) Beginning to Play: Young Children from Birth to Three. Maidenhead: Open University Press.(1925) The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Vol XIX (1923–1925): The Ego and the Id and Other Works. Transl. by JamesStrachey (ed.), 2001. London: Vintage. pp. 233–40.([Page 200]2004) Why Love Matters: How Affection Shapes a Baby's Brain. Hove: Brunner-Routledge.(2002) ‘Inside the teenage brain’, interview with neuroscientist Jay Giedd. Online at: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/teenbrain/interviews/giedd.html (accessed 3 September 2007).(1964) ‘Report on lectures to staff at High Wick Hospital’. Unpublished report.(2003) People Under Three: Young Children in Day Care.and (2nd edn. Oxford: Routledge.1998) The Child with Special Needs: Encouraging Intellectual and Emotional Growth. Da Capo Press (US).and with (2006) Infant and Early Childhood Mental Health: A Comprehensive Developmental Approach to Assessment and Intervention. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.and (2006) Developing Play for the Under Threes: The Treasure Basket and Heuristic Play. London: David Fulton.(1999) Theraplay: Helping Parents and Children Build Better Relationships Through Attachment-Based Play.and (2nd edn. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.1973) Childhood Psychosis: Initial Studies and New Insights. Washington, DC: V.H. Winston.(2000) The Parenting Survival Kit: How to Make it Through the Parenting Years with Your Family, Sanity and Wallet Intact. New York: Berkley Publishing.and (1987) ‘Working with parents: casework or psychotherapy’, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 28: 207–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.1987.28.issue-2(2007) Montessori: The Science Behind the Genius. New York: Oxford University Press.(2001) Understanding Children's Play. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes.(2000) ‘The elements of early childhood assessment’, in Jack P.Shonkoff and Samuel J.Meisels (eds), Handbook of Early Childhood Intervention,and (2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511529320Moyles, Janet R. (ed.) (2005) The Excellence of Play.2nd edn. Maidenhead: Open University Press.2000) ‘Adaptive and maladaptive parenting: perspectives on risk and protective factors’, in Jack P.Shonkoff and Samuel J.Meisels (eds), Handbook of Early Childhood Intervention,and (2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.1988) Winnicott. London: Fontana Press.(1998) ‘Role of the father’, Pediatrics, 102(5): 1253–61.(Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (2000) ‘Curriculum Guidance for the Foundation Stage’. Online at: http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/primary/publications/foundation_stage/63593/ (accessed 14 September 2007).2006) Developing Thinking and Understanding in Young Children. Abingdon: Routledge.(2005) You and Your Baby. London: Karnac.(2001) ‘The American Bowlby’, interview by Roz Carroll. Online at: http://www.thinkbody.co.uk/papers/interview-with-allan-s.html (accessed 14 August 2007).([Page 201]1999) The Developing Mind: How Relationships and the Brain Interact to Shape Who We Are. New York: Guilford Press.(1985) The Interpersonal World of the Infant: A View from Psychoanalysis and Developmental Psychology. New York: Basic Books.(1986) ‘Introduction’, in The Impossible Made Possible …: The Collected Papers of George Stroh, published by the Trustees of the George Stroh Memorial Fund.(1970) ’The effect of relative sensory isolation on the behaviour of two autistic children’, in The Impossible Made Possible …: The Collected Papers of George Stroh, published by the Trustees of the George Stroh Memorial Fund, 1986.and (1988) ‘Observations and speculations on the emotional responses of the aphasic child’, Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 4(1): 60–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026565908800400106and (1991) ‘Developmental delay in young children: redressing the balance for child and parents’, Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 7(1): 1–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026565909100700101and (1986) ‘A therapeutic feeding programme. I: Theory and practice of feeding’. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 28: 3–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.1986.tb03823.x, and (The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English (1995).9th edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.1964) ‘Services for High Wick Hospital for mentally disturbed children’. Unpublished report.(Thompson, G. Brian, Tunmer, William E. and Nicholson, Tom (eds) (1993) Reading Acquisition Processes. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.1994) ‘Brain development, infant communication and empathy disorders: intrinsic factors in child mental health’, Development and Psychopathology, 6: 599–635. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579400004703and (1966) ‘The Education of Retarded and Handicapped Children’. Unpublished paper. (Reprinted 1982.)(1980) ‘Understanding understanding: an introduction to a personal view of the educational needs of children’, revised 1985. Online at: http://www.waldonassociation.org.uk/understanding%20understanding.htm (accessed 14 September 2007).(1981) Understanding Understanding. Video available from Concord Media at http://www.concordvideo.co.uk(1985) ‘The Process of Sorting and Matching as Mental Operations Generating New Experience in Child Development’. Unpublished paper.(1988) Personal communication.(Whitebread, David (ed.) (1996) Teaching and Learning in the Early Years. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/97802034364932001) Sensory Integration and Self-Regulation in Infants and Toddlers: Helping Very Young Children Interact With Their Environment. Washington, DC: Zero to Three.and (2005) Eating and Drinking Difficulties in Children: A Guide for Practitioners. Brackley: Speechmark.([Page 202]