Evaluating Services for Survivors of Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault

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Stephanie Riger, Larry Bennett, Sharon M. Wasco, Paul A. Schewe, Lisa Frohmann, Jennifer M. Camacho & Rebecca Campbell

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  • : Sage Series on Violence against Women

    Series Editors

    Claire M. Renzetti

    St. Joseph's University

    Jeffrey L. Edleson

    University of Minnesota

    In this series …

    I AM NOT YOUR VICTIM: Anatomy of Domestic Violence

    by Beth Sipe and Evelyn J. Hall

    WIFE RAPE: Understanding the Response of Survivors and Service Providers

    by Raquel Kennedy Bergen

    FUTURE INTERVENTIONS WITH BATTERED WOMEN AND THEIR FAMILIES

    edited by Jeffrey L. Edleson and Zvi C. Eisikovits

    WOMEN'S ENCOUNTERS WITH VIOLENCE: Australian Experiences

    edited by Sandy Cook and Judith Bessant

    WOMAN ABUSE ON CAMPUS: Results From the Canadian National Survey

    by Walter S. DeKeseredy and Martin D. Schwartz

    RURAL WOMEN BATTERING AND THE JUSTICE SYSTEM: An Ethnography

    by Neil Websdale

    SAFETY PLANNING WITH BATTERED WOMEN: Complex Lives/Difficult Choices

    by Jill Davies, Eleanor Lyon, and Diane Monti-Catania

    ATHLETES AND ACQUAINTANCE RAPE

    by Jeffrey R. Benedict

    RETHINKING VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN

    edited by R. Emerson Dobash and Russell P. Dobash

    EMPOWERING SURVIVORS OF ABUSE: Health Care for Battered Women and Their Children

    edited by Jacquelyn Campbell

    BATTERED WOMEN, CHILDREN, AND WELFARE REFORM: The Ties That Bind

    edited by Ruth A. Brandwein

    COORDINATING COMMUNITY RESPONSES TO DOMESTIC VIOLENCE: Lessons From Duluth and Beyond

    edited by Melanie F. Shepard and Ellen L. Pence

    CHANGING VIOLENT MEN

    by R. Emerson Dobash, Russell P. Dobash, Kate Cavanagh, and Ruth Lewis

    SAME-SEX DOMESTIC VIOLENCE: Strategies for Change

    edited by Beth Leventhal and Sandra E. Lundy

    MASCULINITIES, VIOLENCE, AND CULTURE

    by Suzanne E. Hatty

    LOCKED IN A VIOLENT EMBRACE

    by Zvi Eisikovits and Eli Buchbinder

    BATTERER INTERVENTION SYSTEMS: Issues, Outcomes, and Recommendations

    by Edward W. Gondolf

    THE BATTERER AS PARENT: The Impact of Domestic Violence on Family Dynamics

    by Lundy Bancroft and Jay G. Silverman

    EVALUATING SERVICES FOR SURVIVORS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND SEXUAL ASSAULT

    by Stephanie Riger, Larry Bennett, Sharon M. Wasco, Paul A. Schewe, Lisa Frohmann, Jennifer M. Camacho, and Rebecca Campbell

    Copyright

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    Foreword

    Thirty years into the effort to end violence against women, very significant social, legislative, and political advances that improve justice and increase safety for those who experience domestic violence and sexual assault can be celebrated. In large part, these changes can be attributed to the grassroots, feminist movement that privileged the experience and leadership of those women who survived abuse. Subsequently, efforts designed to respond to the problems of battering and rape have assumed a prominent place on the national policy agenda, resulting in the passing of federal legislation that provides funding for services, the establishment of research and academic research centers, and the introduction of public initiatives by the United States Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, Department of Justice, Housing and Urban Development, Department of Defense, and other agencies in response to their recognition of the serious health and social consequences of violence against women.

    A national, multilingual hotline has been established and receives calls from victims in need of emergency assistance, concerned family members, and community-based advocates. Local programs are flooded with similar calls. Most important, grassroots activism has led to a lively network of service providers (some who have celebrated more than 30 years of advocacy and activism) who continue to push for social change and shifts in public consciousness around violence against women and broader issues of gender inequality.

    With these important advances has come the challenge to evaluate the broad-based mobilization in general terms and to assess the effectiveness of direct service delivery programs in particular. Many long-term advocates and activists—especially those who continue to respond to women in crisis—have raised the following questions. Has our work for the past 30 years made a difference? Do treatment programs for abusers work? Do crisis intervention programs have a long-term impact? Are families safer and stronger, and are communities more nurturing and attentive to the needs of women and girls? Are more women and children free from the terror that accompanies constant physical, emotional, sexual, and economic abuse because of our work? Have all women benefited equally, regardless of race and ethnicity, sexual orientation, or social status? Have there been unintended negative consequences from our work and what antiviolence strategies will take us into the future? These are the questions that frame this book. What appears at first glance to be a volume about evaluating services is actually much, much more; it is one with tremendous appeal and broad significance.

    In addition to reviewing the basic concepts related to evaluation, Evaluating Services for Survivors of Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault is a chronicle of the antiviolence movement and the development of services. By focusing in one volume on both domestic violence and sexual assault, it makes an important conceptual intervention by challenging readers to be more comprehensive when thinking about this work. In a similar way, the authors are both researchers and practitioners who represent various disciplines. The text, therefore, reflects a multidisciplinary, multimethod approach to evaluation. It does so in a way that demystifies research, models collaboration, and promotes dialogue between the various constituencies who work to end violence against women. Although it clearly and convincingly stresses the importance of evaluation, it does so in a way that emphasizes the need for safety and confidentiality; readers will walk away from the text understanding how important it is to listen to women's voices, to build individual and organizational trust, to respect differences, and to link evaluation to intervention reform and policy changes. The honest consideration of agencies' constraints, the willingness to name contradictory roles, and the look to the future of evaluation as a key aspect of this work are tremendously important and refreshing. I expect that Evaluating Services for Survivors of Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault will assume a key place in the scholarship on evaluation, and will make a tremendous contribution to grassroots service providers working to end violence against women.

    BethRichie, Ph.D. University of Illinois at Chicago

    For years on end, I talked about the unfailing commitment of domestic violence programs to saving lives, about the value of these services to women and children across the state. And I talked about the incredible number of clients served, the number of hotline calls, shelter nights, and so on. But within the context of evidence-based programming, the new era for all of us, those statements didn't hold water. Now when I'm asked to prove it, or when I look for new funding (everyday), I have something besides gut feelings to rely upon. And so do our providers. What gratifies me most is observing them using the results of the evaluation and the performance measures in other venues, with other funders and potential funders. After all the blood and sweat, we all got to be winners.

    CarolBrigman Chief, Bureau of Domestic Violence Prevention and Intervention Illinois Department of Human Services

    Introduction

    In May 1998, the Illinois Department of Human Services (DHS) decided to evaluate its state-funded sexual assault and domestic violence programs. Several concerns prompted this decision. DHS was investing a considerable portion of its resources in domestic violence and sexual assault services, yet little was known about the overall impact of those services. Were clients obtaining the services they needed? Were those services helping women? Was taxpayers' money being spent wisely?

    The authors of this book were selected to conduct this evaluation in part because we all have had experience conducting research on violence against women and evaluation research, as well as histories of collaborating with advocates and service providers. Our work on this project over a three-year period taught us much about evaluating services for victimized women. We learned the extreme care with which research must be designed to ensure that research methods do not put women in danger or interfere with their recovery. Safety, confidentiality, and well-being of clients must supersede evaluation considerations. We attempted, whenever possible, to develop the evaluation collaboratively with practitioners, and we learned about the value (and the challenges) of such collaborations.

    Although members of our group share a commitment to ending violence against women, we differ in many ways. Some of us prefer quantitative research methods whereas others prefer qualitative ones. We come from different disciplinary backgrounds: psychology, criminal justice, and social work. Some of us have a history of working against sexual assault; others have had more experience in working against domestic violence. We share a strong commitment to using research skills to prevent and reduce violence and to help the survivors of abuse. Over the years that we have worked on this project, we have had many stimulating discussions about the nature and process of evaluation. We hope to pass on through this book not only our expertise in evaluation but also the deeper issues that underlie many decisions in the course of an evaluation.

    Perhaps the most important lesson that we learned is that evaluation always occurs in context. Resources available within an agency may affect the scope of an evaluation because data collection puts demands for time and effort on an already burdened staff. Within the violence against women movement, the press for evaluation may have consequences for future interventions. Funders' requirement that services be evaluated may exert a push for easily measurable goals and individual services because those may require less effort to show success compared to more elusive goals such as prevention. Also, evaluation may conflict with providers' service philosophy. Many practitioners consider themselves to be client centered, letting clients determine the direction of interactions. They may see asking evaluation questions as putting the needs of the agency ahead of those of the client (albeit temporarily). Evaluation of programs offering services to abused women thus may raise issues not seen in other contexts.

    Our purpose here is twofold. First, we discuss the special considerations that evaluators must take into account when researching domestic violence and sexual assault. At the same time, we aim to persuade service providers of the value of evaluation. Second, we illustrate both how to do an evaluation of services for victims of interpersonal violence and the difficult choices that must be made in that process. We believe that this will be helpful not only to providers of services but also to evaluators who must operate within similar constraints. Thus, although our experience is based on our research in Illinois, the issues raised in this book are widely applicable.

    In sum, this book is trying to accomplish what some say is impossible—meeting the needs of two audiences: practitioners and evaluators (and possibly even a third, funders). Material useful to all of these audiences is in every chapter of this book. Evaluators may be tempted to skip the chapters on “why evaluate” or “how to evaluate,” thinking that they already have that expertise. But the blending into these chapters of issues that are unique to domestic violence and sexual assault makes them essential reading for anyone who wants to work in this area. Alternatively, practitioners may not feel the need to read the chapter on the movements against violence against women. Yet we believe that serious attention must be paid to the potential impact of evaluation on the direction of those movements.

    The first part of the book discusses the social and political context of evaluation because of our belief that it is crucial to the success of an evaluation. We examine the evolution of the domestic violence and sexual assault movements over the last 30 years and the emergence of services for abused women. The sexual assault and domestic violence movements have somewhat different (though overlapping) histories and concerns; therefore, we consider them separately in Chapter 1. We then discuss in Chapter 2 issues that arise in the collaboration between practitioners and researchers when an evaluation is conducted jointly. These two chapters draw on previous research as well as our experience in Illinois. Part II moves to practical concerns in conducting an evaluation. Chapters 3 and 4 focus on “why evaluate” and “basic concepts in evaluation.” Chapter 5 considers ways to use the results to improve agencies and attract clients and funding. Part III considers the lessons learned from our experience in Illinois that are generally applicable to evaluating domestic violence and sexual assault services. Chapter 6 discusses the problems and possibilities of the measures that we developed for use in Illinois, and we present those measures in Appendices A and B. More information, evaluation resources, and English and Spanish versions of the evaluation measures as well as statistical analyses of the measures, and consent forms, are available on our web site: http://www.uic.edu/depts/psch/idhs.

    We have gained valuable input from other evaluators working on similar projects, including Evaluating Domestic Violence Programs, an evaluation manual for domestic violence service providers that emerged from the Domestic Abuse Project in Minnesota (Edleson & Frick, 1997), which differed from our work most significantly in that it did not include sexual assault services. We also drew from the Sexual Assault and Rape Prevention Evaluation Project in Michigan (Campbell, Davidson, et al., 1998; Campbell, Davidson, et al., 1999), an empowerment evaluation project providing consultation, evaluation training, and technical assistance to sexual assault programs. This project differed from ours in that it worked with sexual assault programs but did not include domestic violence programs. Additionally, we examined outcome measures for domestic violence services developed for the Pennsylvania Coalition Against Domestic Violence (Sullivan, 1998). The Urban Institute was contracted by the National Institute of Justice to conduct an evaluation of the STOP grants funded by the 1994 Violence Against Women Act. To date, this work has included process evaluations of all STOP grantees in all 50 states. Although this work was useful to us, our task was to develop outcome, not process evaluation, measures. Finally, our work focused only on services to survivors of sexual assault and domestic violence, not prevention, interventions with batterers, or community efforts. For a guide to evaluating the latter, see Garske et al. (2000).

    We are grateful to the staff, volunteers, and clients of the 87 sexual assault and domestic violence agencies in Illinois that participated in the evaluation; to James Nelson, JoAnne Durkee, Carol Brigman, and Susan Catania at the Illinois Department of Human Services for their unflagging support; to the Illinios Coalition Against Sexual Assault and their agencies and to Illinois domestic violence agencies for their many suggestions and cooperation; and to April Howard and Mark Thomas for invaluable research assistance. We thank Linda Hauser of Willamette University in Oregon for generously sharing her literature review of more than 100 studies evaluating domestic violence and sexual assault programs. We are especially grateful to the many abused women whose patience and cooperation made this evaluation project possible. In their honor, we are contributing all royalties that accrue from this book to a fund to support graduate student research at the University of Illinois at Chicago on violence against women.

  • Appendix A: Evaluation Measures for Domestic Violence Services

    Domestic Violence Information Sheet before Counseling Survey

    We are asking you to participate in a research project to help us improve our services. We want to know how helpful our counseling services are, so we are asking all those who receive counseling to fill out this questionnaire. Some questions ask about past experiences of abuse and about how you are feeling emotionally. You might find some of these questions upsetting. Your participation is voluntary; you do not have to do this and you may stop at any time. Your decision whether or not to participate will not affect your relationship with our agency. About 5,000 people who receive counseling services from agencies in Illinois will fill out this questionnaire and your answers will be combined with theirs into one report. Your answers will be kept confidential and your name or other identifying information will not appear in any report. This research may bring no direct benefit to you but it will enable us to improve our service to all our clients.

    You have been given an envelope for the questionnaire. If you agree to participate, when you are done with the questionnaire, put it in the envelope, seal the envelope, and put it in the drop box. We will then send it, with those from other people, to be analyzed by qualified researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago. No one from this agency will see your individual responses and there is no way that anyone can link your name with your responses. You should not put your name on the questionnaire.

    If you have any questions, please ask them now. If you have questions later, you may contact the researcher, Stephanie Riger, at the University of Illinois at Chicago at 312-413-2300. If you have any questions about your rights as a research subject, you may call the Office for Protection of Research Subjects at 312-996-1711. If you decide to participate, keep this information sheet for your records.

    Password

    Before Counseling Survey

    Thank you for taking the time to answer these questions. We want to know how helpful our counseling services are to you, so your feedback is very important to us. Your answers will be kept confidential. Nothing you say will affect the services that you receive.

    Please Do Not Put Your Name on This Survey
    • How often are the following statements true for you? For each statement in rows “a” through “h,” please circle one number.

    • Have you ever called our crisis hotline in the past?

    • How many times have you called our crisis hotline?

    • After calling the crisis hotline, how much more information did you have about the choices available to you? Would you say you had …

    • How much support did you get from the crisis hotline? Would you say that the crisis hotline gave you …

    Thank you again for taking the time to answer these questions. Your opinion is very important to us so that we can improve our services.

    Domestic Violence Information Sheet Counseling Survey

    We are asking you to participate in a research project to help us improve our services. We want to know how helpful our counseling services are, so we are asking all those who receive counseling to fill out this questionnaire. Some questions ask about past experiences of abuse and about how you are feeling emotionally. You might find some of these questions upsetting. Your participation is voluntary; you do not have to do this and you may stop at any time. Your decision whether or not to participate will not affect your relationship with our agency. About 5,000 people who receive counseling services from agencies in Illinois will fill out this questionnaire and your answers will be combined with theirs into one report. Your answers will be kept confidential and your name or other identifying information will not appear in any report. This research may bring no direct benefit to you, but it will enable us to improve our service to all our clients.

    You have been given an envelope for the questionnaire. If you agree to participate, when you are done with the questionnaire, put it in the envelope, seal the envelope, and put it in the drop box. We will then send it, with those from other people, to be analyzed by qualified researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago. No one from this agency will see your individual responses and there is no way that anyone can link your name with your responses. You should not put your name on the questionnaire.

    If you have any questions, please ask them now. If you have questions later, you may contact the researcher, Stephanie Riger, at the University of Illinois at Chicago at 312-413-2300. If you have any questions about your rights as a research subject, you may call the Office for Protection of Research Subjects at 312-996-1711. If you decide to participate, keep this information sheet for your records.

    Password

    Counseling Survey

    Thank you for taking the time to answer these questions. We want to know how helpful our counseling services are to you, so your feedback is very important to us. Your answers will be kept confidential. Nothing you say will affect the services that you receive.

    Please Do Not Put Your Name on This Survey
    • How often are the following statements true for you? For each statement in rows “a” through “h,” please circle one number.

      PLEASE TURN TO NEXT PAGE

    • How much do you agree with the following statements? Please circle one number from 1 to 5, where 1 is strongly disagree, 5 is strongly agree, and the other numbers represent something in between.

    • What type of counseling did you receive? PLEASE CIRCLE ALL THAT APPLY

    • About how many counseling sessions did you attend?

    • How long ago did the abuse/assault occur that brought you to this program?

    • Sometimes people have had several types of violence in their lives. Are you a survivor of …

    • Other than sexual assault, are you a survivor of physical abuse …

    • What do you consider your race/ethnicity to be?

    • What is your gender?

    • What is your age?

    Thank you again for taking the time to answer these questions. Your opinion is very important to us so that we can improve our services.

    Domestic Violence Brief Advocacy Interview
    • STAFF SHOULD READ QUESTIONS 1 TO 5 TO SURVIVOR AT END OF ADVOCACY CONTACT
    • ASK ONLY OF VICTIMS AGED 18 OR OLDER—DO NOT USE THIS INTERVIEW FOR CHILDREN OR SIGNIFICANT OTHERS.
    • IF THE VICTIM IS EXTREMELY DISTRESSED AND YOU THINK IT WOULD UPSET HER/HIM FURTHER, DO NOT ASK QUESTIONS 1 TO 5. GO DIRECTLY TO QUESTION 6.
    Section A:
    • We are trying to find out how helpful it is to have people from our agency here with you in the (EMERGENCY ROOM/POLICE STATION/COURTROOM). If it's okay with you, I'd like to ask you some questions about how you feel about our time together before we wrap things up. This is voluntary; we do not have to do this if you don't want to. You may stop at any time and nothing you say will affect the services you receive. Your name will never be connected to your answers. Would it be okay if I asked you some questions?

    • I'd like you to feel free to answer honestly so that we can learn more about our services. Because someone from our agency was here with you, how much more information do you have about the choices available to you? Would you say you have …

    • How much support did you get from having someone from our agency here with you? Would you say you felt …

    • How much did having someone from our agency here help you make decisions about what you want to do? Would you say it helped you …

    • As a result of working with (AGENCY NAME), how much more information do you have about …
      • How the legal process works? Do you have …

      • How to get an order of protection? Do you have …

      • How to enforce an order of protection? Do you have …

      • What the police should do for you? Do you have …

      • How to get help in a future incident of abuse? Do you have …

    Thank you for answering these questions for me.

    • ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS AFTER THE ADVOCACY CONTACT IS OVER
    Section B:
    • Were you able to ask questions 1 to 5 of the client? CIRCLE ONLY ONE CHOICE

    • What type(s) of advocacy did you provide? CIRCLE ALL THAT APPLY

    • Where did you provide the services? CIRCLE ALL THAT APPLY

    • What is the survivor's race/ethnicity? CIRCLE ALL THAT APPLY

    • What is the survivor's gender? CIRCLE ONLY ONE CHOICE

    • What is the survivor's approximate age? _____ years old
    • What is the survivor's primary language? CIRCLE ONLY ONE CHOICE

    • Did you provide services to significant others, including children? CIRCLE ONLY ONE CHOICE

    • What referrals did you provide to the survivor?
    • PLACE AN X OR AIN THE APPROPRIATE COLUMN.
      • Check the first column if you provided a referral within your agency.
      • Check the second column if you provided a referral outside your agency.
      • Check the third column if you initiated contact with the other service provider for the client (e.g., scheduled an appointment for them).
      • Check the fourth column if the service listed was not relevant or not discussed.
    • YOU MAY, OF COURSE, CHECK MORE THAN ONE COLUMN FOR EACH SERVICE LISTED

    Domestic Violence Extended Advocacy Interview
    • STAFF SHOULD READ QUESTIONS 1 TO 6 ALOUD TO SURVIVOR AT THE END OF THE SESSION
    • ADMINISTER THIS INTERVIEW AFTER THE AVERAGE NUMBER OF ADVOCACY SESSIONS.
    • ASK ONLY OF VICTIMS AGED 18 OR OLDER—DO NOT INTERVIEW CHILDREN OR SIGNIFICANT OTHERS.
    Section A:
    • We are trying to find out how helpful our services are, and if it's okay with you, I'd like to ask you some questions about how you feel about our time together before we wrap things up. This is voluntary; we do not have to do this if you don't want to. You may stop at any time, and nothing you say will affect the services you receive. Your name will never be connected to your answers. Would it be okay if I asked you some questions?

    • I'd like you to feel free to answer honestly, so that we can learn more about our services. How much did our program help you with the following?

      For each, please tell me if you felt our program helped very much, somewhat, a little, or not at all.

    • Because someone from our agency was here with you, how much more information do you have about the choices available to you? Would you say you have …

    • How much support did you get from having someone from our agency here with you? Would you say you felt …

    • How much did having someone from our agency here help you make decisions about what you want to do? Would you say it helped you …

    • How many times did you meet with someone from our agency? CIRCLE ONLY ONE CHOICE

    Thank you for answering these questions.

    • ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS AFTER THE ADVOCACY CONTACT IS OVER
    Section B:
    • What type(s) of advocacy did you provide? CIRCLE ALL THAT APPLY

    • Where did you provide the services? CIRCLE ALL THAT APPLY

    • What is the survivor's race/ethnicity? CIRCLE ALL THAT APPLY

    • What is the survivor's gender? CIRCLE ONLY ONE CHOICE

    • What is the survivor's approximate age?

      _______ years old

    • What is the survivor's primary language? CIRCLE ONLY ONE CHOICE

    • Did you provide services to significant others, including children? CIRCLE ONLY ONE CHOICE

    • What referrals did you provide to the survivor?
    • PLACE AN X OR AIN THE APPROPRIATE COLUMN.
      • Check the first column if you provided a referral within your agency.
      • Check the second column if you provided a referral outside your agency.
      • Check the third column if you initiated contact with the other service provider for the client (e.g., scheduled an appointment for them)
      • Check the fourth column if the service listed was not relevant or not discussed.
    • YOU MAY, OF COURSE, CHECK MORE THAN ONE COLUMN FOR EACH SERVICE LISTED

    Information Sheet Domestic Violence Shelter Survey

    We are asking you to participate in a research project to help us improve our services. We want to know how people feel about living in our shelter, so we are asking everyone who receives shelter to fill out this questionnaire. The questions ask about how comfortable and safe you feel living in this shelter. You may find some of the questions to be upsetting. Your participation is voluntary; you do not have to do this, and you may stop at any time. Your decision whether or not to participate will not affect your relationship with our agency. About 2500 people who receive shelter services from agencies in Illinois will fill out this questionnaire, and your answers will be combined with theirs into one report. Your answers will be kept confidential and your name or other identifying information will not appear in any report. This research may bring no direct benefit to you but it will enable us to improve our services to all our clients.

    You have been given an envelope for the questionnaire. If you agree to participate, when you are done with the questionnaire, put it in the envelope, seal the envelope, and put it in the drop box. We will then send it, with those from other people, to be analyzed by qualified researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Your participation or refusal to participate in this research will not affect any relationship that you might have with the University of Illinois at Chicago. No one from this agency will see your individual responses and there is no way that anyone can link your name with your responses. You should not put your name on the questionnaire.

    If you have any questions, please ask them now. If you have questions later, you may contact the researcher, Stephanie Riger, at the University of Illinois at Chicago at 312-413-2300. If you have any questions about your rights as a research subject, you may call the Office for Protection of Research Subjects at 312-996-1711. If you decide to participate, please keep this information sheet for your records.

    Shelter Evaluation Survey

    Thank you for taking the time to answer these questions. We want to know how helpful our services have been to you and your opinion is important to us. Your answers will be kept confidential. Nothing you say will affect your stay here.

    • How long have you been a resident of this shelter? If you have been here more than once, count this stay only.

    • As a resident of this shelter, how safe do you feel here from physical harm by your abuser? Would you say you feel …

    • How safe do you feel here from being contacted by your abuser? Would you say you feel …

    • How comfortable do you feel …

    Thank you again for taking the time to answer these questions. Your opinion will help us improve our services.

    Domestic Violence Crisis Hotline Interview
    • JUST BEFORE HANGING UP, STAFF SHOULD READ THESE QUESTIONS ALOUD AND RECORD THE ANSWERS BELOW.
    • ASK ONLY OF VICTIMS OR SIGNIFICANT OTHERS—DO NOT USE THIS INTERVIEW FOR ANY OTHER CALLERS.
    • IF THE CALLER IS IN CRISIS OR YOU THINK IT WOULD UPSET THE CALLER FURTHER, DO NOT ASK QUESTIONS 1 TO 4. INSTEAD, GO DIRECTLY TO QUESTION 5.
    Section A:
    • We are trying to find out how helpful our services are, and if it's okay with you, I'd like to ask you three questions about this phone call before we hang up. This is voluntary; we do not have to do this if you don't want to, or if you've done it before. You may stop at any time, and nothing you say will affect the services you receive. Would it be okay if I asked you the questions?

    • How many times have you called our crisis line before now?

    • I'd like you to feel free to answer honestly, so that we can learn more about our services. As a result of this phone call, how much more information do you have about the choices available to you? Would you say you have …

    • How much support did you get from this phone call? Would you say that this phone call gave you …

    Thank you for taking the time to answer these questions.

    • ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS AFTER COMPLETING THE CALL
    Section B:
    • Were you able to ask questions 1 to 4 of the caller? CIRCLE ONLY ONE CHOICE

    • Who was the caller? CIRCLE ONLY ONE CHOICE

    • What was the main reason for this call? CIRCLE ONLY ONE CHOICE

    • Did you discuss things that the caller can do the next time she/he is experiencing similar problems? CIRCLE ONLY ONE CHOICE

    • What specific referrals did you provide?
    • PLACE AN X OR AIN THE APPROPRIATE COLUMN.
      • Check the first column if you provided a referral within your agency.
      • Check the second column if you provided a referral outside your agency.
      • Check the third column if you initiated contact with the other service provider for the client (e.g., to schedule an appointment for them).
      • Check the fourth column if the service listed was not relevant or not discussed.
    • YOU MAY, OF COURSE, CHECK MORE THAN ONE COLUMN FOR EACH SERVICE LISTED

    Appendix B: Evaluation Measures for Sexual Assault Services

    Sexual Assault Information Sheet before Counseling Survey

    We are asking you to participate in a research project to help us improve our services. We want to know how helpful our counseling services are, so we are asking all those who receive counseling to fill out this questionnaire. Some questions ask about past experiences of abuse and about how you are feeling emotionally. You might find some of these questions upsetting. Your participation is voluntary; you do not have to do this and you may stop at any time. Your decision whether or not to participate will not affect your relationship with our agency. About 5,000 people who receive counseling services from agencies in Illinois will fill out this questionnaire and your answers will be combined with theirs into one report. Your answers will be kept confidential and your name or other identifying information will not appear in any report. This research may bring no direct benefit to you but it will enable us to improve our service to all our clients.

    You have been given an envelope for the questionnaire. If you agree to participate, when you are done with the questionnaire, put it in the envelope, seal the envelope, and put it in the drop box. We will then send it, with those from other people, to be analyzed by qualified researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago. No one from this agency will see your individual responses and there is no way that anyone can link your name with your responses. You should not put your name on the questionnaire.

    If you have any questions, please ask them now. If you have questions later, you may contact the researcher, Stephanie Riger, at the University of Illinois at Chicago at 312-413-2300. If you have any questions about your rights as a research subject, you may call the Office for Protection of Research Subjects at 312-996-1711. If you decide to participate, keep this information sheet for your records.

    Password

    Before Counseling Survey

    Thank you for taking the time to answer these questions. We want to know how helpful our counseling services are to you, so your feedback is very important to us. Your answers will be kept confidential. Nothing you say will affect the services that you receive.

    Please Do Not Put Your Name on This Survey
    • How often are the following statements true for you? For each statement in rows “a” through “h,” please circle one number.

    • Over the past seven days, how often have you been bothered by the following? For each statement in rows “a” through “f,” please circle one number.

    • Have you ever called our sexual assault crisis hotline?

    • How many times have you called our crisis hotline?

    • After calling the crisis hotline, how much more information did you have about the choices available to you? Would you say you had …

    • How much support did you get from the crisis hotline? Would you say that the crisis hotline gave you …

    Thank you again for taking the time to answer these questions. Your opinion is very important to us so that we can improve our services.

    Sexual Assault Information Sheet Counseling Survey

    We are asking you to participate in a research project to help us improve our services. We want to know how helpful our counseling services are, so we are asking all those who receive counseling to fill out this questionnaire. Some questions ask about past experiences of abuse and about how you are feeling emotionally. You might find some of these questions upsetting. Your participation is voluntary; you do not have to do this and you may stop at any time. Your decision whether or not to participate will not affect your relationship with our agency. About 5,000 people who receive counseling services from agencies in Illinois will fill out this questionnaire and your answers will be combined with theirs into one report. Your answers will be kept confidential and your name or other identifying information will not appear in any report. This research may bring no direct benefit to you but it will enable us to improve our service to all our clients.

    You have been given an envelope for the questionnaire. If you agree to participate, when you are done with the questionnaire, put it in the envelope, seal the envelope, and put it in the drop box. We will then send it, with those from other people, to be analyzed by qualified researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago. No one from this agency will see your individual responses and there is no way that anyone can link your name with your responses. You should not put your name on the questionnaire.

    If you have any questions, please ask them now. If you have questions later, you may contact the researcher, Stephanie Riger, at the University of Illinois at Chicago at 312-413-2300. If you have any questions about your rights as a research subject, you may call the Office for Protection of Research Subjects at 312-996-1711. If you decide to participate, keep this information sheet for your records.

    Password

    Counseling Survey

    Thank you for taking the time to answer these questions. We want to know how helpful our counseling services are to you, so your feedback is very important to us. Your answers will be kept confidential. Nothing you say will affect the services that you receive.

    Please Do Not Put Your Name on This Survey
    • How often are the following statements true for you? For each statement in rows “a” through “h,” please circle one number.

    • Over the past seven days, how often have you been bothered by the following? For each statement in rows “a” through “f,” please circle one number.

    • How much do you agree with each of the following statements? Please circle one number from 1 to 5, where 1 is strongly disagree, 5 is strongly agree, and the other numbers represent something in between.

    • What type of counseling did you receive? PLEASE CIRCLE ALL THAT APPLY

    • How many counseling sessions did you attend?

    • How long ago did the sexual assault/abuse occur that brought you to this program?

    • Sometimes people have had several types of violence in their lives. Are you a survivor of …

    • Other than sexual assault, are you a survivor of physical abuse …

    • What do you consider your race/ethnicity to be?

    • What is your gender?

    • What is your age?

    Thank you again for taking the time to answer these questions. Your opinion is very important to us so that we can improve our services.

    Sexual Assault Brief Criminal Justice & Medical Advocacy Interview
    • STAFF SHOULD READ QUESTIONS 1 TO 4 TO SURVIVOR AT END OF ADVOCACY CONTACT
    • ASK ONLY OF VICTIMS AGED 18 OR OLDER—DO NOT USE THIS INTERVIEW FOR CHILD SEXUAL ASSAULT CASES. DO NOT INTERVIEW SIGNIFICANT OTHERS.
    • IF THE VICTIM IS EXTREMELY DISTRESSED AND YOU THINK IT WOULD UPSET HER/HIM FURTHER, DO NOT ASK QUESTIONS 1 TO 4. GO DIRECTLY TO QUESTION 6.
    Section A:
    • We are trying to find out how helpful it is to have people from our agency here with you in the (EMERGENCY ROOM/POLICE STATION/COURTS). If it's okay with you, I'd like to ask you some questions about how you feel about our time together before we wrap things up. This is voluntary; we do not have to do this if you don't want to. You may stop at any time and nothing you say will affect the services you receive. Your name will never be connected to your answers. Would it be okay if I asked you some questions?

    • I'd like you to feel free to answer honestly, so that we can learn more about our services. Because someone from our agency was here with you, how much more information do you have about the choices available to you? Would you say you have …

    • How much support did you get from having someone from our agency here with you? Would you say you felt …

    • How much did having someone from our agency here help you make decisions about what you want to do? Would you say it helped you …

    Thank you for answering these questions.

    • ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS AFTER THE ADVOCACY CONTACT IS OVER
    Section B:
    • Were you able to ask questions 1 to 4 of the client? CIRCLE ONLY ONE CHOICE

    • What type(s) of advocacy did you provide? CIRCLE ONLY ONE CHOICE

    • Where did you provide the services? CIRCLE ALL THAT APPLY

    • FOR CRIMINAL JUSTICE ADVOCACY ONLY—CIRCLE ONLY ONE CHOICE:

      At what point in the process did you start to work with the victim/survivor?

    • FOR MEDICAL ADVOCACY ONLY—CIRCLE ONLY ONE CHOICE:

      At what point in the process did you start to work with the victim/survivor?

    • What is survivor's race/ethnicity? CIRCLE ALL THAT APPLY

    • What is the survivor's gender? CIRCLE ONLY ONE CHOICE

    • What is the survivor's approximate age? _____ years old
    • What is the survivor's primary language? CIRCLE ONLY ONE CHOICE

    • Did you provide services to significant others, family, or friends? CIRCLE ONLY ONE CHOICE

    • What referrals did you provide to the survivor?
    • PLACE AN X OR AIN THE APPROPRIATE COLUMN.
      • Check the first column if you provided a referral within your agency.
      • Check the second column if you provided a referral outside your agency.
      • Check the third column if you initiated contact with the other service provider for the client (e.g., scheduled an appointment for them).
      • Check the fourth column if the service listed was not relevant or not discussed.
    • YOU MAY, OF COURSE, CHECK MORE THAN ONE COLUMN FOR EACH SERVICE LISTED

    Sexual Assault Extended Criminal Justice and Medical Advocacy Interview
    • STAFF SHOULD READ QUESTIONS 1 TO 4 TO SURVIVOR AT END OF ADVOCACY CONTACT
    • ASK ONLY OF VICTIMS AGED 13 OR OLDER—DO NOT USE THIS INTERVIEW FOR CHILD SEXUAL ASSAULT CASES. DO NOT INTERVIEW SIGNIFICANT OTHERS.
    • IF THE VICTIM IS EXTREMELY DISTRESSED AND YOU THINK IT WOULD UPSET HER/HIM FURTHER, DO NOT ASK QUESTIONS 1 TO 6. GO DIRECTLY TO QUESTION 7.
    Section A:
    • We are trying to find out how helpful our services are, and if it's okay with you, I'd like to ask you some questions about how you feel about our time together before we wrap things up. This is voluntary; we do not have to do this if you don't want to. You may stop at any time and nothing you say will affect the services you receive. Your name will never be connected to your answers. Would it be okay if I asked you some questions?

    • I'd like you to feel free to answer honestly, so that we can learn more about our services. How much did our program help you with the following?

      For each, please tell me if you felt our program helped very much, somewhat, a little, or not at all.

    • Because someone from our agency was here with you, how much more information do you have about the choices available to you? Would you say you have …

    • How much support did you get from having someone from our agency here with you? Would you say you felt …

    • How much did having someone from our agency here help you make decisions about what you want to do? Would you say it helped you …

    • How many times did you meet with someone from our agency? CIRCLE ONLY ONE CHOICE

    Thank you for answering these questions.

    • ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS AFTER THE ADVOCACY CONTACT IS OVER
    Section B:
    • Were you able to ask questions 1 to 4 of the client? CIRCLE ONLY ONE CHOICE

    • What type(s) of advocacy did you provide? CIRCLE ALL THAT APPLY

    • Where did you provide the services? CIRCLE ALL THAT APPLY

    • What is the survivor's race/ethnicity? CIRCLE ALL THAT APPLY

    • What is the survivor's gender? CIRCLE ONLY ONE CHOICE

    • What is the survivor's approximate age? _____ years old
    • What is the survivor's primary language? CIRCLE ONLY ONE CHOICE

    • Did you provide services to significant others, family, or friends? CIRCLE ONLY ONE CHOICE

    • What referrals did you provide to the survivor?
    • PLACE AN X OR AIN THE APPROPRIATE COLUMN.
      • Check the first column if you provided a referral within your agency.
      • Check the second column if you provided a referral outside your agency.
      • Check the third column if you initiated contact with the other service provider for the client (e.g., scheduled an appointment for them).
      • Check the fourth column if the service listed was not relevant or not discussed.
    • YOU MAY, OF COURSE, CHECK MORE THAN ONE COLUMN FOR EACH SERVICE LISTED

    Sexual Assault Crisis Hotline Interview
    • JUST BEFORE HANGING UP, STAFF SHOULD READ THESE QUESTIONS ALOUD AND RECORD THE ANSWERS BELOW.
    • ASK ONLY OF VICTIMS OR SIGNIFICANT OTHERS—DO NOT USE THIS INTERVIEW FOR ANY OTHER CALLERS.
    • IF THE CALLER IS IN CRISIS OR YOU THINK IT WOULD UPSET THE CALLER FURTHER, DO NOT ASK QUESTIONS 1 TO 4. INSTEAD, GO DIRECTLY TO QUESTION 5.
    Section A:
    • We are trying to find out how helpful our services are, and if it's okay with you, I'd like to ask you three questions about this phone call before we hang up. This is voluntary; we do not have to do this if you don't want to or if you've done it before. You may stop at any time and nothing you say will affect the services you receive. Would it be okay if I asked you the questions?

    • How many times have you called our crisis line before now?

    • I'd like you to feel free to answer honestly so that we can learn more about our services. As a result of this phone call, how much more information do you have about the choices available to you? Would you say you have …

    • How much support did you get from this phone call? Would you say that this phone call gave you …

    Thank you for taking the time to answer these questions.

    Answer the Following Questions after Completing the Call

    Section B:
    • Were you able to ask questions 1 to 4 of the caller? CIRCLE ONLY ONE CHOICE

    • Who was the caller? CIRCLE ONLY ONE CHOICE

    • What was the main reason for this call? CIRCLE ONLY ONE CHOICE

    • Did you discuss things that the caller can do the next time she/he is experiencing similar problems? CIRCLE ONLY ONE CHOICE

    • What specific referrals did you provide?
    • PLACE AN X ORA IN THE APPROPRIATE COLUMN.
      • Check the first column if you provided a referral within your agency.
      • Check the second column if you provided a referral outside your agency.
      • Check the third column if you initiated contact with the other service provider for the client (e.g., to schedule an appointment for them).
      • Check the fourth column if the service listed was not relevant or not discussed.
    • YOU MAY, OF COURSE, CHECK MORE THAN ONE COLUMN FOR EACH SERVICE LISTED

    Additional Resources

    • Evaluation Handbook for W.K. Kellogg Foundation Grantees: Information on Cluster Evaluation

      Published by: W.K. Kellogg Foundation

      One Michigan Avenue East

      Battle Creek, MI 49017-4058 (616) 968-1611

      Available at: http://www.wkkf.org

    • Evaluation Guidebook for Projects Funded by S.T.O.P. Formula Grants Under the Violence Against Women Act

      Published by: Urban Institute

      2100 M Street, N.W.

      Washington, DC 20037

      (202) 833-7200

      paffairs@ui.urban.org

      Publications/UI Press:

      (877) 847-7377 (toll-free)

      pubs@ui.urban.org

    • Outcome Evaluation Strategies for Domestic Violence Programs: A Practical Guide

      Author: Sullivan

      Published by: Pennsylvania Coalition Against Domestic

      Violence

      (800) 537-2238

      (800) 932-4632 (PA only)

      Available at: http://www.pcadv.org

    • Outcome Evaluation Strategies for Sexual Assault Service Programs: A Practical Guide

      Authors: Sullivan & Coats

      Published by: Michigan Coalition Against Domestic and Sexual Violence

      Fax: (517) 347-1377

      Available at: http://www.mcadsv.org

    • A Guide to Using Your Evaluation Results
    • Ethics in Research with Human Participants

      Authors: Sales & Folkman

      Published by: American Psychological Association

      Available at: http://www.apa.org

    • Program Evaluation: Alternative Approaches and Practical Guidelines

      Authors: Worthen, Sanders, & Fitzpatrick

      Published by: Longman

      Available at: http://www.longman.awl.com

    • Evaluating Domestic Violence Programs

      Authors: Edleson & Frick

      Published by: Domestic Abuse Project

      Available at: http://www.mincava.umn.edu

    • Introduction to Evaluation Training and Practice for Sexual Assault Service Delivery

      Introduction to Evaluation Training and Practice for Sexual Assault Prevention

      Authors: Campbell, Davidson, Ahrens, Aponte, Dorey, Grubstein, Naegeli, & Wasco

      Published by: Michigan Public Health Institute

      2436 Woodlake Circle, Suite 300 Okemos, MI 48864 (517) 324-8300

      Fax: (517) 381-0260

      central@mphi.org

    • Evaluation Handbook for Community Mobilization: Evaluating Domestic Violence Activism

      Authors: Garske, DeLeon-Granados, Hoffman, Meisel, Rath, & Skinner

      Published by: California Department of Health Services,

      Maternal and Child Health Branch, Domestic Violence Section

      Available at: http://www.maws.org

    • Statements on Ethics: Principles of Professional Responsibility

      Published by: American Anthropological Association

      Available at: http://ww.aaanet.org

    • Guiding Principles for Evaluators

      Published by: American Evaluation Association

      Available at: http://www.eval.org

    • Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct

      Published by: American Psychological Association

      Available at: http://www.apa.org

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    Author Index

    • Abel, E. M., 18
    • Abraham, M., 12, 19
    • Ahrens, C. E., 16
    • Altman, D. G., 29, 31, 33
    • Andersen, M., 31
    • Anzaldua, G., 19
    • Aponte, G., 16
    • Baker, C. K., 6, 14, 21, 22
    • Basta, J., 17, 18
    • Bennett, L. W., 18
    • Berger, R., 8
    • Berk, R. A., 12, 17
    • Berk, S. F., 17
    • Bhasin, S., 27, 34
    • Bible, A. L., 33, 38
    • Binder, A., 12
    • Block, C. R., 34
    • Bodnarchuk, M., 62
    • Bordt, R., 6
    • Bourg, S., 12
    • Bowman, C. G., 12
    • Brown, P., 35
    • Burnam, M. A., 15
    • Burt, M. R., 3, 4, 21
    • Buzawa, C. G., 12
    • Buzawa, E. S., 12
    • Bybee, D., 14, 16
    • Bybee, D. I., 17, 18
    • Byington, D., 5, 15, 21
    • Byington, D. B., 5, 6, 21
    • Campbell, J., 26, 27, 30, 32, 35, 36, 37, 39
    • Campbell, R., 6, 14, 15, 16, 17, 21, 22
    • Cancian, F. M., 26, 34
    • Chaudhuri, M., 12, 13
    • Chavis, D., 26
    • Chow, E. N., 19
    • Cohan, D., 36
    • Collins, B. G., 5
    • Colson, S., 13
    • Colten, M. E., 27, 31, 36
    • Crenshaw, K. W., 19, 20
    • Daly, K., 12, 13
    • Davidson, W. S., 16, 17, 18
    • Davis, A. Y., 19, 20
    • Davis, C., 11
    • DeLeon-Granados, W., xiv, 52, 104
    • Dienemann, J., 36
    • DiMaggio, P. J., 6
    • DiNitto, D., 5, 15, 21
    • DiNitto, D. M., 5, 6, 21
    • Dobash, R., 10, 11
    • Dobash, R. E., 10, 11
    • Dunford, F., 12
    • Dutton, D. G., 60
    • Edleson, J., 33, 38
    • Edleson, J. L., xiii, 23, 46, 100
    • Efkeman, H., 13
    • Elliot, D. S., 12
    • Engel, B., 34
    • Erez, E., 12, 20
    • Ferraro, K., 12, 19
    • Fine, M., 28, 39
    • Fineran, S., 36
    • Finn, P., 13
    • Fischer, K., 13
    • Fitzpatrick, J. L., 84, 104
    • Flango, C., 13
    • Frazier, P. A., 15
    • Frick, C., xiii, 23, 48, 104
    • Frisch, L., 12
    • Frohmann, L., 9, 14
    • Frosch, R. M., 19
    • Gamble, N., 14
    • Garske, D., xiv, 52, 104
    • Geist, A., 8
    • Gelles, R. J., 12, 37
    • Gilfus, M., 36
    • Golding, J. M., 15
    • Gondolf, E., 26, 27, 29, 32, 35, 36, 37, 39
    • Gordon, M. T., 30, 36
    • Gorelick, S., 31
    • Gornick, J., 5, 6, 21
    • Grubstein, L., 16
    • Hall, B. L., 26
    • Haney, B., 15
    • Hannaford, P., 13
    • Harre, A., 13
    • Harrison, D., 15
    • Hart, B., 13, 17
    • Hart, S. D., 62
    • Hartwick, L., 36
    • Harvey, M., 6
    • Harvey, M. R., 4, 21, 22
    • Hilton, N. Z., 12
    • Hirschel, J. D., 12
    • Hoffman, L., xiv, 52, 104
    • Horney, J., 7, 8, 9
    • Hugentobler, M. K., 34, 35
    • Huizinga, D., 12
    • Hutchison, I. W., 12
    • Israel, B. A., 34, 35
    • Jacobson, N. S., 26, 38
    • Jang, D., 19
    • Jensen, S., 36
    • Kaplan, N., 8
    • Keiltitz, S., 13
    • Kinports, K., 13
    • Klein, A., 12
    • Koss, M., 37
    • Koss, M. P., 5, 21, 22
    • Kropp, R., 62
    • Kub, J., 36
    • Largen, M. A., 8
    • Lather, P., 31
    • Lee, D., 19
    • Lennett, J., 27, 31, 36
    • Levin, R., 27, 35
    • Lieber, M., 34
    • Loh, W. D., 8
    • Lundy, M., 27, 34
    • Lykes, M. B., 29
    • Madigan, L., 14
    • Marsh, J., 8
    • Martin, D., 10
    • Martin, P. Y., 5, 6, 9, 14, 15, 21
    • Massat, C. R., 27, 34
    • Matoesian, G. M., 9, 14
    • Matthews, N. A., 5, 6, 21
    • Maxwell, M. S., 5, 6, 15, 21
    • Mazurek, T., 4, 14, 21, 22
    • Meeker, J. W., 12
    • Meisel, J., xiv, 52, 104
    • Miller, S., 12
    • Moraga, C., 19
    • Moran-Ellis, J., 36
    • Narayan, U., 12, 19, 20
    • National Victim Center, 16
    • Naureckas, S. M., 34
    • Neuman, W., 8
    • Newton, P. J., 17
    • Nyden, P., 26, 37
    • O'Donohue, W. T., 65
    • Ogloff, J. R. P., 62
    • O'Sullivan, E. A., 4, 5
    • Pagelow, M. D., 10
    • Park, P., 37
    • Petras, E. M., 26
    • Pittman, K. J., 5, 6, 21
    • Pizzey, E., 10
    • Polk, K., 8
    • Porpora, D. V., 26
    • Powell, M. R., 9, 14
    • Powell, W. W., 6
    • Pride, A., 4, 5, 6
    • Rasche, C., 12
    • Rath, C., xiv, 52, 104
    • Reason, P., 37
    • Renzetti, C., 26, 35, 37, 39
    • Richie, B., 19
    • Riger, S., 5, 21, 22, 30, 33, 36, 37
    • Riordan, K. A., 34
    • Rogan, D., 12
    • Rose, M., 13
    • Rumptz, M., 17, 18
    • Saegert, S., 36
    • Sanders, J. R., 80, 100
    • Schechter, S., 5, 6, 10, 11, 22
    • Schewe, P. A., 63
    • Schmidt, J., 12
    • Schmidt, J. D., 33
    • Schreiber, R., 7
    • Schurman, S. J., 34, 35
    • Searles, P., 8
    • Sherman, L. W., 12, 33
    • Siegel, J. M., 15
    • Skinner, J., xiv, 52, 104
    • Smith, A., 20
    • Smith, B. E., 13
    • Smith, J., 27, 34
    • Sorenson, S. B., 15
    • Spalter-Roth, R., 7
    • Spohn, C., 7, 8, 9
    • Stanko, E., 36
    • Stanko, E. A., 12
    • Stein, J. A., 15
    • Stock, H. V., 12
    • Stucky, P., 26
    • Sullivan, C. M., xiii, 17, 18, 22, 23, 32, 52, 65, 103
    • Tan, C., 17, 18
    • Tolman, R. M., 18
    • Ullman, S., 15
    • Wandersman, A., 26
    • Wasco, S. M., 16
    • Weisz, A. N., 18
    • Whalen, M. B., 5
    • Wiewel, W., 26, 34, 37
    • Williams, J. E., 14
    • Worthen, B. R., 84, 104
    • Wurmser, T., 36
    • Yllo, K., 26, 27, 30, 32, 35, 36, 37, 39
    • Zorza, J., 12

    About the Authors

    Stephanie Riger is Professor of Psychology and Gender and Women's Studies at the University of Illinois at Chicago. She is the recipient of the American Psychological Association's Division 27 award for Distinguished Contributions to Research and Theory and a two-time winner of the Association for Women in Psychology's Distinguished Publication Award. She is author of Transforming Psychology: Gender in Theory and Practice (2000) as well as numerous journal articles and other books. Her current research focuses on the impact of welfare reform on intimate violence and the evaluation of domestic violence and sexual assault services.

    Larry Bennett is Associate Professor, Jane Addams College of Social Work, University of Illinois at Chicago. His research interests include the implementation of evidence-based practice in social service agencies, the relationship between substance abuse and domestic violence, the structure and effectiveness of community-based batterers intervention programs, and the links between various forms of men's violence such as bullying, sexual harassment, dating violence, and adult partner abuse. He was a member of the Consensus Panel on Family Violence of the U.S. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment and currently chairs the Illinois Substance Abuse and Domestic Violence Interdisciplinary Task Force. He is a licensed clinical social worker in the State of Illinois, limiting his practice to court-ordered child custody evaluation.

    Sharon M. Wasco is a research assistant, instructor, and doctoral candidate in the Department of Psychology at the University of Illinois at Chicago. She is a student affiliate of the American Evaluation Association and the Society for Community Research and Action (Division 27 of the American Psychological Association). In recent years, she has assisted in developing evaluation materials for sexual assault and domestic violence programs and has provided training and program-specific technical assistance to service providers implementing evaluations in both Michigan and Illinois. She is interested in the effects of gender-based violence on victims, their support networks, and communities. She works with her faculty advisor, Dr. Rebecca Campbell, researching how service providers, organizations, and systems respond to sexual violence against women.

    Paul A. Schewe is a prevention researcher at the University of Illinois at Chicago. He is a clinical/community psychologist with extensive experience in developing and evaluating school-based violence prevention programs. In recent years, he has worked on a variety of projects ranging from evaluations of single programs to community-based collaborations to statewide initiatives. The focus of these efforts has included sexual assault, teen dating violence, and domestic violence prevention programs as well as early childhood interventions to promote social-emotional development. He is the editor of Preventing Relationship Violence Across the Lifespan (2002) and author of numerous articles on sexual assault prevention and related topics. He is a home-schooling father of three children and contributes to his local community as a scout leader and soccer coach.

    Lisa Frohmann is Associate Professor in the Department of Criminal Justice at the University of Illinois at Chicago. For 20 years she has been working in the area of violence against women as both a researcher and an activist. Her research focuses on the prosecution of domestic violence and sexual assault cases and the social construction of race, class, and gender in the law. She is also working on new research, The Autobiographical Photography Project, that examines battered women's conceptions of “safety” as expressed through photography and narrative. Her activist work includes serving as a rape crisis hotline advocate and as an instructor in women's self-defense techniques. She has consulted with sexual assault and domestic violence agencies to provide in-service training on case prosecution and women's experience in court, develop evaluation tools, and navigate organizational change. She also serves on the Board of Directors' Evaluation Committee of Heartland Alliance, which ensures that all research conducted in affiliated organizations meets strict ethical standards.

    Jennifer M. Camacho is an epidemiologist with the Chicago Department of Public Health, where she works as internal evaluator. She received her master's degree from the University of Illinois at Chicago in Community Prevention and Research, where she studied violence against women, program evaluation, and statistics. She regularly teaches informal courses on the use of nonparametric statistics in the evaluation of small programs and enjoys doing independent evaluative and statistical consulting. In addition to violence against women, her research interests include organizational responses to persons with disabilities. Publications for this year include work on community interventions for persons with disabilities and work on the radiating impact of domestic violence.

    Rebecca Campbell is Associate Professor of Community/Quantitative Psychology at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Her current research includes studies on the community response to rape, vicarious trauma among violence against women researchers and service providers, and the evaluation of rape crisis center services. She is the author of Emotionally Involved: The Impact of Researching Rape (2001). She received the 2000 Louise Kidder Early Career Award from the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (Division 9) of the American Psychological Association. To get a break from thinking about violence against women, she enjoys gardening and cooking.


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