Environmental Psychology: A Psycho-Social Introduction

Books

Mirilia Bonnes & Gianfranco Secchiaroli

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: The Origin and Theoretical Roots of Environmental Psychology

    Part II: Directions of Present-Day Environmental Psychology

  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Preface

    The purpose of this book is to outline a psycho-social introduction to the field of environmental psychology, which has developed over the past twenty years and is now well-established at the international level (see Stokols and Altman, 1987).

    This volume points out that environmental psychology is first of all a frontier field in psychological research aimed at collaborating with other fields, both disciplinary and technical, involved in organizing, changing and managing the human physical environment, such as architecture, geography, ecological natural sciences (biological and physical), economy, law, etc.

    The first aim of the book is to bring the specific demands existing outside psychology within the psychological tradition. In particular, it is pointed out that many of the main questions environmental psychology is trying to answer today have a long tradition of research in psychology. Special reference is made to two main theoretical traditions: the psychology of perception-cognition, on the one hand, and social psychology, on the other.

    It is emphasized that this second tradition seems to provide the most appropriate conceptual and methodological tools for the development of environmental psychology and for bringing psychological research into the ‘real world’ so often indicated as one of the major objectives of environmental psychology.

    It is also pointed out that environmental psychology has been moving towards the psycho-social perspective since its inception. This perspective is also indicated as the most appropriate one for enabling environmental psychology not only to answer ‘external questions’, but also to become a theoretically relevant reference point within the psychological field for overcoming the misleading opposition between ‘basic research’ and ‘applied research’.

    This volume gives an informative picture of the main working themes of environmental psychology today and investigates the psychological tradition to discover how this new domain of psychological research can develop with both external and internal relevance, finally putting into practice the well-known Lewinian intention of carrying out research that is at the same time ‘theoretically meaningful and socially useful.

  • References

    Abelson, R.P. (1981), ‘Psychological Status of the Script Concept'’, in American Psychologist, 36, pp. 715–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.36.7.715
    Acking, C.A. and Kuller, R. (1973), ‘Presentation and Judgement of Planned Environment and the Hypothesis of Arousal’, in A.F.Preiser (ed.), Environmental Design Research, vol. 1, Selected Papers, Proceedings of the 4th International Environmental Design Research Association Conference, Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Stroudsburg, PA, pp. 72–83.
    Acredolo, L.P. (1978), ‘Development of Spatial Orientation in Infancy'’, in Development Psychology, 14, pp. 224–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.14.3.224
    Acredolo, L.P., Pick, H.I. and Olsen, M.G. (1975), ‘Environmental Differentiation and Familiarity as Determinants of Children's Memory for Spatial Location'’, in Developmental Psychology, 11, pp. 495–501. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0076667
    Ahrentzen, S. and Evans, G.W. (1984), ‘Distraction, Privacy and Classroom Design'’, in Environment and Behavior, 16, pp. 437–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013916584164002
    Aiello, J.R. (1980), ‘When Compensation Fails: Mediating Effects of Sex and Locus of Control at Extended Interaction Distances'’, in Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 1, pp. 65–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15324834basp0101_5
    Ainsworth, M.D.S., Blehar, M.C., Waters, F. and Wall, S. (1978), Patterns of Attachment: A Psychological Study of Strange Situation, Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.
    Allport, F.H. (1955), Theories of Perceptions and the Concept of Structure, Wiley, New York.
    Allport, G. and Pettigrew, T. (1957), ‘Cultural Influence on the Perception of Movement: the Trapezoidal Illusion among the Zulu'’, in Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 55, pp. 104–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0049372
    Altaian, I. (1973), ‘Some Perspectives on the Study of Man-Environment Phenomena’, in W.Preiser (ed.), Environment and Design Research Association Fourth International Conference, vol. 1, Selected Papers, Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Stroudsburg, PA, pp. 99–113.
    Altman, I. (1975), The Environment and Social Behavior: Privacy, Personal Space, Territoriality and Crowding, Brooks/Cole, Monterey, CA.
    Altman, I. (1976), ‘Environmental Psychology and Social Psychology’, in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 2, pp. 96–113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/014616727600200207
    Altman, I. (1986), ‘Theoretical Issues in Environmental Psychology’, paper presented to the 21st IAAP Congress, Jerusalem.
    Altman, I. (1988), ‘Process, Transactional/Contextual and Outcome Research: an Alternative to the Traditional Distinction between Basic and Applied Research'’, in Social Behaviour, 3, pp. 259–80.
    Altman, I. and Chemers, M.M. (1980), Culture and Environment, Brooks/Cole, Monterey, CA.
    Altman, I. and Gauvain, M. (1981), ‘A Cross-Cultural and Dialectic Analysis of Homes’, in L.Liben, A.Patterson and N.Newcomb (eds), Spatial Representation and Behavior across the Life-Span: Theory and Application, Academic Press, New York.
    Altman, I. and Rogoff, B. (1987), ‘World Views in Psychology: Trait, Interactional, Organismic and Transactional Perspectives’, in D.Stokols and I.Altman (eds), Handbook of Environmental Psychology, vol. 1, Wiley, New York, pp. 7–40.
    Ames, A. (1955), An Interpretative Manual: The Nature of Our Perceptions, Comprehensions and Behavior, Princeton University Press, Princeton.
    Ames, A. (1960), The Morning Notes of Adalbert Ames (posthumous vol. ed. by H.Cantril), Rutgers University Press, New Brunswik, NJ.
    Andorka, R. (1987), ‘Time Budgets and Their Uses'’, in Annual Review of Sociology, 13, pp. 149–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.so.13.080187.001053
    Antil, J.H. and Bennet, P.D. (1979), ‘Construction and Validation of a Scale to Measure Socially Responsible Consumption Behavior’, in K.E.Henion and T.C.Kinnear (eds), The Conserver Society, American Marketing Association, Chicago.
    Appley, N.H. and Turnbull, R. (1967), Psychological Stress: Issues in Research, Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.
    Appleyard, D. (1969), ‘Why Buildings Are Known'’, in Environment and Behavior, 1, p. 131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001391656900100202
    Appleyard, D. (1970), ‘Styles and Methods of Structuring a City'’, in Environment and Behavior, 2, pp. 100–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001391657000200106
    Appleyard, D. (1973), ‘Professional Priorities for Environmental Psychology’, in R.Kuller (ed.), Architectural Psychology: Proceedings of the Lund Conference 1973, Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Stroudsburg, PA.
    Appleyard, D., Lynch, K and Meyer, J.R. (1964), The View from the Road, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
    Aragones, J.I. and Arredondo, J.M. (1985), ‘Structure of Urban Cognitive Maps'’, in Journal of Environmental Psychology, 5, pp. 197–212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944%2885%2980017-7
    Arca Petrucci, M. and Gaddini, S. (1985), ‘Introduzione’, in G.Gold, Introduzione alla geografia del comportamento, Franco Angeli, Milan.
    Archea, J. (ed.) (1967–9), Architectural Psychology Newsletter, University of Utah, Salt Lake City.
    Archea, J. (1977), ‘The Place of Architectural Factors in Behavioral Theories of Privacy'’, in Journal of Social Issues, 33 (3), pp. 116–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/josi.1977.33.issue-3
    Archea, J. and Esser, A.H. (1969), Man–Environment Systems, Association for the Study of Man–Environment Relations, Orangesburg, NY.
    Ardone, R.G., de Rosa, A.M., Bonnes, M. and Secchiaroli, M. (1987), ‘Dimensioni valutative del proprio quartiere de residenza, per uno studio de “congruenza ambientale'”, in E.Bianchi, F.Perussia and M.F.Rossi (eds), Immagine soggettiva e ambiente: Problemi. applicazioni e strategie de ricerca, Unicopli, Milan, pp. 207–17.
    Ardrey, R. (1966), The Territorial Imperative, Atheneum, New York.
    Argyle, M. and Dean, J. (1965), ‘Eye-Contact, Distance and Affiliation'’, in Sociometry, 28, pp. 289–304. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2786027
    Argyle, M., Furnham, A. and Graham, J.A. (1981), Social Situations, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511558283
    Asch, S.E. (1952), Social Psychology, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10025-000
    Axia, G. (1986), La mente ecologica: La conoscenza delta mente nel bambino, Giunti Barbera, Florence.
    Bachelard, G. (1969), The Poetics of Space, Bacon Press, Boston (original edn. 1958).
    Bagnara, S. and Misiti, R. (1978), Psicologia ambientale, II Mulino, Bologna.
    Bagnasco, C. (1987), ‘La toponomastica romana: caratteristiche e sviluppo storico’, in M.Bonnes (ed.), Ecologia urbana applicata alla città di Roma. Programma UNESCO MAB no. 11, Progress Report no. 3, Istituto Psicologia CNR, Rome, pp. 33–72.
    Bagnasco, C. and Bonnes, M. (1991), ‘Citizen's Participation in the Improvement of the Urban Environment in Italy’, in T.Deelstra and O.Yanitzky (eds), Cities of Europe: the Public's Role in Shaping the Urban Environment. Mezhdumarodnye Otnoshenia, Moscow, pp. 135–49.
    Bailey, R., Branch, C.H. and Taylor, C.H. (eds) (1961), Architectural Psychology and Psychiatry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City.
    Bailly, A.S. (1981), ‘La geographic de la perception dans le monde francophone: une prospective historique'’, in Geographica Helvetica, 36, pp. 14–21.
    Baird, J.C., Wagner, M. and Noma, F. (1982), ‘Impossible Cognitive Spaces'’, in Geographical Analysis, 14, pp. 204–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gean.1982.14.issue-3
    Baker, A., Davis, R. and Silvadon, P. (1960), Psychiatric Services and Architecture, World Health Organization, Geneva.
    Barbey, G. (1976), ‘The Appropriation of Home Space’, in P.Korosec-Serfaty (ed.), Appropriation of Space, Proceedings of Third International Architectural Psychology Conference, Louis Pasteur University, Strasburg, pp. 215–328.
    Barbey, G. (1990), L'évasion domestique, Presse Polytecnique et Universitaires Romandes, Lausanne.
    Barker, M.I. (1976), ‘Planning for Environmental Indices: Observer Appraisal of Air Quality’, in K.H.Craik and E.H.Zube (eds), Perceiving Environmental Quality: Research and Applications, Plenum, New York, pp. 215–328.
    Barker, R.G. (1960), ‘Ecology of Motivation’, in M.R.Jones (ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, vol. 8, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, pp. 1–49.
    Barker, R.G. (1965), ‘Explorations in Ecological Psychology'’, in American Psychologist, 20, pp. 1–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0021697
    Barker, R.G. (1968), Ecological Psychology: Concepts and Methods for Studying the Environment of Human Behavior, Stanford University Press, Stanford.
    Barker, R.G. (1987), ‘Prospecting Environmental Psychology: Oskaloosa Revisited’, in D.Stokols and I.Altman (eds), Handbook of Environmental Psychology, vol. 2, Wiley, New York, pp. 1413–32.
    Barker, R.G. (1990), ‘Recollections of the Midwest Psychological Field Station'’, in Environment and Behavior, 22 (4), pp. 503–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013916590224007
    Barker, R.G. and Gump, P.V. (1964), Big School, Small School: High School Size and Students Behavior, Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.
    Barker, R.G. and Schoggen, P. (1973), Qualities of Community Life: Methods of Measuring Environment and Behavior Applied to an American and English Town, Jossey Bass, San Francisco.
    Barker, R.G. and Wright, H.F. (1951), One Boy's Day, Harper & Row, New York.
    Barker, R.G. and Wright, H.F. (1955), Midwest and Its Children: the Psychological Ecology of an American Town, Harper & Row, New York.
    Baroni, M.R. and Mainardi Peron, E. (1987), ‘Descriptions of an Urban Route in a Natural Setting: Effects of Familiarity’, poster at the 2nd European Conference for Research on Learning and Instruction, Tübingen.
    Baroni, M.R. and Mainardi Peron, E. (1991), ‘Conveying Environmental Knowledge through Language: Methodological Issues’, paper presented to the International Workshop on ‘Home Environment: Physical Space and Psycho-Social Processes', Cortona, Italy.
    Bartlett, F.C. (1932), Remembering, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
    Bates, E. (1976), Language and Context: the Acquisition of Pragmatics, Academic Press, New York.
    Baum, A. and Koman, S. (1976), ‘Differential Response to Anticipated Crowding: Psychological Effects of Social and Spatial Density'’, in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, pp. 526–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.34.3.526
    Baum, A. and Paulus, P. (1987), ‘Crowding’, in D.Stokols and I.Altman (eds), Handbook of Environmental Psychology, vol. 1Wiley, New York, pp. 553–69.
    Baum, A. and Valins, S. (1977) Architecture and Social Behavior: Psychological Studies of Social Density, Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.
    Baum, A., Singer, J.F. and Baum, C. (1982), ‘Stress and the Environment’, in G.W.Evans (ed.), Environmental Stress, Cambridge University Press, New York.
    Bechtel, R.B. (1977), Enclosing Behavior, Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Stroudsburg, PA.
    Bechtel, R.B. (1988), ‘Back to the Future Again. A Perspective on Ecological Psychology’, Looking Back to the Future, Proceedings of IAPS 10th Conference, Delft University Press, Delft, pp. 87–91.
    Becker, F.D. (1981), Work Space: Creating Environments in Organizations, Praeger, New York.
    Bell, P.A., Fisher, J.D. and Loomis, R.J. (1978) Environmental Psychology, W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia.
    Bennet, C. (1977), Spaces for People: Human Factors in Design, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
    Berger, P.I. and Luckmann, T. (1966), The Social Construction of Reality, Doubleday, New York.
    Berlyne, D.F. (1960), Conflict, Arousal, Curiosity, McGraw-Hill, New York. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11164-000
    Bernard, Y. and Bonnes, M. (1985), ‘Strutturazione, organizzazione, animazione dello spazio domestico’, in A.Piromallo and R.Savarese (ed.), Oggetti, arredamento e comunicazione, Liguori, Naples.
    Bernard, Y., Lebeau, O., Giuliani, M.V. and Bonnes, M. (1987), ‘Pratiques de l'habitat et mondes sociaux: Recherche comparative'’, in Psychologie Française, 32 (1/2), pp. 65–75.
    Bianchi, E. (1980), ‘Da Lowenthal a Downs a Fremon: Aspetti della geografia della percezione’, in Rivista Geogrqfica Italiana, 1–2, pp. 97–107.
    Blundell, V. (1983), ‘Comments'’, in Current Anthropology, 24, p. 58.
    Bollnow, O. (1967), ‘Life-Space’, in N.Lawrence and D.O'Connor (eds), Readings in Existential Phenomenology, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
    Bonnes, M. (1977), ‘Profilo dell'emergente psicologia ambientale’, paper presented to the XVIIth SIPS Congress, Viareggio.
    Bonnes, M. (1978), ‘L'emergenza della psicologia ambientale: Verso un nuovo ambientalismo?’, in Rivista di Psicologia, 1–2, pp. 97–107.
    Bonnes, M. (1979a), ‘Profilo critico dell'emergente psicologia ambientale'’, in Ricerche di Psicologia, 10, pp. 161–89.
    Bonnes, M. (1979b), ‘Il problema del rapporto tra psicologia ambientale e progettazione attraverso l'esame di alcuni risultati di recerca in tema di insoddisfazione circa l'ambiente residenziale’, in G.A.Della Rocca and B.F.Padula (eds), Atti del seminario su Insoddisfazione ambientale negli insediamenti umani, Fondazione Aldo Delia Rocca – Programma MAB-UNESCO, Rome, pp. 62–81.
    Bonnes, M. (1980), ‘La rappresentazione cognitiva dello spazio ambientale come possibile “concetto cerniera” tra lo psichico ed il sociale’, in P.Amerio and G.P.Quaglino (eds), Mente e società nella ricerca psicologica, Book Store, Turin, pp. 235–51.
    Bonnes, M. (1984), ‘Mobilizing Scientists, Planners and Local Community in a Large-Scale Urban Situation: the Rome Case Study’, in F.di Castri, F.W.Baker and M.Hadley (eds), Ecology in Practice, Tycooly, Dublin, vol. 2, pp. 52–67.
    Bonnes, M. (1986), ‘An Ecological Approach to Urban Environment Perception’, in D.Frick (ed.), The Quality of Urban Life, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, pp. 189–202.
    Bonnes, M. (ed.) (1987), Urban Ecology Applied to the City of Rome, MAB-UNESCO Project 11, Progress Report no. 3, Istituto Psicologia CNR, Rome.
    Bonnes, M. (1988), ‘Mascolinità e femminilità’, in G.V.Caprara (ed.), Personalità e rappresentazioni sociale. La Nuova Italia Scientifica, Rome, pp. 190–209.
    Bonnes, M. (1990), ‘Percezione dell'ambiente urbano in approccio multidisciplinare integrato: Il Programma MAB-UNESCO sulla città di Roma’, report to the national interdisciplinary conference on ‘Ambiente, territorio, nuovi bisogni sociali', Department of Political and Social Studies, University of Pavia, Pavia.
    Bonnes, M. (ed.) (1991), Urban Ecology Applied to the City of Rome, MAB-UNESCO Project 11, Progress Report n. 4, MAB Italia, Rome.
    Bonnes, M. (ed.) (1993), Perception and Evaluation of Urban Environment Quality: A Pluridisciplinary Approach in the European Context, Proceedings of MAB-UNESCO Symposium, MAB Italia, Rome.
    Bonnes, M. and Bagnasco, C. (1988), ‘The Active Participation of Scientists and the Public in Urban Planning: The Rome Case Study’, in UNESCO–MAB Programme, Cities and Ecology, vol. 2, Centre of International Projects of the USSR State Committee for Sciences and Technology, pp. 121–7.
    Bonnes, M. and Giuliani, M.V. (1987), ‘Preface', in M.V.Giuliani, M.Bonnes and C.Werner (eds), Homes Interior: a European Perspective, Special Issue of Environment and Behavior, 19 (2), pp. 150–3.
    Bonnes, M. and Secchiaroli, G. (1979), ‘Il centra di Milano: Spazio e significato nella rappresentazione cognitiva di una grande città, in Applicazioni Psicologiche, 2, pp. 25–45.
    Bonnes, M. and Secchiaroli, G. (1981a), ‘A Transactional and Psychological Approach to Environmental Cognition’, paper presented to International Symposium on Toward a Social Psychology of the Environment', Maison des Sciences de l'Homme, Paris.
    Bonnes, M. and Secchiaroli, G. (1981b), The Study of Environmental Perception in View of an Integrated Approach to the Urban Ecosystem’, in UNESCO–MAB Italia, Urban Ecology Applied to the City of Rome, Progress Report no. 2. MAB Italia, Rome, pp. 205–20.
    Bonnes, M. and Secchiaroli, G. (1982a), ‘Il rapporto individuo-ambiente urbano: la cognizione del centra cittadino in una prospettiva “transazionale costruttivista'”’, in Giornale Italiano di Psicologia, 9 (3), pp. 433–47.
    Bonnes, M. and Secchiaroli, G. (1982b), ‘Aspetti socio-spaziali nella rappresentazione cognitiva del centra cittadino’, in Ricerche di Psicologia, 22–3, pp. 155–69.
    Bonnes, M. and Secchiaroli, G. (1983), ‘Space and Meaning of the City-Centre Cognition: an Interactional Transactional Approach'’, in Human Relations, 36 (1), pp. 23–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872678303600102
    Bonnes, M. and Secchiaroli, G. (1986), ‘Rappresentazioni cognitive della città e processi di costruzione delle realtà ambientali'’, in Rassegna di Psicologia, 3 (3), pp. 25–38.
    Bonnes, M., Misiti, R. and Secchiaroli, G. (1980), ‘Spatial Cognitive Representation of Working Environment and Working Experience in the Factory'’, in Italian Journal of Psychology, 7 (1), pp. 1–11.
    Bonnes, M., Paola, F. and Poggiali, B.M. (1987a), ‘I quartieri di Roma nelle conoscenze e preferenze degli abitanti’, in M.Bonnes (ed.), Ecologia urbana applicata alla città di Roma, Progetto UNESCO MAB no. 11, Progress Report no. 3, Istituto di Psicologia CNR, Rome, pp. 73–108.
    Bonnes, M., Secchiaroli, G. and Rullo, G. (1987b), ‘Il quartiere di residenza, il centra, la periferia della città di Roma: Dalle “cognizioni'' degli abitanti alla ‘'immaginabilità sociale” dei luoghi urbani’, in M.Bonnes (ed.), Ecologia urbana applicata alla città de Roma, Progetto UNESCO MAB no. 11, Progress Report no. 3, Istituto Psicologia CNR, Rome, pp. 275–94.
    Bonnes, M., De Rosa, A.M., Ardone, R.G. and Bagnasco, C. (1988a), ‘Perception of the Quality of the Residential Environment and Temporal Dimension of the Residential Experience’, paper presented to the IXth IAPS Conference, Delft.
    Bonnes, M., De Rosa, A.M., Ardone, R.G. and Bagnasco, C. (1988b), ‘Urban Vegetation and Perception of the Quality of the Urban Environment’, paper presented to 31st IAVS International Symposium on Spontaneous Vegetation in Settlements, Frascati.
    Bonnes, M., Mannetti, I., Secchiaroli, G. and Tanucci, G. (1990), ‘The City as a Multi-Place System: An Analysis of People–Urban Environment Transactions'’, in Journal of Environmental Psychology, 10, pp. 37–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944%2805%2980023-4
    Bonnes, M., Bonaiuto, M., Ercolani, A.P. and De Rosa, A.M. (1991a), ‘Soddisfazione residenziale in ambiente urbano: un approccio contestuale dinamico'’, in Rassegna di Psicologia, 3, VIII, 49–79.
    Bonnes, M., Secchiaroli, G. and Mazzotta, A.R. (1991b), ‘'The Home as an Urban Place: Inter-Place Perspective on Person-Home Relationship’, paper presented to the International Workshop on ‘Home Environment: Physical Space and Psychosocial Processes', Cortona, Italy.
    Bowlby, J. (1969), Attachment and Loss, vol. 1, Attachment, Basic Books, New York.
    Bowlby, J. (1973), Attachment and Loss, vol. 2, Separation: Anxiety and Anger, Basic Books, New York.
    Bowlby, J. (1980), Attachment and Loss, vol. 3, Loss: Sadness and Depression, Basic Books, New York.
    Bremner, J.G. and Bryant, P.F. (1977), ‘Place versus Response as the Basis of Spatial Errors Made by Young Infants'’, in Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 23, pp. 162–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-0965%2877%2990082-0
    Bretherton, I. (1985), ‘Attachment Theory: Retrospect and Prospect’, in I.Bretherton and F.Waters (eds), Growing Points in Attachment Theory and Research, Monographs of Society for Research in Child Development, 50 (1–2 Serial no. 209), pp. 3–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3333824
    Broadbent, D.F. (1957), ‘Effects of Noise of High and Low Frequency on Behavior'’, in Ergonomics, 1, pp. 21–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140135708964568
    Broadbent, D.F. (1958), ‘Effects of Noise on an Intellectual Task'’, in Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 30, pp. 824–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1909779
    Broadbent, D.F. (1971), Decision and Stress, Academic Press, New York.
    Broadbent, D.F. (1978), ‘The Current State of Noise Research: Reply to Poulton'’, in Psychological Bulletin, 85, pp. 1052–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.85.5.1052
    Broadbent, G. and Ward, A. (eds) (1969), Design Methods in Architecture, Lund Humphries, London.
    Bronfenbrenner, H. (1977a), ‘The Ecology of Human Development in Retrospect and Prospect’, in H.McGurk (ed.), Ecological Factors in Human Development, North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 275–86.
    Bronfenbrenner, H. (1977b), ‘Toward an Experimental Ecology of Human Development’, in American Psychologist, July, pp. 513–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.32.7.513
    Bronfenbrenner, H. (1979), The Ecology of Human Development, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
    Brown, B.B. (1987), ‘Territoriality’, in D.Stokols and I.Altman (eds), Handbook of Environmental Psychology, vol. 1, Wiley, New York, pp. 505–31.
    Brown, B.B. and Altman, I. (1983), ‘Territoriality, Street Form and Residential Burglary: an Environmental Analysis'’, in Journal of Environmental Psychology, 3, pp. 203–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944%2883%2980001-2
    Bruner, J. (1957), ‘Going beyond the Information Given’, in J.Bruner et al. (eds), Contemporary Approaches to Cognition, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
    Bruner, I., Goodnaw, J.J. and Austin, G.A. (1956), A Study of Thinking, Wiley, New York.
    Brunswik, E. (1943), ‘Organismic Achievement and Environmental Probability'’, in Psychological Review, 50, pp. 255–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0060889
    Brunswik, E. (1947), Systematic and Representative Design of Psychological Experiments, University of California Press, Berkeley.
    Brunswik, E. (1957), ‘Scope and Aspects of Cognitive Problems’, in J.Bruner et al. (eds), Contemporary Approaches to Cognition, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 5–31.
    Buttimer, A. (1976), ‘Grasping the Dynamism of Lifeworld'’, in Annals of the Association of the American Geographers, 66, pp. 277–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8306.1976.tb01090.x
    Buttimer, A. and Seamon, D. (eds) (1980), The Human Experience of Space and Place, Croom Helm, London.
    Cannon, W.B. (1932), The Wisdom of the Body, Norton, New York.
    Canter, D. (1970), Architectural Psychology, Royal Institute of British Architects, London.
    Canter, D. (1972), Psychology for Architects, Applied Sciences, London.
    Canter, D. (1977), The Psychology of Place, Architectural Press, London.
    Canter, D. (1983), ‘The Purposive Evaluation of Places: a Facet Approach'’, in Environment and Behavior, 15, pp. 659–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013916583156001
    Canter, D. (1986), ‘Putting Situations in Their Place: Foundations for a Bridge between Social and Environmental Psychology’, in A.Furnham (ed.), Social Behaviour in Context, Allyn and Bacon, London, pp. 208–39.
    Canter, D. (1988), ‘Action and Place: an Existential Dialectic’, in D.Canter, M.Krampen and D.Stea (eds), Environmental Perspectives, Ethnoscapes: Current Challenges in Environmental Social Sciences, Avebury, Aldershot, pp. 1–18.
    Canter, D. and Craik, K. (1981), ‘Environmental Psychology'’, in Journal of Environmental Psychology, 1, pp. 1–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944%2881%2980013-8
    Canter, D. and Donald, I. (1987), ‘Environmental Psychology in the United Kingdom’, in D.Stokols and I.Altman (eds), Handbook of Environmental Psychology, vol. 1, Wiley, New York, pp. 128–31.
    Canter, D. and Lee, T. (eds) (1974), Psychology and the Built Environment, Architectural Press, London.
    Canter, D. and Stringer, P. (eds) (1975), Environmental Interactions, Surrey University Press, London.
    Canter, D., Correira Jesuino, J., Soczha, L. and Stephenson, G.M. (eds) (1988), Environmental Social Psychology, Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrecht.
    Cantor, N. (1981), ‘Situations, Prototypes and Person-Situation Prototypes’, in O.Magnusson (ed.), Towards a Psychology of Situations: an Interactional Perspective, Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 229–44.
    Cantor, N., Mischel, W. and Schwartz, J. (1982), ‘A Prototype Analysis of Psychological Situations'’, in Cognitive Psychology, 14, pp. 45–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0010-0285%2882%2990004-4
    Cantril, H. (1950), The ‘Why' of Man's Experience, Macmillan, New York.
    Caplan, R. (1982), ‘Person–Environment Fit: Past, Present and Future’, in C.Cooper (ed.), Stress Research: Where Do We Go from Here?, Wiley, Chichester, pp. 35–78.
    Caramelli, N. (1983), ‘Introduzione’, in N.Caramelli (ed.), La psicologia cognitivista, Il Mulino, Bologna, pp. 7–25.
    Carlstein, T. (1982), Time, Resources, Society and Ecology: On the Capacity for Human Interaction in Space and Time, Preindustrial Societies, Allen & Unwin, London.
    Carp, F.M. and Carp, A. (1982), ‘Perceived Environmental Quality of Neighborhoods: Development of Assessment Scales and Their Relation to Age and Gender’, in Journal of Environmental Psychology, 2, pp. 295–312. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944%2882%2980029-7
    Carugati, F. (1979), Il sé e l'identità: Alla ricerca di una nuova teoria, Stabilimento Grafico F.lli Lega, Faenza.
    Castri, F. di, Baker, F.W. and Hadley, M. (eds) (1984), Ecology in Practice, vols 1–2, Tycooly, Dublin.
    Castri, F. di, Hadley, M. and Dalmanian, J. (1981), ‘MAB: The Man and the Biosphere Program as an Evolving System'’, in Ambio, 10 (2–3), pp. 52–7.
    Cermak, G.W. and Cornillion, P.C. (1976), ‘Multidimensional Analyses of Judgements about Traffic Noise'’, in Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 59, pp. 1412–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.381029
    Chapman, D. and Thomas, G. (1944), Lighting in the Dwellings. The Lighting of Buildings: Post War Building Studies, 12, Appendix VI, London.
    Codol, J.P. (1980), ‘La quête de la similitude et de la differentation sociale: une approche cognitive du sentiment d'identité’, in P.Tap (ed.), Identité individuelle et personalisation, Privat, Toulouse.
    Cofer, C.N. and Appley, N.H. (1964), Motivation: Theory and Research, Wiley, New York.
    Cohen, R., Baldwin, L.M. and Sherman, R.C. (1978), ‘Cognitive Maps of a Naturalistic Setting'’, in Child Development, 49, pp. 1216–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1128763
    Cohen, R. and Weatherford, D.L. (1980), ‘Effects of Route Travelled on Distance Estimates of Children and Adults’, in Journal of Experimental Child Psychology’, 29, pp. 403–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-0965%2880%2990103-4
    Cohen, S. (1978), ‘Environmental Load and the Allocation of Attention’, in A.Baum, J.E.Singer and S.Valins (eds), Advances in Environmental Psychology, vol. 1, Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.
    Cohen, S. (1980), ‘After-Effects of Stress on Human Performance and Social Behavior: A Review of Research and Theory'’, in Psychological Bulletin, 88, pp. 82–108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.88.1.82
    Cohen, S. and Weinstein, N. (1981), ‘Non-Auditory Effects of Noise on Behavior and Health'’, in Journal of Social Issues, 37, pp. 36–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/josi.1981.37.issue-1
    Cohen, S., Glass, D.C. and Singer, J.F. (1973), ‘Apartment Noise, Auditory Discrimination and Reading Abilities in Children'’, in Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 9, pp. 407–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1031%2873%2980005-8
    Cohen, S., Glass, D.C. and Phillips, S. (1979), ‘Environment and Health’, in H.E.Freeman, S.Levine and L.G.Reeder (eds), Handbook of Medical Sociology, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, pp. 134–49.
    Cook, M. (1970), ‘Experiments on Orientation and Proxemics'’, in Human Relations, 23, pp. 61–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872677002300107
    Cooper, C. (1972), ‘The House as a Symbol of Self’, in J.Lang, C.Burnett, W.Moleski and D.Vachon (eds), Designing for Human Behavior: Architecture and the Behavioral Sciences, Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Stroudsburg, PA., pp. 130–46.
    Cooper Markus, C. and Sarkissian, W. (1986), Housing as if People Mattered, University of California Press, Berkeley.
    Corcoran, D.W.J. (1962), ‘Noise and Loss of Sleep'’, in Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 14, pp. 178–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17470216208416533
    Cornwell, M.L. (1982), ‘Sex Differences in Environmental Concern'’, in Environmental Sociology, 31, pp. 9–11.
    Craik, K.H. (1966), The Prospects for an Environmental Psychology, IPAR Research Bulletin, University of California, Berkeley.
    Craik, K.H. (1968), ‘The Comprehension of the Everyday Physical Environment'’, in Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 34 (1), pp. 646–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01944366808977216
    Craik, K.H. (1970), ‘Environmental Psychology’, in K.H.Craik, R.Kleinmuntz, R.Rosnow, R.Rosenthal, J.A.Cheyne and R.H.Walters (eds), New Directions in Psychology, vol. 4, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, pp. 1–120.
    Craik, K.H. (1971), ‘The Assessment of Places’, in P.McReynolds (ed.), Advances in Psychological Assessment, vol. 2, Science and Behavior Books, Palo Alto. CA, pp. 40–62.
    Craik, K.H. (1973), ‘Environmental Psychology'’, in Annual Review of Psychology, 24, pp. 403–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.24.020173.002155
    Craik, K.H. (1977), ‘Multiple Scientific Paradigms in Environmental Psychology'’, in International Journal of Psychology, 12, pp. 147–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207597708247385
    Craik, K.H. (1981), ‘Environmental Assessment and Situational Analysis’, in D.Magnusson (ed.), Toward a Psychology of Situations, Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 37–48.
    Craik, K.H. (1983), ‘A Role Theoretical Analysis of Scenic Quality Judgement’, in R.D.Rowe and L.G.Chestnut (eds), Managing Air Quality and Scenic Resources at National Parks and Wilderness Areas, Westview Press, Boulder, CO, pp. 67–105.
    Craik, K.H. and Feimer, N. (1987), ‘Environmental Assessment’, in D.Stokols and I.Altman (eds), Handbook of Environmental Psychology, vol. 2, Wiley, New York, pp. 891–918.
    Craik, K.H. and Zube, F. (eds) (1976), Perceiving Environmental Quality: Research and Application, Plenum, New York.
    Craik, K.H., Dake, K.M. and Buss, D.M. (1982), ‘Individual Differences in the Perception of Technological Hazard’, paper presented to the Meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
    Csikszentmihalyi, M. and Rochberg-Halton, E. (1981), The Meaning of Things, Cambridge University Press, New York.
    Daniel, T.C. and Ittelson, W.H. (1981), ‘Conditions for Environmental Perception Research: Comment on the Psychological Representations of Moral Physical Environments by Ward and Russell'’, in Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 110, pp. 153–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.110.2.153
    Davies, W.F. and Swaffer, P.W. (1971), ‘Effect of Room Size on Critical Interpersonal Distance'’, in Perceptual and Motor Skills, 33, p. 926. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pms.1971.33.3.926
    de Grada, F. and Mannetti, L. (1988), L'attribuzione causale, II Mulino, Bologna.
    de Jonge, D. (1962), ‘Images of Urban Areas: Their Structure and Psychological Foundations'’, in Journal of American Institute of Planners, 28, pp. 266–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01944366208979452
    Dewey, J. and Bentley, A. (1949), Knowing and Known, Beacon Press, Boston, MA.
    Doise, W. (1976), L'articulation psycho-sociologique et les relations entre groupes, De Boeck, Brussels.
    Doise, W. (1978), Groups and Individuals: Explanations in Social Psychology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
    Doise, W. (1982), L'esplication en psychologie sociale, Presses Universitaries de France, Paris.
    Doise, W. (1988), ‘Individual and Social Identities in Inter-Group Relations'’, in European Journal of Social Psychology, 18, pp. 99–111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.v18:2
    Dovey, K. (1985), ‘Home and Homeless’, in I.Altman and C.M.Werner (eds), Home Environments, vol. 8, Human Behavior and Environment: Advances in Theory and Research, Plenum, New York, pp. 33–64.
    Downs, R.M. (1970), ‘The Cognitive Structure of an Urban Shopping Centre'’, in Environment and Behavior, 2, pp. 13–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001391657000200102
    Downs, R.M. (1981), ‘Maps and Mapping as Metaphors for Spatial Representation’, in L.S.Liben, A.H.Patterson and N.Newcomb (eds), Spatial Representation and Behavior across the Life Span, Academic Press, New York, pp. 95–122.
    Downs, R.M. and Meyer, J.T. (1978), ‘Geography and the Mind: an Exploration of Perceptual Geography'’, in American Behavioral Scientist, 22, pp. 59–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000276427802200104
    Downs, R.M. and Stea, D. (eds) (1973), Image and Environment: Cognitive Mapping and Spatial Behavior, Aldine, Chicago.
    Drottz-Sjoberg, B.M. and Sjoberg, L. (1990), ‘Risk Perception and Worries after the Chernobyl Accident'’, in Journal of Environmental Psychology, 10, pp. 135–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944%2805%2980124-0
    Dunlap, E.E. and Van Liere, K.D. (1978), ‘The New Environmental Paradigm: a Proposed Measuring Instrument and Preliminary Results'’, in Journal of Environmental Education, 9, pp. 10–19.
    Dunnette, M.D. (1977), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Rand-McNally, Chicago.
    Earle, T.C. and Cvelcovich, G. (1990), ‘What Was the Meaning of Chernobyl?'’, in Journal of Environmental Psychology, 10, pp. 169–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944%2805%2980126-4
    Eibel-Eibesfeldt, I. (1970), Ethology, the Biology of Behavior, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York.
    Eiser, J.R., Hannover, R., Mann, L., Morin, M., Van der Pligt, J. and Webley, P. (1990), ‘Nuclear Attitudes after Chernobyl: a Cross-National Study'’, in Journal of Environmental Psychology, 10, pp. 101–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944%2805%2980121-5
    Erdelyi, M.H. (1974), ‘A New Look at the New Look: Perceptual Defense and Vigilance'’, in Psychological Review, 81, pp. 1–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0035852
    Erikson, E.H. (1950), Childhood and Society, Norton, New York.
    Evans, G.W. (1980), ‘Environmental Cognition'’, in Psychological Bulletin, 88, pp. 259–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.88.2.259
    Evans, G.W. (ed.) (1982), Environmental Stress, Cambridge University Press, New York.
    Evans, G.W. and Cohen, S. (1987), ‘Environmental Stress’, in D.Stokols and I.Altman (eds), Handbook of Environmental Psychology, vol. 1, Wiley, New York, pp. 571–610.
    Evans, G.W. and Howard, R.B. (1973), ‘Personal Space'’, in Psychological Bulletin, 80, pp. 334–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0034946
    Farr, R. and Moscovici, S. (eds) (1984), Social Representations, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
    Feldman, R.M. (1990), ‘Settlement-Identity: Psychological Bonds with Home Place in a Mobile Society'’, in Environment and Behavior, 22, p. 183. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013916590222002
    Festinger, L., Shachter, S. and Back, K. (1950), Social Pressure in Informal Groups. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.
    Forgas, J.P. (1979), Social Episodes: the Study of Interaction Routines, Academic Press, London.
    Forgas, J.P. (1985), Language and Social Situations, Springer-Verlag, New York. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-5074-6
    Francescato, D. (1975), Schemi e immagini di una città, Bulzoni, Rome.
    Francescato, D. and Mebane, W. (1973), ‘How Citizens View Two Great Cities: Milan and Rome’, in R.M.Downs and D.Stea (eds), Image and Environment: Cognitive Mapping and Spatial Behavior, Aldine, Chicago, pp. 131–47.
    Fried, M. (1982), ‘Residential Attachment: Sources of Residential and Community Satisfaction'’, in Journal of Social Issues, 38, pp. 107–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/josi.1982.38.issue-3
    Friedman, S. (1974), ‘Relationships among Cognitive Complexity, Interpersonal Dimension and Spatial References and Propensities’, in S.Friedman and J.B.Juhasz (eds), Environments: Notes and Selections on Objects, Spaces and Behavior, Wadsworth, Belmont, CA, pp. 27–40.
    Fuhrer, U. (1990), ‘Bridging the Ecological-Psychological Gap: Behavioral Settings as Interfaces'’, in Environment and Behavior, 22 (4), pp. 518–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013916590224009
    Garfinkel, N. (1967), Studies in Ethnomethodology, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
    Garling, T. and Golledge, R.G. (1989), ‘Environmental Perception and Cognition’, in H.Zube and G.T.Moore (eds), Advances in Environmental Behavior and Design, vol. 2, Plenum, New York, pp. 203–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-0717-4
    Garling, T., Book, A., Lindeberg, E. and Milsson, T. (1981), ‘Memory for the Spatial Layout of Everyday Physical Environment: Factors Affecting the Rate of Acquisition'’, in Journal of Environmental Psychology, 1, pp. 23–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944%2881%2980025-4
    Garling, T., Book, A. and Lindberg, E. (1984), ‘Cognitive Mapping of Large-Scale Environments, Action Plans, Orientation and Their Inter-relationships'’, in Environment and Behavior, 16, pp. 3–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013916584161001
    Gauvain, M., Altman, I. and Fahim, H. (1983), ‘Homes and Social Change: a Cross-Cultural Analysis’, in N.R.Feimer and F.S.Geller (eds), Environmental Psychology: Directions and Perspectives, Praeger, New York, pp. 180–218.
    Gavin, J.F. and Howe, J.G. (1975), ‘Psychological Climate: Some Theoretical and Empirical Considerations'’, in Behavioral Sciences, 20, pp. 228–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bs.v20:4
    Genereux, R.L., Ward, L.M. and Russell, J.A. (1983), ‘The Behavioral Components in the Meaning of Places'’, in Journal of Environmental Psychology, 3, pp. 43–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944%2883%2980020-6
    Georgoundi, M. and Rosnow, R.L. (1985), ‘Notes toward a Contextualist Understanding of Social Psychology'’, in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 11, pp. 5–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167285111001
    Gergen, K.J. (1971), The Concept of Self, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York.
    Gergen, K.J. and Gergen, M.M. (1984), Historical Social Psychology, Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.
    Giacomini, V. (1980), Qualifying Aspects of the Project MAB 11 Applied to the City of Rome, Report no. 5, MAB Italia, Rome.
    Giacomini, V. (1981), ‘Rome Considered as an Ecological System'’, in Nature and Resources, 17 (1), pp. 13–9.
    Giacomini, V. (1983), La rivoluzione tolemaica, Editrice La Scuola, Brescia.
    Giacomini, V. and Romani, V. (1982), Vomini e parchi, Franco Angeli, Milan.
    Gibson, E.J. and Walk, R.D. (1960), ‘The “Visual Cliff'”’, in Scientific American, 202, pp. 64–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0460-64
    Gibson, J.J. (1950), The Perception of the Visual World, Houghton-Mifflin, Boston.
    Gibson, J.J. (1960), ‘The Concept of Stimulus in Psychology'’, in American Psychologist, 16, pp. 694–703. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0047037
    Gibson, J.J. (1966), The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems, Houghton-Mifflin, Boston.
    Gibson, J.J. (1972), ‘The Affordances of the Environment’, in E.Reed and R.Jones (eds), Reasons for Realism: Selected Essays of James J. Gibson, Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale NJ, pp. 408–10.
    Gibson, J.J. (1978), ‘A Note on what Exists at the Ecological Level of Reality’, in E.Reed and R.Jones (eds), Reasons for Realism: Selected Essays of James J. Gibson, Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale NJ, pp. 416–18.
    Gibson, J.J. (1979), The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception, Houghton-Mifflin, Boston.
    Gifford, R. (1980), ‘Environmental Dispositions and the Evaluation of Architectural Interiors'’, in Journal of Research in Personality, 14, pp. 386–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0092-6566%2880%2990021-5
    Gifford, R. (1982), ‘Projected Interpersonal Distance and Orientation Choices: Personality, Sex, and Social Situations'’, in Social Psychology Quarterly, 45, pp. 145–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3033647
    Gifford, R. (1987), Environmental Psychology, Principles and Practice, Allyn and Bacon, Newton, MA.
    Gifford, R. and Price, J. (1979), ‘Personal Space in Nursery School Children'’, in Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 11, pp. 318–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0081600
    Ginsburg, H.J., Pollman, V.A., Wauson, M.S. and Hope, M.L. (1977), ‘Variations of Aggressive Interactions among Male Elementary School Children as a Function of Changes in Spatial Density'’, in Environmental Psychology and Non-Verbal Behavior, 2, pp. 67–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01145822
    Giuliani, M.V. (1987), ‘Naming the Rooms: Implications of a Change in the Home Model'’, in Environment and Behavior, 19 (2), pp. 180–203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013916587192006
    Giuliani, M.V. (1989), ‘La casa come sistema territoriale’, in Edilizia Popolare, 206/207, p. 58.
    Giuliani, M.V. (1991), ‘Toward an Analysis of Mental Representations of Attachment to the Home'’, in Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 8 (2), pp. 133–46.
    Giuliani, M.V., Bonnes, M., Amoni, F. and Bernard, Y. (1988), ‘Home and Theory of Place’, in D.Canter, M.Krampen and D.Stea (eds), Ethnoscapes: vol. 1, Environmental Perspectives, Avebury, Aldershot, pp. 39–53.
    Glass, D.C. and Singer, J.F. (1972a), ‘Behavioral After-Effects of Unpredictable and Uncontrollable Adversive Events'’, in American Scientist, 80, pp. 457–65.
    Glass, D.C. and Singer, J.F. (1972b), Urban Stress, Academic Press, New York.
    Glass, D.C., Singer, J.F. and Friedman, I.N. (1969), ‘Psychic Cost of Adaptation to an Environmental Stressor'’, in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 12, pp. 200–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0027629
    Glass, D.C., Reim, B. and Singer, J.E. (1971), ‘Behavioral Consequences of Adaptation to Controllable and Uncontrollable Noise'’, in Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 7, pp. 244–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2871%2990070-9
    Glass, D.C., Nayder, M.L. and Singer, J.E. (1973), ‘Periodic and Aperiodic Noise: The Safety-Signal-Hypothesis and Noise After-Effects'’, in Physiological Psychology, 1, pp. 361–3.
    Glass, D.C., Singer, J. and Pennebaker, J.W. (1977), ‘Behavioral and Physiological Effects of Uncontrollable Environmental Events’, in D.Stokols (ed.), Perspectives on Environment and Behavior: Theory, Research and Applications, Plenum, New York, pp. 131–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-2277-1
    Goffman, E. (1959), The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, Doubleday, New York.
    Goffman, E. (1963), Behavior in Public, Free Press, New York.
    Goffman, E. (1971), Relations in Public, Basic Books, New York.
    Goffman, E. (1974), Frame Analysis, Harper & Row, New York.
    Gold, J.R. (1980), An Introduction to Behavioural Geography, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
    Gold, J.R. (1982), ‘Territoriality and Human Spatial Behavior'’, in Progress in Human Geography, 6, pp. 44–67.
    Golledge, R.G. (1987), ‘Environmental Cognition’, in D.Stokols and I.Altman, (eds), Handbook of Environmental Psychology, vol. 1, Wiley, New York, pp. 131–74.
    Gordon, C. (1968), ‘Self-Conceptions: Configuration of Content’, in C.Gordon and K.J.Gergen (eds), The Self in Social Interaction, Wiley, New York, pp. 87–109.
    Grauman, C. (1974), ‘Psychology and the World of Things'’, in Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, 4, pp. 389–404. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156916274X00036
    Grauman, C. (ed.) (1978), Ökologische Perspektiven in der Psychologie, Huber, Berne.
    Grauman, C. (1988), ‘Towards a Phenomenology of Being at Home’, in Proceedings of the IAPS 10th Conference, Delft University Press, Delft, pp. 56–65.
    Guttman, I. (1968), ‘A General Non-Metric Technique for Finding the Smallest Coordinated Space for a Configuration of Points'’, in Psychometrika, 33, pp. 469–506. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02290164
    Hagerstrand, T. (1983), ‘In Search for the Sources of Concepts’, in A.Buttimer (ed.), The Practice of Geography, Longman, London, pp. 238–56.
    Hall, E.T. (1959), The Silent Language, Doubleday, Garden City, NY.
    Hall, E.T. (1963), ‘A System for the Notation of Proxemic Behavior'’, in American Anthropologist, 65, pp. 1003–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/aa.1963.65.issue-5
    Hall, E.T. (1966), The Hidden Dimension, Doubleday, New York.
    Hansard, (1943), House of Commons Rebuilding, Parliamentary Debates House of Commons 393, no. 114, HMSO, London, pp. 404–74.
    Hard, A. (1975), ‘NCS. A Descriptive Colour Order and Scaling System with Applications for Environment Design'’, in Man–Environment Systems, 5 (3), pp. 161–7.
    Hart, R.A. and Moore, G.P. (1973), ‘The Development of Spatial Cognition: a review’, in R.M.Downs and D.Stea (eds), Image and Environment: Cognitive Mapping and Spatial Behavior, Aldine, Chicago, pp. 246–88.
    Hartley, L.R. and Adams, R.G. (1974), ‘Effect of Noise on the Stroop Test'’, in Journal of Experimental Psychology, 102, pp. 62–6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0035695
    Hartmann, H. (1958), Ego Psychology and the Problem of Adaptation, International University Press, New York. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/13180-000
    Heberlein, T.A. and Black, J.S. (1976), ‘Attitudinal Specificity and the Perception of Behavior in the Field Setting'’, in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33, pp. 474–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.33.4.474
    Heberlein, T.A. and Black, J.S. (1981), ‘Cognitive Consistency and Environmental Action'’, in Environment and Behavior, 13, pp. 717–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013916581136005
    Heft, H. (1981), ‘An Examination of Constructivistic and Gibsonian Approaches to Environmental Psychology'’, in Population and Environment: Behavioral and Social Issues, 4, pp. 227–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01375628
    Heft, H. (1988), ‘The Development of Gibson's Ecological Approach to Perception'’, in Journal of Environmental Psychology, 8, pp. 325–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944%2888%2980038-0
    Heft, H. and Wohlwill, F. (1987), ‘Environmental Cognition in Children’, in D.Stokols and I.Altman (eds), Handbook of Environmental Psychology, vol. 1, Wiley, New York, pp. 175–203.
    Heidegger, M. (1962), Being and Time, Harper & Row, New York (original edn 1927).
    Heidegger, M. (1975), ‘Building, Dwelling, Thinking’, in Poetry, Language, and Thought, Harper & Row, New York pp. 145–61 (original edn 1952).
    Heidegger, M. (1982), The Basic Problems of Phenomenology, Indiana University Press, Bloomington (original edn 1927/1975).
    Heider, F. (1958), The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations, Wiley, New York. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10628-000
    Heimstra, N.W. and McFarling, L.H. (1974), Environmental Psychology, Brooks/Cole, Monterey, CA.
    Heller, K. and Monahan, J. (1977), Psychology and Community Change, Dorsey, Homewood, IL.
    Helmholtz, H. (1866), Handbuch der physiologischen Optik, vol. 3, Leipzig.
    Hershberger, R.G. and Cass, R.C. (1974), ‘Predicting User Responses to Buildings. Man-Environment Interaction: Evaluations and Applications, vol. 4’, Proceedings of the 5th International Environmental Design Research Association Conference, Environmental Design Research Association, Washington, DC., pp. 117–34.
    Hinde, R. (1974), Biological Bases of Human Social Behavior, McGraw-Hill, New York.
    Holahan, C.J. (1972), ‘Setting Patterns and Patient Behavior in Experimental Dayroom'’, in Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 80, pp. 115–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0033404
    Holahan, C.J. (1977), ‘Rural Differences in Judged Appropriateness of Altruistic Responses: Personal versus Situational Effects'’, in Sociometry, 40, pp. 378–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3033488
    Holahan, C.J. (1978), Environment and Behavior: A Dynamic Perspective, Plenum, New York. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-2430-0
    Holahan, C.J. (1982), Environmental Psychology, Random House, New York.
    Holahan, C.J. (1986), ‘Environmental Psychology'’, in Annual Review of Psychology, 37, pp. 403–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.37.020186.002121
    Holahan, C.J. and Bonnes, M. (1978), ‘Cognitive and Behavioral Correlates of Spatial Environment: an Interactional Analysis’ in Environment and Behavior, 10 (3), pp. 317–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013916578103003
    Holahan, C.J. and Saegert, S. (1973), ‘Behavioral and Attitudinal Effects of Large-Scale Variation in the Physical Environment of a Psychiatric Ward'’, in Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 82, pp. 454–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0035391
    Holahan, C.J. and Wandersman, A. (1987), ‘The Community Psychology Perspective in Environmental Psychology’, in D.Stokols and I.Altman (eds), Handbook of Environmental Psychology, vol. 1, Wiley, New York, pp. 827–62.
    Honikman, R. (ed.), (1971), Proceedings of the Architectural Psychology Conference at Kingston Polytechnic, RIBA, London.
    House, J.S. and Wolf, S. (1978), ‘Effects of Urban Residence on Interpersonal Trust and Helping Behavior'’, in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, pp. 1029–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.36.9.1029
    Howell, S.C. (1980), Designing for Aging, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
    Husserl, E. (1960), Cartesian Mediations, Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague. (original edn 1929–32).
    Husserl, E. (1970), The Crisis of European Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology, Northwestern University Press, Evanston, IL, (original edn 1936–54).
    Insel, P.M. and Moos, R.H. (1974), ‘Psychological Environments: Expanding the Scope of Human Ecology'’, in American Psychologist, 29, 179–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0035994
    Israel, J. and Tajfel, H. (eds) (1972), The Context of Social Psychology: A Critical Assessment, Academic Press, London.
    Ittelson, W. (1960), Some Factors Influencing the Design and Functions of Psychiatric Facilities, Progress Report, Brooklin College.
    Ittelson, W.H. (1961), ‘The Constancies in Perceptual Theory'’, in Psychological Review, 58, pp. 285–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0057227
    Ittelson, W.H. (ed.) (1973a), Environment and Cognition, Academic Press, New York.
    Ittelson, W.H. (1973b), ‘Environment Perception and Contemporary Perceptual Theory’, in W.H.Ittelson (ed.), Environment and Cognition, Academic Press, New York, pp. 1–19.
    Ittelson, W.H., Proshansky, H.M. and Rivlin, L.G. (1970), ‘Bedroom Size and Social Interaction of the Psychiatric Ward’, in Environment and Behavior, 2, pp. 255–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001391657000200301
    Ittelson, W.H., Proshansky, H., Rivlin, A. and Winkel, G. (1974), An Introduction to Environmental Psychology, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York.
    Izumi, K. (1957), ‘An Analysis for the Design of Hospital Quarters for the Neuropsychiatric Patient'’, in Mental Hospitals, 8, pp. 31–2.
    Jackson, J.B. (ed.) (1951–68), Landscapes, vol. 1–18.
    Jackson, J.B. (1970), Landscapes: Selected Writings of J.B. Jackson (ed. E.H.Zube), University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst.
    James, L.R. and Jones, A.P. (1974), ‘Organizational Climate: a Review of Theory and Research'’, in Psychological Bulletin, 81, pp. 1096–112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0037511
    Janis, I.L. and Mann, L. (1977), Decision Making, Free Press, New York.
    Jaspars, J. and Fraser, C. (1984), ‘Attitudes and Social Representations’, in M.Farr and S.Moscovici (eds), Social Representations, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 129–58.
    Jodelet, D. (1987), ‘The Study of People–Environment Relations in France’, in D.Stokols and I.Altman (eds), Handbook of Environmental Psychology, vol. 2, Wiley, New York, pp. 1171–94.
    Jodelet, D. (1989), Les representations sociales, PUF, Paris.
    Johansson, T. (1952), Farg: Den allmanna farglarans grunder, Natur och Kultur, Stockholm.
    Jonsson, A. and Hansson, L. (1977), ‘Prolonged Exposure to a Stressful Stimulus (Noise) as a Cause of Raised Blood Pressure in Man'’, in Lancet, 1, pp. 86–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736%2877%2991093-5
    Kaminsky, G. (ed.) (1976), Umweltpsychologie, Ernst Klett Verlag, Stuttgart.
    Kaminsky, G. (1983), ‘The Enigma of Ecological Psychology'’, in Journal of Environmental Psychology, 3, pp. 85–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944%2883%2980022-X
    Kaminsky, G. and Fleischer, F. (1984), ‘Ökologische Psychologie: Ökopsychologische Untersuchung und Beratung’, in H.A.Hartman and R.Haubl (eds), Psychologische Begutachtung, Urban & Schwarzenberg, Munich, pp. 329–58.
    Kantowitz, B.H. (1977), ‘Environmental Psychology: Behavior in the Physical World’, in R.A.Baron, D.Byrn and B.H.Kantowitz (eds), Psychology: Understanding Behavior, W.B. Sanders, Philadelphia.
    Kaplan, R. (1973), ‘Predictors or Environmental Preferences: Designers and Clients’, in W.F.E.Preiser (ed.), Environmental Design Research, Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Stroudsburg, PA, pp. 145–62.
    Kaplan, R. (1977), ‘Patterns of Environmental Preference'’, in Environment and Behavior, 9, pp. 195–215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001391657792003
    Kaplan, S. (1982), ‘Where Cognition and Affects Meet: a Theoretical Analysis of Preference’, in P.Bart, A.Chen and G.Francescato (eds), Knowledge for Design, EDRA, Washington, DC. pp. 183–8.
    Kaplan, S. (1983), ‘A Model of Person–Environment Compatibility'’, in Environment and Behavior, 15, pp. 311–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013916583153003
    Kaplan, S. and Kaplan, R. (1982), Cognition and Environment. Praeger, New York.
    Kates, R.W. and Wohlwill, J.F. (eds) (1966), ‘Man's Response to the Physical Environment', Special Issue’, in Journal of Social Issues, 22, pp. 1–140.
    Kelly, G.A. (1955), The Psychology of Personal Constructs, Norton, New York.
    Kelvin, P. (1973), ‘A Social-Psychological Examination of Privacy'’, in British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 12, pp. 248–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjc.1973.12.issue-3
    Kilpatrick, F.P. (1954), ‘Two Processes of Perceptual Learning'’, in Journal of Experimental Psychology, 47, pp. 362–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0061951
    Kilpatrick, F.P. (1961). Introduction in F.P.Kilpatrick (ed.), Explorations in Transactional Psychology, New York University Press, New York, pp. 1–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11303-000
    Koffka, K. (1924), ‘Introspection and Method of Psychology'’, in The British Journal of Psychology, 15 (2), pp. 149–61.
    Koffka, K. (1935), Principles of Gestalt Psychology, Harcourt Brace, New York.
    Köhler, W. (1929), Gestalt Psychology, Liveright, New York.
    Köhler, W. (1940), Dynamics in Psychology, Liveright, New York.
    Korosec-Serfaty, P. (1985), ‘Experiences and Uses of the Dwelling’, in I.Altman and C.M.Werner (eds), Home Environments, Plenum, New York.
    Korosec-Serfaty, P. (1988), ‘Urban Open Space’, in D.Canter, M.Krampen and D.Stea (eds), Ethnoscapes: vol 1: Environmental Perspectives, Avebury, Aldershot, pp. 123–50.
    Kosslyn, S.M. (1980), Image and Mind, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
    Kosslyn, S.M., Pick, H.L., jr and Fariello, G.R. (1974), ‘Cognitive Maps in Children and Men'’, in Child Development, 45, pp. 707–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1127837
    Krampen, M. (1979), Meaning in the Urban Environment, Pion, London.
    Krech, D. and Crutchfield, R.S. (1948), Theory and Problems of Social Psychology, McGraw-Hill, New York. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10024-000
    Kromm, D.E., Probald, F. and Wall, G. (1973), ‘An International Comparison of Response to Air Pollution'’, in Journal of Environment and Man, 1, pp. 363–75.
    Kruse, L. (1978), ‘Ökologische Fragestellungen in der Sozialpsychologie’, in Grauman (ed.), Ökologische Perspektiven in der Psychologie, Huber, Berne, pp. 171–90.
    Kruse, L. (1988), ‘Behavioral Settings, Cognitive Scripts, Linguistic Frames’, in Proceedings of IAPS 10th Conference, Delft University Press, Delft, pp. 106–13.
    Kruse, L. and Grauman, C. (1987), ‘Environmental Psychology in Germany’, in D.Stokols and I.Altman (eds), Handbook of Environmental Psychology, vol. 2, Wiley, New York, pp. 1195–226.
    Kruse, L. and Grauman, C. (1990), ‘The Environment: Social Construction and Psychological Problems’, in H.T.Himmelweit and G.Garkell (eds), Societal Psychology, Sage, London, pp. 212–29.
    Kryter, K.D. (1970), The Effects of Noise on Man, Academic Press, New York.
    Kuethe, J.L. and Weingartner, H. (1964), ‘Male–Female Schemata of Homosexual and Non-Homosexual Penitentiary Inmates'’, in Journal of Personality, 32, pp. 23–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjc.1973.12.issue-3
    Kuhn, T.S. (1962), The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Chicago University Press, Chicago.
    Kuipers, B. (1978), ‘Modeling Spatial Knowledge'’, in Cognitive Science, 2, pp. 129–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15516709cog0202_3
    Kuller, R. (1987), ‘Environmental Psychology from a Swedish Perspective’, in D.Stokols and I.Altman (eds), Handbook of Environmental Psychology, vol. 2, Wiley, New York, pp. 1243–80.
    Ladd, F. (1970), ‘Black Youths View Their Environment: Neighborhood Maps'’, in Environment and Behavior, 2, pp. 74–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001391657000200105
    Landweher, K. (1988), ‘Environmental Perception: an Ecological Perspective’, in D.Canter, M.Krampen and D.Stea (eds), Ethnoscapes: vol. 1. Environmental Perspectives, Avebury, Aldershot, pp. 18–38.
    Lazarus, R.S. (1966), Psychological Stress and the Coping Process, McGraw-Hill, New York.
    Lazarus, R.S. and Cohen, J. (1977), ‘Environmental Stress’, in I.Altman and J.Wohlwill (eds), Human Behavior and Environment: Advances in Theory and Research, Plenum, New York.
    Lazarus, R.S., de Longis, A., Folkman, S. and Gruen, R. (1985), ‘Stress and Adaptational Outcomes: the Problem of Confounded Measures'’, in American Psychologist, 40, pp. 770–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.40.7.770
    Lee, T. (1968), ‘Urban Neighbourhood as a Socio-Spatial Scheme'’, in Human Relations, 21 (3), pp. 241–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872676802100303
    Lee, T. (1976), Psychology and the Environment, Methuen, London.
    Lee, T. (1990), ‘Moving House and Home’, in S.Fisher and C.Cooper (eds), On the Move: the Psychology of Change and Transition, Wiley, New York, pp. 171–89.
    Levinson, S.C. (1983), Pragmatics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
    Levy-Leboyer, C. (1980), Psychologic et environnement, Presses Universitaires de France, Paris.
    Lewin, K. (1936), Principles of Topological Psychology, McGraw-Hill, New York. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10019-000
    Lewin, K. (1943), ‘Forces behind Food Habits and Methods of Change’, in Bulletin of the National Research Council, XVIII, pp. 35–65.
    Lewin, K. (1944), ‘Constructs in Psychology and Psychological Ecology’, in University of Iowa Studies in Child Welfare, XX, pp. 17–21.
    Lewin, K. (1948), Resolving Social Conflicts, Harper Brothers, New York.
    Lewin, K. (1951), Field Theory in Social Science, Harper, New York.
    Little, B.R. (1968), ‘Psychospecialization: Functions of Differential Interests in Persons and Things'’, in Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 21, p. 113 (abstract).
    Little, B.R. (1972a), Person–Thing Orientation: a Provisional Manual for the T–P Scale, Oxford University, Dept of Experimental Psychology, Oxford.
    Little, B.R. (1972b), ‘Psychological Man as Scientist, Humanist and Specialist'’, in Journal of Experimental Research in Personality, 6, pp. 95–118.
    Little, B.R. (1976), ‘Specialization and the Varieties of Environmental Experience: Empirical Studies within the Personality Paradigm’, in S.Wapner and S.B.Kaplan (eds), Experiencing Environment, Plenum, New York, pp. 81–116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-4259-5
    Little, B.R. (1983), ‘Personal Projects: a Rationale and Method of Investigation'’, in Environment and Behavior, 15 (3), pp. 273–309. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013916583153002
    Little, B.R. (1987), ‘Personality and Environment’, in D.Stokols and I.Altman (eds), Handbook of Environmental Psychology, vol. 1, Wiley, New York, pp. 205–44.
    Lofstedt, B. (1966), ‘Human Heat Tolerance’, unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Lund, Lund.
    Lorenz, K. (1965), Evolution and Modification of Behavior, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
    Lott, B.S. and Sommer, R. (1967), ‘Seating Arrangements and Status'’, in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 7, pp. 90–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0024925
    Lounsbury, J. and Tornatzky, L.G. (1977), ‘A Scale for Assessing Attitude toward Environmental Quality'’, in Journal of Social Psychology, 101, pp. 299–305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1977.9924020
    Lowenthal, D. (1961), ‘Geography, Experience, and Imagination: toward a Geographical Epistemology'’, in Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 51, pp. 241–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8306.1961.tb00377.x
    Lyman, S.M. and Scott, M.B. (1967), ‘Territoriality: a Neglected Sociological Dimension'’, in Social Problems, 15, pp. 236–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/sp.1967.15.issue-2
    Lynch, K. (1960), The Image of the City, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
    Lynch, K. (ed.), (1977), Growing up in Cities, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
    MAB Italia (1981), Urban Ecology Applied to the City of Rome, UNESCO-MAB Project 11, MAB Italia, Rome.
    MAB Italia (1990), Programma UNESCO Uomo e Biosfera, Rapporto nazionale, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Rome.
    McGrath, J.E. (1970), Social and Psychological Factors in Stress, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York.
    McGuire, H. (1983), ‘A Contextualist Theory of Knowledge: Its Implications for Innovation and Reform in Psychological Research’, in L.Berkowitz (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Academic Press, New York.
    McKechnie, G.F. (1974), Manual for the Environmental Response Inventory, Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto CA.
    McKechnie, G.F. (1977), ‘The Environmental Response Inventory in Application'’, in Environment and Behavior, 9, pp. 255–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001391657792006
    McKechnie, G.F. (1978), ‘Environmental Dispositions: Concepts and Measures’, in P.McReynolds (ed.), Advances in Psychological Assessment, vol. 4, Jossey Bass, San Francisco.
    Magana, G.R., Evans, G.W. and Romney, A.K. (1981), ‘Scaling Techniques in the Analysis of Environmental Cognition Data'’, in Professional Geography, 33, pp. 294–301. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0033-0124.1981.00294.x
    Magenau, E. (ed.) (1959), Research for Architecture, American Institute of Architects, Washington, DC.
    Magnusson, D. (ed.) (1981), Toward a Psychology of Situations, Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.
    Mainardi Peron, E. (1985), ‘Choice and Ordering of Items in Descriptions of Places’, paper presented to the 16th Environmental Design Research Association Conference, New York.
    Mainardi Peron, E., Baroni, M.R., Job, R. and Salmasco, P. (1985), ‘Cognitive Factors and Communicative Strategies in Recalling Unfamiliar Places'’, in Journal of Environmental Psychology, 5, pp. 325–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944%2885%2980002-5
    Mainardi Peron, E., Baroni, M.R. and Zucco, G. (1988), ‘The Effects of the Salience and Typicality of Objects in Natural Settings upon Their Recollection’, Looking Back to the Future, Proceedings of UPS 10, Delft University Press, Delft, pp. 563–82.
    Maloney, M.P., Ward, M.P. and Braucht, G.N. (1975), ‘A Revised Scale for the Measurement of Ecological Attitudes and Knowledge'’, in American Psychologist, 30, pp. 787–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0084394
    Manicas, P.T. and Secord, P.F. (1983), ‘Implications for Psychology of the New Philosophy of Sciences'’, in American Psychologist, 38, pp. 399–413. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.38.4.399
    Mannetti, L., Tanucci, G., Bonnes, M. and Secchiaroli, G. (1987), ‘Environmental Cognition and Action in the City of Rome’, poster at the Fourth International Conference on ‘Event Perception and Action', Trieste.
    Marans, R.W. (1976), ‘Perceived Quality of Residential Environments: Some Methodological Issues’, in K.H.Craik and E.H.Zube (eds), Perceiving Environmental Quality, Plenum, New York.
    Mayo, E. (1933), The Human Problems of an Industrial Civilization, Macmillan, New York.
    Mead, G.H. (1934), Mind, Self and Society, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
    Mehrabian, A. (1977), ‘Individual Differences in Stimulus Screening and Arousability'’, in Journal of Personality, 45, pp. 237–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jopy.1977.45.issue-2
    Mehrabian, A. (1978), ‘Characteristic Individual Reactions to Preferred and Unpreferred Environments'’, in Journal of Personality, 46, pp. 717–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jopy.1978.46.issue-4
    Mehrabian, A. and Russell, J.A. (1974), An Approach to Environmental Psychology, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
    Mehrabian, A. and Russell, J.A. (1975), ‘Environmental Effects on Affiliation among Strangers'’, in Humanitas, 11, pp. 219–30.
    Mercer, G.W. and Benjamin, M.L. (1980), ‘Spatial Behavior of University Undergraduates in Double Occupancy Resident Rooms: an Inventory of Effects'’, in Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 10, pp. 32–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jasp.1980.10.issue-1
    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1945), Phénoménologie de la perception, Gallimard, Paris.
    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1951), Les sciences de l'homme et la phénoménologie, CDU, Paris.
    Michelson, W. (1970), Man and His Urban Environment, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.
    Michelson, W. (1987), ‘Measuring Macroenvironment and Behavior: the Time Budget and Time Geography’, in R.Bechtel, R.Marans and W.Michelson (eds), Methods in Environment and Behavior Research, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, pp. 216–46.
    Midden, C.J.H. and Verplanken, R. (1990), ‘The Stability of Nuclear Attitudes after Chernobyl'’, in Journal of Environmental Psychology, 10, pp. 111–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944%2805%2980122-7
    Milgram, S. (1984), ‘Cities as Social Representations’, in R.Farr and S.Moscovici (eds), Social Representations, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
    Milgram, S. and Jodelet, D. (1976), ‘Psychological Maps of Paris’, in H.M.Proshansky, W.H.Ittelson and L.G.Rivlin (eds), Environmental Psychology: People and their Physical Settings, (
    2nd edn
    ), Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, pp. 104–24.
    Milgram, S., Greenwald, J., Keesler, S., McKenna, W. and Waters, J. (1972), ‘A Psychological Map of New York City'’, in American Scientist, 60, pp. 194–200.
    Miller, G.A., Galanter, F. and Pribram, K.H. (1960), Plans and Structure of Behavior, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10039-000
    Milne, A.A. (1928), The House at Pooh Corner, Methuen, London.
    Mischel, W. (1968), Personality and Assessment, Academic Press, New York.
    Moar, I and Bowers, G.H. (1983), ‘Inconsistency in Spatial Knowledge'’, in Memory & Cognition, 11, pp. 107–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BF03213464
    Moore, G. (1974), ‘The Development of Environmental Knowledge: an Overview of an Interactional-Constructivist Theory and Some Data on Within-Individual Development Variations’, in D.Canter and T.Lee (eds), Psychology and the Built Environment, Architectural Press, London.
    Moore, G. (1976), ‘Theory and Research on the Development of Environmental Knowing’, in G.Moore and R.G.Golledge (eds), Environmental Knowing, Dowden, Hutchison and Ross, Stroudsburg, PA, pp. 138–64.
    Moore, G. (1986), ‘A Framework for Theories of Environment and Behavior: Unit of Analysis and the Locus of Control of Behavior’, paper presented to the 21st International Congress of Applied Psychology, Jerusalem.
    Moore, G. (1987), ‘Environment and Behavior Research in North America: History, Developments, and Unresolved Issues’, in D.Stokols and I.Altman (eds), Handbook of Environmental Psychology, vol. 2, Wiley, New York, pp. 1371–410.
    Moore, G. and Golledge, R.G. (1976), ‘Environmental Knowing Concepts and Theories’, in G.MooreR.G.Golledge (eds), Environmental Knowing, Dowden, Hutchison and Ross, Stroudsburg, PA, pp. 3–24.
    Moore, G., Tuttle, D. and Howell, S.C. (1985), Environmental Design Research Directions, Praeger, New York.
    Moos, R.H. (1973), ‘Conceptualizations of Human Environment'’, in American Psychologist, 28, pp. 652–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0035722
    Moos, R.H. (1975), Evaluating Correctional and Community Settings, Wiley, New York.
    Moos, R.H. and Lemke, S. (1984), ‘Multiphasic Environmental Assessment Procedure’, unpublished manuscript, Stanford University, Social Ecology Laboratory, Palo Alto, CA.
    Moscovici, S. (1961–76), La psychanalyse: Son image et son public, Presses Universitaires de France, Paris.
    Moscovici, S. (1963), ‘Attitudes and Opinions'’, in Annual Review of Psychology, 14, pp. 231–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.14.020163.001311
    Moscovici, S. (1973), ‘Forward’, in C.Herzlich (ed.), Health and Illness: a Social Psychological Analysis, Academic Press, London, pp. ix–xiv. (original edn 1969).
    Moscovici, S. (1976), ‘La psychologic des representations sociales'’, in Cahiers Vilfredo Pareto, 14, pp. 409–16.
    Moscovici, S. (1981), ‘On Social Representations’, in J.P.Forgas (ed.), Social Cognition: Perspectives in Everyday Understanding, Academic Press: Longon, pp. 181–209.
    Moscovici, S. (1982), ‘The Coming Era of Representations’, in J.P.Codol and J.P.Leyens (eds), Cognitive Approaches to Social Behavior, Nijoff, The Hague, pp. 115–50.
    Moscovici, S. (1984a), ‘The Phenomenon of Social Representations’, in R.Farr and S.Moscovici (eds), Social Representations, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 3–69.
    Moscovici, S. (1984b), Psychologie sociale, Presses Universitaires de France, Paris.
    Murphy, G. (1947), Personality: a Biosocial Approach to Origins and Structure, Harper, New York. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10759-000
    Murray, H.A. (1938), Explorations in Personality, Oxford University Press, New York.
    Neisser, U. (1976), Cognition and Reality, Freeman, San Francisco.
    Neisser, U. (1987), ‘Introduction: the Ecological and Intellectual Bases in Categorization’, in U.Neisser (ed.), Concepts and Conceptual Development: Ecological and Intellectual Factors in Categorization, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 1–23.
    Neisser, U. (1988), ‘Five Kinds of Self-Knowledge'’, in Philosophical Psychology, 1, pp. 35–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09515088808572924
    Neisser, U. (1990), ‘The Ecological Approach to Cognitive Psychology'’, in Comunicazioni Scientifische di Psicologia Generate, 1, pp. 11–22.
    Newman, O. (1972), Defensible Space: Crime Prevention through Urban Design, Macmillan, New York.
    Niit, T., Heidmets, M. and Kruusvall, J. (1987), ‘Environmental Psychology in the Soviet Union’, in D.Stokols and I.Altman (eds), Handbook of Environmental Psychology, vol. 2, Wiley, New York, pp. 1311–36.
    Norberg-Schulz, C. (1971), Existence, Space, and Architecture, Praeger, New York.
    Norberg-Schulz, C. (1980), Genius Loci: Toward a Phenomenology of Architecture, Academy Editions, London.
    Normoyle, J. and Lavrakas, P.J. (1984), ‘Fear of Crime in Elderly Women: Perceptions of Control, Predictability and Territoriality'’, in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 10, pp. 191–202. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167284102004
    Onibokun, A.G. (1974), ‘Evaluating Consumers' Satisfaction with Housing: an Application of a System Approach'’, in Journal of the American Institute of Planning, 40, pp. 189–200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01944367408977468
    Orleans, P. (1973), ‘Differential Cognition of Urban Residents: Effects of Social Scale on Mapping’, in R.M.Downs and D.Stea (eds), Image and Environment: Cognitive Mapping and Spatial Behavior, Aldine, Chicago, pp. 78–96.
    Osmond, H. (1957), ‘Function as the Basis of Psychiatric Ward Design'’, in Mental Hospital, 8, pp. 23–30.
    Oxley, D., Haggard, I., Werner, C. and Altman, I. (1986), ‘Transactional Qualities of Neighbourhood Social Networks: a Case Study of “Christmas Street'”’, in Environment and Behavior, 18, pp. 640–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013916586185004
    Palmonari, A. (1989), Processi simbolici e dinamiche sociali, Il Mulino, Bologna.
    Palmonari, A., Carugati, F., Ricci-Bitti, P.E. and Sarchielli, G. (1979), Identità imperfette, Il Mulino, Bologna.
    Parkes, D.N. and Thrift, N.J. (1980), Time, Space, and Places, Wiley, New York.
    Pastalan, L.A. (1970), ‘Privacy as an Expression of Human Territoriality’, in L.A.Pastalan and D.H.Parson (eds), Spatial Behavior of Older People, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
    Perussia, F. (1983), ‘A Critical Approach to Environmental Psychology in Italy'’, in Journal of Environmental Psychology, 3 (3), pp. 263–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944%2883%2980005-X
    Peters, H.P., Albrecht, J., Hennen, I. and Stegelmann, H.U. (1990), ‘Chernobyl and the Nuclear Power Issue in West German Public Opinion'’, in Journal of Environmental Psychology, 10, pp. 121–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944%2805%2980123-9
    Piaget, J. and Inhelder, R. (1947), La représentation de l'espace chez l'enfant, PUF, Paris.
    Piaget, J. and Inhelder, R. (1968), Mémoire et intelligence, PUF, Paris.
    Postman, R., Bruner, J. and McGuinnies, E. (1948), ‘Personal Values as Selective Factors in Perception'’, in Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 43, pp. 142–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0059765
    Potter, J. and Wetherell, M. (1987), Discourse and Social Psychology, Sage, London.
    Proshansky, H.M. (1976), ‘Environmental Psychology and the Real World'’, in American Psychologist, 4, pp. 303–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.31.4.303
    Proshansky, H.M. (1978), ‘The City and Self-Identity'’, in Environment and Behavior, 10, pp. 147–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013916578102002
    Proshansky, H.M. (1987), ‘The Field of Environmental Psychology: Securing Its Future’, in D.Stokols and I.Altman (eds), Handbook of Environmental Psychology, vol. 2, Wiley, New York, pp. 1467–88.
    Proshansky, H.M. and Fabian, K. (1987), ‘The Development of Place Identity in the Child’, in C.S.Weinstein and T.G.David (eds), Spaces for Children, Plenum, New York, pp. 21–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-5227-3
    Proshansky, H.M. and Kaminoff, R.D. (1982), ‘The Built Environment of the Young Adult’, in S.Messick (ed.), Development in Young Adulthood: Characteristics and Competences in Education, Work and Social Life, Jossey Bass, San Francisco.
    Proshansky, H.M. and O'Hanlon, T. (1977), ‘Environmental Psychology: Origins and Development’, in D.Stokols (ed.), Perspectives on Environment and Behavior, Plenum, New York, pp. 101–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-2277-1
    Proshansky, H.M., Ittelson, W. and Rivlin, L.G. (eds) (1970), Environmental Psychology: Man and His Physical Settings (
    1st edn
    ), Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York.
    Proshansky, H.M., Nelson-Schulman, Y. and Kaminoff, R.D. (1979), ‘The Role of Physical Setting in Life Crisis Experiences’, in I.Sharon and C.Spielberger (eds), Stress and Anxiety, vol. 6, Hemisphere, Washington, DC, pp. 3–26.
    Proshansky, H.M., Fabian, A.K. and Kaminoff, R. (1983), ‘Place-Identity: Physical World Socialization of the Self'’, in Journal of Environmental Psychology, 3, pp. 57–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944%2883%2980021-8
    Rapoport, A. (1964–5), ‘The Architecture of Isphahan'’, in Landscape, 14 (2), pp. 4–11.
    Rapoport, A. (1982), The Meaning of the Built Environment: A Non-Verbal Communication Approach, Sage, Beverly Hills, CA.
    Rapoport, A. (1986), ‘The Use and Design of Open Spaces in Urban Neighbourhoods’, in D.Frick (ed), The Quality of Urban Life, de Gruyter, Berlin, pp. 159–76.
    Rapoport, A. (1990), ‘Systems of Activities and Systems of Settings’, in S.Kent (ed.), Domestic Architecture and the Use of Space, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 9–19.
    Ratner, S. et al. (eds) (1964), John Dewey and Arthur Bentley: A Philosophical Correspondence, 1932–1951, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ.
    Reed, E. and Jones, R. (1982), Reasons for Realism: Selected Essays of James J. Gibson, Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale NJ.
    Relph, E. (1970), ‘An Inquiry of the Relationship between Phenomenology and Geography'’, in Canadian Geographer, 14, pp. 437–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cag.1970.14.issue-3
    Relph, E. (1976), Place and Placelessness, Pion, London.
    Renn, O. (1990), ‘Public Responses to the Chernobyl Accident'’, in Journal of Environmental Psychology, 10, pp. 151–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944%2805%2980125-2
    Roethlisberger, F.J. and Dickinson, W.J. (1939), Management and the Worker, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
    Romney, A.K. and D'Andrade, R.G. (1964), ‘Transcultural Studies in Cognition'’, in American Anthropologist, 66, pp. 146–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/aa.1964.66.3.02a00870
    Rosemberg, M. (1979), Conceiving the Self, Basic Books, New York.
    Russell, J.A. and Lanius, U.F. (1984), ‘Adaptation Level and the Affective Appraisal of Environments'’, in Journal of Environmental Psychology, 4, pp. 119–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944%2884%2980029-8
    Russell, J.A. and Mehrabian, A. (1978), ‘Approach-Avoidance and Affiliation as Functions of Emotion-Eliciting Quality or an Environment'’, in Environment and Behavior, 10, pp. 355–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013916578103005
    Russell, J.A. and Pratt, G. (1980), ‘A Description of the Affective Quality Attributed to Environments'’, in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38, pp. 311–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.38.2.311
    Russell, J.A. and Ward, L.M. (1981), ‘On the Psychological Reality of Experimental Meaning: Reply to Daniel and Ittelson'’, in Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 110, pp. 163–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.110.2.163
    Russell, J.A. and Ward, L.M. (1982), ‘Environmental Psychology'’, in Annual Review of Psychology, 33, pp. 259–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.33.020182.003251
    Russell, J.A., Ward, L.M. and Pratt, G. (1981), ‘Affective Quality Attributed to Environments: a Factor Analytic Study'’, in Environment and Behavior, 13, pp. 259–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013916581133001
    Saarinen, T.F. (1966), Perception of Drought Hazard on the Great Plains, research paper 106, University of Chicago, Department of Geography, Chicago.
    Saarinen, T.F. (1969), Perception of Environment. Commission on College Geography, research paper 5, Association of American Geographers, Washington, DC.
    Saarinen, T.F., Seamon, D. and Sell, J.L. (eds) (1984), Environmental Perception and Behavior, research paper 209, University of Chicago, Department of Geography, Chicago.
    Saegert, S. (1987), ‘Environmental Psychology and Social Change’, in D.Stokols and I.Altman (eds), Handbook of Environmental Psychology, vol. 1, Wiley, New York, pp. 99–128.
    Saegert, S. and Winkel, G. (1990), ‘Environmental Psychology'’, in Annual Review of Psychology, 41, pp. 441–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.41.020190.002301
    Saegert, S., Mackintosh, E. and West, S. (1975), ‘Two Studies of Crowding in Urban Public Spaces'’, in Environment and Behavior, 7, pp. 159–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001391657500700203
    Sarbin, T.R. (1976), ‘Contextualism: a World View From Modem Psychology’, in M.M.Page(ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, pp. 1–41.
    Sauer, C.O. (1925), ‘The Morphology of Landscape’, in J.Leighlet (ed.), Land and Life: A Selection from the Writings of Carl Ortwin Sauer, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1969, pp. 315–50.
    Schank, R. and Abelson, R. (1977), Scripts, Plans. Goals, and Understanding, Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.
    Schoggen, P. (1989), Behavioral Settings, Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.
    Schütz, A. (1962–6), Collected Papers, 3 vols., Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague.
    Schütz, A. (1967), The Phenomenology of the Social World, Northwestern University Press, Evanston, IL.
    Seamon, D. (1979), A Geography of the Life World, Croom Helm, London.
    Seamon, D. (1982), ‘The Phenomenological Contribution to Environmental Psychology'’, in Journal of Environmental Psychology, 2, pp. 119–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944%2882%2980044-3
    Sebba, R. and Churchman, A. (1983), ‘Territories and Territoriality in the Home'’, in Environment and Behavior, 15, pp. 191–210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013916583152004
    Secchiaroli, G. (1979a), ‘Progettazione dell'ambiente per l'uomo e psicologia ambientale: una nuova prospettiva'’, in Psicologia Contemporanea, 33, pp. 30–5.
    Secchiaroli, G. (1979b), ‘Gli psicologi alla scoperta dell'ambiente'’, in Sociologia Urbana e Rurale, 1, pp. 15–22.
    Secchiaroli, G. (1979c), ‘Andiamo in centro'’, in Bologna Incontri, 9, pp. 18–20.
    Secchiaroli, G. (1981), ‘Psychologic et environnement: Problèmes et perspectives par rapport au context italien’, paper presented to the International Symposium on ‘Toward a Social Psychology of the Environment', Maison des Sciences de l'Homme, Paris.
    Secchiaroli, G. (1986), ‘Immaginabilità sociale dell'ambiente urbano e processi di costruzione delle realtà ambientali'’, in Sociologia Urbana e Rurale, 19, pp. 179–86.
    Secchiaroli, G. (1987a), ‘Comportamenti e pratiche turistiche tra rappresentazioni ambientali e costruzione di significati’, in P.Guidicini and A.Savelli (eds), Leggere il turismo in una società che cambia, Franco Angeli, Milan, pp. 62–75.
    Secchiaroli, G. (1987b), ‘Costruzioni cognitive e immaginabilità sociale dei luoghi urbani: Quartiere, centro e periferia nella città di Roma’, in E.Bianchi, F.Perussia and M.F.Rossi (eds), Immagine soggettiva e ambiente, problemi, applicazioni e strategic di ricerca, UNICOPLI, Milan, pp. 18–33.
    Secchiaroli, G. and Bonnes, M. (1983), Complessità dell'ambiente urbano e rappresentazioni cognitive degli abitanti, rapporto tecnico no. 315, Istituto di Psicologia, CNR, Rome.
    Segall, M.H., Campbell, D.T. and Herskovitz, M. (1966), The Influence of Culture on Visual Perception, Bobbs-Merrill, Indianapolis, IN.
    Seligman, M.E.P. (1973), ‘Fall into Helplessness’, in Psychology Today, June, pp. 43–8.
    Seligman, M.E.P. (1974), ‘Depression and Learned Helplessness’, in R.J.Friedman and M.M.Katz (eds), The Psychology of Depression: Contemporary Theory and Research, Wiley, New York, pp. 114–29.
    Seligman, M.E.P. (1975), Helplessness, Freeman, San Francisco.
    Selye, H. (1956), The Stress of Life, McGraw-Hill, New York.
    Sherrod, D.R. and Downs, R. (1974), ‘Environmental Determinants of Altruism: the Effects of Stimulus Overload and Perceived Control of Helping'’, in Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 10, pp. 468–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2874%2990015-8
    Sherrod, D.R., Hage, J.N., Halpern, P.L. and Moore, B.S. (1977), ‘Effects of Personal Causation and Perceived Control on Responses to an Adversive Environment: the More Control, the Better'’, in Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 13, pp. 14–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2877%2990010-5
    Shumaker, S.A. and Taylor, R.B. (1983), ‘Toward a Clarification of People–Place Relationship: a Mode of Attachment to Place’, in N.R.Feimer and E.S.Geller (eds), Environmental Psychology: Directions and Perspectives, Praeger, New York, pp. 219–51.
    Siegel, A.W. and White, S.H. (1975), ‘The Development of Spatial Representations of Large-Scale Environments’, in H.W.Reese (ed.), Advances in Child Development and Behavior, vol. 10, Academic Press, New York, pp. 8–55.
    Smith, C.J. (1976), ‘Residential Neighbourhoods as Human Environments'’, in Environmental Planning, 8, pp. 311–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a080311
    Smith, H.W. (1983), ‘Territorial Spacing on a Beach Revisited: a Cross-National Exploration'’, in Social Psychology Quarterly, 44, pp. 132–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3033709
    Sommer, R. (1959), ‘Studies in Personal Space'’, in Sociometry, 22, pp. 247–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2785668
    Sommer, R. (1969), Personal Space: the Behavioral Basis of Design, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
    Sommer, R. (1987), ‘Dream, Reality, and the Future of Environmental Psychology’, in D.Stokols and I.Altman, (eds), Handbook of Environmental Psychology, vol. 2, Wiley, New York, pp. 1489–512.
    Sommer, R. and Ross, H. (1958), ‘Social Interaction on a Geriatric Ward'’, in International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 4, pp. 128–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002076405800400207
    Sonnenfeld, J. (1969), ‘Personality and Behavior in Environment'’, in Proceedings of the Association of American Geographers, 1, pp. 136–40.
    Stea, D. (1967), ‘Reasons for Our Moving'’, in Landscape, 17, pp. 27–8.
    Stea, D. (1969), ‘The Measurement of Mental Maps: an Experimental Model for Studying Conceptual Space’, in K.R.Cox and R.G.Golledge (eds), Behavioral Problems in Geography: a Symposium, Northwestern University Press, Evanston, IL, pp. 228–53.
    Stokols, D. (1978), ‘Environmental Psychology'’, in Annual Review of Psychology, 29, pp. 253–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.29.020178.001345
    Stokols, D. (1979), ‘A Congruence Analysis of Stress’, in I.Saranson and C.Spielberger (eds), Stress and Anxiety, vol. 6, Hemisphere, New York, pp. 27–53.
    Stokols, D. (1981), ‘Group X Place Transactions: Some Neglected Issues in Psychological Research on Settings’, in D.Magnusson (ed.), Towards a Psychology of Situations: an Interactional Perspective, Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 393–415.
    Stokols, D. (1987), ‘Conceptual Strategies of Environmental Psychology’, in D.Stokols and I.Altman, (eds), Handbook of Environmental Psychology, vol. 1, Wiley, New York, pp. 41–70.
    Stokols, D. and Altman, I. (eds) (1987), Handbook of Environmental Psychology, Wiley, New York, vols. 1 and 2.
    Stokols, D. and Shumaker, S. (1981), ‘People in Place: a Transactional View of Settings’, in J.Harvey (ed.), Cognition, Social Behavior, and the Environment, Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 441–88.
    Stokols, D., Rall, M., Pinner, B. and Schopler, J. (1973), ‘Physical, Social, and Personal Determinants of the Perception of Crowding'’, in Environment and Behavior, 5, pp. 87–117. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001391657300500106
    Stokols, D., Ohlig, W. and Resnick, S.M. (1978), ‘Perception of Residential Crowding, Classroom Experiences and Student Health'’, in Human Ecology, 6, pp. 233–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00889025
    Strauss, A.L. (1961), Images of the American City, Free Press, New York.
    Stringer, P. and Kremer, A. (1987), ‘Environmental Psychology in the Netherlands’ in D.Stokols and I.Altman (eds), Handbook of Environmental Psychology, vol. 2, Wiley, New York, pp. 1227–42.
    Sundstrom, E. (1975), ‘An Experimental Study of Crowding: Effects of Room Size, Intrusion and Goal-Blocking on Non-Verbal Behaviors, Self-Disclosure and Self-Reported Stress'’, in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32, pp. 645–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.32.4.645
    Sundstrom, E., Town, J.P., Brown, D.W., Forman, A. and McGee, C. (1982), ‘Privacy and Communication in an Open-Plan Office: a Case Study'’, in Environment and Behavior, 14, pp. 379–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013916582143007
    Tajfel, H. (1969), ‘Social and Cultural Factors in Perception’, in G.Lindzey and E.Aronson (eds), Handbook of Social Psychology, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, pp. 315–94.
    Tajfel, H. (1981), Human Groups and Social Categories, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
    Tajfel, H. (ed.) (1984), The Social Dimension, vols. 1–2, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511759154
    Tangenes, B., Marek, J. and Hellesoy, O.H. (1981), Work and Physical Environment on a North Sea Platform, Mobil Exploration Norway Inc., Bergen.
    Taylor, C.W., Bailey, R. and Branch, C.H. (eds) (1967), Second National Conference on Architectural Psychology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City.
    Taylor, R.B., Gottfredson, S.D. and Brower, S. (1980), ‘The Defensibility of Defensible Space: a Critical Review and a Synthetic Framework for Future Research’, in T.Hirschi and M.Gottfredson (eds), Understanding Crime, Sage, Beverly Hills, CA, pp. 48–69.
    Taylor, R.B., Gottfredson, S. and Brower, S. (1984), ‘Understanding Block Crime and Fear'’, in Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 21, pp. 303–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022427884021004003
    Theologus, G.S., Wheaton, G.R. and Fleishman, E.A. (1974), ‘Effects of Internment Moderate Intensity Noise on Human Performance'’, in Journal of Applied Psychology, 59, pp. 539–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0037336
    Tolman, E.C. (1932), Purposive Behavior in Animals and Men, Century Co., New York.
    Tolman, E.C. (1948), ‘Cognitive Maps in Rats and Men'’, in Psychological Review, 55, pp. 189–208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0061626
    Tolman, E.C. and Brunswik, E. (1935), ‘The Organism and the Causal Texture of the Environment'’, in Psychological Review, 42, pp. 43–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0062156
    Tuan, Y.F. (1961), ‘Topophilia'’, in Landscape, 11, pp. 29–32.
    Tuan, Y.F. (1974), Topophilia: a Study of Environmental Perception, Attitudes and Values, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
    Tuan, Y.F. (1977), Space and Place: the Perspective of Experience, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.
    Tuan, Y.F. (1979), Landscapes of Fear, Pantheon, New York.
    Tuan, Y.F. (1980), ‘Rootedness versus Sense of Place'’, in Landscape, 24, pp. 3–8.
    Turner, J. (1981), ‘Toward a Cognitive Redefinition of the Social Group'’, in Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive, 2, pp. 93–118.
    UNESCO-MAB (1973), Expert Panel on MAB Project 13: Perception of Environmental Quality, MAB report series no. 17, UNESCO, Paris.
    UNESCO-MAB (1988), Man Belongs to the Earth, UNESCO, Paris.
    Valsiner, J. and Benigni, I. (1986), ‘Naturalistic Research and Ecological Thinking in the Study of Child Development'’, in Developmental Review, 6 (3), pp. 203–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0273-2297%2886%2990012-2
    Van der Plight, J. and Midden, C.J.H. (1990), ‘Chernobyl: Four Years Later. Attitudes, Risk, Management and Communication'’, in Journal of Environmental Psychology, 10, pp. 91–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944%2805%2980120-3
    Van Liere, K.D. and Dunlap, R.E. (1981), ‘Environmental Concern: Does it Make a Difference How It's Measured?'’, in Environment and Behavior, 13, pp. 651–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013916581136001
    Veroff, J. (1983), ‘Contextual Determinants of Personality’, in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 9, pp. 331–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167283093002
    Wapner, S. (1987), ‘A Holistic, Developmental, System-Oriented Environmental Psychology: Some Beginnings’, in D.Stokols and I.Altman (eds), Handbook of Environmental Psychology, vol. 2, Wiley, New York, pp. 1433–66.
    Wapner, S. and Kaplan, B. (eds) (1983), Toward a Holistic Developmental Psychology, Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.
    Ward, L.M., Snodgrass, J., Chew, B. and Russell, J. (1988), ‘The Role of Plans in Cognitive and Affective Responses to Places'’, in Journal of Environmental Psychology, 8, pp. 1–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944%2888%2980019-7
    Warner, H.D. (1969), ‘Effects of Intermittent Noise on Human Target Detection'’, in Human Factors, 11, pp. 245–50.
    Weick, K.E. (1979), The Social Psychology of Organization, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.
    Weinstein, N.D. (1978), ‘Individual Differences in Reactions to Noise: A Longitudinal Study in a College Dormitory'’, in Journal of Applied Psychology, 63, pp. 456–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.63.4.458
    Werner, C.M., Altman, I. and Oxley, D. (1985), ‘Temporal Aspects of Home: a Transactional Perspective’, in I.Altman and C.M.Werner (eds), Home Environments, vol. 8, Human Behavior and Environment, Plenum, New York, pp. 1–32.
    Werner, CM., Altman, I. and Oxley, D. (1987), ‘People, Places, and Time: a Transactional Analysis of Neighborhood’, in W.J.Jones and D.Perlman (eds), Advances in Personal Relationships, JAI Press, New York, pp. 243–75.
    Werner, H. (1948), Comparative Psychology of Mental Development, International University Press, New York.
    Wertheimer, M. (1945), Produktives Denken, Kramer, Frankfurt A. M.
    Whyte, A. (1977), Guidelines for Field Studies in Environmental Perception, MAB technical note 5, UNESCO, Paris.
    Whyte, A. (1984), ‘Integration of Natural and Social Sciences in Environmental Research: a Case Study of the MAB Programme’, in F.di Castri, F.W.Barker and M.Hadley (eds), Ecology in Practice, vol. 2, Tycooly, Dublin, pp. 298–323.
    Wicker, A.W. (1969), ‘Cognitive Complexity, School Size, and Participation in School Behavior Settings: a Test of the Frequency Interactional Hypothesis'’, in Journal of Educational Psychology, 60, pp. 200–3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0027612
    Wicker, A.W. (1979), An Introduction to Ecological Psychology, Brooks/Cole, Monterey, CA.
    Wicker, A.W. (1987), ‘Behavioral Settings Reconsidered: Temporal Stages, Resources, Internal Dynamics, Context’, in D.Stokols and I.Altman, (eds), Handbook of Environmental Psychology, vol. 1, Wiley, New York, pp. 613–53.
    Wineman, J.D. (1982a), ‘The Office Environment as a Source of Stress’, in G.W.Evans (ed.), Environmental Stress, Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 256–83.
    Wineman, J.D. (1982b), ‘Office Design and Evaluation: an Over-View'’, in Environment and Behavior, 14, pp. 271–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013916582143002
    Winkel, G.H. (ed.) (1969), Environment and Behavior, Sage, Beverly Hills, CA.
    Wohlwill, J.F. (1970), ‘The Emerging Discipline of Environmental Psychology'’, in American Psychologist, 25, pp. 303–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0029448
    Wohlwill, J.F. (1976), ‘Environmental Aesthetics: the Environment as a Source of Affect’, in I.Altman and J.Wohlwill (eds), Human Behavior and Environment: Advances in Theory and Research, vol. 1, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 37–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-2550-5
    Wolf, C.P. (1974), ‘Social Impact Assessment: the State of the Art, Man-Environment Interaction: Evaluations and Applications’, vol. 2, Proceedings of the 5th International Environmental Design Research Association Conference, Environmental Design Research Association, Washington, DC.
    Wolf, C.P. (ed.) (1975), Environment and Behavior, 7, Special Issue on Social Impact Assessment.
    Worchel, S. and Lollis, M. (1982), ‘Reactions to Territorial Contamination as a Function of Culture'’, in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 8, pp. 370–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167282082029
    Wright, G. (1947), ‘Terrae Incognitae: the Place of Imagination in Geography'’, in Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 37, pp. 1–15.
    Zajonc, R.B. (1980), ‘Cognition and Social Cognition: a Historical Perspective’, in L.Festinger (ed.), Retrospection on Social Psychology, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 151–75.
    Zube, E.H. (ed.) (1980), Social Sciences: Interdisciplinary Research and the US Man and Biosphere Program: Workshop Proceedings, Department of State, US MAB, Washington, DC.
    Zube, E.H., Sell, J.L. and Taylor, J.G. (1982), ‘Landscape Perception: Research, Application and Theory'’, in Landscape Planning, 9, pp. 1–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0304-3924%2882%2990009-0

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website