# Environmental Accounting, Sustainability and Accountability

Books

### Somnath Debnath

• Chapters
• Front Matter
• Back Matter
• Subject Index

## Epigraph

If many small people in many small places change in a small way, the face of the earth changes.

—An African proverb

## SAGE India

Bulk Sales

SAGE India offers special discounts

for purchase of books in bulk.

We also make available special imprints and excerpts from our books on demand.

For orders and enquiries, write to us at

Marketing Department

SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd

B1/I-1, Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area

Mathura Road, Post Bag 7

New Delhi 110044, India

E-mail us at marketing@sagepub.in

Subscribe to our mailing list

Write to marketing@sagepub.in

## List of Abbreviations

AAAJ

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal

AAUs

allowable accounting units

ABC

activity-based costing

ABM

activity-based management

AHP

analytical hierarchy process

AICPA

American Institute of Certified Public Accountants

AIS

accounting information system

ASC

Accounting Standards Codification (prevalent in the US)

ASQ

American Society for Quality

BREEAM

Building Research Establishment Environment Assessment Method

BRIC

Brazil, Russia, India, China

CAGR

compound annual growth ratio

capex

capital expenditure

CASBEE

Comprehensive Assessment System for Built Environment Efficiency

CBA

cost–benefit analysis

CDI

city development index

CDM

Clean Development Mechanism (as defined by the Kyoto Protocol)

CDP

Carbon Disclosure Project

CER

certified emission reduction (units)

CERES

Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economies

CIP

construction-in-progress

CMA

carbon management accounting

COP

Conference of the Parties (to the UNFCCC)

CSI

city sustainability index

CSR

corporate social responsibility

CVP

cost–volume–profit (analysis)

DOI

diffusion of innovation

EASO

environmental assessment of sites and organizations

EBITDA

earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization

ECA

environmental cost accounting

ECEA

environmental capability enhancing asset

EEA

European Environment Agency

EF

ecological footprint

EIA

environmental impact assessment

EICI

eco-intensity change index

E-LCC

environmentally sensitive life-cycle costing

EMA

environmental management accounting

EMAS

Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EU)

EMS

environmental management system

ENRAP

Environmental and Natural Resources Accounting Project (Philippines)

EPA

Environmental Protection Agency

EPC

engineering, procurement and construction

EPIs

environmental performance indicators

ERP

enterprise resource planning

ESI

environmental sensitivity index

ETP

effluent treatment plant

ETS

Emissions Trading Scheme (EU)

EU

European Union

EUA

European Union Allowance (EU)

FASB

Financial Accounting Standards Board (of the USA)

FCA

full-cost accounting

FDF

Finnish Defence Forces

FIFO

first in, first out

GAAPs

generally accepted accounting principles

GBTool

Green Building Tool

GCV

gross calorific value

GDP

gross domestic product

GE

General Electric (company)

GHGs

greenhouse gases

GRI

Global Reporting Initiative

GSCM

green supply chain management

HACCP

hazard analysis and critical control points

HDI

human development index

HERS

Home Energy Rating System

HFC

hydrofluorocarbon

HLRW

HR

human resources

HSD

high speed diesel

IAS

International Accounting Standards

IASB

International Accounting Standards Board

IASC

International Accounting Standards Committee

ICAC

Instituto de Contabilidad y Auditoría de Cuentas

IFAC

International Federation of Accountants

IFRS

International Financial Reporting Standards

IIRC

International Integrated Reporting Council

IOA

input–output analysis

IPCC

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

ISO

International Organization for Standardization

IMF

International Monetary Fund

IMU

Institut für Management und Umwelt (Germany)

IUSIL

international urban sustainability indicators list

IWM

integrated waste management

JI

joint implementation (as defined by the Kyoto Protocol)

LA21

Local Agenda 21

LCA

life-cycle analysis

LCC

life-cycle costing

LEED

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

LFG

landfill gas

LIFO

last in, first out

LLRW

LPI

living plant index

LULUCF

land use and land use changes and forestry

MCA

multi-criteria analysis

MCDA

multiple-criteria decision analysis

MCDM

multi-criteria decision-making (technique)

MDA

multiple discriminant analysis

MES

manufacturing execution function

METI

Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (Japan)

MFA

material flow accounting (economic)

MFCA

material flow cost accounting

MIS

management information system

MOE

Ministry of Environment (Japan)

MSW

municipal solid waste

NAMEA

National Accounting Matrix including Environmental Accounts

NPOs

non-product outputs

NPV

net present value

OI

organizational innovation

opex

operational expenditure

PDCA

plan–do–check–act (cycle)

PEST

political, economic, social and technological (framework of analysis)

PESTEL

political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal (framework of analysis)

PFC

perfluorocarbon

PIOT

physical input–output table

PM

particulate matter (in pollution)

PMO

project management office

ppm

parts per million

PT

process theory (of innovation)

PV

present value

QR

quality control

R&D

research and development

REA

resources, events, agents (model)

ROI

return on investment

SAM

sustainability assessment model

SASB

Sustainability Accounting Standards Board

SDI

sustainability development index

SEA

social and environmental accounting

SEAR

social and environmental reporting

SEC

Securities and Exchange Commission (of the USA)

SEEA

System of Ecological and Environmental Accounting

SMA

strategic management accounting

SMEs

small and medium enterprises

SNA

System of National Accounts (as defined by the UN)

SSN

space surveillance network

SWOT

strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (as framework for analysis)

TBL

triple bottom line

TCA

total cost approach

TCO

total cost of ownership

TOC

theory of constraints

TPD

tonnes per day

UNCSD

United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development

UNDSD

United Nations Division for Sustainable Development

UNEP

United Nations Environment Programme

UNFCCC

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

UOM

unit of measurement

USA

United States of America

USEPA

United States Environmental Protection Agency

WBCSD

World Business Council for Sustainable Development

WI

well-being index

WRI

World Resources Institute

WTE

waste-to-energy

WTP

willingness to pay

## Preface

Almost a decade ago, I embarked on the journey of understanding how accounting sciences can contribute to environmental concerns and the planetary well-being. Quite frankly, I found these concerns to be challenging to the existing paradigms of accounting sciences and the secure world of isolated views that the financial data and information offer. More so, because the acuteness of accounting framework is inherent to its design, and perseverance to uphold the acuteness is critical to an accounting system. Critical theorists have postulated this as inherent limitation of accounting, which I firmly believe is not challenging to the accounting language per se, but to the viewpoint within which an accounting framework is institutionalized. This, in all fairness, was the main reason why I delved deeper, to establish how the chosen viewpoint restricts the framework from engaging in a conversation meaningful beyond its central theme and eschews innovativeness of outlook, preventing the framework from examining business conduct in unconventional ways.

Another perspective is that the fickle nature of our collective wisdom has lauded some of our long-standing institutions—industries and businesses—for contributing to the progress of civilization and improving our lives, often decorating them and showering accolades upon them, only to denounce them a moment later for not being responsive enough to environmental and societal challenges. If the new societal order expects business enterprises to be addressing some of these concerns, we need to clearly convey our expectations for them to evolve a mechanism to demonstrate their engagement. This contrasts with the focal expectation of markets that only reward superior economic performance. Accordingly, rendition of sustainability as a practicum that grounds our hopes in industries, I honestly believe, mismatches what we collectively intend to achieve even before deliberating how we want to achieve that.

Within these and other complexities, this book explores collective viewpoints that can serve as a reference point through which business and accounting advances towards sustainability can be looked at, and questions whether environmental view can be translated to a unique accounting theme to reflect stakeholders’ expectations and capture firm-environment exchange by relying on certain common rules of engagement that can pave the way for its practical adoption.

Based on the expansion of knowledge in the ecological sciences and our ability to identify the anthropocentric impacts on ecology, isolated boundaries of accounting considerations, labelled as dimensionality that frames the accounting sciences, can contribute to the evolution of ecological accounting, freeing accounting language from being subservience to the economic theories and from its morphic resonance to financial accounting, to let its application grow beyond the boundaries of business and economics. More than the pragmatic orientation of such a solution, I believe, any human creation can surpass the bounds of time and space so long as it can convey some eternal values or be a part of them. This is where the need for accounting to be grounded in accountability arises—beyond the confines of an accounting process answerable to a few (owners and third parties) and help transcend individual businesses to enable the corporate character they need to be accountable to. Wishful thinking, should I say?

This book is based on contemporary advances in research that are yet to achieve a firm theoretical grounding while leveraging concepts from different disciplines that I sincerely believe would be the future ingredients of our collective thinking as well. I earnestly hope that the concepts explored and evolved here will engage readers and spark off the requisite discussions within businesses, academia and society. At the same time, I accept responsibility for any mistakes, lapses and omissions, such as disregarding any prominent areas of research and scholarship that may be relevant to the topic but have not been covered due to lack of relevance to the specific line of arguments presented in this book. I look forward to hearing from you—your feedback, thoughts, criticisms and suggestions.

## Acknowledgements

I wish to acknowledge the contributions of the learned minds and institutions that have furthered the human quest for knowledge, not to mention all individuals who helped me appreciate the interconnectedness of everything we know as life!

• ## Appendix: Mathematical Modelling of Complex Waste

Industrial growth and the human population boom are pushing up the global demand for energy. With less than optimal use of regenerative resources to support this demand, our dependency on coal as the basic fuel source is likely to grow exponentially. This would also contribute to the growth of coal combustion waste (CCW). However, the environmental impacts of CCW—commonly referred to as fly ash (FA)—and its disposal practices have camouflaged the hidden costs and social and environmental externalities into insignificance. Moreover, studies covering the externalities of coal-based thermal power plants have been sensitive about the externalities related to coal mining, transportation and consumption but with less inclusiveness towards the externalities of FA. The same is the case in the extant literature where emphasis on mitigating risks associated with FA is miniscule as compared to the life cycle of coal (for example, Epstein et al. 2012; National Research Council 2010; Xiaoye et al. 2013). FA is also not classified as hazardous waste, though its revised status of ‘special waste’ accorded in 2010 by the US Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) has brought attention to the scale of the impacts it produces (EPA 2010), but this is insignificant and mostly muted, a fait accompli in the life cycle of coal.

FA and its Behaviour

Fly ash (FA)—a commonly occurring residue during the burning of coal—is a harmful and chemically complex, quantitatively significant by-product produced by coal-based thermal power plants and is one of the coal combustion residuals (CCRs). Here are some statistics: Presently, 70–75 per cent of the installed capacity of India (90,000 MWe) for electricity generation is from coal-based thermal power plants, same as in the USA (National Research Council 2010), which produces 80–100 million tonnes of FA per year. The coal in India is generally of poor grade and produces 40 per cent of fly ash on burning (Asokan et al. 2005; Shamsad et al. 2012).

The uniqueness of FA lies in its ability to fragment into its constituent elements upon disposal, which ultimately increases the concentration of different metal and non-metal compounds in the benign environment. Main components of FA are oxides of silicon, aluminium, iron and calcium, with lesser amounts of magnesium, sulphur, sodium and potassium elements. Other metals and metallike elements are also found in trace quantities—arsenic, cadmium, beryllium, tantalum, nickel, manganese, chromium, selenium, zinc and other metals (Rowe, Hopkins and Congdon 2002). While the literature views FA as a serious environmental concern, the common disposal practice of accumulating it into ash banks and ponds in dry or slurry form has not evolved significantly (Asokan, Saxena and Asolekar 2005; National Research Council 2010). The ash banks and surface impoundments may use a clay liner, polyliner or even no liner in some cases, as the disposal rules for developing ash banks have not been consistent across regions and countries. This brings us to the contamination and environmental impacts that FA produces upon disposal.

FA and soil contamination

The acreage of land used for an ash pond or dump would remain a wasteland for a considerable period of time due to the excess of metal contaminants. Although the lined ash pond is relatively more prevalent in the US, lack of a similar practice in developing countries such as India can be attributed to higher acceptance of FA's supposedly benign nature (Sushil and Batra 2006). In either case, research is yet to explore the regeneration of land covered under ash banks, which is practically of no use for a long period of time. The available literature is divided in its opinion on the soil contamination they result in. Scientific experiments have substantiated that the richness of minerals and oxides in FA could potentially improve the mineral composition of soil and that controlled treatment of soil with specific percentages of FA have indicated an increase in soil fertility and yield of crops. The results have been consistent in the range of 20 to 30 per cent of FA being mixed in (Arivazhagan et al. 2011; Pandey and Singh 2010; Sharma and Kalra 2006). However, the chances of metal elements entering the food chain due to their increased concentration beyond the safe limit would need further investigation (Singh and Pandey 2013).

Water contamination and impacts on aquatic organisms

The contamination of flowing water due to FA slurry or sludge has not been adequately covered in literature, other than their leachating and accidental release into aquatic bodies. Studies covering the contamination of water bodies through its leachating into the ground have covered multiple pathways such as surface run-off and underground leachating (Singh et al. 2007). Studies have also shown that the proximity of the water bodies to the ash pond is a factor in possible contamination of water and aquatic life (Prasad and Mondal 2008; Rowe, Hopkins and Congdon 2002; Ruhl et al. 2012). As compared to large-volume water bodies, small lakes and water bodies show earlier and larger degrees of contamination from CCR effluents, but site-specific studies are needed to cover the specificity of the damages (Ruhl et al. 2012).

Groundwater contamination

Groundwater contamination is one of the environmental damages that can be traced to the leachating of the metal elements of FA. The extent of groundwater contamination would depend on variables like distance to the receptor well, average depth of the groundwater table,percentage of the population living near the contaminated well, site-specific variables such as the type of ash (conventional CCW, CCW disposed of along with coal refuse, FBC waste), type of liner used (no liner, clay liner, composite liner), soil texture, aquifer type, ground-water temperature, climate, hydrological properties of the region, surface-water type, flow conditions, etc. (EPA 2010). Contaminated groundwater could result in the loss of water resources for humans, while ingestion of water from contaminated sources could result in an increase in health issues, which would depend on the type of contamination (e.g., arsenic, lead or mercury contamination) as it might not always be linked directly to the source.

Health issues for humans

The health issues due to FA exposure for the human population could originate from different routes such as drinking contaminated groundwater or surface water, ingestion of contaminated food items exposed to such contaminants, and direct contact with the contamination on the surface. However, such risks would also depend on the size of the population in immediate vicinity of the ash pond, reference doses (RfDs) of different elements, and carcinogenic compounds that humans are constantly exposed to from different media, such as arsenic (V) and lead sedimentation or selenium (IV) surface run-off (EPA 2010).

These impacts indicate a complex web of ecological interconnections and the need to understand the functioning of the ecosystem better.

Economic and Environmental Policy Evaluation Techniques at the Sectoral and Regional Levels

Direct and indirect valuation methods have been a part of environmental economics to assess the externalities of waste and could be used to improve objectivity in decision-making while dealing with social policies. For directly identifiable impacts of waste, the hedonic price method, travel cost method or contingent valuation method is generally used, whereas indirect methods include using replacement costs or the preventive and human capital approaches. While direct methods use cost as an indicator of fully functional but unavailable ecosystem benefits, indirect methods are dependent on the prices of environmental gains and people's willingness to pay for them and enjoy the benefits. These methods have been used to assess losses at the sectoral and regional levels—for example, estimating losses due to the Prestige oil spill (Garza et al. 2009), healthcare costs due to air pollution in a number of studies (Dorbian, Wolfe and Waitz 2011; Rabl and Spadaro 2000), and environmental impacts due to climate change (Anthoff and Tol 2010; Ortiz et al. 2011). The impacts are established using market-oriented views and by considering the ecosystem services, which cautions the importance of considering ecosystem losses not just scientifically, but also in ecological terms, and move away from business-as-usual approach (Atkinson, Bateman and Mourato 2012; Schultz et al. 2012; Spash 2008).

Advances in research on ecosystem valuation have been based on the scientific unravelling of ecosystem services that capture partial or complete loss of such services. While the underlying theories rely on ecosystem services to develop a scientific temperament in making collective choices about the ecosystem, by highlighting the direct and indirect uses of ecosystem services for decisive, technical and informational needs (Laurans et al. 2013), the addition of health and non-use values to the economic ones is based on the consideration of these being part of the ecological wealth of a region, which might suffer in time due to the transfer of values to other spheres and degradation due to the pursuit of anthropocentric policies. Together, these values develop better coverage of the ecosystem wealth of a region (Atkinson, Bateman and Mourato 2012), where the diverse nature of use, non-use, ecological and anthropological values could be represented as part of the cultural, provisioning, regulating and supporting functions of ecosystem services (Ojea, Martin-Ortega and Chiabai 2012). Although complex and data-intensive, Gómez-Baggethun and Ruiz-Pérez (2011) believe that ecosystem valuation could relieve policy choices of the arbitrary economic valuation representing commoditized ecosystem services, which would defeat the very purpose of value pluralism and the deliberative judgement process that needs improvement beyond the stated preferences, expert opinions and cost–benefit analyses currently relied upon.

Methodological Complexities in Estimating the Life Cycle and Externalities of FA

At the crossroads of economic and scientific understanding, the problem of FA and its externalities is peculiar and complex. While economic and demographic studies can help in evaluating land resources required in developing new FA ash banks or maintaining the existing ones, they could also help in estimating the social willingness-to-pay in avoiding air and water contamination within the region and saving ecological resources. Since FA gets fragmented into its constituent elements, which are also found within benign nature, delayed higher-order impacts are not captured. While prevailing economic methods (like the travel cost method and the stated preferences method) could generate an arbitrary numéraire to estimate the economic burden, this is just arbitrary. As a result, the policy choices in managing waste would lack a complete view of how it might impact the biosphere. This gives rise to the debate of selecting science- versus market-based policy alternatives—market-based choices could be easier, but also reflect a lack of knowledge regarding ecosystem services (Sagoff 2011).

In comparison, cost-based methodologies are dependent on the causal relationships of the involved entities, which follow predetermined relationships. Accordingly, the existing methodologies suffer in cases where causality is replaced by the probabilistic nature of interactions. Translating the problem to the domain of waste management, if waste cannot be traced back to the origin after it has reached the common pool, costing methodologies cannot be applied directly to second- and higher-order impacts and costs for remediation or restoration. While in the available literature, the TCA approach includes multiple perspectives to incorporate hard-to-measure impacts into alternative decisions—some of which has been experimented with as part of the lifecycle design of automobile parts by Carlsson (2007, 2009)—only limited research is available to apply it to the realm of waste management, including a void in physical modelling to represent the behaviour of elements and subsequent impacts.

Use of Decision-Tree Analysis to Trace the Flow of Environmental Aspects

Due to the shortcomings of the different methods mentioned in the previous section, and their failure to move beyond the first-order impacts of waste, this chapter has used multi-criteria analysis (MCA) to model the waste cycle; its externalities are evaluated using the TCA framework, which can extend to multiple cost chains and include direct, indirect, contingent, hidden and contextual externalities. The literature references MCA and its diverse methodologies for decision-making with regard to the improvement from a one-dimensional approach—that is, reducing the decision variables to the singular dimension of monetary or economic considerations—to consider multiple dimensions such as stakeholders’ opinions, business objectives, qualitative gradations, and so on. MCA is used here as the umbrella term to describe a set of approaches that can handle multiple criteria in the decision-making process (Belton and Stewart 2002). MCA can deal with quantitative as well as qualitative data such as ranks, choices and opinions (subjective criteria) of decision makers. Several theories in MCA have extended it to include fuzzy sets to accept decision inputs in a natural language and handle the subjective views of decision makers (Kannan et al. 2013).

A review of the available techniques suggests that MCA can cover three patterns of logic: (a) simple ordering, (b) goal setting or goal seeking and (c) value maximization, including when the criteria or parameters to arrive at the decision might not be well-defined (Gamper, Thöni and Weck-Hannemann 2006). A recent review of MCA by Velasquez and Hester (2013) has compiled a list of popular methods that include multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT), analytical hierarchy process (AHP), fuzzy set theory, case-based reasoning, data envelopment analysis (DEA), simple multi-attribute rating technique (SMART), goal programming (GP), preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation (PROMTHEE), elimination and choice expressing reality (ELECTRE), and so on. Interested readers can refer to the standard texts for further reading on these techniques. It has been opined in the literature that MCA can offer methodological refinement beyond CBA and improve decision-making that involves complex problems in the sustainability arena (Bebbington, Brown and Frame 2007; Gamper, Thöni and Weck-Hannemann 2006). For instance, MCA has been explored to model the behaviour of FA upon its disposal, which can be extended to include externalities of material recycling and waste management as part of the decision-making process.

MCA is based on the principle of disaggregating a complex problem into a set of decisions that results in building a decision tree which follows expected utility rules to navigate through the underlying course of action and trace the ultimate outcome of the process, where the likelihood of an outcome is based on the weighted probabilities of individual actions along the chosen path (Barzilai 2010). For a generalized modelling of the waste cycle, its movement can also be traced over different receptors. Accordingly, this would include the impacts of FA and its elements on air, soil, humans, and so on. Based on the flow of the aspects in an environment, their corresponding impacts could be modelled as part of a classification (to accept a qualitative variable: presence/absence or yes/no) and regression tree (if the variable is quantitative). Accordingly, the waste movement is traced till it completes the branching needed to study the desired impact for a select endpoint and can handle aspects across multiple pathways following the real behavior of aspects (Sorvari and Seppälä 2010). Using LCA, a probabilistic flow model can be developed, which can offer some insights into the average level of exposure for different metallic and non-metallic compounds degrading through different levels of receptors. This would offer theoretical grounds to consider the average deposition rate along a pathway. As LCA is a tool to handle physical data, this would not improve economic decision-making process, and necessitates use of the TCA approach to consider potential economic impacts.

TCA to Generalize Externalities of FA

In the absence of a standardized unit of service to represent ecological considerations impacting any process (Atkinson, Bateman and Mourato 2012), TCA can leverage a decision-tree model to develop social costs to remediate or mitigate environmental impacts generated by different choices in managing waste. Instead of using a single model to approach the problem, TCA follows multiple approaches to measure different types of impacts. Accordingly, the nature of the costs and their evaluation process could follow different approaches, which would depend on the nature and scope of decision-making. Following from the decision-tree model, costs associated with an impact at an end point i would be sum of the costs associated with the node multiplied by the share of the burden corresponding branches would have to carry. For example, if the actual dispersion of an aspect or element followed multiple pathways, a child branch would bear a proportionate share of the costs. This follows the basic principal of the sum of shared weights at the parent node being equal to one. This linearity in modelling helps in avoiding circular references and overloading a branch. Similar to the objectives in the tree, the flow of aspects is characterized as essential, understandable, operational, non-redundant, concise and preferentially independent (Franco and Montibeller 2009). So, the overall cost function for a policy impact y at an endpoint i will be the sum of costs along the branches C1, C2, C3… with a corresponding share s1, s2, s3…:

The equation can be further generalized as the total cost function Z:

$\text{Z}=\sum \sum \sum \sum \text{x}×\text{y}×\text{z}+\alpha +\text{β}$

where

x =

likelihood of the event i due to element j,

y =

probability of the event creating an impact k,

z =

cost l to remediate/abate impact k due to event i and element j,

α =

opportunity losses due to non-recyclability of waste,

and β =

regulatory costs.

The next section studies a case from India to explore the fitness of the model.

Theoretical Evaluation of the Proposed Model: A Case Example

This section analyses the operational feasibility of the proposed model. Policy choices can be based on select endpoints and can be mapped by using decision-tree analysis, whereas the imputed cost of externalities can reflect costs to be incurred for remediation, abatement and alternate arrangements within the impact zone. This removes the need to restrict the model to any specific type of cost—say, economic costs—and explores the nature of the problem from multiple angles to enter into meaningful dialogue regarding policy choices. Table A1 reflects the dispersion of FA through different pathways and the corresponding impacts.

Part A: Risk-based cost modeling

For a select endpoint (from Table 1), there could be multiple rounds of cost evaluation involving data sets that could cover each element as part of a given region. The cost formulations would follow, evaluating the total cost of impacts along any particular pathway. The endpoint analysis will, accordingly, help in assessing damages to different ecologic receptors, including humans. For example, site-specific studies can estimate cost of land lost, impact on water resources and health of inhabitants in the nearby areas, which could also include making alternate arrangements to provide water (in case of water contamination), and so on. While an actual on-site study could be one of the ways to formulate and evaluate these and other impacts and generate estimated losses in part, for example, the studies by Rowe, Hopkins and Congdon (2002) and Ruhl et al. (2012) have assessed site-specific damages using different risk factors. However, this type of study would result in an isolated statement of impacts for a given region, where data specificity would reduce the generalizability (Box 1). Another way could be to develop a framework solution that might be representative of each of these parameters such that it could serve as a library of impacts, reflecting the overall condition of ecological damages—for example, the standard risk assessment models developed by EPA (2002, 2010), which are based on the study of risk assessment of different elements of FA for human and ecological receptors, covering a wide array of FA deposition sites in the US.

Table A1 Dispersion of FA aspects in decreasing order of specificity
LevelPrevious level →Impact
Level 1Fly ash dumped in pond/mound/disposal
Level 2aLevel 1Surface-to-air dispersion (pathway 1)
Level 2bLevel 1Surface leaching (pathway 2)
Level 3aLevel 2aHuman respiratory issues due to excess FA exposure (#)
Level 3bLevel 2bGroundwater contamination
Level 4aLevel 3bAquatic/water body contamination
Level 4bLevel 3bWelfare costs due to consumption of contaminated water (#)
Level 5Level 4aProblems to fishes, etc.
Level 6Level 5Human consumption of infected fishes (#)
Higher human/ecological impacts due to further degradability

Note: (#) = endpoints.

Once the concentration of an element increases in the ambient environment so that it breaches the ecological response barrier (of countering it), it would increase the risk level, which can be identified through a composite risk number. The composite risk number (corresponding to each element) is dependent on the underlying threat-assessment models that would need to consider multiple factors, such as the ecotoxicological profile of the element, area covered around the source site, geographical and hydrological profile of the area, and various other elements. The aim of this study is not to assess the verifiability or dependability of the model, which would be a study in itself, but to indicate that the comprehensiveness of risk numbers could be a generalized solution to externalities. Accordingly, the cost function Z can be reframed (from equation A.3) to represent the social and environmental costs of chosen policy option as:

1 X here represents risk assessment level which can differ from average, median, or percentile level, to the site-specific ones. The cost to averse for each level should match it at the same level of specificity.

$=\sum \sum \sum \sum {\text{R}}_{\text{iplz}}×{\text{S}}_{\text{iplz}}$

where

R= risk value for an element, e.g., risk of increased level of arsenic to produce carcinogenic or non-carcinogenic impacts in human receptors,

and S = social costs to abate the risks at the matching level, summed over ‘i’ elements, ‘p’ pathways, ‘l’ liners and ‘z’ ash type

The formula is recursive and could contain information across elements, pathways (e.g., surface-to-water, groundwater-to-drinking, etc.), liners (no liner, mud liners, polythene liners, etc.) and ash types. To be noted, the cost build-up can add elements like cost of avoidance, cost of abatement and/or restoration costs, and other methodologies (using economic as well as non-economic costing and valuation methods) to arrive at the total cost of any specific damage.

Part B: Replacement resource cost model (to explore opportunity cost of waste)

The opportunity cost of an economic decision reflects the cost of lost opportunity (α from equation A.3) in excess of what is being returned by the prevailing arrangement of resources and is an important parameter in decision-making that represents loss due to the prevailing arrangement of resources. Use of FA in industrial applications represents an opportunity to save the cost of resources that are otherwise being used and should be captured as part of policy choices by using a replacement resource model. For example, FA could be an active ingredient in Portland pozzolana cement (PPC), concrete mix, concrete, bricks, wood-substitute products, soil stabilization, road bases and embankments, land reclamation, and so on, and could save significant monetary and material resources in an economy (Asokan, Saxena and Asolekar 2005; TERI 2006) and can be added to the policy choice.

So, Z’ (equivalent cost of lost opportunity)

FA and Hidden Costs

The results from sample evaluation in different cost functions indicate that while industries have claimed ₹;150–200 per tonne of FA to be the average cost of its disposal (TERI 2006), an estimate of its externalities works out to be close to ₹;1,150 per tonne if considering just two externalities—that is, the cost of cleaning water contamination and average healthcare costs due to burning of coal—indicating that the minimum increase is five- or six-fold of the economic costs (at the present level of its industrial uptake). On the other hand, resource replacement model adds opportunity loss (at ₹;211 per tonne of FA) being incurred by not improving its uptake, even when FA remains (mostly) a free-of-cost resource to industries. These estimates can be improved further by bringing in other time-delayed environmental and social improvements as a part of the chain of events. As compared to that, risk-based modelling shows carcinogenic healthcare costs are around ₹;2,350 per tonne per year for arsenic contamination alone, assuming median healthcare costs of ₹;66 thousand at the 90th percentile for India (which is miniscule compared to the USD 90,000 per cancer patient per year in the US). If we consider exposure cost for a population of 100,000 alone, this would result in ₹;14,100 per annum in healthcare costs in fighting carcinogenic arsenic poisoning alone, which is being borne by the social infrastructure today.

With roughly 100 million tonnes of FA getting dumped per annum in ash banks in India and where 400,000 acres of land are already under ash bank, there is an opportunity for the policymakers to work towards policy initiatives to improve the industrial uptake of CCW and fund research efforts to build data banks on its utilization, epidemiological case studies, healthcare impediments, and scientific experiments covering the study of its lab- and site-specific behaviors. Savings could also add ₹;41.1 billion per annum of industrial expenditure, currently getting incurred in disposal activities and as part of opportunity losses (estimates vary, but its current industrial uptake is between 20 per cent and 50 per cent in India and elsewhere) (TERI 2006).

Decision-Tree Modeling and Traceability of Higher Order Impacts

In general, as we move away from first-order impacts, the traceability of second- and higher-order impacts gets diluted and replaced by generalized relations. This progressive generalization of higher-order impacts is time-delayed and limited by our knowledge of ecological complexities. The problem is compounded further due to spatio-temporal variations in the adsorption and dispersion rates of the aspects and their constituent elements, not to mention intra- and inter-generational impacts and the ability of the biosphere to adjust itself to counter the adversaries to maintain balance until a critical level is breached, also pointing to the limits of human cognition. Decision tree-based modelling offers a better view of the causal flow of events and how aspects move through different stage. Instead of using approximations or ignoring the higher-order impacts altogether, a decision tree offers the ability to replicate physical reality, and can be improved over time. By modelling the flow of aspects using a decision tree, the impact of specific policy choices could also be expanded to cover the probabilistic nature of physical realities. Also, in risk-based modelling, the assessment of human and ecological risk numbers would depend on the media concentrations, exposure pathways relevant to a particular medium (EPA 2010), and other factors such as bioaccumulation levels, dose sensitivity and biological reactions of the exposed entity (Rowe, Hopkins and Congdon 2002).

Here, the risk formulation by the EPA (2002, 2010) has been used as the basis for cost computations at a specific percentile level, only for a particular element—arsenic. For example, arsenic has been identified as one of the cancer-causing elements from FA that has a high risk value (EPA 2010) and arsenicosis or elevated As poisoning could be avoided by multiple methods (Pandey et al. 2011); accordingly, the social costs to avert the cancer risk due to arsenic poisoning has been matched to the corresponding risk value at the 90th percentile level. Still, there could be region-specific variations as part of the collected data points.

As mentioned earlier, there is insufficient information available on the standardized abatement costs, cost of avoidance and cost of ecological losses due to these aspects, and accordingly, average values were considered in evaluating the pay-offs along with the probabilities that are yet to be standardized for any region and might not match the risk profiles. This does not take away the fact that lack of data on healthcare costs in the public domain is an issue in ascertaining the preventive or actual treatment costs of malignant diseases like arsenicosis, even where epidemiological studies are sufficient in number—a case in point being arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh and West Bengal (in India), where cost issues have been addressed inadequately (Irfan 2012; Mahmood and Halder 2011; Meij 2003; Smith, Lingas and Rahman 2000; WHO 2000). This indicates the necessity of site-specific studies that would develop representational data to capture parameters and develop quintile-based profiles of risks and costs.

Last but not least, validation of the model for predictability of costs is not the intent of this exploratory research. Rather, it is to open up discussions on a generalizable framework that would use a scientific approach to adapt uncertainties and probabilistic behaviours of aspects and their impacts. The complexity of ecological problems would soon outgrow the capabilities of the existing methods and this would impact the cost of human decisions. A fusion of tools from different disciplines could be one of the ways to improve decision-making further. MCA, TCA and other methods are expected to generate better insights into complex ecological problems and this research was an exploration in that direction.

## References

, , , , , 2018. ‘Obsidian Deposits from North-western Iran and First Analytical Results: Implications for Prehistoric Production and Trade.’ Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry 18(2): 107118.
, and . 2011. ‘Sustainability in Businesses, Corporate Social Responsibility, and Accounting Standards: An Empirical Study.’ International Journal of Accounting & Information Management 19(3): 304324. https://doi.org/10.1108/18347641111169287.
, and 1986. ‘Even Dwarfs Started Small: Liabilities of Age and Size and their Strategic Implications.’ Research in Organizational Behavior, 8, 165198.
, , , and . 2013. ‘Plurality or Convergence in Sustainability Reporting Standards?’ The AMFITEATRU ECONOMIC journal 15(special 7): 729742. Bucharest: Bucharest University of Economic Studies.
. 2009. ‘Socially Sustainable Economic De-growth.’ Development and Change 40(6): 10991119. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7660.2009.01618.x.
1968. ‘Financial Ratios, Discriminant Analysis and the Prediction of Corporate Bankruptcy.’ The Journal of Finance 23(4): 589609. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6261.1968.tb00843.x.
, , , , , and . 2013. ‘Green Supply Chain Management and Business Process Management: A Union for Sustainable Process in a Furniture Factory.’ Asian Journal of Business & Management Sciences 4(2): 113. http://www.ajbms.org/articlepdf/1-ajbms02-2015-04-02-4208.pdf.
. 2004. ‘Valuing External Costs—from Theory to Practice: Implications for Full Cost Environmental Accounting.’ European Accounting Review 13(3): 443464. https://doi.org/10.1080/0963818042000216802.
, and 2010. ‘On International Equity Weights and National Decision Making on Climate Change.’ Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 60(1): 1420. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeem.2010.04.002.
, and . 2008. ‘Governance and Sustainability: An Investigation into the Relationship between Corporate Governance and Corporate Sustainability.’ Management Decision 46(3): 433448. https://doi.org/10.1108/00251740810863870.
, , , , , , , , , , , , , and . 2011. ‘Effect of Coal Fly Ash on Agricultural Corps: Showcase Project on Use of Fly Ash in Agriculture in and around Thermal Power Station Areas of National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd., India.’ Paper presented at the World of Coal Ash Conference, 9–12 May 2011, Denver, Colorado, USA.
, , and 2005. ‘Coal Combustion Residues—Environmental Implications and Recycling Potentials.’ Resources, Conservation and Recycling 43(3): 239262. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2004.06.003.
, , and . 2012. ‘Recent Advances in the Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity.’ Oxford Review of Economic Policy 28(1): 2247. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxrep/grs007.
. 2008. ‘Sustainability, the Capital Approach and the Built Environment.’ Building Research & Information 36(3): 241247. https://doi.org/10.1080/09613210801900734.
, and 1984. ‘Small Business Vulnerability, Ethnic Enclaves, and Ethnic Enterprise.’ In Ethnic Communities in Business: Strategies for Economic Survival, edited by , and , 3954. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.
2007. ‘True Cost Accounting for a Post-Autistic Economy.’ Post-Autistic Economic Review 41: 2328. https://rppe.files.wordpress.com/2007/03/paer-issue-no-41.pdf.
1984. ‘Etymological Observations on Some Accounting Terms.’ The Accounting Historians Journal 11(2): 101109. https://doi.org/10.2308/0148-4184.11.2.101.
, , and . 2010. ‘Issues in the Relationship between Theory and Practice in Management Accounting.’ Management Accounting Research 21(2): 7982. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mar.2010.02.006.
, and . 1968. ‘An Empirical Evaluation of Accounting Income Numbers.’ Journal of Accounting Research 6(2): 159178. https://doi.org/10.2307/2490232.
2013. ‘Wealth Accounting, Ecological Capital and Ecosystem Services.’ Environment and Development Economics 18(2): 133161. Https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355770X12000551.
. 2010. ‘Preference Function Modelling: The Mathematical Foundations of Decision Theory.’ In Trends in Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis, edited by , , and , 5786. New York: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-5904-1.
, and . 1989. ‘An Analysis of Small Business Size and Rate of Discontinuance. Journal of Small Business Management, 27(4): 18.
, and . 2015. ‘Innovation: A Critical Assessment of the Concept and Scope of Literature.’ In The Handbook of Service Innovation, edited by , , , and , 525. London: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-6590-3.
1966. ‘Financial Ratios as Predictors of Failure.’ Journal of Accounting Research 4: 71111. https://doi.org/10.2307/2490171.
, , and . 2005. ‘Have Financial Statements Become Less Informative? Evidence from the Ability of Financial Ratios to Predict Bankruptcy.’ Review of Accounting Studies 10(1): 93122. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11142-004-6341–9.
, and . 2008. ‘Carbon Trading: Accounting and Reporting Issues.’ European Accounting Review 17(4): 697717. https://doi.org/10.1080/09638180802489162.
, , and . 2007. ‘Accounting Technologies and Sustainability Assessment Models.’ Ecological Economics 61(2-3): 224236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2006.10.021.
, , , and 2001. Full Cost Accounting: An Agenda for Action. London, UK: Certified Accountants Educational Trust.
, , and . 2017. ‘In Pursuit of a “Single Source of Truth”: From Threatened Legitimacy to Integrated Reporting.’ Journal of Busness Ethics 141(1): 191205. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551–014-2423-1.
, and 2002. Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis: An Integrated Approach. Massachusetts: Kluwer Academic Publishers. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-1495-4.
, and . 2011. ‘An Epistemic Analysis of (Un) Sustainable Business.’ Journal of Business Ethics 103(2): 239253. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-011-0863-4.
. 1998. ‘Environmentalism and Economic Freedom: The Case for Private Property Rights.’ Journal of Business Ethics 17(16): 18871899.
, and 2007. ‘Measuring the Immeasurable—A Survey of Sustainability Indices.’ Ecological Economics 63(1): 18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2007.03.008.
, and . 1995. ‘Industrial Organization and Organizational Ecology: The Potentials for Cross-fertilization.’ Organization Studies 16(2): 265298. https://doi.org/10.1177/017084069501600204.
, and . 1993. ‘Public Waste and Private Property: An Enquiry into the Economics of Solid Waste in Calcutta.’ Public Administration and Development 13(1): 115. https://doi.org/10.1002/pad.4230130102.
, and . 2008. Eco-Standards, Product Labelling and Green Consumerism. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
, and . 2013. ‘Environmental Management and Regulation: Pitfalls of Environmental Accounting?’ Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal 24(4): 538554. https://doi.org/10.1108/MEQ-04-2012-0027.
, and . 2007. ‘Issues in Corporate Social and Environmental Reporting Research: An Overview.’ Issues in Social and Environmental Accounting 1(1): 7290. https://doi.org/10.22164/isea.v1i1.9.
, , and . 2007. ‘Cradle-to-Cradle Design: Creating Healthy Emissions as a Strategy for Eco-effective Product and System Design.’ Journal of Cleaner Production 15(13-14): 13371348. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2006.08.003.
, and 2014. ‘Rhetoric and Argument in Social and Environmental Reporting: The Dirty Laundry Case.’ Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal 27(4): 602633. https://doi.org/10.1108/AAAJ-04-2013-1333.
, and . 2011. ‘What's in a Name? Market-based Instruments for Biodiversity.’ In Health and Environmental Reports 8: 144.
, and . 2006. ‘Approaches and Perspectives in Social and Environmental Accounting: An Overview of the Conceptual Landscape.’ Business Strategy and the Environment 15(2): 103117. https://doi.org/10.1002/bse.452.
, and . 2014. ‘Integrated Reporting: On the Need for Broadening Out and Opening Up.’ Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal 27(7): 11201156. https://doi.org/10.1108/AAAJ-04-2013-1313.
, and . 2004. ‘Energy Quality, Emergy, and Transformity: H. T. Odum's Contributions to Quantifying and Understanding Systems.’ Ecological Modelling 178(1-2): 201213.
, , and . 1992. ‘Survival Chances of Newly Founded Business Organizations.’ American Sociological Review 57(2): 227242. https://doi.org/10.2307/2096207.
, , and 2009. ‘Environmental Management Accounting for Cleaner Production: The Case of a Philippine Rice Mill.’ Journal of Cleaner Production 17(4): 431439. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2008.07.005.
, , and . 2011. ‘Carbon Management Accounting: Explaining Practice in Leading German Companies.’ Australian Accounting Review 21(1): 8098. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1835-2561.2010.00121.x.
2007. ‘Suitability Analysis of Selective Solar Absorber Surfaces Based on a Total Cost Accounting Approach.’ Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 91(14): 13381349. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2007.05.011.
2009. ‘Selecting Material for the Exterior Panel of a Private Car Back Door by Adopting a Total Cost Accounting Approach.’ Materials and Design 30(3): 826832. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2008.05.031.
, , , , , , , , , , , , , and . 2007. ‘The Stern Review: A Dual Critique.’ World Economics 7(4): 165232.
, and . 2015. ‘Participatory Budgeting at a Community Level in Porto Alegre: A Bourdieusian Interpretation.’ Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal 28(5): 739772. https://doi.org/10.1108/AAAJ-03-2013-1245.
Central Electricity Authority. 2011. CO2 Baseline Database for the Indian Power Sector: User Guide, version 6.0. Retrieved from http://www.cea.nic.in/reports/planning/cdm_co2/user_guide_ver6.pdf (last accessed 15 January 2017).
. 2003. ‘Waste-handlers and Recycling in Urban India: Policy, Perception and the Law.’ Social Change 33(2-3): 4150. https://doi.org/10.1177/004908570303300304.
1937. ‘The Nature of the Firm.’ Economica 4(16): 386405. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0335.1937.tb00002.x.
. 2009. ‘The Evolution of a Modern Business from Its Assets and Liabilities Statement to Its Ethical Environmental Account.’ Journal of Management Research 9(2): 100120.
, and 2004. ‘Performance Reporting: A Comparative Study of British and Irish Charities.’ The British Accounting Review 36(2): 127154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bar.2003.10.004.
1968. ‘A Pragmatic Approach to Accounting Theory.’ The Accounting Review 43(1): 94100.
, and . 2007. ‘Total Quality Environmental Management and Total Cost Assessment: An Exploratory Study.’ International Journal of Production Economics 105(2): 560579. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2006.04.021.
, and 1963. A Behavioral Theory of the Firm. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Academy for Entrepreneurial Leadership Historical Research Reference in Entrepreneurship.
. 2012. ‘Achievements and Gaps in Indicators for Sustainability.’ Ecological Indicators 17(June): 1419. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2011.04.032.
1979. ‘The Problem of Externality.’ The Journal of Law & Economics 22(1): 141162. https://doi.org/10.1086/466936.
2005. ‘Economics in a Full World.’ Scientific American, September 2005. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/economics-in-a-full-world.
, , , , and . 2010. ‘The Externalities in Social Environmental Accounting.’ International Journal of Accounting & Information Management 18(1): 1930. https://doi.org/10.1108/18347641011023252.
, and 2011. ‘Erratum to: Beyond Acclamations and Excuses: Environmental Performance, Voluntary Environmental Disclosure and the Role of Visibility.’ Journal of Business Ethics 99(3): 383397. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-010-0659-y.
2015. ‘Integrated Waste Management Framework: A Business Case from Hospitality Industry.’ International Journal of Business Excellence 8(5): 566583. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJBEX.2015.071278.
2016. ‘Implementing Environmental Management Accounting (EMA): A Case Study from India.’ In Corporations and Sustainability: The South Asian Perspective, edited by , 3454. London: Routledge.
, and 2014. ‘Exploring Full Cost Accounting Approach to Evaluate Cost of MSW Services in India.’ Resources, Conservation and Recycling 83: 8795. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2013.12.007.
. 2014. ‘Expanding Environmental Management Accounting: An Experimental Construct to Integrate Material Wastes and Emission Flows.’ International Journal of Business Information Systems 16(2): 119133. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJBIS.2014.062834.
, , and 2011. ‘Estimating the Climate and Air Quality Benefits of Aviation Fuel and Emissions Reductions.’ Atmospheric Environment 45(16): 27502759. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.02.025.
, and . 2005. ‘A Perspective on the Environment's Balance Sheet.’ The Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge 7(2): 1622.
, and 2017. ‘The Legitimacy of the International Integrated Reporting Council.’ Journal of Accounting and Management Information Systems 16(1): 3058. https://doi.org/10.24818/jamis.2017.01002.
2016. ‘Significance Testing: We Can Do Better.’ Abacus 52(2): 319342. https://doi.org/10.1111/abac.12078.
, and . 1991. ‘The Development of Industrial Costs and Management Accounting before 1850: A Survey of the Evidence.’ Business History 33(1): 3557. https://doi.org/10.1080/00076799100000003.
2005. ‘Eco-efficiency: Philosophy, Theory, and Tools.’ Journal of Industrial Ecology 9(4): 68.
1989. ‘Building Theories from Case Study Research.’ Academy of Management Review 14(4): 532550. https://doi.org/10.2307/258557.
EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 1997. Full Cost Accounting for Municipal Soild Waste Management: A Handbook. Washington, DC: Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). https://permanent.access.gpo.gov/lps43186/fca-hanb.pdf
EPA. 2002. ‘Constituent Screening for Coal Combustion Wastes.’ Draft report, Research Triangle Institute for Office of Solid Waste Washington, DC.
EPA. 2010. ‘Human and Ecological Risk Assessment of Coal Combustion Wastes.’ Draft report, EPA.
, , , , , , , , , , , and . 2011. ‘Full Cost Accounting for the Life Cycle of Coal.’ In Ecological Economics Reviwes, edited by , , and , Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1219(1): 7398. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05890.x.
, and 2006. Green to Gold: How Smart Companies Use Environmental Strategy to Innovate, Create Value, and Build Competitive Advantage. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
, , and . 2010. ‘Recent Developments in Social and Environmental Accounting Research.’ Social Responsibility Journal 6(2): 286305. https://doi.org/10.1108/17471111011051775.
, and . 2010. ‘Environmental Accounting and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS).’ International Journal of Business and Management 5(10): 105112. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v5n10p105.
. 1930. ‘The Economics of Accountancy.’ The American Economic Review 20(4): 603618.
(2007). ‘Beyond Male and Female: Mystics Forged Paths that Transcend Gender.’ Science & Spirit, 18(4), 4244.
, and 2009. Problem Structuring for Multicriteria Decision Analysis Interventions. London, UK: London School of Economics.
, , , , , , , , , and 2012. ‘Implications of Different Species Concepts for Conserving Biodiversity.’ Biological Conservation 153: 2531. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2012.04.034.
. 2012. ‘“Fleshing Out” an Engagement with a Social Accounting Technology.’ Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal 25(3): 508534. https://doi.org/10.1108/09513571211209626.
, and . 2013. ‘The Ethical Foundations for CSR.’ In Corporate Social Responsibility: Challenges, Opportunities and Strategies for 21st-Century Leaders, edited by , and , 1733. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-40975-2_2.
. 1984. Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach. Boston: Pitman
1970. ‘The Social Responsibility of a Business is to Increase its Profits.’ The New York Times magazine, 13 September 1970.
, and 1994. ‘The Worth of a Songbird: Ecological Economics as a Post-normal Science.’ Ecological Economics, 10(3): 197207. https://doi.org/10.1016/0921-8009(94)90108-2.
, and . 2002. ‘Strategic Environmental Management Accounting: An Exploratory Study of Current Corporate Practice and Strategic Intent.’ Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management 4(2): 123150. https://doi.org/10.1142/S1464333202000954.
. 2006. ‘Environmental Costs at a Canadian Paper Mill: A Case Study of Environmental Management Accounting (EMA).’ Journal of Cleaner Production 14(14): 12371251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2005.08.010.
, , and 2006. ‘A Conceptual Approach to the Use of Cost Benefit and Multi Criteria Analysis in Natural Hazard Management.’ Natural Hazards & Earth System Sciences 6(2): 293302. https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-6-293-2006.
, , , . 2009. ‘Indirect Assessment of Economic Damages from the Prestige Oil Spill: Consequences for Liability and Risk Prevention.’ Disasters 33(1): 95109. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0361-3666.2008.01064.x.
, and 2005. ‘Market-based Approaches to Environmental Regulation.’ Foundations and Trends in Microeconomics 1(4): 201326. https://doi.org/10.1561/0700000013.
, , , and . 2009. ‘State and Development of Life-cycle Cost Analysis Models in Strategic Cost Management.’ Production and Inventory Management Journal 45(1): 6679.
Global Reporting Initiative (GRI). 2006. Indicator Protocol Set—Environment. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Global Reporting Initiative. Retrieved from https://www.globalreporting.org/standards/gri-standards-download-center/
, and . 2004. ‘The Life Cycle Costing (LCC) Approach: A Conceptual Discussion of its Usefulness for Environmental Decision-making.’ Building and Environment 39(5): 571580. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2003.10.008.
, and . 2016. The Goal: A Process of Ongoing Improvement. London, UK: Routledge.
, and . 2011. ‘Economic Valuation and the Commodification of Ecosystem Services.’ Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment 35(5): 613628. https://doi.org/10.1177/0309133311421708.
, , , and . 2010. ‘What Every Conservation Biologist Should Know about Economic Theory.’ Conservation Biology 24(6): 14401447. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01563.x.
, and 2003. Industrial Ecology (
2nd edn
). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
, and . 2002. ‘Moderate Impact of ERPS on Management Accounting: A Lag or Permanent Outcome?’ Management Accounting Research 13(3): 299321. https://doi.org/10.1006/mare.2002.0189.
2008. ‘Social and Environmental Accounting and Reporting: From Ridicule to Revolution? From Hope to Hubris?—A Personal Review of the Field.’ Issues in Social and Environmental Accounting 2(1): 318. https://doi.org/10.22164/isea.v2i1.22.
, and . 2001. Accounting for the Environment (
2nd ed.
). London: SAGE Publications.
, and . 2012. ‘It Was 20 Years Ago Today: Sgt Pepper.’ Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal: Green Accounting and the Blue Meanies 25(2): 228255. https://doi.org/10.1108/09513571211198755.
. 2006. ‘Social, Environmental and Sustainability Reporting and Organisational Value Creation: Whose Value? Whose Creation?’ Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal 19(6): 793819. https://doi.org/10.1108/09513570610709872
, , and 2012. ‘Forestry Externalities in the Environmental Management Accounting System.’ Problems of Management in the 21st Century 5(1): 3145. http://oaji.net/articles/2014/450-1391966200.pdf.
, and . 2016. ‘Exploring the Implications of Integrated Reporting on Organisational Reporting Practice: Evidence from Highly Regarded Integrated Reporters.’ Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management 13(4): 415444. https://doi.org/10.1108/QRAM-07-2015-0065.
. 2015. ‘Under the Dome: The Smog Film Taking China by Storm.’ BBC News, 2 March 2015. China Blog. https://www.bbc.com/news/blogs-china-blog-31689232.
, and . 1984. ‘Structural Inertia and Organizational Change.’ American Sociological Review 49(2): 149164. https://doi.org/10.2307/2095567.
. 2013. ‘Accounting as a Human Right: The Case of Water Information.’ Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal 26(2): 267311. https://doi.org/10.1108/09513571311303738.
. 2005. ‘A Full Cost Environmental Accounting Experiment.’ Accounting, Organizations and Society 30(6): 519536. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aos.2005.01.001.
, , and . 1999. ‘The Standardization of Environmental Performance Indicators and their Relationship to Corporate Environmental Reporting: What Can We Learn from the UK Water Industry?’ Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management 1(3): 277296. https://doi.org/10.1142/S1464333299000235.
2009. ‘The Economic Crisis and Accounting: Implications for the Research Community.’ Accounting, Organizations and Society 34(6-7): 797802. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aos.2009.07.004.
2008. ‘Changing Pressures on the Research Process: On Trying to Research in an Age when Curiosity is not Enough.’ European Accounting Review 17(1): 8796. https://doi.org/10.1080/09638180701819998.
2007. ‘Whither Accounting Research?’ The Accounting Review 82(5): 13651374. https://doi.org/10.2308/accr.2007.82.5.1365.
, , , , and 2009. Cost Accounting: A Managerial Emphasis (
13th edn
). New Delhi: Pearson Education.
2004. ‘Management Accounting: Some Comments.’ Journal of Management Accounting Research 16(1): 207211. https://doi.org/10.2308/jmar.2004.16.1.207.
, and 2000. ‘Knowing More as Knowing Less? Alternative Histories of Cost and Management Accounting in the U.S. and the U.K.’ Accounting Historians Journal 27(1): 91149. http://umiss.lib.olemiss.edu:82/record=b1032496.
, and . 2010. ‘Drivers of Environmental Disclosure and Stakeholder Expectation: Evidence from Taiwan.’ Journal of Business Ethics 96(3): 435451. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-010-0476-3.
, , , , and . 2009. ‘The Role of Input–Output Analysis for Screening of Carbon Footprints.’ Economic Systems Research 21(3): 217242. https://doi.org/10.1080/09535310903541348.
, and . 2005. ‘Environmental Management Accounting in the Framework of EMAS II in the Czech Republic.’ In Implementing Environmental Management Accounting: Status and Challenges— Eco-Efficiency in Industry and Science, vol. 18, edited by , , , and , 279295. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-3373-7_14.
IATA. 2008. Aviation Carbon Offset Programmes—IATA Guidelines and Toolkit. Retrieved from https://www.iata.org/
(2009). ‘Environmental Performance versus Economic Performance.’ International Journal of Business Research 9(5): 125131.
. 1987. ‘Three Postulates of Momentum Accounting.’ Accounting Horizons 1(1): 2534.
International Federation of Accountants (IFAC). 2005. International Guidance Document: Environmental Management Accounting. New York, US: International
International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) Foundation. 2018. ‘Why Global Accounting Standards?’ https://www.ifrs.org/use-around-the-world/why-global-accounting-standards.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO). 2011. ISO 14051:2011: ‘Environmental Management—Material Flow Cost Accounting—General Framework.’ Published September 2011; last confirmed 2018. https://www.iso.org/standard/50986.html.
. 2012. ‘Arsenic Contamination in Water: A Conceptual Framework of Policy Options.’ Working paper 64/2012, Madras School of Economics Chennai.
. 2011. ‘Debris Mitigation Certification and the Commercial Space Industry: A New Weapon in the Fight against Space Pollution.’ Media Law & Policy 20(1): 117141.
2015. ‘Accounting Majors’ Perceptions of the Advantages and Disadvantages of Sustainability and Integrated Reporting.’ Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues 18(2): 107123.
2006. ‘How to Perform an Environmental Management Cost Assessment in One Day.’ Journal of Cleaner Production 14(14): 11941213. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2005.08.005.
, and . 2006. ‘Pilot Project on Sustainability Management Accounting with the Styrian Automobile Cluster.’ Journal of Cleaner Production 14: 12141227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2005.08.007.
, and . 2005. ‘Environmental Management Accounting Pilot Projects in Costa Rica.’ In Implementing Environmental Management Accounting: Status and Challenges, edited by , , , and , 343364. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-3373-7_17.
, , and . 2010. ‘Environmental Management Accounting (EMA) Case Studies in Honduras—An Integrated UNIDO Project.’ Issues in Social and Environmental Accounting 4(2): 89103. https://doi.org/10.22164/isea.v4i2.48.
. 2003. ‘The Use of Environmental Management Accounting (EMA) for Identifying Environmental Costs.’ Journal of Cleaner Production 11(6): 667676. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0959-6526(02)00107-5.
, and 1987. ‘The Rise and Fall of Management Accounting [2]’. Strategic Finance, 68(7): 22.
, , and . 2003. ‘The Usefulness of Aggregate Indicators in Policy Making and Evaluation: A Discussion with Application to Eco-Efficiency Indicators in New Zealand.’ Working/technical paper. https://openresearch-repository.anu.edu.au/handle/1885/41033.
, and . 2013. ‘Problematising Accounting for Biodiversity.’ Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal 26(5): 668687. https://doi.org/10.1108/AAAJ-03-2013-1255.
, and . 1999. ‘Predicting Corporate Financial Distress: A Time-Series CUSUM Methodology.’ Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting 13(4): 323345. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008326706404.
, , and . 2011. ‘Analysis of Building Environment Assessment Frameworks and their Implications for Sustainability Indicators.’ Sustainability Sciences 6(2): 233246. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11625-011-0131-7.
, , and . 2008. ‘Straddling between Paradigms: A Naturalistic Philosophical Case Study on Interpretive Research in Management Accounting.’ Accounting, Organizations and Society 33(2-3): 267291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aos.2006.12.003.
, , , , and . 2013. ‘Integrated Fuzzy Multi Criteria Decision Making Method and Multi-Objective Programming Approach for Supplier Selection and Order Allocation in a Green Supply Chain.’ Journal of Cleaner Production 47: 355367. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.02.010.
, and 2009. Advanced Management Accounting (
13th edition
). New Delhi, India: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
1999. ‘Life Cycle Assessment, Evaluation Method for Sustainable Development.’ JSAE (Journal of Society of Automotive Engineers) Review 20 (3): 387393. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0389-4304(99)00013-2.
, and . 2001. ‘Does it Really Pay to be Green? An Empirical Study of Firm Environmental and Financial Performance.’ Journal of Industrial Ecology 5(1): 105116. https://doi.org/10.1162/108819801753358526.
, , and . 2009. ‘Material Flow Cost Accounting at Japanese Medium Size Company.’ Collected Papers of CSEAR 2009—Christchurch: 8th Australasian Conference on Social and Environment Accounting Research, edited by , , , and , 116. Christchurch, New Zealand: CSEAR 2009. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/267401663.
2007. The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism. New York, NY, US: Metropolitan Books/Henry Holt and Company.
, and . 2004. ‘Material Flow Cost Accounting in Japan: A New Trend of Environmental Management Accounting Practices.’ Paper presented at the Fourth Asia Pacific Interdisciplinary Research in Accounting Conference, 4–6 July 2004, Singapore. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/267401663_MATERIAL_FLOW_COST_ACCOUNTING_INJAPAN_A_NEW_TREND_OF_ENVIRONMENTAL_MANAGEMENT_ACCOUNTING_PRACTICES.
, and . 2005. ‘Environmental Management Accounting Practices in Japan.’ In Implementing Environmental Management Accounting: Status and Challenges, edited by , , , and , 321342. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-3373-7_16.
, and . 2010. ‘Conflicts and Solutions between Material Flow Cost Accounting and Conventional Management Thinking.’ Paper presented at the 6th Asia-Pacific Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Accounting Research (APIRA) Conference, 12–13 July, University of Sydney. http://apira2010.econ.usyd.edu.au/conference_proceedings/APIRA-2010-150-Kokubu-Material-flow-cost-accounting.pdf.
, . 2008. ‘Corporate Responses in an Emerging Climate Regime: The Institutionalization and Commensuration of Carbon Disclosure.’ European Accounting Review 17(4): 719745. https://doi.org/10.1080/09638180802489121.
, and . 2008. ‘Life Cycle Costing: A Review of Published Case Studies.’ Managerial Auditing Journal 23(3): 240261. https://doi.org/10.1108/02686900810857703.
, , and . 2015. ‘The Intellectual Foundations of Business Failure—A Co-Citation Analysis.’ Journal of International Business and Economics 15(2): 1338. http://dx.doi.org/10.18374/JIBE-15-2.2.
1996. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (
3rd edn
). Chicago, US: University of Chicago Press.
, and 2003. ‘Born-International SMEs: BI-Level Impacts of Resources and Intentions.’ Small Business Economics 20(1): 2547. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1020292320170.
2007. ‘Asset Specificity and Vertical Integration.’ Scandinavian Journal of Economics 109(3): 551572.
, and . 2009. ‘Accounting and the Words to Tell It: An Historical Perspective.’ Accounting, Business & Financial History 19(2): 149166. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585200902969260.
, , and 2005. ‘Assessing the Sustainability Performances of Industries.’ Journal of Cleaner Production 13(4): 373385. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2003.10.007.
, and . 1991. ‘Understanding the Business Failure Rate.’ Contemporary Economic Policy 9(4): 93105. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1465-7287.1991.tb00353.x.
. 2008. ‘Strategic Management Accounting: How Far Have We Come in 25 Years?’ Accounting, Auditing & Accountability 21(2): 204228. https://doi.org/10.1108/09513570810854400.
, , , , and . 2013. ‘Use of Ecosystem Services Economic Valuation for Decision Making: Questioning a Literature Blindspot.’ Journal of Environmental Management 119: 208219. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.01.008.
, , and 2008. ‘Corporate Decision-Making in Furniture Industry: Weight of EMA and a Sustainability Balanced Scorecard.’ Environmental Research, Engineering and Management 1(43): 6979. http://www.academia.edu/1023370/Corporate_Decision-Making_in_Furniture_Industry_Weight_of_EMA_and_a_Sustainability_Balanced_Scorecard.
2012. ‘Carbon Accounting for Supply Chain Management in the Automobile Industry.’ Journal of Cleaner Production 36: 8393. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.02.023.
. 2011. ‘Motivations, Barriers, and Incentives for Adopting Environmental Management (Cost) Accounting and Related Guidelines: A Study of the Republic of Korea.’ Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management 18(1): 3949. https://doi.org/10.1002/csr.239.
. 2011. ‘Space Debris Removal for a Sustainable Space Environment.’ ESPI Perspectives 52: Vienna, Austria: European Space Policy Institute, ESPI. https://espi.or.at/publications/voices-from-the-space-community/publications-of-the-former-espi-perspective-series/send/10-publications-of-the-former-espi-perspective-series/203-space-debris-removal-for-a-sustainable-space-environment.
, and World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD). 2000a. Eco-efficiency: Creating More Value with Less Impact. Geneva, Switzerland: WBCSD.
. 2013. ‘The Economics of Student Loan Borrowing and Repayment.’ Business Review 2013(3): 110. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.399.635&rep=rep1&type=pdf.
, and . 2007. ‘Learning by Costing: Sharpening Cost Image through Life Cycle Costing?’ International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management 56(8): 651672. https://doi.org/10.1108/17410400710832985.
2011. ‘Engineering and Technology Challenges for Active Debris Removal.’ EUCASS Proceedings Series 4: 735748. Saint Petersburg, Russia. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/eucass/201304735.
, , and . 2007. ‘Environmental Disclosures and Compulsory Accounting Standards: The Case of Spanish Annual Reports.’ Business Strategy and the Environment 16(1): 5063. https://doi.org/10.1002/bse.466.
2003. ‘Accountants’ Responses to the Environmental Agenda in a Developing Nation: An Initial and Exploratory Study on Fiji.’ Critical Perspectives on Accounting 14(7): 715737. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1045-2354(02)00190-9.
. 1969. Award ceremony speech for the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, 1969, given to Ragnar Frisch and Jan Tinbergen. https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/economic-sciences/1969/ceremony-speech/.
, , , and 2009. ‘Social and Environmental Determinants of Risk and Uncertainties Reporting.’ Issues in Social and Environmental Accounting 3(2): 100116. 10.22164/isea.v3i2.39.
1995. ‘A Nonfinancial Business Success versus Failure Prediction Model for Young Firms.’ Journal of Small Business Management 33(1): 820. https://www.questia.com/library/journal/1G1-16787401/a-nonfinancial-business-success-versus-failure-prediction.
, and . 2001. ‘What's Wrong with the Diffusion of Innovation Theory?’ In Diffusing Software Product and Process Innovations, edited by , and , IFIP—The International Federation for Information Processing book series 59: 173190. Conference proceedings, TDIT 2001, April 7–10, Banff, Canada. Boston, MA: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-35404-0_11.
, , and 2011. ‘Carbon Credit Storage: A Study of How to Measure and Account Posting.’ Review of Business Research 11(1): 126133. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279752559_CARBON_CREDIT_STORAGE_A_STUDY_OF_HOW_TO_MEASURE_AND_ACCOUNT_POSTING.
, and . 2008. Solid Waste Management in Indian Cities: Status and Emerging Practices. New Delhi, India: Concept Publishing Company.
, , and . 2011. ‘The Socioeconomic Impact of Arsenic Poisoning in Bangladesh.’ Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences 3(3): 6573. https://academic-journals.org/journal/JTEHS/article-abstract/1AEF32A1062.
, and . 2008. ‘Corporate Environmental Disclosures on the Internet: An Empirical Analysis of Indian Companies.’ Issues in Social and Environmental Accounting 2(2): 211232. https://doi.org/10.22164/isea.v2i2.33.
, and . 2010. ‘ECOTEL Version 2.0— Reaching Out.’ 12 April 2010, hvs.com. http://www.hvs.com/article/4492/ecotelversion20reachingout.
. 1971. ‘The Market Value Method According to Sterling: A Review Article.’ Abacus 7(2): 176193. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6281.1971.tb00405.x.
2008. ‘Strengths and Weaknesses of Common Sustainability Indices for Multidimensional Systems.’ Environment International 34(2): 277291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2007.09.004.
. 2001. Silenced Rivers: The Ecology and Politics of Large Dams. New York: Zed Books.
, . 1999. ‘Falling Forward: Real Options Reasoning and Entrepreneurial Failure.’ Academy of Management Review 24(1): 1330. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1999.1580438.
. 1993. Regarding Nature: Industrialism and Deep Ecology. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
. 2003. Status Report on the Health Issues Associated with Pulverised Fuel Ash and Fly Dust. Arnhem, The Netherlands: KEMA Power Generation & Sustainables.
. 2014. Cash Crop to Cash Cow: The History of Tobacco and Smoking in America. Broomall, US: Mason Crest.
1993. ‘An Analysis of the Development of Accounting Knowledge: A Pragmatic Approach.’ Accounting, Organizations and Society 18(2): 163185. https://doi.org/10.1016/0361-3682(93)90032-2.
, and . 2012. ‘The Corporation is Ailing Social Technology: Creating a “Fit for Purpose” Design for Sustainability.’ Journal of Business Ethics 111(2): 195210. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-012-1201-1.
. 1963. ‘Behavioral Study of Obedience.’ Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 67(4): 371378. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0040525.
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being. Washington DC, US: Island Press.
Ministry of the Environment (MOE) Japan. 2005. Environmental Accounting Guidelines. MOE Japan. https://www.env.go.jp/en/policy/ssee/eag05.pdf.
, and . 2010. ‘Corporate Environmental and Financial Performance: A Multivariate Approach.’ Industrial Management & Data Systems 110(2): 193210. https://doi.org/10.1108/02635571011020304.
, and . 2004. ‘Economic Development Indicators as Determinants of Medal Winning at the Sydney Olympics: An Extreme Bounds Analysis.’ Australian Economic Papers 43(3): 288301. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8454.2004.00231.x.
, and 2012. ‘Review of Sustainability Indices and Indicators: Towards a New City Sustainability Index (CSI)’. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 32(1): 94106. doi: 10.1016/j.eiar.2011.06.001
2011. ‘Environmental management Accounting for Cleaner Production: Systematization of Material Flow Cost Accounting (MFCA) into Corporate Management System.’ Kansai University Review of Business & Commerce 13: 1739. https://kuir.jm.kansai-u.ac.jp/dspace/bit-stream/10112/4731/1/KU-1100-201103-02.pdf.
. 2009. ‘Evolution of Material Flow Cost Accounting (MFCA): Characteristics on Development of MFCA Companies and Significance and Relevance of MFCA.’ Kansai University Review of Business and Commerce 11: 2746. https://kuir.jm.kansai-u.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/10112/903/1/KU-1100-20090300-03.pdf.
National Research Council. 2010. Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/12794.
National Research Council. 2011. Limiting Future Collision Risk to Spacecraft: An Assessment of NASA's Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/13244.
. 2012. ‘IFRS and Environmental Accounting.’ Management Research Review 35(7): 577601. https://doi.org/10.1108/01409171211238811.
New South Wales (NSW) government. 2011. Energy Saver—Technology Report: Industrial Refrigeration and Chilled Glycol and Water Applications. Sydney, NSW, Australia: Office of Environment and Heritage, Department of Premier and Cabinet, State of NSW. https://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/business/110302-industrial-refrigeration-tech-rpt.pdf
. (1986). ‘Bahi-Khata: The Pre-Pacioli Indian Double-entry System of Bookkeeping.’ Abacus 22(2): 148161. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6281.1986.tb00132.x.
, and 2010. ‘Classifying Current Social Responsibility Accounting Methods for Assisting a Dialogue between Business and Society.’ Social Responsibility Journal 6(4): 562579. https://doi.org/10.1108/17471111011083446.
, and 2012b. ‘The Paradox of Strategic Management Accounting.’ Management Accounting Research 23(4): 229244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mar.2012.09.004.
, and . 2012a. ‘Editorial: Strategic Management Accounting.’ Management Accounting Research 23(4): 225228. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mar.2012.09.005.
2001. ‘Integrating Life Cycle Cost Analysis and LCA.’ International Journal of LCA 6(2): 118120. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02977849.
. 2003. ‘Environmental Information in Annual Reports: A Survey of Swedish Accountants.’ Managerial Auditing Journal 18(8): 682691. https://doi.org/10.1108/02686900310495935.
, and 2005. Fundamentals of Ecology (
5th edn
). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
. 2015. ‘Developing the Ecological Balance Sheet for Agricultural Sustainability.’ Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal 6(2): 110137.
, , and . 2012. ‘Defining and Classifying Ecosystem Services for Economic Valuation: The Case of Forest Water Services.’ Environmental Science & Policy 19–20: 115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2012.02.002.
, , and . 2009. ‘Implementing Material Flow Cost Accounting in a Pharmaceutical Company.’ In Environmental Management Accounting for Cleaner Production, edited by , , , and , Eco-Efficiency in Industry and Science 24, 395409. Dordrecht: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-8913-8_22.
1992. ‘The Duality of Technology: Rethinking the Concept of Technology in Organizations.’ Organization Science 3(3): 398427. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.3.3.398.
, and . 2007. ‘On the Effectiveness of Social and Environmental Accounting.’ Issues in Social and Environmental Accounting 1(2): 311333. https://doi.org/10.22164/isea.v1i2.20.
, , , , and . 2011. ‘DICER: A Tool for Analyzing Climate Policies.’ Energy Economics 33(supplement 1): S41S49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2011.07.025.
, , , , and 2011. ‘Arsenic Hazards in Coal Fly Ash and its Fate in Indian Scenario.’ Resources, Conservation and Recycling 55(9-10): 819835. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2011.04.005.
, and . 2010. ‘Impact of Fly Ash Incorporation in Soil Systems.’ Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 136(1-2): 1627. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2009.11.013.
, , , , and 2012. ‘Challenges in Implementing Environmental Management Accounting Tools: The Case of a Nonprofit Forestry Organization.’ Journal of Cleaner Production 29–30: 132143. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.02.004.
2011. ‘Twenty-One Years of Social and Environmental Accountability Research: A Coming of Age.’ Accounting Forum 35(1): 110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.accfor.2010.11.001.
, , and (2011). Editorial: ‘The relationship Relationship between academic Academic accounting Accounting research Research and professional Professional practice Practice.’ Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 24(1): 514. https://doi.org/10.1108/09513571111098036.
2005. ‘Social and Environmental Accountability Research: A View from the Commentary Box.’ Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal 18(6): 842860. https://doi.org/10.1108/09513570510627739.
1922. ‘Valuation of Inventories.’ Journal of Accountancy 34: 432450.
, and . 2006. ‘The System of Environmental and Economic Accounts—2003 and the Economic Relevance of Physical Flow Accounting.’ Journal of Industrial Ecology 10(1-2): 1942. https://doi.org/10.1162/108819806775545466.
, and 2012. ‘Towards a Conceptual Design for Environmental and Social Cost Identification and Measurement System.’ Journal of Financial Reporting & Accounting 10(1): 3454. https://doi.org/10.1108/19852511211237435.
, , , and . 2011. Back to the Future: State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2011. New York and Washington, DC: Ecosystem Marketplace & Bloomberg New Energy Finance. https://www.forest-trends.org/publications/back-to-the-future
, and 1978. The External Control of Organizations: A Resource Dependence Perspective. New York: Harper & Row.
. 2012. ‘Market-based Instruments for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: A Lexicon.’ Environmental Science & Policy 19–20: 5968. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2012.02.001.
, and 2004. ‘Re-defining Waste, the Concept of Ownership and the Role of Waste Management.’ Resources, Conservation & Recycling 40(2): 141153. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-3449(03)00057-0.
, and . 2008. ‘The Impact of Filling an Abandoned Open Cast Mine with Fly Ash on Ground Water Quality: A Case Study.’ Mine Water and the Environment 27(1): 4045. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10230-007-0021-5.
1977. Principles and Practice of Cost Accounting. Calcutta, India: Book Syndicate. https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.460233/page/n2.
2000. The Nazi War on Cancer. New Jersey, US: Princeton University Press.
. 2007. ‘Introduction: Developing-Country Firms as Agents of Environmental Sustainability?’ Studies in Comparative International Development 42(3-4): 191207. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12116-007-9011-7.
, , and 2012. ‘Análisis del fracaso empresarial por sectores: factores diferenciadores’ [Cross-industry Analysis of Business Failure: Differential Factors]. Pecvnia: Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Universidad de León: 5383.
, and 2000. ‘Health Costs of Automobile Pollution.’ Revue Française d'Allergologie et d'Immunologie Clinique 40(1): 5559. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0335-7457(00)80021-0.
, , and . 2010. ‘Managing Solid Waste in Small Hotels.’ Journal of Sustainable Tourism 18(2): 175190. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669580903373946.
, and . 2009. ‘Emissions from India's Transport Sector: Statewise Synthesis.’ Atmospheric Environment 43(34): 55105517. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.07.015.
, , , and . 2011. ‘Sustainability Indicator Development—Science or Political Negotiation?’ Ecological Indicators 11(1): 6170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2009.06.009.
2009. ‘Development of Regional Sustainability Indicators and the Role of Academia in this Process: The Portuguese Practice.’ Journal of Cleaner Production 17(12): 11011115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2009.02.024.
, , , , and . 2009. ‘A Metric for Corporate Environmental Indicators…. for Small and Medium Enterprises in the Philippines.’ Business Strategy and the Environment 18(1): 1431. https://doi.org/10.1002/bse.555.
, and 2009. ‘Carbon Business Accounting: The Impact of Global Warming on the Cost and Management Accounting Profession.’ Journal of Accounting, Auditing & Finance 24(2): 333355. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0148558X0902400208.
, , and 2011. ‘The Valuation and Reporting of Organizational Capability in Carbon Emissions Management.’ Accounting Horizons 25(1): 127147. https://doi.org/10.2308/acch.2011.25.1.127.
, , , , , , , , , and 2004. ‘Life Cycle Assessment Part 1: Framework, Goal and Scope Definition, Inventory Analysis, and Applications.’ Environment International 30(5): 701720.
, and 2018. ‘Carbon Options Signal 20% Gain as Europe Nears Record Price.’ Retrieved from https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-09-10/carbon-traders-bet-on-rally-going-much-further-options-show
(producer, director). 1992. A Few Good Men. Los Angeles, California, US: Castle Rock Entertainment.
1977. ‘The Later Obsidian of Deh Luran—The Evidence of Chagha Sefid.’ In Studies in the Archaeological History of the Deh Luran Plain: The Excavation of Chagha Sefid by Frank Hole, with contributions by M. J. Kirkby and Colin Renfrew, Memoirs of the Museum of Anthropology 9: 289311. Ann Arbor: Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan.
. 1969. ‘Trade and Culture Process in European Prehistory.’ Current Anthropology 10(2/3): 151169. http://doi.org/10.1086/201066.
, , , , and . 1989. Wasting Assets: Natural Resources in the National Income Accounts. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.
. 2017. ‘The Need to Reform the Dangerous IFRS System of Accounting.’ Accounting, Economics, and Law: A Convivium 7(2): 93103. https://doi.org/10.1515/ael-2017-0017.
, and . 2009. ‘Antecedents and Consequences of Voluntary Disclosure of Environmental Accounting: An Empirical Study of Foods and Beverage Firms in Thailand.’ Review of Business Research 9(3): 130.
1983. Diffusion of Innovations (
3rd edn
). New York: Free Press.
, and . 2011. ‘Carbon Leakage from the Clean Development Mechanism.’ The Energy Journal 32(4): 2750. https://doi.org/10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol32-No4-3.
2010. ‘Green Accounting: Issues and Challenges’. The IUP Journal of Managerial Economics, 8(3), 4660.
, , and 2002. ‘Ecotoxicological Implications of Aquatic Disposal of Coal Combustion Residues in the United States: A Review.’ Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 80(3): 207276. http://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021127120575.
. 2010. ‘Green Accounting: Issues and Challenges.’ The IUP Journal of Managerial Economics 8(3): 4660. https://ssrn.com/abstract=1681949.
. 2006. ‘A Sceptic's Comment on the Study of Economics.’ The Economic Journal 116(510): C1C9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0297.2006.01071.x.
, , , , , , and . 2012. ‘The Impact of Coal Combustion Residue Effluent on Water Resources: A North Carolina Example.’ Environmental Science & Technology 46(21), 1222612233. https://doi.org/10.1021/es303263x.
2009. ‘Asset Specificity and Vertical Integration: Williamson's Hypothesis Reconsidered.’ HBS Working Paper 09-119, Harvard Business School.
. 2011. ‘The Quantification and Valuation of Ecosystem Services.’ Ecological Economics 70(3): 497502. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2010.10.006.
, , 2012. ‘City based Analysis of MSW to Energy Generation in India Calculation of State-wise Potential and Tariff Comparison with EU.’ Procedia: Social and Behavioral Sciences, 37, 407416. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.03.306
, and . 2016. ‘Whither the Concept of Income?’ Accounting, Economics, and Law: A Convivium. http://doi.org/10.1515/ael-2016-0013.
2010. ‘Emissions Trading and Carbon Credit Accounting For Sustainable Energy Development with Focus on India.’ Globsyn Management Journal 4(1-2): 3562.
, and . 2012. ‘Carbon Accounting for Sustainability and Management: Status Quo and Challenges.’ Journal of Cleaner Production 36: 116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.06.024.
, , and . 2012. ‘Tapping Environmental Accounting Potentials of Beer Brewing: Information Needs for Successful Cleaner Production.’ Journal of Cleaner Production 29–30: 110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.02.011.
. 1997. ‘Information Costs, Quality of Information and Stakeholder Involvement—The Necessity of International Standards of Ecological Accounting.’ Eco-Management and Auditing 4(3): 8797. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-0925(199711)4:3%3C87::AID-EMA70%3E3.0.CO;2-Z.
, and . 2000. ‘ARIS Architecture and Reference Models for Business Process Management.’ In Business Process Management (
3rd edn
), edited by , , and , 376389. Berlin, Germany: Springer.
, and 2012. Calculating GHG Emissions for Freight Forwarding and Logistics Services in Accordance with EN 16258. Germany, European Association for Forwarding, Transport, Logistics and Customs Services (CLECAT).
, and . 2005. ‘Gaining Competitive Advantage in a Carbon-Constrained World: Strategies for European Business.’ European Management Journal 23(4): 383391. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2005.06.010.
, , , 2012. ‘Integrating Ecology and Economics for Restoration, using Ecological Indicators in Valuation of Ecosystem Services’. Restoration Ecology, 20(3): 304310. doi:10.1111/j.1526-100X.2011.00854.x
. 2002. ‘Why Did We Think We Dreamed in Black and White?’ Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 33(4): 649660. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0039-3681(02)00033-X
, , and . 2004. Eco-efficiency and Beyond: Towards the Sustainable Enterprise. Sheffield, UK: Greenleaf Publishing.
, , , , , 2010. ‘A Review of the Environmental Fate and Effects of Hazardous Substances Released from Electrical and Electronic Equipments during Recycling: Examples from China and India.’ Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 30, 2841. doi:10.1016/j.eiar.2009.04.001
, , 2012. ‘Impact of Coal Based Thermal Power Plant on Environment and its Mitigation Measure.’ International Research Journal of Environment Sciences, 1(4): 6064.
2006. ‘Strategic Cost Management: Upsizing, Downsizing, and Right (?) Sizing.’ In Contemporary Issues in Management Accounting, edited by , 355379. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199283361.003.0016.
, , , 2008. ‘Municipal Solid Waste Management in Indian Cities—A Review.’ Waste Management, 28, 459467. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2007.02.008
, and 2009. ‘Displacement in Singrauli Region: Entitlements and Rehabilitation.’ Economic & Political Weekly 44(51): 6269.
, , , and . 2011. ‘The Application of Urban Sustainability Indicators—A Comparison between Various Practices.’ Habitat International 35(1): 1729. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2010.03.006.
. 2013. ‘Assets as Accounting, Control and Analysis Objects: Ecology & Economic Identification and Interpretation.’ Accounting and Finance 1: 6673.
. 2011. ‘The Niyamgiri Hills Bauxite Project: Balancing Resource Extraction and Environment Protection.’ Environmental Policy and Law 41(3): 166171.
1956. ‘Rational Choice and the Structure of the Environment.’ Psychological Review 63(2): 129138. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0042769.
, and . 2009. ‘Environment Management and Disclosure Practices of Indian Companies.’ International Journal of Business Research 9(2): 116128.
, , , and 2007. ‘Mathematical Modeling of Leachates from Ash Ponds of Thermal Power Plants.’ Environmental Monitoring & Assessment 130(1-3): 173185. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-006-9387-2.
, and . ‘Fly Ash Application in Nutrient Poor Agriculture Soils: Impact on Methanotrophs Population Dynamics and Paddy Yields.’ Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 89: 4351. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2012.11.011.
, and . 2009. ‘Public Risk Perception of Nuclear Waste.’ International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management 11(3-4): 264296. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJRAM.2009.023156.
, , and . 2000. ‘Contamination of Drinking-Water by Arsenic in Bangladesh: A Public Health Emergency.’ Bulletin of the World Health Organization 78(9): 10931103.
, and 2010. ‘A Decision Support Tool to Prioritize Risk Management Options for Contaminated Sites.’ Science of the Total Environment 408(8): 17861799. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.12.026.
2008. ‘How Much is that Ecosystem in the Window? The One with the Bio-diverse Trail.’ Environmental Values, 17(2): 259284.
2007. ‘Green Supply-Chain Management: A State-of-the-Art Literature Review.’ International Journal of Management Reviews (IJMR) 9(1): 5380. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2370.2007.00202.x.
, and . 2006. ‘Environmental Management Accounting in Lithuania: Exploratory Study of Current Practices, Opportunities and Strategic Intents.’ Journal of Cleaner Production 14(14): 12521261. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2005.08.009.
, and 2007. ‘Optimization of the Cardboard Manufacturing Process in Accordance with Environmental and Economic Factors.’ Environmental Research, Engineering and Management 2(40): 7079. https://www.academia.edu/1023377/Optimization_of_the_Cardboard_Manufacturing_Process_in_Accordance_with_Environmental_and_Economic_Factors.
. 2005. ‘Environmental Costs and Benefits in Life Cycle Costing.’ Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal 16(2): 107118. https://doi.org/10.1108/14777830510583128.
. 2006. ‘Designing for Sustainability: A Philosophy for Ecologically Intentional Design.’ Design Issues 22(2): 5663. https://doi.org/10.1162/desi.2006.22.2.56.
. 2001. ‘Life-Cycle Costing and its Use in the Swedish Building Sector.’ Building Research & Information 28(5-6), 387393. https://doi.org/10.1080/096132100418537.
. 1965. ‘Organization-Creating Organizations.’ Trans-action 2(2): 3435. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03180801.
, and . 2017. ‘“Mathematics Maybe, But Not Money”: On Balance Sheets, Numbers and Nature in Ecological Accounting.’ Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal 30(7): 14591480. https://doi.org/10.1108/AAAJ-06-2017-2963.
, and 2006. ‘Analysis of Fly Ash Heavy Metal Content and Disposal in Three Thermal Power Plants in India.’ Fuel 85(17-18): 26762679. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2006.04.031.
. 2003. ‘The Epistemology of Macroeconomic Reality: The Keynesian Revolution from an Accounting Point of View.’ Accounting, Organizations and Society 28(5): 471517. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0361-3682(01)00061-7.
TERI. 2006. ‘Policy, Institutional and Legal Barriers to Economic Utilisation of Fly Ash.’ TERI. http://www.teriin.org/upfiles/projects/ (last accessed 15 January 2017).
, and . 2003. ‘Learning about Failure: Bankruptcy, Firm Age, and the Resource-Based View.’ Organization Science 14(5): 497509. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.14.5.497.16761.
2005. ‘The Marginal Damage Costs of Carbon Dioxide Emissions: An Assessment of Uncertainties.’ Energy Policy 33(16): 20642074. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2004.04.002.
. 2000. ‘Life Cycle Assessment as a Tool in Environmental Impact Assessment.’ Environmental Impact Assessment Review 20(4): 435456. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0195-9255(99)00045-1.
. 2013. ‘Re-thinking Sustainability Indicators: Local Perspectives of Urban Sustainability.’ Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 56(5): 695719. https://doi.org/10.1080/09640568.2012.698984.
US Congress, Office of Technology Assessment (OTA). 1990. Orbiting Debris: A Space Environmental Problem. Background paper OTA-BP-ISC-72. Washington, DC: US Government Printing. https://ota.fas.org/reports/9033.pdf.
. 2010. ‘Civilizing the Market Economy: The Approach of Integrative Economic Ethics to Sustainable Development.’ Economics, Management, and Financial Markets (official Journal of the Contemporary Science Association), 5 (1). 99112. Available at: https://www.alexandria.unisg.ch/63739/
, and . 2007. ‘The Business Case for Regulation of Corporate Social Responsibility and Accountability.’ Accounting Forum 31(4): 332353. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.accfor.2007.08.002.
UNFCCC. 2009. ‘Boiler Fuel Conversion from RFO to Biomass Based Briquettes at Fresenius Kabi India Private Limited, Ranjangaon (M.S.), India’; UNFCCC Project 1497. http://cdm.unfccc.int/Projects/DB/DNV-CUK1199787528.27/view.
United Nations Division for Sustainable Development (UNDSD). 2001. Environmental Management Accounting Procedures and Principles. New York: UN.
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). 2012. ‘Trends in Hotel Certifications and Rating Programs: Guidelines for the Caribbean.’ Caribbean Environment Network Project (CEN). http://www.cep.unep.org/issues/hotel_cert.PDF.
United Nations Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). 1995. An Introduction to Environmental Accounting as a Business Management Tool: Key Concepts and Terms. Washington DC, US: Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, US EPA.
United Nations Framework Convention of Climate Change (UNFCCC). 2008. Kyoto Protocol Reference Manual: On Accounting of Emissions and Assigned Amount. Bonn, Germany: Climate Change Secretariat, UNFCCC. https://unfccc.int/resource/docs/publications/08_unfccc_kp_ref_manual.pdf.
2001. ‘Ecological Economics: Themes, Approaches, and Differences with Environmental Economics.’ Regional Environmental Change 2(1): 1323. https://doi.org/10.1007/s101130000020.
, and 2012. ‘Research Paradigms, Theoretical Pluralism and the Practical Relevance of Management Accounting Knowledge.’ Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management 9(3): 245264. https://doi.org/10.1108/11766091211257452.
. 2004. ‘Problems Related to the Development of Integrated Systems for Economic and Environmental Accounting: A Preliminary Analysis of the Economic-Environmental Impact of Human Activities on the Marine Pollution in the Basilicata Region.’ Statistica 64(3): 587598. https://doi.org/10.6092/issn.1973-2201/60
, and 2013. ‘An Analysis of Multi-Criteria Decision Making Methods.’ International Journal of Operations Research 10(2): 5666. https://www.orstw.org.tw/ijor/vol10no2/ijor_vol10_no2_p56_p66.pdf
2013. ‘Accounting Alchemy.’ Accounting Horizons 27(3): 603617. https://doi.org/10.2308/acch-50488.
, , and . 2007. ‘Supply Chain Information in Environmental Management Accounting—The Case of a Vietnamese Coffee Exporter.’ Issues in Social and Environmental Accounting 1(2): 296310. https://doi.org/10.22164/isea.v1i2.19.
. 2009. Ideas: A History of Thought and Invention, from Fire to Freud. Harper Collins.
WBCSD. 2000b. Measuring Eco-efficiency: A Guide to Reporting Company Performance. Geneva, Switzerland: WBCSD. http://www.gdrc.org/sustbiz/measuring.pdf.
WBCSD and World Resources Initiative (WRI). 2004. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol: A Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard, revised edition. Geneva, Switzerland: WBCSD; Washington, DC, USA: WRI. https://www.wri.org/publication/greenhouse-gas-protocol.
1994. ‘The Role of Asset Specificity in the Vertical Integration Decision.’ Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 23(3): 287302. doi:10.1016/0167-2681(94)90003-5.
, and . 2013. ‘Using Global Reporting Initiative Indicators for CSR Programs.’ Journal of Global Responsibility, 4(1): 6275. https://doi.org/10.1108/20412561311324078.
2008. ‘Safeguarding Outer Space: On the Road to Debris Mitigation’, en United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (ed.), Security in Space: The Next Generation, 81103. Geneva: United Nations.
1994. ‘Organizational Innovation: Review, Critique and Suggested Research Directions.’ Journal of Management Studies 31(3): 405431. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.1994.tb00624.x.
World Health Organization (WHO). 2000. Towards an Assessment of the Socioeconomic Impact of Arsenic Poisoning in Bangladesh. Geneva: WHO.
1969. Obsidian Analyses and Prehistoric Near Eastern Trade: 7500 to 3500 BC. Anthropological papers, Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.
, , , , , and . 2013. ‘Up-to-Date Life Cycle Assessment and Comparison Study of Clean Coal Power Generation Technologies in China.’ Journal of Cleaner Production 39: 2431. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.08.003.
, and . 2007. ‘Corporate Environmental Performance Evaluation: A Measurement Model and a New Concept.’ Business Strategy and the Environment 16(2): 148168. https://doi.org/10.1002/bse.493.
, , and . 1973. Innovation and Organizations. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

## About the Author

Somnath Debnath received his doctorate from the Birla Institute of Technology, India, for his contribution to incorporating environmental considerations in managerial accounting. He also holds a master's degree in business administration (MBA) from Walden University, USA, and a master's in technology (MTech) from Swinburne University of Technology, Australia. Debnath is a Fellow of the Institute of Cost and Management Accountants of India, being a qualified Cost and Management Accountant (CMA), and an academic member of the Athens Institute for Education and Research, Greece, and also of the International Engineering and Technology Institute, Hong Kong. He is a senior solutions architect at Zensar Technologies and a former managing principal at Oracle Corporation.

Debnath's academic interests have been to advance environmental thinking in the field of accounting and in the information sciences, and to support the managements’ need for green information beyond the prevailing business constructs, in turn to enable firms to handle sustainability challenges. This includes greening different business functions. His research interests include diverse areas of business such as the decision sciences, project management, systems analysis and design, requirements engineering, green information systems and grey mathematics. He is also a reviewer of a number of academic journals.

In addition, Debnath is a technology expert in the ERP technology space—a subject expert, architect, functional consultant and project manager rolled into one—who has consulted for top Fortune® 500 organizations in the last two decades and has supported the industry with business process reengineering and automation needs. To this end, he has been a part of more than 10 full life-cycle ERP implementations and rollouts in different capacities. His latest area of expertise is in cloud-enabled ERP and setting up cloud application centres of excellence for information systems vendors.