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Having examined the complexities involved in interpreting a text, we move on to a discussion of media. I begin with an examination of some of the more interesting theories about media and the way the media function, such as transportation theory, responsive chord theory, and Marshall McLuhan's theories about hot and cool media. Next, I address various theories about media effects, such as those regarding the agenda-setting and gatekeeping functions of media, cultivation theory, reinforcement theory, spiral of silence theory, and the question of cultural imperialism. This is followed by a discussion of what research suggests about media effects (are they powerful or weak), the ownership of the media (if the media have few effects, it matters little who owns them), and the problem ...

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