Essentials of Cross-Cultural Counseling


Lawrence H. Gerstein, P. Paul Heppner, Stefania Ægisdóttir, Seung-Ming A. Leung & Kathryn L. Norsworthy

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    We are extremely grateful to our spouses and partners (Annie, Dawa Lhamo, Deena, Dennis Lee, Mary), children (Guný, Arnbergur, Lilja, Ellen, Eric, Erica, Timothy, and Grace), grandchildren (Tenzin Choedon, Mikael, Haidyn, and Kane), and other family members for the great support and understanding we received throughout the process of completing this book. We also want to deeply thank our Acquisitions Editor, Kassie Graves, at Sage Publications for encouraging us to write this book. Once again, you provided us with excellent direction, wisdom, support, and resources to make this project possible. Additionally, we want to express our appreciation to all the other staff at Sage Publications especially Courtney Munz and Eric Garner that were involved in the production of this book. Finally, we are grateful to Dennis Lee for the creation of the magnificent artwork that appears on the cover of this book.

  • About the Editors

    Lawrence H. Gerstein is a George and Frances Ball Distinguished Professor of Psychology-Counseling, director of the doctoral program in counseling psychology, and director of the Center for Peace and Conflict Studies at Ball State University in Muncie, Indiana. He is co-editor of the International Handbook of Cross-Cultural Counseling: Cultural Assumptions and Practices Worldwide and the Handbook for Social Justice in Counseling Psychology: Leadership, Vision, and Action. He managed the Tibetan and Chinese translations of the book, Buddha's Warriors. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association (Counseling Psychology, International Psychology, Peace Psychology), co-editor of The Counseling Psychologist International Forum, president of the International Tibet Independence Movement, and a past co-chair of the International Section of the Society of Counseling Psychology-American Psychological Association. He has published extensively on international and social justice issues as well as on loneliness, self-monitoring, and employee assistance programs. He received his Ph.D. in counseling and social psychology from the University of Georgia in 1983. Since his teenage years, he has traveled extensively throughout the world. He has been fortunate to collaborate with individuals in numerous countries.

    P. Paul Heppner is currently a Curators’ Professor of the Department of Educational, School, and Counseling Psychology at the University of Missouri. He is co-founder of and since 1998 has been co-director of the Center for Multicultural Research, Training and Consultation, and he was the inaugural co-chair of the International Section of the Society of Counseling Psychology. He has published more than 180 articles or book chapters and nine books, including serving as a co-editor of the International Handbook of Cross-Cultural Counseling: Cultural Assumptions and Practices Worldwide. He has made hundreds of presentations at national conferences and delivered more than 95 invited presentations across 14 countries. In addition, he has served on several national and international editorial boards and as editor of The Counseling Psychologist. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association (Divisions 17 and 52) and the American Psychological Society. In 2005–2006, he served as president of the Society of Counseling Psychology. He has been honored to receive a named professorship, and to be the recipient of several awards (including the Leona Tyler Award and MU Curators’ Professorship) for his leadership, research, teaching, mentoring, international work, and activities promoting diversity and social justice issues; he has been the recipient of three Fulbright awards. He received his doctorate in 1979 from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

    Stefanía Ægisdóttir is a native of Iceland and an associate professor in the Department of Counseling Psychology and Guidance Services at Ball State University, Indiana. She is a former Fulbright scholarship recipient for pursuing doctoral studies in the United States and recently completed a 3-year grant from the Iceland Research Fund to study psychological help-seeking patterns of Icelanders. Her primary teaching interests are research methodology, assessment, program development and evaluation, and clinical training. She has written about cross-cultural research methods, attitudes and expectations about counseling, clinical judgment, and international and cross-cultural issues and competencies in counseling research and training. She is a co-editor of the International Handbook of Cross-Cultural Counseling: Cultural Assumptions and Practices Worldwide. She received her doctorate in counseling psychology in 2000 from Ball State University.

    Seung-Ming Alvin Leung is Dean of Faculty of Education and professor in the Department of Educational Psychology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong. He previously held faculty positions at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and the University of Houston. His major areas of scholarly interest include career development and assessment; cross-cultural, multicultural, and international issues in counseling; and counseling in educational settings. He is a co-editor of the International Handbook of Cross-Cultural Counseling: Cultural Assumptions and Practices Worldwide. He is currently the editor of Asian Journal of Counselling. He is the first counseling psychologist from outside the United States to serve as associate editor of The Counseling Psychologist (1999–2002). He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association (APA) and the Hong Kong Professional Counselling Association. He received the “Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of the Counseling Profession” Award at the 2008 International Counseling Psychology Conference in Chicago and the 2009 “Distinguished Alumni Award” from his alma mater, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He is one of the three co-chairs of the International Section of the Division of Counseling Psychology of the APA (2008–2010).

    Kathryn L. Norsworthy is a professor in Graduate Studies in Counseling, Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida and licensed psychologist. She is a fellow of the American Psychological Association (Division 17) and currently serves as chair of the international committee of the APA Division of Trauma Psychology. She is a co-editor of the International Handbook of Cross-Cultural Counseling: Cultural Assumptions and Practices Worldwide. Nationally, she received the 2003 American Counseling Association Kitty Cole Human Rights Award, the 2007 Outstanding International Psychologist and the 2009 Denmark-Reuder Award for Outstanding International Contributions to the Psychology of Women and Gender from the International Division of the APA, the 2008 Many Faces of Counseling Psychology Award and the 2009 Social Justice Award from the APA's Division of Counseling Psychology. Since 1997, she has been engaged in activist research and practice projects focusing on trauma, feminist counseling, social justice education, women's leadership, cross-national collaboration, mindfulness, and peace building in Thailand, Cambodia, and northern India, with refugee and internally displaced communities of Burma, and with international groups. Author and coauthor of numerous articles and book chapters on her international social justice work and cross-national partnerships, she was featured in the December 2007 issue of the APA Monitor on Psychology as a “Humanitarian Hero.” She received her doctorate from the University of Minnesota.

    About the Contributors

    Thomas Clawson, EdD, NCC, is President and CEO of the National Board for Certified Counselors and Affiliates (NBCC). He is regarded as a preeminent counseling leader. He is a member of several international and national boards. Over the past three decades, he has been involved in initiatives to promote the advancement and strengthening of professional counseling and counseling services across the globe. He has numerous publications and awards in the area of counseling, standards of professional practice, and credentialing. He holds three advanced degrees, including a doctorate in counseling from the College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia.

    Changming Duan is an associate professor of counseling psychology at the University of Missouri Kansas City. She is interested in multicultural and international issues in counseling. She has experience in teaching multicultural counseling classes as well as teaching counseling outside the United States.

    Janet E. Helms, PhD, is the Augustus Long Professor in the Department of Counseling, Developmental, and Educational Psychology and Director of the Institute for the Study and Promotion of Race and Culture at Boston College. She is president of the American Psychological Association (APA) Society of Counseling Psychology (Division 17) and a fellow of this Division and Division 45 (Ethnic Diversity). She has written more than 60 articles and 4 books on racial identity and cultural influences on assessment and counseling practice. She received Division 45's 1999 Distinguished Career Contributions to Research Award, Division 17's 2002 Leona Tyler Award, APA's 2006 Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training, the 2007 Association of Black Psychologists’ Distinguished Psychologist Award, and the 2008 Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy.

    Kwong-Liem Karl Kwan is a Hong Kong Chinese who in 2008 joined the Department of Counseling faculty at San Francisco State University. He is the coeditor of the International Forum for The Counseling Psychologist(United States) and was the guest editor for a special issue titled Ethical Practice of Counseling in Asia for Asian Journal of Counseling (Hong Kong). He is an editorial board member of Educational Psychology Bulletin (Taiwan), Journal of Counseling Psychology (United States), and Psychological Assessment (United States). He received his doctorate in counseling psychology from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

    Frederick T. L. Leong, PhD, is a professor of psychology at Michigan State University in the industrial/organizational and clinical psychology programs and serves as the director of the Center for Multicultural Psychology Research. He has authored or coauthored more than 120 articles in various psychology journals, 80 book chapters, and edited or coedited 10 books. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and American Psychological Society. His major clinical research interests center around culture and mental health and cross-cultural psychotherapy (especially with Asians and Asian Americans), whereas his industrial/organizational research is focused on cultural and personality factors related to career choice, work adjustment, and occupational stress.

    Walter J. Lonner is the founding and special issues editor of the Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology (JCCP). A charter member of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology (IACCP), he has been involved with numerous books in the field, including Counseling Across Cultures (2007; P. B. Pedersen, J. G. Draguns, W. J. Lonner, and J. E. Trimble, editors, 6th edition, Sage) and Discovering Cultural Psychology: A Profile and Selected Readings of Ernest E. Boesch (2007; with S. A. Hayes). A former Fulbright scholar (Germany, 1984–1985), he is Professor Emeritus of Psychology at Western Washington University, where he cofounded the Center for Cross-Cultural Research in 1969.

    Paul B. Pedersen is a visiting professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Hawaii. He has taught at the University of Minnesota, Syracuse University, the University of Alabama at Birmingham, and, for 6 years, at universities in Taiwan, Malaysia, and Indonesia. He was also on the Summer School Faculty at Harvard University (1984–1988) and took part in the University of Pittsburgh—Semester at Sea voyage around the world (Spring, 1992). He has authored, coauthored, or edited 45 books, 100 articles, 82 chapters, and 22 monographs on aspects of multicultural counseling and international communication. He is a fellow of Divisions 9, 17, 45, and 52 of the American Psychological Association. He is a Senior Fulbright Scholar (National Taiwan University, 1999–2000); and has been a member of the Committee for International Relations in Psychology (CIRP) of the American Psychological Association (2001–2003) and a senior fellow of the East West Center (1975–1976 and 1978–1981).

    Jennifer Rogers is currently a University Fellow at Syracuse University, where she is working toward her doctorate in counselor education and supervision. Her interests include the integration of mental health services within health care settings, clinical counseling instruction, and the globalization of the counseling profession. She received her MA in counseling from Wake Forest University.

    Rex Stockton is Chancellor's Professor at Indiana University. He has received several major awards for his research in group dynamics and other counseling related topics. His career efforts have been honored by a special issue (September 2005) of the Journal of the Association for Specialists in Group Work. He has been active in international counseling for many years and currently directs a project implementing culturally appropriate counseling research and training programs for human service workers specializing in HIV/AIDS counseling in Africa. A fellow of the American Counseling Association and the American Psychological Association, he has held numerous offices and committee assignments, including the presidency of their group work divisions.

    Andreea Szilagyi is an associate professor at Petroleum-Gas University of Ploiesti and one of the first counselor-educators in Romania. Her expertise is strongly oriented toward the practice of career counseling, particularly with Eastern Europeans (in educational and business organizations). She is at the forefront of research on counselor education in Romania, on the role of large-scale professional contracts in the development of the profession, and on certification across borders. She was Global Career Development Facilitator of United States in 2003, National Certified Counselor of United States in 2005, and Mental Health Facilitator in 2007. She was also Director of the National Board for Certified Counselors (NBCC)-Romania and Associate Vice President NBCC International-Europe. She received a master's degree in education from the University of Bucharest in 1995 and a doctorate from Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi (with the first counseling theme in Romania).

    Antonio Tena, PhD, is the current chair in the psychology department at Universidad Iberoamericana in Mexico City, Mexico. His clinical interests include psychotherapy with eating disorders, adolescents and adults, and international issues in counseling. From 1998 to 1999, he was a visiting professor in the Department of Counseling and Human Services at the University of Scranton, Pennsylvania. He is one of the original collaborators in the ongoing partnership between the two institutions. He is a codirector of the Universidad Iberoamericana/University of Scranton grant, funded by the TIES/ENLACES program. He is a National Board for Certified Counselors International Member, Board of Directors.

    Li-fei Wang is a professor of counseling psychology at National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan, Republic of China. Besides her academic and teaching specialty in group counseling and psychotherapy, she served as the president of the Division of Counseling Psychology and general secretary of the Taiwan Guidance and Counseling Association (TGCA). She is not only passionate about bringing the world to Taiwan but has also extended her inspirations and collaborated with her former advisor Dr. Puncky Heppner to create several exchange programs benefiting both National Taiwan Normal University and the University of Missouri-Columbia students in expanding their worldviews and building stronger connections between her professional homes. She received her PhD in counseling psychology from the University of Missouri-Columbia in 1995.

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