Essential Abnormal and Clinical Psychology

Books

Matt Field & Sam Cartwright-Hatton

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    List of Figures and Tables

    Figures

    About the Authors

    Matt Field is a Professor of Psychology at the University of Liverpool. While an undergraduate student at Swansea University, his experience of research investigating depressed mood and alcohol craving motivated him to pursue a career in research. He went on to study conditioning processes in tobacco addiction for his PhD, which he received from the University of Sussex in 2001. Following a three-year spell at the University of Southampton, he moved to the University of Liverpool in 2004. He leads the addiction research group, teaches abnormal and clinical psychology to undergraduate and postgraduate students, and does far too much university administration. He is on the editorial boards of the journals Addiction, Drug and Alcohol Dependence and Psychopharmacology, has published more than 100 articles in peer-reviewed journals (some of them are even quite good!), and this is his first book. He lives with his wife and three cats in Formby.

    Sam Cartwright-Hatton is a Professor of Clinical Child Psychology who specialises in anxiety disorders and parenting processes. She started out with an undergraduate degree at the University of Liverpool, and then a PhD at the University of Oxford. This PhD was on anxiety disorders in adults, and despite having almost no existing knowledge of or interest in clinical psychology, by the end of it, she was hooked. At the end of the PhD, to the exasperation of her parents, who thought she might never leave university, she moved to Manchester to train as a clinical psychologist. Since then she has specialised in researching and treating anxiety in young children. She has produced around 50 publications, and this is her fourth book. In 2011 she left rainy Manchester for sunny Brighton, where she continues her research at the University of Sussex and lives with her husband and little girl.

    Acknowledgements

    Writing this book has been an enjoyable and stimulating experience, but like all big projects it took up much more of our time than we anticipated. We are very grateful to the following people who helped to shape it into the finished product: the team at SAGE, particularly Michael Carmichael, Keri Dickens and Chris Kingston, who made some really helpful suggestions to improve the first draft and generally tighten things up; the anonymous reviewers of the first draft, for their thoughtful and detailed comments; Noreen O’Sullivan for sending us lots of important articles for the Schizophrenia chapter; Helen Startup for feedback on the Personality Disorders chapter; Andy Jones for his constructive comments on the first drafts of many of the chapters; and Andy Field and Learning Matters for allowing us to adapt some of the material from Crucial Clinical Psychology.

    Matt Field and Sam Cartwright-Hatton, September 2014

    Foreword

    This is a timely book, coming in an era when even the most ardent student will find it challenging to navigate through the shifting paradigms that generate waves of often conflicting research findings in the psychological sciences. The authors, with complementary backgrounds in experimental and clinical psychology, make light work of integrating a burgeoning body of research into a clear, comprehensive and engaging volume. I particularly welcome this book because it enables the reader to grasp the fact that they are embarking on a journey of exploration of what is in truth an interdisciplinary, multi-faceted subject: Understanding the mechanisms that govern normal and abnormal psychological processes requires both a wide angle lens and a sharp focus. The authors accomplish this with a lightness of touch that belies the complexity of the subject matter. The opening chapters equip the reader with the necessary methodological and conceptual tools in areas such as the metrics of normality and abnormality. These and successive chapters begin with a clear set of learning objectives and then offer lucid descriptions of key features, core mechanisms, theoretical models and treatment approaches. This encourages the reader to embrace both the research findings and the ‘real world’ applications that evolve from them. This also creates an ideal platform on which the student can develop the ‘scientist–practitioner’ perspective that defines applied psychology, especially in clinical settings. Addressing core processes such as cognitive biases or trans-generational influences such as coercive behaviour in developmental contexts, and much else besides, will provide the reader with plenty of scope for more intensive study or in time the pursuit of definitive career pathways. Common mental health problems including childhood disorders, depression, anxiety disorders, psychoses, substance misuse problems, eating disorders and personality disorders are thus addressed. In the process the reader is able to gauge and to appreciate the complex interplay of factors that are involved and the sometimes gentle, and often controversial, gradient between what is deemed normal or abnormal and thus needing remediation. In relation to the latter, the book introduces the reader to the key evidence-based treatments for these frequently occurring mental health problems. I wholeheartedly recommend this book as a comprehensive introduction to the student at undergraduate or postgraduate level. Dr Frank Ryan

    Preface

    Many students choose to study psychology because they are interested in psychological disorders. Some want to pursue a career in clinical psychology, counselling or cognitive behaviour therapy so that they can help people who suffer from them. Because abnormal and clinical psychology are so intensively researched, there is a lot of information out there and a correspondingly huge choice of abnormal and clinical psychology textbooks on the market. We decided to write this book because we felt that many textbooks provide a good overview of everything, but most don’t ‘drill down’ into the details, controversies or debates in research or treatment, and this is because they are trying to give equal coverage to such a huge amount of material. We want this book to be different: we don’t pretend to cover everything, but we do introduce the topics and encourage you to think critically about the details of research and the way that research findings are interpreted. If you can develop these critical skills now, you will be able to apply them to other pieces of research that you read in addition to this book.

    Who is this book for?

    This book is intended to introduce you to the essentials of abnormal and clinical psychology. It is an accessible resource for students from a range of disciplines and at different levels. For high school (e.g. A level) and level 1 university courses, it contains everything you need to get a broad understanding of the topics and some idea of the current debates and controversies. At higher levels (e.g. final year undergraduate, and postgraduate) the book should be used as a framework on which to build your own independent reading. Our intention is that all students will benefit from reading the first two chapters, and then you can pick and choose from the other chapters depending on which topics are being covered in your particular course.

    Overview of the structure and features of this book

    The first two chapters are an introduction to some fundamental issues and you should read these before you dip into any of the subsequent chapters. The first chapter explains some of the current controversies in the way that psychological disorders are categorised and diagnosed, and then introduces you to some important issues regarding research, including how to evaluate research findings in a critical way. The second chapter provides an overview of how psychological disorders are treated, and covers key topics such as the practical problems involved in deciding the best way to treat a distressed patient, and the many ways that we can test whether treatments actually work.

    Subsequent chapters (3–11) focus on specific disorders or classes of disorders and you may not need to read all of these, depending on the syllabus of the module you are studying. However, we would hope that you will be sufficiently interested in these topics to want to read the whole book anyway, even if you don’t have to! Most of the chapters have the following structure:

    • What is the disorder? In this section we introduce the classic symptoms and features of the disorder(s), explain how it is diagnosed, and discuss the controversies that surround diagnosis.
    • How does the disorder develop? In this section we discuss risk factors for the disorder. These usually include heritability, environmental risk factors, and interactions between the two.
    • What is going on in the mind and brain of the sufferer? In this section, which is usually the longest in the chapter, we introduce theories from psychology and neuroscience that try to make sense of the disorder. In most cases, these theories attempt to explain how risk factors for the disorder lead to changes in psychological function that ultimately lead to the symptoms of the disorder. So, the material in these sections is linked back to the things that were discussed in the previous section.
    • How is the disorder treated? Here we provide an overview of the most common treatments and we discuss studies that have evaluated how effective those treatments are. Again, we link these treatments back to theories of the disorder(s) and we discuss options for the development of new treatments in the future, based on those theories. To give you a feel for how the theory is actually put into practice, some of the chapters focus on the nuts and bolts of what happens during treatment.

    Each chapter includes a number of specific features and text boxes that highlight important issues and will help you to think critically about the material. These are:

    • Assessment targets: Bear these in mind before you start to read the chapter, and then go back to them when you have finished the chapter. If you cannot answer ‘yes’ to these questions then look over the chapter again. If you still cannot answer these questions, you should return the book to the shop and demand a refund!
    • Essential diagnosis boxes: These contain essential criteria for diagnosis of the disorder(s) and are taken straight from the main diagnostic manuals (the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and/or the International Classification of Diseases). These boxes are important because people tend to have different opinions about what, for example, ‘depression’ is, so it is necessary to be clear about what clinicians and researchers mean when they talk about any particular disorder
    • Essential experience: These are usually case studies of people who suffer from a psychological disorder in which they describe their symptoms, how the disorder has affected their life, or how treatment has affected them. You should think about how these relate to the diagnostic criteria (which can be a bit ‘dry’ and formal) and also about how they fit, or do not fit, with the theories and evidence described elsewhere in the chapter.
    • Essential debate: Here we discuss some of the current controversies in a given topic, sometimes based around a published article in a scientific journal. We want you to think about these issues carefully, and also search for other papers that have been published more recently that relate to this debate. For broader issues, these debate boxes have a ‘pros versus cons’ format, or similar, and in these cases you should think carefully about the issues and make sure that you understand both sides of the argument.
    • Essential research: Towards the front of the book, these boxes tend to introduce specific research methods that crop up throughout the book, and later on, highlight particular studies that have been influential, or controversial, or both. We want you to think carefully and critically about the research and, as above, conduct your own literature searches to see what has changed since this work was published. Sometimes we discuss fairly old studies that nicely illustrate a particular methodology or robust finding, and have become ‘classics’. Other times we focus on more recent studies that could fundamentally change the way we understand a particular disorder, and in other cases we show you why some studies are a bit rubbish and should not be trusted!
    • Essential treatment: These boxes might describe how a treatment actually works in practice (the ‘nuts and bolts’), they might summarise important studies that have evaluated the effectiveness of treatments, or they might highlight recent research that has investigated new types of treatment. Again, we want you to think critically about the material that is presented in these boxes, and ask yourself: Am I convinced by this treatment? Does it follow from the evidence about the disorder, and would I recommend it to a close friend or family member that suffers from this disorder?
    • Essential questions: These are some examples of coursework or exam questions that test your understanding of the material in the chapter. You could write short essay plans for each question, or if you are really keen you could have a go at writing the essay itself.

    Companion Website

    Essential Abnormal and Clinical Psychology is supported by a wealth of online resources for both students and lecturers to aid study and support teaching, which are available at: study.sagepub.com/fieldcartwrighthatton

    For Students

    • Watch author-selected videos to give you insight into how an understanding of abnormal and clinical psychology is applied in practice.
    • Interactive quizzes allow you to test your knowledge and give you feedback to help you prepare for assignments and exams.
    • Weblinks direct you to relevant resources to deepen your understanding of chapter topics and expand your knowledge of abnormal and clinical psychology.
    • Selected journal articles give you free access to scholarly articles chosen for each chapter to reinforce your learning of key topics.

    For Lecturers

    • PowerPoint slides featuring figures and tables from the book which can be downloaded and customised for use in your own presentations.
    • Test banks that provide a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity to edit any question and/or insert personalised questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding.
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